how?

Semantic Field
grammar
Part of Speech
Meaning Spanish
como
Meaning Portuguese
como

Languages

Language Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Etymology Notes Source Created By General Notes
Big Smokey Valley Shoshone hakani “of being” inheritance Jane Hill
Cahuilla mexanuk inheritance S&H 1979 Jane Hill
Chemehuevi haga/niga(i) inheritance Jane Hill
Chumash Barbareno 7akim unknown Wash 2001:88 Jane Hill
Chumash Ineseno tak'u Applegate 20 inheritance A20 Jane Hill
Chumash Obispeno hatYu (in “Como estas?”) inheritance JPH Jane Hill
Chumash Ventureno nelka7a7an “como esta..., cual es” unknown JPH Jane Hill
Cocopa km7ap “how can it be? unknown Jane Hill
Comanche hakani inheritance Jane Hill
Cupeño mixanuk [mixənuk] inheritance Jane Hill
Gabrielino 7ava:xa “how is?”, unknown Jane Hill
Iipay 'Aa meyuu, mu'yuu [məˈjuˑ˅], [mʊˈjuˑ˅] inheritance Jane Hill
Kawaiisu ha-ga-ni inheritance Jane Hill
Kiliwa p+aux unknown Mixco 1985 Jane Hill
Kitanemuk haminat “how (are you)?” inheritance Jane Hill
Lake Miwok hi/nti inheritance Jane Hill
Luiseño micha-xa/ni-nuk inheritance Jane Hill
Maidu hesa/sa unknown Jane Hill
Mojave missing missing Jane Hill
Mutsun hinka-hte “how be?” inheritance O77:317 Jane Hill
Nisenan homa:ti/n inheritance Text p. 22 S 12 Jane Hill
Northern Paiute ha7u inheritance Thornes 03:188 Jane Hill
Northern Sierra Miwok minto inheritance Jane Hill
Plains Miwok hi:ti inheritance Jane Hill
Salinan A ake- p. 35 unknown Jane Hill
Salinan M missing missing Jane Hill
Seri (Comcaac) zi/mo, zo/ unknown Jane Hill
Serrano hami:n' inheritance Jane Hill
Southern Paiute aga-n:i “how? to act how? to do what? inheritance Jane Hill
Southern Sierra Miwok micyk-na-tho-j (na2) inheritance Jane Hill
Southern Ute ag'a inheritance Jane Hill
Tübatulabal ha7ic V1935:165 Jane Hill
Tümpisa Shoshone hakani (how, what, of something done) inheritance Jane Hill
Wappo 7iha/7 unknown Jane Hill
Washo hu/nga unknown J174 Jane Hill
Western Mono hani/7, hani7i/-tU inheritance Jane Hill
Wintu hen inheritance Jane Hill
Yavapai ka/(v) unknown Jane Hill
Yokuts Yowlumne hawy- inheritance 306 K 1907 Jane Hill
Yuki haymas inheritance S&S 1984 Jane Hill
Baniwa kóame kóame unique See Language page Ana Paula B.
