near/close

Semantic Field
quality
Part of Speech
Meaning Spanish
cerca de
Meaning Portuguese
perto

Languages

Language Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Etymology Notes Source Created By General Notes
Bankalachi Toloim ahn'-chow 219 loan Jane Hill
Big Smokey Valley Shoshone ty-kynna “near, narrow” unknown Jane Hill
Cahuilla sunchi unknown S&H 1979 Jane Hill
Central Sierra Miwok haje:/- inheritance Jane Hill
Chemehuevi cagi/(a) inheritance Jane Hill
Chumash Barbareno mut'ej “to be near” inheritance Klar 1977:131 Jane Hill
Chumash Cruzeno kaham unknown JPH Jane Hill
Chumash Ineseno mutey' “to be near” inheritance A 393, K1977:131 Jane Hill
Chumash Obispeno timete7 “to be near” inheritance Klar 1977:131 Jane Hill
Chumash Ventureno ne7e sijaxikyhy “ya estan cerca” unknown JPH Jane Hill
Cocopa xrpay, xrpa:y “to be near” inheritance Jane Hill
Comanche miitUtsi inheritance Jane Hill
Cupeño 'ami'an [ɁamiɁən] inheritance Jane Hill
Gabrielino momoa: inheritance Jane Hill
Iipay 'Aa helyepay [xəʎəˈpai] inheritance Jane Hill
Kawaiisu chagici “nearness” inheritance Jane Hill
Kiliwa nyaa-m mat; p-yaa-m unknown Jane Hill
Kitanemuk pop unknown Jane Hill
Lake Miwok jo/le unknown Jane Hill
Luiseño neshkin (like kin?) unknown Jane Hill
Maidu hede/n inheritance Jane Hill
Mojave ipan= unknown Jane Hill
Mutsun Saanay, Saanay7a unknown NW (JPH) Jane Hill
Nisenan hoj, hojdi inheritance Jane Hill
Northern Paiute tsagi7i unknown thornes 03:166 Jane Hill
Northern Sierra Miwok haj:e- inheritance Jane Hill
Plains Miwok haj:e- inheritance Jane Hill
Salinan A sk'a:m “close” (A) loan direction unknown Turner 1983:224) Jane Hill
Salinan M missing missing Jane Hill
Seri (Comcaac) iicx unknown Jane Hill
Serrano pi:pish inheritance Jane Hill
Southern Paiute tcagi-p:a inheritance Jane Hill
Southern Sierra Miwok haj:e- inheritance Jane Hill
Southern Ute chag'achivI inheritance Jane Hill
Tübatulabal mii7ppil inheritance Jane Hill
Tümpisa Shoshone tykynaa(ttsi) unknown Jane Hill
Wappo shi/k'a unknown Jane Hill
Washo -le/lew unknown J502 Jane Hill
Western Mono -baa, inheritance Jane Hill
Wintu coki loan into protolanguage Jane Hill
Yavapai hipe/; tye/: unknown Jane Hill
Yokuts Yawdanchi penau unknown K07:245 Jane Hill
Yuki 7i(:)ch, 7e(:)ch, -ich, -ech inheritance S&S1984 Jane Hill
Yuma xi:pa/n “to be nearby” H4:21 Jane Hill
Baniwa tsóome tsóome unique See Language page Ana Paula B.
Carijona mɨhake inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
Cubeo cadai; tʉcava kadai; tɨkava inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely; Tanja Baeuerlein
Dâw tẽr, pej  tæ̃h, pæɟ unique; inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
Desano pohro poʔɾo inheritance See Language page Ana Paula; Tanja Baeuerlein
Eñepa ɲenča ehke (IDS) ɲentʃa ehke (IDS) unique See Language page Melody Ann Ross
Hodï habẽilã unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez
Waorani eye-ke-ĩ unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez, PLE
Hup máh-yɨʔ ~báh-jɨʔ inheritance See Language page Pattie Epps
Kakua pèbʔ [be.near] unique See Language page Katherine Bolaños
Makushi aminke pra (IDS) aminke pra (IDS) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross
Nheengatu uaki (uá= rostro) uaki (ua= rostro) unique See Language page John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
Ninam ahati (EM72) ahati inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
Nukak dʒɨɨp2ka1 unique See Language page Lauren Franklin
Maihiki ɨajigo ɨajigo inheritance See Language page Daniel Valle
Pemon piau, amincha mare, ako-pe (A1981); akkoopee (E1977); amincha ma're (M2000) piau, amintʃa maɾe, akope, (A1981); aʔope (E1977) unique; inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
Sanumá atepə (EM72) atepə inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
Sikuani imoxoyo (2), imoxoyota (2) (to bring something closer or nearer), itamata (3), itjamatja (3), kaejewa (3) imoxó:-jo: (káe-hawa: 'cercano' - 'close by') inheritance See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, Rebecca Khorram, PLE
Tariana dhiwéʃi dʰiwéʃi unique See Language page Ana Paula B.
