fall

Semantic Field
motion
Part of Speech
Meaning Spanish
caer
Meaning Portuguese
cair

Languages

Language Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Etymology Notes Source Created By General Notes
Big Smokey Valley Shoshone annih “fall” inheritance Jane Hill
Cahuilla -chavi- unknown S&H 1979 Jane Hill
Central Sierra Miwok pola:/-ng- unknown Jane Hill
Chemehuevi wy7i/-ku (sg) fall, drop inheritance Jane Hill
Chumash Barbareno piliklaw (Wash has piliqlaw) unknown Ono 1996:44 Jane Hill
Chumash Ineseno pil-qot'in “to fall” (air-come.down) Applegate 54 unknown Jane Hill
Chumash Obispeno su/t'u unknown JPH Jane Hill
Chumash Ventureno woloji “fall over (as tree)”, woloqoji “fall (by tripping)” unknown JPH Jane Hill
Cocopa SiLy “several to fall” inheritance Jane Hill
Comanche typyhery “fall off, away from” unique Jane Hill
Cupeño xalew-yax (singular subject) [xaloyax] unknown Jane Hill
Gabrielino pori:no, puri:no (caer, of agua, girl) unknown Jane Hill
Iipay 'Aa wenall [wəˈn̯aɫ] unknown Jane Hill
Kawaiisu wy7i-ku- inheritance Jane Hill
Kiliwa tilu “caer uno”, tiilu “uno tras otro” inheritance Jane Hill
Kitanemuk hucyk inheritance Jane Hill
Lake Miwok 7u/t- unknown Jane Hill
Luiseño hulu/ka!i (singular subject) unknown Jane Hill
Maidu woda/ inheritance Jane Hill
Mojave alyaaqv= (of a person), inheritance Jane Hill
Mutsun 7innan “falls”; 7innanin “falls down” inheritance O77:28, 144 Jane Hill
Nisenan wonda: inheritance Jane Hill
Northern Paiute wi7i inheritance Thornes 03:231 Jane Hill
Northern Sierra Miwok ly:mehny- unknown Jane Hill
Plains Miwok joco:n-u-, unknown Jane Hill
Salinan A tom' (A), unknown Jane Hill
Salinan M tum' unknown Mason 1918:147 Jane Hill
Seri (Comcaac) hant *cahji/it unknown Jane Hill
Serrano huc-q inheritance Jane Hill
Southern Paiute wy7i=y “to fall, to drop” inheritance Jane Hill
Southern Sierra Miwok peT:a-ngHe- inheritance Jane Hill
Southern Ute wi7I, wii inheritance Jane Hill
Tübatulabal ujuuk-at unknown Jane Hill
Tümpisa Shoshone hapikkwan, hapikkun “fall down”; inheritance Jane Hill
Wappo me/khshi7 unknown Jane Hill
Washo dipi/ti7i unknown J237 Jane Hill
Western Mono wi/7i- inheritance Jane Hill
Wintu dile inheritance Jane Hill
Yokuts Yawdanchi wox “fall over” unknown K07:254 Jane Hill
Yokuts Yowlumne *baT'an “fall down” N 75; unknown N1944:75 Jane Hill
Yuki p'a:n- “fall 1” unknown S&S 1984 Jane Hill
Yuma a:lyaqv H5:93 inheritance Jane Hill
Baniwa híwa, wéra híwa, wéra inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
Carijona anotarɨ (refl.) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
Cubeo duivᵾ; duruyᵾ duivɨ; duɾujɨ unique See Language page Kelsey Neely; Tanja Baeuerlein
Dâw nõx nɔ̃x inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
Desano yuridija-ri (to fall from something tall); yurimere-ri (to fall from a lower seat) juɾidiha-ɾi; juɾimeɾe-ɾi inheritance See Language page Ana Paula; Tanja Baeuerlein
Eñepa -uwiɲa- (IDS) -uwiɲa- (IDS) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross
Hodï ko'lati unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez
Waorani tæ̃ wæ̃æ̃ unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez, PLE
Hup nɔh- ~dɔh- inheritance See Language page Pattie Epps
Kakua bɨ̌gŋ inheritance See Language page Katherine Bolaños
Makushi enaʔpɨ (IDS) enaʔpɨ (IDS) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross
Nheengatu wári waɾi inheritance See Language page John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
Ninam ke (EM72) ke inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
Nukak bɨɨgn2 inheritance See Language page Lauren Franklin
Maihiki taiyi, tomeyi tãĩji, tomeji inheritance See Language page Daniel Valle