Carijona ətɨke inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
Cubeo aipe; aipe ðarĩ aipe; aipe ðaɾĩ unique See Language page Kelsey Neely; Tanja Baeuerlein
Dâw rĩn’ hĩn’ inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
Desano doʔ'pa doʔ'pa inheritance See Language page Ana Paula; Tanja Baeuerlein
Eñepa sɨnkae (IDS) sɨnkae (IDS) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross
Hodï hibɨ unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez
Waorani æ-bã-dõ kæ-te unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez, PLE
Hup hɨ̃p ~hɨp inheritance See Language page Pattie Epps
Kakua dêdn-paʔ inheritance See Language page Katherine Bolaños
Makushi oʔnon yeʔka (IDS) oʔnon yeʔka (IDS) unique See Language page Melody Ann Ross
Nheengatu maupé maupɛ inheritance See Language page John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
Ninam haperinah (EM72) hapeɾinah unique See Language page Kelsey Neely
Nukak dɛdn-pãʔ1 inheritance See Language page Lauren Franklin
Maihiki iyi iji unique See Language page Daniel Valle
Pemon warante, -pe, tukai, warai (A1981); ö'tukaik (M2000) waɾante, pe, tukai, waɾai (A1981) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
Sanumá mina, wina (EM72) mina, wina unique; inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
Sikuani pa-kuénia (dé:tsa: pa-kuénia, int.) inheritance See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, Rebecca Khorram, PLE
Tukano deʔró deʔró inheritance Branch 2, E Tuk See Language page Ana Paula, Amanda Novak
Kotiria do'se doʰʔse inheritance Branch 2, E Tuk See Language page D. Jagannathan, Tanja Bauerlein
Yanomam wetinaha wetinaha inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
Yanomami wet naha wet naha inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
Yukuna meke meke unique See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
Yuhup nɨ̌h ~dɨ̌h inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
Arabana thiyara unique Claire Bowern
Bardi nyirroogoord nyirrukurd inheritance Claire Bowern
Bunuba [missing] missing Claire Bowern
Burarra [missing] missing Claire Bowern
Dhangu nhalpiyan unknown Claire Bowern
Dhuwal nhämirr inheritance Claire Bowern
Dhuwala [missing] missing Claire Bowern
Diyari [missing] missing Claire Bowern
DiyariREU [missing] missing Claire Bowern
Djambarrpuyngu [missing] missing Claire Bowern
Djapu [missing] missing Claire Bowern
Djinang mir nyaliki unknown Claire Bowern
Gajirrabeng gawoob inheritance Claire Bowern
Gooniyandi [missing] missing Claire Bowern
Gupapuyngu [missing] missing Claire Bowern
Gurindji nyatpa inheritance Claire Bowern
Jaru nyarrwa inheritance Claire Bowern
Karajarri wanyjarra inheritance Claire Bowern
Kija kapu inheritance Claire Bowern
Malyangapa [missing] missing Claire Bowern
Mangala jarrani unique Claire Bowern
Miriwung ?gaboob inheritance Claire Bowern
Mithaka [missing] missing Claire Bowern
Mudburra ngadarra Claire Bowern
Mudburra ngadarra inheritance? Claire Bowern
Ngamini wananda unique Claire Bowern
Ngandi X missing Claire Bowern
Ngarluma wantharni inheritance Claire Bowern
Nhirrpi [missing] missing Claire Bowern
Northern Mangarla [missing] missing Claire Bowern
Northern Nyangumarta [missing] missing Claire Bowern
Nyangumarta wayirti unique Claire Bowern
Paakantyi [missing] missing Claire Bowern
Pirriya [missing] missing Claire Bowern
Pitta-Pitta withila unique Claire Bowern
Rirratjingu [missing] missing Claire Bowern
Ritharrngu X missing Claire Bowern
Walmajarri nyapartukarra inheritance Claire Bowern
Wangkayutyuru thilapada unique Claire Bowern
Wubuy X missing Claire Bowern
Yan-nhangu [missing] missing Claire Bowern
Yandruwandha ilayarndu, yarndu, minhanyadi, unique Claire Bowern
Yarluyandi [missing] missing Claire Bowern
Yawarrawarrka [missing] missing Claire Bowern
Yawuru dyalanyurdany jalanyurdany unique Claire Bowern
Achagua úhni:…-kaa, léhta úhni:…-kaa, léhta unique See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
Piapoco càiná, cawiná, jài kàiná, kawiná, hài See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
Yavitero jlána hlána See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
Wapishana naʔapam naʔapam unique See Language page Ana Paula B.
Wayuu hamɨ-sɨ See Language page PLE
Paresi aliyakere aliyakere unique See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
Trinitario hele-am-nuk See Language page PLE
Waurá ka-ic̷e-pei ka-i¢e-pei unique See Language page Joyce McCormick
Cha'palaa 'neh-'t-aa; 'na-ih-tu; 'naaʔ-'ih-tu See Language page PLE Also 'naa 'i-tu.