Tukano pɨʔto-ákã pɨʔto-ákã inheritance See Language page Ana Paula, Amanda Novak
Kotiria to be close by: -ba'ro; to be nearby: du'tu; ka'a; thua; be next to: kha'a -baʰɾo; duʰʔtu; kaʔa; tʰúa; kʰaʔa inheritance See Language page D. Jagannathan, Tanja Bauerlein
Yanomam ahate ahate inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
Yanomami aheti ha(mɨ) aheti ha(mɨ) inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
Yukuna núrupiji núrupihi unique See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
Yuhup mah-ãp ~bah-~ap unique See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
Arabana itjarda unique Claire Bowern
Bardi djamad jamad inheritance Claire Bowern
Bunuba [missing] missing Claire Bowern
Burarra ay-gurrepa unknown Claire Bowern
Dhangu galki inheritance Claire Bowern
Dhuwal galki inheritance Claire Bowern
Dhuwala galki inheritance Claire Bowern
Diyari karakara inheritance Claire Bowern
DiyariREU karakara inheritance Claire Bowern
Djambarrpuyngu galki Claire Bowern
Djapu galki inheritance Claire Bowern
Djinang ngidjirrgi unknown Claire Bowern
Gajirrabeng thangan unique Claire Bowern
Gooniyandi yalawa Claire Bowern
Gupapuyngu galki inheritance Claire Bowern
Gurindji kajupari loan Jingulu Claire Bowern
Jabirr-Jabirr yangan yangan inheritance Claire Bowern
Jaru yardi semantic shift Claire Bowern
Jawi ungana [angan] ungana [angan] inheritance Claire Bowern
Karajarri lani unknown Claire Bowern
Kija ngirripa- unique Claire Bowern
Malyangapa [missing] missing Claire Bowern
Mangala manpa unknown Claire Bowern
Miriwung dhumbu-ga- unique Claire Bowern
Mithaka [missing] missing Claire Bowern
Mudburra kajubari Claire Bowern
Mudburra kajubari loan Claire Bowern
Ngamini kaRakaRa inheritance Claire Bowern
Ngarluma murna Claire Bowern
Ngumbarl Lannee mai yareera marrin <Lannee mai yareera marrin> unique Yawuru? Claire Bowern
Nhirrpi [missing] missing Claire Bowern
Nimanburru yaŋan yaŋan inheritance Claire Bowern
Northern Mangarla marnpa Claire Bowern
Northern Nyangumarta ngamparra martaji Claire Bowern
Nyangumarta wangka unknown Claire Bowern
Nyikina biliga bilika unique Claire Bowern
Nyulnyul yangarn yangarn inheritance Claire Bowern
Paakantyi ḏaljba unique Claire Bowern
Pirriya [missing] missing Claire Bowern
Pitta-Pitta mungkatha inheritance Claire Bowern
Rirratjingu galki inheritance Claire Bowern
Ritharrngu galki inheritance Claire Bowern
Walmajarri marnpa doubtful loan Mangarla? Claire Bowern
Wangkayutyuru mungkatha inheritance Claire Bowern
Warrwa jimara jimara unique Claire Bowern
Yan-nhangu dhä-mindapuma Claire Bowern
Yandruwandha kaka unique Claire Bowern
Yarluyandi kathu-piri-piri unique Claire Bowern
Yawarrawarrka kaka unique Claire Bowern
Yawuru lani lani unique Claire Bowern
Achagua urúni urúni inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
Piapoco núuwãi núuwãi See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
Kabiyari áriní áriní See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
Yavitero ka'ľehana kaʔľehana See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
Wapishana maunapʰa maunapʰa doubtful loan Carib; Pemon mare, Yukpa mana, but cf. Warekena See Language page Ana Paula B.
Wayuu pehe See Language page PLE
Paresi owitene owitene unique See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
Trinitario #NAME? See Language page PLE
Baure a'ne-kon a'ne-kon inheritance See Language page Anissa Capuccino
Waurá -kanu; -pažutɨ -kanu; -pažutɨ inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick
Cha'palaa 'kale See Language page PLE
Bora pɨɨ́hɨ, pɨɨ́hɨre (T98) pɨɨ́ʔɨ, pɨɨ́ʔɨre inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
Muinane fíitɨhi (W97) (= 'to not be far') ɸíitɨʔi See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
Akawaio akoobee a'kobe inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin
Apalai tano tano See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
Wayana akëlela (far-NEG) akǝlela (far-NEG) inheritance See Language page PLE
Tiriyó ekata(ka) (close to (directional)) ekata(ka) inheritance See Language page Becky Walker
Makiritare amoinče-ʔdaɨ (IDS) amoinče-ʔdaɨ (IDS) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
Wai Wai meye-hra meye-hra unknown See Language page Melody Ann Ross
Waimiri Atroari kypy kɨpɨ See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
Yabarana teispoho'ɾama, koh'maŋsapɜ See Language page Ana Paula B., John Blaha
Yukpa mana, manaran, manara See Language page Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross
Kalapalo inde inde unknown See Language page Joyce McCormick
Barí muungdani See Language page PLE Colombia: muŋdaninə.