Pemon ena, esuruka, etiririnka, ataremo (A1981); enan (M2000) ena, esuɾuka, etiɾiɾinka, ataɾemo (A1981) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
Resígaro ha?vanú, á?nú haʔvanú, áʔnú inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
Sanumá ke (EM72) ke inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
Sikuani jopa (2), otjopa (2), küx (1) hó:pa, othópa (plural, bóka-hunua 'caerse' - 'fall down, suddenly be lying prone') inheritance See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, Rebecca Khorram, PLE
Tariana whá wʰá inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
Tukano bɨrɨ̂ bɨrɨ̂ inheritance See Language page Ana Paula, Amanda Novak
Kotiria bora boɾa inheritance See Language page D. Jagannathan, Tanja Bauerlein
Yanomam ke ke inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
Yanomami ke-aɨ ke-aɨ inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
Yukuna ja'akajo haʔakaho inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
Yuhup dɔ̃h ~dɔh inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
Arabana ngopanangaritjinta semantic shift Claire Bowern
Bardi -jalgu- -jalku- inheritance Claire Bowern
Bunuba jira-wu- unknown Claire Bowern
Burarra bungga unknown Claire Bowern
Dhangu galki inheritance Claire Bowern
Dhuwal galkirri_x001E_ Claire Bowern
Dhuwala wirrdjawirrdja'yun unknown Claire Bowern
Diyari purri- inheritance Claire Bowern
DiyariREU [missing] missing Claire Bowern
Djambarrpuyngu galkirri_x001E_ Claire Bowern
Djapu [missing] missing Claire Bowern
Djinang galmidji unknown Claire Bowern
Gajirrabeng berdbaj unique Claire Bowern
Gooniyandi gard- unique Claire Bowern
Gupapuyngu wirrdjawirrdja'yun unknown Claire Bowern
Gurindji wani- inheritance Claire Bowern
Jabirr-Jabirr injalg XXngl he fell injalk inheritance Claire Bowern
Jaru wandi- inheritance Claire Bowern
Jawi nunjalgoo nunyalku inheritance Claire Bowern
Karajarri 3927 inheritance Claire Bowern
Kija partal unique Claire Bowern
Malyangapa purdi- doubtful loan Claire Bowern
Mangala pungka inheritance Claire Bowern
Miriwung jid unique Claire Bowern
Mithaka puri- inheritance Claire Bowern
Mudburra jak Claire Bowern
Mudburra [missing] missing Claire Bowern
Ngamini worantjanta unique Claire Bowern
Ngandi rukba- inheritance Claire Bowern
Ngarluma bungga Claire Bowern
Nhirrpi warlka unique Claire Bowern
Nimanburru -jalgi- [ma-j.algen] -jalki- [ma-j.alken] inheritance Claire Bowern
Northern Mangarla pungka Claire Bowern
Northern Nyangumarta pungkinyi- (V1) inheritance Claire Bowern
Nyangumarta pungka inheritance Claire Bowern
Nyikina -jalgV- [ma-j.algen] -jalkV- [ma-j.alken] inheritance Claire Bowern
Nyulnyul mad@ialkan majalkan inheritance Claire Bowern
Paakantyi yāga- unique Claire Bowern
Pirriya [missing] missing Claire Bowern
Pitta-Pitta kurrha inheritance Claire Bowern
Rirratjingu ga:lki Claire Bowern
Ritharrngu galki inheritance Claire Bowern
Walmajarri wanti- inheritance Claire Bowern
Wangkayutyuru kurra- inheritance Claire Bowern
Warrwa jalwiny; -jalu- XXngl note that pv = root here. jalwiny; -jalu- inheritance Claire Bowern
Wubuy rabi inheritance Claire Bowern
Yan-nhangu dhululu'yun inheritance Claire Bowern
Yandruwandha kari, warlka, warlkatharra inheritance Claire Bowern
Yarluyandi [missing] missing Claire Bowern
Yawarrawarrka panpangariri unique Claire Bowern
Yawuru -jalkujalku- XXgl fall down repeatedly -jalkujalku- inheritance Claire Bowern
Achagua káu káu unique See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
Piapoco yúuwàacawa júuwàakawa See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
Kabiyari huʔá huʔá See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
Yavitero núma núma See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
Bare hiwina, tʃakabuda hiwina, tʃakabuda See Language page Ana Paula B.