Bora mïʔtï mɯʔtɯ inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
Muinane mɨdʒɨ mɨdʒɨ See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
Apalai otãto otãto unique See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
Wayana ta ta unique See Language page PLE
Tiriyó eeke eeke inheritance See Language page Becky Walker
Makiritare ākene (IDS) ākene (IDS) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
Mapoyo tonwari tonwari See Language page Melody Ann Ross
Wai Wai ahče wa ahče wa unique See Language page Melody Ann Ross
Waimiri Atroari ire' ireʔ See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
Yukpa maisi, ot, otask, otaska, otatka, otasere, otna, otnái See Language page Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross
Muisca ia hacobe ia hakoβe See Language page Daniel Valle
Barí aangka See Language page PLE Colombia: ʔəəbəʔ (?).
Northern Emberá zãoá zãoá See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, PLE
Epena 'sãga See Language page PLE
Guayabero ma-, maáʧ inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
Macaguan banekía inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
Cuiva éta bíʧi como, how Huber & Reed 1992:302 Rebecca Khorram
Playero dahaʧíwa (wanaʧia, ínʧhabai) See Language page Rebecca Khorram
Cofán ma'caen maʔkãɛ See Language page Daniel Valle phonemic transcriptions are ESTIMATIONS
Candoshi-Shapra tamáapari tamáapaɾi unique See Language page Daniel Valle
Taushiro entehan ɨndɨhan See Language page Daniel Valle
Páez máuño mauɲo See Language page Daniel Valle
Tikuna ñuxacü [3-5, 5, 5] ɲuʔakɨ unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
Urarina dʒatoaneĩ tʃatoaneĩ unique See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
Camsa ntɕámo ntɕámo See Language page Daniel Valle, Anissa Capuchino
Pumé yʊta da-rĩ See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
Puinave bə-he bə-he unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
Ashuar itúr, itiúr itur, itiur See Language page Daniel Valle
Huambisa itursampa itursampa See Language page Daniel Valle
Aguaruna wajúk waxuk unique See Language page Daniel Valle
Nadëb/Roçado dialect nɨ:h da: inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
Matses midapad, mitsipad midapad, mitsipad unknown See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
Katukina hɨ̃kɨs a-šõ-ra See Language page PLE There are other expressions for this concept.
Pacahuara haiʔt-'ee-ta See Language page PLE Lit. 'what(WH-marker)-do-cont.'.
Shipibo-Konibo maɲi̯ See Language page PLE
Yaminahua yʊta da-rĩ See Language page PLE
Chácobo hɨ-nawa hɨ-nawa unknown See Language page Joyce McCormick
Yagua nuy- (interr. Pref.); nutyajirya; nutyara nu:j; nu:tjaxirja; nu:tjara unique See Language page Daniel Valle
Southern Pastaza Quechua imashna imaʃna See Language page Daniel Valle
Napo Lowland Quichua imasna imasna See Language page Daniel Valle
Quechua Ayacuchano imayna imayna See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
Piaroa hua'u kO'ra'nɨh huaɁu kɤɁraɁnɨh unique See Language page Amanda Novak, Becky Walker
Sáliva ñehẽ, umehexa ɲeʔẽ, umeʔexa unique See Language page Becky Walker
Bará de'ero See Language page Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein
Barasano dõ bahi-ro dõ bahi-ro See Language page D. Jagannathan, Tanja Baeuerlein
Carapana 'dópe 'dópe See Language page Amanda Novak, Tanja Baeuerlein
Makuna dõ bahi-ro dõ bahi-ro inheritance See Language page Amanda Novak, D. Jagannathan, Tanja Bauerlein
Yuruti 'dáiro 'dáiro See Language page Ana Paula; Tanja Baeuerlein
Waikhana dɨʔ'se dɨʔ'se See Language page Ana Paula; Tanja Baeuerlein
Siriano dãʔ'ã-sũ dãʔ'ã-sũ See Language page Ana Paula, Kelsey Neely
Tanimuca bãrãkãʔ'ã bãrãkãʔ'ã unique See Language page Kelsey Neely
Tatuyo dópe baí-ro dópe baí-ro See Language page Emily Buell, Paulina Franco
Tuyuka de'éro de'éro See Language page D. Jagannathan, Paulina Franco, Ana Paula B.
Waimaja dõõ ('bíiro), 'jẽ́ẽ́ dõõ ('bíiro), 'jẽ́ẽ́ See Language page Kelsey Neely
Koreguaje ũcuaʉache ũkuaʉakhe inheritance See Language page Daniel Valle
Siona queaca keaka inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
Secoya me me See Language page Amanda N
Karitiana tikat tikat unknown See Language page Daniel Valle
Kokama mañatipa maɲatipa inheritance See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
Wayampi manɨwɔ manɨwɔ inheritance See Language page PLE
Aché bue rõ inheritance See Language page PLE
Chiriguano kerẽi-pa unique See Language page PLE
Paraguayan Guaraní ᵐba'ʔeiča See Language page PLE
Sirionó kʷaha; kʷa ni da kʷaha; kʷa ni da unique See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
Kamayurá mawite mawite inheritance See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
Ocaina dsoh; dsohfuurá dzoʔ; dzoʔɸɯɯrá unique See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
Nɨpode Witoto naitó naitó See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
Minica Witoto nḯ.eθe, nedi nɯ́.ɛθɛ, nɛdi See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
Murui Witoto nɨese, nɨe nɯɛθɛ, nɯɛ (B83) unique See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
Iquito jɨ'ɨtarata hɨ'ɨtarata unique See Language page Cynthia Hansen
Záparo tiya tija See Language page Becky Walker
Araona kʷipa, kʷipac̷io, hada See Language page PLE
Ese Ejja yaxa; ačaxa unique See Language page PLE
Ese Ejja/Huarayo ača-kwa ača-kwa See Language page Joyce McCormick
Tacana 'ʔ-ee-t-ek See Language page PLE Lit. '3p actor-do-direct-obj.'.
Cavineña a(ʔ)i a(ʔ)i unique See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
Central Aymara kumasa See Language page PLE
Itonama i-toʔko See Language page PLE
Mosetén-Chimané 'hoiɲka See Language page Joyce McCormick, PLE Cf. 'why?' 17.690.
Movima han-win̉ han-win̉ See Language page Anissa Capuccino, Becky Walker
Trumai hele-am-nuk hele-am-nuk unique See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
Kaingang ri ri; hɛ̃ri ke See Language page PLE
Suyá nuká nuká See Language page Rebekah Evans
Djeoromitxi hatxinĩ hatʃinĩ See Language page PLE
Chipaya xaknuš See Language page PLE
Mocoví negeʔ See Language page PLE Expression, that says 'How? Impossible!' (=it can't be!) is woseʔ-ket.
Pilagá ikai aktaha See Language page PLE
Toba ooyo See Language page PLE
Lengua hathko See Language page PLE
Sanapaná/Dialect Angaité koho; ko ɬaʔa; ɬaʔ akteema; ɬaʔa mˀaa ye See Language page PLE
Sanapaná/Dialect Enlhet hawɨ-kɨska See Language page PLE
Wichí Lhamtés Güisnay eeʔ e'wuye See Language page PLE
Chorote, Iyojwa'ja napa See Language page PLE
Maca pan ɬunyex See Language page PLE ɬunyex means 'equal, alike'.
Nivaclé ta ɬ-xunaš; eʔana how? https://ids.clld.org/ PLE
Ayoreo iiso'kaarike See Language page PLE See 17.490.
Mapudungun čumweči See Language page PLE Ranquel form is čum; čumeči ~ čumŋeči.
Qawasqar ḳwa See Language page PLE Also means 'what?'
Tehuelche 'kenkˀ See Language page PLE
Lokono alika alika how Pet 1987:360 Camille Unger
Kariña fa fa how Yamada 2010:735 Camille Unger