Northern Emberá kaaíta-bɨ́ kaːíta-bɨ́ See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, PLE
Epena 'kʰaitʰa See Language page PLE
Guayabero mox inheritance Central+Macaguan subgroup See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
Macaguan kéwa unique See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
Cuiva imoxójo cerca, near Huber & Reed 1992:333 Rebecca Khorram
Playero ké-hewa See Language page Rebecca Khorram
Cofán pporotsse phoɾotshɛ See Language page Daniel Valle phonemic transcriptions are ESTIMATIONS
Candoshi-Shapra vátsiríita vátsiɾíita unique See Language page Daniel Valle
Páez cafind kafind See Language page Daniel Valle
Tikuna ŋãikamã (adj.) ŋãikamã (adj.) unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
Urarina niʨa nitʃa unique See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
Camsa béko-ɲe béko-ɲe See Language page Daniel Valle, Anissa Capuchino
Andoke #NAME? #NAME? unique See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
Pumé kɛrĩ See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
Puinave [-nak] nak unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
Ashuar yáamas ja:mas See Language page Daniel Valle
Huambisa ijus ixus See Language page Daniel Valle
Aguaruna ijús ixus inheritance See Language page Daniel Valle
Nadëb/Roçado dialect pǝ: inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
Matses abi, ëna, nëbi, u, ubi abi, ɨna, nɨbi, u, ubi unknown See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
Katukina ora-ma See Language page PLE
Shipibo-Konibo očoma See Language page PLE
Yaminahua čai-mašta See Language page PLE
Chácobo βasi-ma; βɨka-; ṣ̌oʔama (the first example is literally "far-negative", βasi is "far", -ma is a negation) βasi-ma; βɨka-; ṣ̌oʔama (the first example is literally "far-negative", βasi is "far", -ma is a negation) unique See Language page Joyce McCormick
Yagua di, nuji, tudi (adv); tivye, tiye (adj.) di, nuxi, tudi; tivje, tije unique See Language page Daniel Valle
Southern Pastaza Quechua caylla, cuchu kayʎa, kutʃu See Language page Daniel Valle
Ingá kailla kaiʎa See Language page Daniel Valle
Napo Lowland Quichua mayan majan See Language page Daniel Valle
Quechua Ayacuchano kaylla kajʎa See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
Piaroa tɨk'ɨh tɨkɁɨh unique See Language page Amanda Novak, Becky Walker
Sáliva llene dʒene unique See Language page Becky Walker
Bará ãdã-'ãhã, pɨto-'aha See Language page Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein
Barasano tɨ́-aka tɨ́-aka See Language page D. Jagannathan, Tanja Baeuerlein
Carapana 'ká-tɨ́-áka 'ká-tɨ́-áka See Language page Amanda Novak, Tanja Baeuerlein
Makuna inheritance See Language page Amanda Novak, D. Jagannathan, Tanja Bauerlein
Yuruti ã'dṍ-gã, pɨ'tṍ-gã ã'dṍ-gã, pɨ'tṍ-gã See Language page Ana Paula; Tanja Baeuerlein
Waikhana kaʔ'aga kaʔ'aga See Language page Ana Paula; Tanja Baeuerlein
Siriano pɨʔ'ró-gã pɨʔ'ró-gã See Language page Ana Paula, Kelsey Neely
Tanimuca wãʔ'tãrã wãʔ'tãrã unknown See Language page Kelsey Neely
Tatuyo ka-tɨ-ãkã ka-tɨ-ãkã See Language page Emily Buell, Paulina Franco
Tuyuka ã'dṍ-gã, pɨ'tó-gã ã'dṍ-gã, pɨ'tó-gã See Language page D. Jagannathan, Paulina Franco, Ana Paula B.
Waimaja ã́dõ-ã́kã, pɨ'tó-pɨ ã́dõ-ã́kã, pɨ'tó-pɨ See Language page Kelsey Neely
Koreguaje aikuerʉ aikuerʉ inheritance See Language page Daniel Valle
Siona kwe'jẽ kwe'jẽ inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
Secoya ja'ye haʔjɛ See Language page Amanda N
Karitiana mypi mɨpi unknown See Language page Daniel Valle
Kokama ari (suff.) ari unique See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
Wayampi pɨi pɨi inheritance See Language page PLE
Aché rɨpɨ-yã unique See Language page PLE
Chiriguano ko; kõ-ɲõ; kõi unique See Language page PLE
Paraguayan Guaraní aɣʷĩ See Language page PLE
Sirionó rɨɨ̃; aɨčɨ; ehii rɨɨ̃; aɨčɨ; ehii unique See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
Kamayurá ɨpɨp ɨpɨp inheritance See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
Ocaina áán̈urah ã́ã́n:ɯraʔ inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
Murui Witoto llaