earth/soil

Semantic Field
environment
Part of Speech
Meaning Spanish
tierra
Meaning Portuguese
terra

Languages

Language Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Etymology Notes Source Created By General Notes
Bankalachi Toloim soo-ula' hōt-rol 207; cùval (K 1907 “land, earth”) loan Jane Hill
Big Smokey Valley Shoshone soko-pin, soko-ppyh inheritance Jane Hill
Cahuilla tema-l loan S&H 1979 Jane Hill
Central Sierra Miwok wal:i- inheritance Jane Hill
Chemehuevi tyvi/p(y) inheritance Jane Hill
Chumash Barbareno shup “earth, God, dirt, year” inheritance Klar 1977:83 Jane Hill
Chumash Cruzeno shup inheritance Klar 1977:83 Jane Hill
Chumash Ineseno shup inheritance Klar 1977:83 Jane Hill
Chumash Obispeno pu “earth, land” inheritance Klar 1977 Jane Hill
Chumash Ventureno shup inheritance Klar 1977:83 Jane Hill
Cocopa maT, ma\Tkwr7u/r inheritance Jane Hill
Comanche sokoobI inheritance Jane Hill
Cupeño Tema-l [təˈmal] loan Jane Hill
Esselen maTa, matsa S. voc. inheritance Shaul 1995:197, 207; T&S 1981:107 Jane Hill
Gabrielino 7o:xor/ inheritance Jane Hill
Iipay 'Aa emat [Ɂəˈmat̯] inheritance Jane Hill
Kawaiisu ty-bi, tii-py inheritance Jane Hill
Kiliwa 7-mat inheritance Jane Hill
Kitanemuk tyvach inheritance Jane Hill
Lake Miwok jo/wa loan Jane Hill
Luiseño 7ex-la inheritance Jane Hill
Maidu k'a\wi/ inheritance Jane Hill
Mojave 7amat inheritance Jane Hill
Mutsun pire: unknown O77:104 Jane Hill
Nisenan k'aw inheritance Jane Hill
Northern Paiute tiipy “earth, etc.” inheritance Nichols 1974:19 Jane Hill
Northern Sierra Miwok wal:i- inheritance Jane Hill
Plains Miwok jot:ok inheritance Jane Hill
Salinan A (t)cxo7 (A), unknown Jane Hill
Salinan M la:k' 'country, land' unknown Mason 1918:132 Jane Hill
Seri (Comcaac) hant unknown Jane Hill
Serrano tiYva-T inheritance Jane Hill
Southern Paiute tyvi-G inheritance Jane Hill
Southern Sierra Miwok tol:e- unknown Jane Hill
Southern Ute tyvyipY, tyvypY, tyvwipY inheritance Jane Hill
Tübatulabal shuwaal “earth” loan Jane Hill
Tümpisa Shoshone sokopin inheritance Jane Hill
Wappo cHow unknown Jane Hill
Washo ngo/wa unknown J239 Jane Hill
Western Mono ty/bi/pY inheritance Jane Hill
Wintu po:m inheritance Jane Hill
Yavapai ma^t inheritance Jane Hill
Yokuts Palewyami happil inheritance JPH in Gamble 91 Jane Hill
Yokuts Yawdanchi p'a:n “land” 239; p'a:an 243; inheritance K07:239,243 Jane Hill
Yokuts Yowlumne xoT'oy (n1) inheritance K 1963, G1964 Jane Hill
Yuki 7on inheritance S&S 1984 Jane Hill
Yuma 7ama/T H1:26 inheritance Jane Hill
Baniwa híipai híipai inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
Carijona nono inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
Cubeo jobo, joborõ xobo, xoborõ inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely; Tanja Baeuerlein
Dâw çax cax inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
Desano yéba jéba inheritance See Language page Ana Paula; Tanja Baeuerlein
Eñepa ano ano inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross
Hodï ne unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez
Waorani õ-gipo unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez, PLE
Hup j'áh, b'ɔ̌k [= mud] ɟ'áh, b'ɔ̌k [= mud] inheritance See Language page Pattie Epps
Kakua bak loan Nadahup: Hup b'ɔk; see below 'flower' Hup ɔ > Kakua a; Nukak term distinct See Language page Katherine Bolaños
Makushi non non inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross
Nheengatu iwi (Mello2000) iwi (Mello2000) inheritance See Language page John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
Ninam mašithak, mašit (EM72 "earth") maʃ̌itʰak, maʃit inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
Nukak naah2 unique See Language page Lauren Franklin
Maihiki yao ja yao xã inheritance See Language page Daniel Valle
Pemon non (M2000) noŋ (M2000) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
Resígaro hihi hihi inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
Sanumá mašitha (EM72 "earth") maʃitʰa inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
Sikuani ira (2) doubtful loan Arutani-Sape iñã See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, Rebecca Khorram, PLE
Tariana hípai (Payne91) hípai (Payne91) inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
Tukano di' tá di' tá inheritance See Language page Ana Paula, Amanda Novak
Kotiria dihta; dʉhtero; yahpa (all Waltz) dihta; dʉhteɾo; jahpa (all Waltz) inheritance See Language page D. Jagannathan, Tanja Bauerlein
Yanomam mašitha (EM72 "earth") maʃitʰa inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
Yanomami mašitha (EM72 "earth") maʃitʰa inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
Yukuna te'erí teʔeɾí unique See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
Yuhup c'ah c'ah inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
Arabana wadlu inheritance Claire Bowern
Bardi bo""r% buur inheritance Claire Bowern
Bunuba [missing] missing Claire Bowern
Burarra jel unknown Claire Bowern
Dhangu munatha(') inheritance Claire Bowern
Dhuwal munatha(') Claire Bowern
Dhuwala munatha(') inheritance Claire Bowern
Diyari mitha unique Claire Bowern
DiyariREU wadlu inheritance Claire Bowern
Djambarrpuyngu 2012 unknown Claire Bowern
Djapu munatha(') unknown Claire Bowern
Djinang gurrbi unknown Claire Bowern
Gajirrabeng yalwang unique Claire Bowern
Gooniyandi banda Claire Bowern
Gupapuyngu munatha(') inheritance Claire Bowern
Gurindji janja inheritance Claire Bowern
Jabirr-Jabirr bo""r% buur inheritance Claire Bowern
Jaru janyja inheritance Claire Bowern
Jawi buru buru inheritance Claire Bowern
Karajarri ngurra semantic shift Claire Bowern
Kija jila inheritance Claire Bowern
Malyangapa Mal: nhati loan direction unknown Claire Bowern
Mangala molnyi (T) unknown Claire Bowern
Miriwung jilang inheritance Claire Bowern
Mithaka pala inheritance Claire Bowern
Mudburra yulu Claire Bowern
Mudburra yulu inheritance Claire Bowern
Ngamini walju inheritance Claire Bowern
Ngarinyin ˈŋuřu ˈŋuřu loan Pama-Nyungan Claire Bowern
Ngarluma barla Claire Bowern
Ngumbarl booroo <booroo> inheritance Claire Bowern
Nhirrpi pala inheritance Claire Bowern
Nimanburru bo""r% buur inheritance Claire Bowern
Northern Mangarla mulnyi Claire Bowern
Northern Nyangumarta warrarn inheritance Claire Bowern
Nyangumarta warrarn inheritance Claire Bowern
Nyikina buru buru inheritance Claire Bowern
Nyulnyul bo""r% buur inheritance Claire Bowern
Paakantyi nharti loan direction unknown Claire Bowern
Pirriya ngurra semantic shift Claire Bowern
Pitta-Pitta mayi inheritance Claire Bowern
Rirratjingu garminyarr', munatha inheritance Claire Bowern
Ritharrngu gabaṉ unknown Claire Bowern
Walmajarri nguwa inheritance Claire Bowern
Wangkayutyuru nguda semantic shift Claire Bowern
Warrwa y buru inheritance Claire Bowern
Yan-nhangu munatha inheritance Claire Bowern
Yandruwandha pala inheritance Claire Bowern
Yarluyandi woilju inheritance Claire Bowern
Yawarrawarrka padla inheritance Claire Bowern
Yawuru buru buru inheritance Claire Bowern
Achagua káinabi (h&r) káinabi (h&r) semantic shift dirt See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
Piapoco cáli káli See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
Kabiyari ta'ka(a)ri taʔka(a)ri See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
Yavitero ka'hac̷i kaʔhatsi See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
Wapishana imiʔi imiʔi unique See Language page Ana Paula B.
Wayuu mmoo-ľuʔu (~mma + luʔu) See Language page PLE Also means 'floor' 07.260.
Paresi ewaikohera, waikohe 'land, region' inheritance? See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
Ignaciano apakeʔe See Language page PLE Also has the meaning of directional 'down' 12.030.
Trinitario 'motehi See Language page PLE
Baure yinir, poewok yinir, poewok unknown; inheritance? See Language page Anissa Capuccino
Waurá kehɨ-tɨ kehɨ-tɨ unknown See Language page Joyce McCormick
Arutani iñã iɲã See Language page John Blaha
Sape inokučin (morphologically complex?) inokutʃin (morphologically complex?) See Language page John Blaha
Cha'palaa tu See Language page PLE
Bora íínʸï-xɨ íínʲɯ-xɨ inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
Muinane xíínɨ-(xe) xíínɨ-(xɛ) See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
Akawaio nong nɔŋ inheritance Proto-Carib See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin
Akawaio/Ingariko dialect noŋ noŋ See Language page Lauren Franklin
Apalai nono nono inheritance See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
Wayana lo lo inheritance See Language page PLE
Tiriyó nono nono inheritance See Language page Becky Walker
Makiritare nono (IDS) nono (IDS) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
Mapoyo nono nono See Language page Melody Ann Ross
Wai Wai roowo, aΦačak-rɨ (mud) roowo, aΦačak-rɨ (mud) inheritance?; unique See Language page Melody Ann Ross
Yabarana nono See Language page Ana Paula B., John Blaha
Yukpa kúsunche nono See Language page Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross
Kalapalo ŋoŋo ŋoŋo inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick
Muisca iegui ieγi See Language page Daniel Valle
Barí ihtãã See Language page PLE *Chibchan form is *'taBa.
Northern Emberá egoró, ẽhũá egoró, ẽhũá See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, PLE
Epena 'yooro See Language page PLE
Guayabero sat, as inheritance Proto-Guahiban See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
Macaguan as as inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
Cuiva íra tierra, earth Huber & Reed 1992:72 Rebecca Khorram
Cofán ande andɛ See Language page Daniel Valle phonemic transcriptions are ESTIMATIONS
Candoshi-Shapra tsaapo tsaapo unique See Language page Daniel Valle
Taushiro u´untu uʔuntu See Language page Daniel Valle
Páez quiwe See Language page Daniel Valle
Tikuna nhá-tô (Alv44) ñáʔto unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
Urarina atane atane unique See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
Camsa bʃántse bʃántse See Language page Daniel Valle, Anissa Capuchino
Andoke ñoĩ ɲoĩ unique See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
Pumé dabú See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
Puinave niti u niti u unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
Máku boʔte boʔte See Language page PLE
Warao ina (land?) ina (land?) See Language page John Blaha
Ashuar núngka nuŋka See Language page Daniel Valle
Huambisa nugka nuŋgka See Language page Daniel Valle
Aguaruna núgka núngka inheritance See Language page Daniel Valle
Nadëb/Roçado dialect ɟʌŋ inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
Nadëb/Rio Negro dialect ɟʌk See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
Matses mannied, nidaid mannied, nidaid inheritance See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
Kakataibo mee See Language page PLE
Katukina mai See Language page PLE
Yaminahua mai See Language page PLE
Chácobo mai mai inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick
Yagua mucadi mukandi unique See Language page Daniel Valle
Southern Pastaza Quechua allpa aʎpa See Language page Daniel Valle
Ingá alpa alpa See Language page Daniel Valle
Napo Lowland Quichua allpa aʎpa See Language page Daniel Valle
Quechua Ayacuchano allpa, pacha aʎpa, patʃa See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
Piaroa redä'kä redækʔæ unique See Language page Amanda Novak, Becky Walker
Sáliva saji, sẽxẽ sahi, sẽxẽ unique See Language page Becky Walker
Bará di'ta, je'pa See Language page Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein
Barasano sita sita See Language page D. Jagannathan, Tanja Baeuerlein
Carapana ñerĩ, yepa ɲɛɾĩ, jɛpa See Language page Amanda Novak, Tanja Baeuerlein
Makuna sita sita inheritance See Language page Amanda Novak, D. Jagannathan, Tanja Bauerlein
Yuruti di'tá, je'pá di'tá, je'pá See Language page Ana Paula; Tanja Baeuerlein
Waikhana diʔ'ta, jeʔ'pa diʔ'ta, jeʔ'pa See Language page Ana Paula; Tanja Baeuerlein
Siriano nicṹ, yeebá ni kṹ, jeebá See Language page Ana Paula, Kelsey Neely
Tanimuca kaʔ'ia kaʔ'ia unique See Language page Kelsey Neely
Tatuyo je'pa, 'hi'ta je'pa, 'hi'ta See Language page Emily Buell, Paulina Franco
Tuyuka di'ta diʔta See Language page D. Jagannathan, Paulina Franco, Ana Paula B.
Waimaja hitʰá hitʰá See Language page Kelsey Neely
Koreguaje cha'o dʒaʔo inheritance See Language page Daniel Valle
Siona yiha; yaʔo jiha; jaʔo inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
Secoya yeja jeha See Language page Amanda N
Karitiana ejepi, eje´ĩn ejepi, ejeʔĩn unknown See Language page Daniel Valle
Wayampi ɨwɨ ɨwɨ inheritance See Language page PLE
Aché ɨwɨ inheritance See Language page PLE
Chiriguano ɨwɨ inheritance See Language page PLE
Paraguayan Guaraní ɨvɨ See Language page PLE
Sirionó ibi ibi inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
Kamayurá ɨwɨ (M2000) ɨwɨ (M2000) inheritance See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
Ocaina an̈oonhun, nahaaxo an:õõʔɯ̃, naʔaaxo inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
Nɨpode Witoto énï.e έnɯ.ɛ See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
Minica Witoto énï.e έnɯ.ɛ See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
Murui Witoto enïru.e ɛnɯru.ɛ inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
Iquito níiya níija unique See Language page Cynthia Hansen
Záparo rapaka ɾapaka See Language page Becky Walker
Wari macan' (E&K97) makanʔ (E&K97) See Language page PLE
Araona mezizo See Language page PLE *Tacn form is *meći-.
Ese Ejja/Huarayo meši meši See Language page Joyce McCormick
Cavineña mehihi; y-awa (G71); meči (G71) mehihi; y-awa (G71); meči (G71) inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
Central Aymara laq´a uraḳi See Language page PLE
Itonama tʸanisoʔte See Language page PLE Means to be on the ground.
Kwazá tsãrã, -nũ tsãrã, -nũ See Language page Joyce McCormick
Mosetén-Chimané yuči'haʔ; 'hak See Language page Joyce McCormick, PLE
Movima ɬakam̉-ɓa ɬakam̉-ɓa See Language page Anissa Capuccino, Becky Walker
Trumai tenexne tenexne unique See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
Kaingang ga ŋa; ɛ̃prã See Language page PLE
Canela ii-tɔ See Language page PLE *Jê form is *nɔ.
Suyá puka, kuka puka, kuka See Language page Rebekah Evans
Karajá tɨti (?) See Language page PLE
Djeoromitxi See Language page PLE
Chipaya yoḳa See Language page PLE
Mocoví ʔlawa See Language page PLE
Pilagá ʔa'lewa See Language page PLE
Toba ʔalwa See Language page PLE
Lengua ɬapup See Language page PLE
Sanapaná/Dialect Angaité ɬipop See Language page PLE
Sanapaná/Dialect Enlhet ɬoopʔaktek; naaɬpop See Language page PLE
Wichí Lhamtés Güisnay tˀen-'tah See Language page PLE tˀen means 'hard' 15.740.
Chorote, Iyojwa'ja axnat (f.) See Language page PLE
Maca seheʔ (m.) See Language page PLE
Nivaclé koȼxaʔt earth, land https://ids.clld.org/ PLE
Ayoreo n̥u'mi See Language page PLE
Mapudungun mapu See Language page PLE Same form in Ranquel. Also Ranquel ṭ͡ʀuvken.
Qawasqar xaley-tḳal See Language page PLE Also wes-tkal.
Selknam harwn See Language page PLE
Tehuelche 'tēm See Language page PLE Colored earth that is used for painting one's body: 'kˀapr, 'white earth'; 'kˀē-šn-we, 'red earth (used to paint the cheeks), ' cf. 'face' 04.204.
Lokono holholho hoɽoɽo earth Pet 1987:356 Camille Unger
Kariña nono nono earth Yamada 2010:781 Camille Unger