Wapishana wautʰa-n wautʰa-n inheritance? See Language page Ana Paula B.
Wayuu ohutu-waa See Language page PLE
Yine hixrɨ-ka See Language page PLE *Piro-Apuriná form is *hi-ki-rɨ-ka-.
Paresi exoa eʃoa unique See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
Ignaciano -'akipaikawa See Language page PLE Also -'estapaikawa; -'emirika; -kahučukawa.
Trinitario -'wenopo; -pakareko See Language page PLE
Baure nesta'paika nesta'paika inheritance See Language page Anissa Capuccino
Waurá taka taka unique See Language page Joyce McCormick
Cha'palaa 'c̷u-'hi-nu; 'pah'tʸa-nu See Language page PLE Also 'lu'paih-nu; 'bu-'hi-nu. *South Barbacoan form is *pahta-.
Bora aakʰítʰʸe aakʰítʰʲɛ inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
Muinane áákétte-ʔi (inanimate), áíɸe-ʔi (animate) áákέttɛ-ʔi (inanimatɛ), áíɸɛ-ʔi (animatɛ) See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
Akawaio damokkang da'mɔʔkaŋ inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin
Apalai epukãko epukãke inheritance See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
Wayana anoka (tr), anota (intr) anoka (tr), anota (intr) inheritance See Language page PLE
Tiriyó anota anota inheritance See Language page Becky Walker
Makiritare w-eduka-nə (IDS) w-eduka-nə (IDS) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
Mapoyo puhka puhka See Language page Melody Ann Ross
Wai Wai eΦɨrka-ra eΦɨrka-ra inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross
Waimiri Atroari -ym- -ɨm- See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
Yabarana waska'sapɜ, ehnuwɜs'kaɾi See Language page Ana Paula B., John Blaha
Yukpa antapoma, atana, atapo, nata, na See Language page Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross
Kalapalo indiga- ('fall down') indiga- ('fall down') inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick
Muisca zebenansuca tʂeβenansuka See Language page Daniel Valle
Barí baɨgkirakbã See Language page PLE Colombia: širəkayrə.
Northern Emberá bhaaí bhaːí See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, PLE
Epena baai- See Language page PLE 'To fall down' is tu'du pa-.
Guayabero hop (singular) inheritance Proto-Guahiban See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
Macaguan bókuna inheritance Central+Macaguan subgroup See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
Cuiva hópa, óthopa caer, fall Huber & Reed 1992:358 Rebecca Khorram plural - hopéika, de arriba (from above)
Playero ita-hópa See Language page Rebecca Khorram
Cofán amppiye ãphijɛ See Language page Daniel Valle phonemic transcriptions are ESTIMATIONS
Candoshi-Shapra pantsámaama pantsámaama unique See Language page Daniel Valle
Taushiro o'ce oʔkɨ See Language page Daniel Valle
Páez guete gete See Language page Daniel Valle
Tikuna inangu (he/they fall) [1, 2, 3-5] inaŋu unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
Urarina kumu (fall down) kumu unique See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
Camsa xotsatɕána xotsatɕána See Language page Daniel Valle, Anissa Capuchino
Andoke yidɨ́ʌtá ʝidɨ́ʌtá unique See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
Pumé kjatö chĩnã See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
Puinave [-dək] dək unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
Ashuar kakéektin kakɨ:ktin See Language page Daniel Valle
Huambisa iyartasa ijartasa See Language page Daniel Valle
Aguaruna iyáut ijaut inheritance See Language page Daniel Valle
Nadëb/Roçado dialect ki-pɨ:ñ, ki-pɨ:j ni (Martins, 1999) unique See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
Matses paëd, uebud (caerse) paɨd, uebud (caerse) unknown See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
Kakataibo nipakɨ-ti See Language page PLE *Panoan *pakɨ-.
Katukina pakɨ-t- See Language page PLE
Shipibo-Konibo pakɨ-ti See Language page PLE
Yaminahua pakɨ-kĩ See Language page PLE Also means 'drop' 10.160.
Chácobo pakɨ-; poṣ̌o- pakɨ-; poṣ̌o- inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick
Yagua jupatye, juy (int.); ray, rumiy (refl.) xu:patje, xuj; ra:j, rumij unique See Language page Daniel Valle
Southern Pastaza Quechua urmana uɾmana See Language page Daniel Valle
Ingá urmai urmai See Language page Daniel Valle
Napo Lowland Quichua urmachina urmatʃina See Language page Daniel Valle
Quechua Ayacuchano wichiy witʃij See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
Piaroa moa'ćéh moaɁs'éh unknown See Language page Amanda Novak, Becky Walker
Sáliva llahbajaha ʤaʔbahaʔa unknown See Language page Becky Walker
Bará jã́ã See Language page Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein
Barasano kedí- kedí- See Language page D. Jagannathan, Tanja Baeuerlein
Carapana 'jã́ã- 'jã́ã- See Language page Amanda Novak, Tanja Baeuerlein
Makuna ñaja-re (mostly used for inanimate things); quedi-re (animate and inanimate) jaxa-ɾe; kedi-ɾe inheritance See Language page Amanda Novak, D. Jagannathan, Tanja Bauerlein
Yuruti 'jã́ã- 'jã́ã- See Language page Ana Paula; Tanja Baeuerlein
Waikhana bo'ra- bo'ra- See Language page Ana Paula; Tanja Baeuerlein
Siriano burú-ri burú-ri See Language page Ana Paula, Kelsey Neely
Tanimuca dyãʔ'ãrĩ ri'ka ʎãʔ'ãrĩ ri'ka inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
Tatuyo jã'ã́ jã'ã́ See Language page Emily Buell, Paulina Franco
Tuyuka jã'ã́ jã'ã́ See Language page D. Jagannathan, Paulina Franco, Ana Paula B.
Waimaja ñã́ã̀ ɲã́ã̀ See Language page Kelsey Neely
Koreguaje tãimʉ tãimʉ inheritance See Language page Daniel Valle
Siona guruji, tainji guruhi, tainhi unknown; inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
Secoya taiñe tãiñɛ See Language page Amanda N
Karitiana ako, ´ot ako, ʔot unknown See Language page Daniel Valle
Kokama uhuari uwari inheritance See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
Wayampi -ʔa -ʔa inheritance See Language page PLE
Aché waʔa unknown See Language page PLE
Chiriguano a inheritance See Language page PLE
Paraguayan Guaraní a See Language page PLE
Sirionó ŋoɨ; ukɨ; põ ɨ ŋoɨ; ukɨ; põ ɨ unique See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
Kamayurá ˀat ˀat inheritance See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
Ocaina ooha, joova, faati ooʔa, hooβa, ɸaati inheritance? See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
Nɨpode Witoto baï.í.de baɯ.í.dɛ See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
Minica Witoto baï.í.de, u.ái-de baɯ.í.dɛ, u.ái-dɛ See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
Murui Witoto uaìde, caìde uaìdɛ, kaìdɛ inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
Iquito itɨɨni itɨɨni inheritance See Language page Cynthia Hansen
Záparo ɨtɨkwanu ɨtɨkwanu See Language page Becky Walker
Wari panʔ; kamaraʔ panʔ; kamaraʔ See Language page PLE
Araona bisa; pai See Language page PLE Also dahaha, fall without a reason. *Tacn form is *-xaxa.
Ese Ejja oke-; haaɓičakiani unique See Language page PLE
Ese Ejja/Huarayo ote-kwe ote-kwe See Language page Joyce McCormick
Tacana dahaha- See Language page PLE
Cavineña ribi-ya; pakaka-ya ribi-ya; pakaka-ya unique; inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
Central Aymara tinkuña tinku-ɲa See Language page PLE
Cayuvava ka'riǰahi; kã; ɲakai'æǰahɨ See Language page PLE Also ripã; šebo ~ hebo.
Itonama oliʔna; serehna; solohke See Language page PLE
Kwazá bu-, hyja-, pu-, tou-, tsewe-, tuce-, tui- bu-, hyja-, pu-, tou-, tsewe-, tuce-, tui- See Language page Joyce McCormick
Mosetén-Chimané hõ'čai See Language page Joyce McCormick, PLE Also means 'drop' 10.160.
Movima tam̉-βos-eɬ tam̉-βos-eɬ See Language page Anissa Capuccino, Becky Walker
Trumai uapta(-n) uapta(-n) unique See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
Kaingang kutẽ, vom kutɛ̃ See Language page PLE
Suyá teme teme See Language page Rebekah Evans
Djeoromitxi hõkü, nõkü, pä hõkø, nõkø, pǝ See Language page PLE
Chipaya eš; txoḳ- See Language page PLE Respectively: refers to person falling down; cause to fall (people). To fall over is ḳʰatš.
Mocoví w-aa-ɲi See Language page PLE Lit. '(zero) 3p actor-free position-aspect-down'.
Pilagá n-ʔ'aḳa-ɲi See Language page PLE Lit. '3pa-fall-down'.
Toba w-a-ɲi See Language page PLE Lit. '(zero) 3p actor-free position-aspect-down'.
Lengua #NAME? See Language page PLE
Sanapaná/Dialect Angaité aptiyakmi; antiyakmi See Language page PLE Also -paliyi.
Sanapaná/Dialect Enlhet nenteeyamˀ; nempalleyaamˀ See Language page PLE
Wichí Lhamtés Güisnay ni-čot-'čoʔ See Language page PLE
Chorote, Iyojwa'ja -nuneʔ ~ -nyuneʔ See Language page PLE
Maca -am-xuʔ See Language page PLE Cf. 10.550.
Nivaclé -at; nkɔʔt-šaʔne fall; fall https://ids.clld.org/ PLE
Ayoreo ĩi'koorãʔ See Language page PLE Means to stumble, fall. To fall inside is ĩi'koorã-haʔ. To fall from above is i'baaseʔ.
Mapudungun ɨṭ͡ʀɨf-naɣɨ; ṭ͡ʀanɨ See Language page PLE Ranquel forms: ɨṭ͡ʀɨnaw-; ṭ͡ʀan-; naw-.
Qawasqar c̷eḳar See Language page PLE Also karksayeks. Both forms mean 'slip and fall'. Sk, SpC record korkal for Central QWS. Fi, Hy, SpS record alas for South QWS. Cf. 'fly' 10.370.
Selknam w-hene; w-yèe; w-a See Language page PLE Various vocabulary have to do with different positions or heights.
Tehuelche 'w-at-; 'w-ahe- See Language page PLE
Kanamarí dapoki dapoki cair Magalhães 2018:363 Maria Castillo
Lokono thikhidin tʰikʰidin fall Pet 1987:357 Camille Unger
Kariña tywoma tɨwoma fall down; be born Yamada 2010:820 Camille Unger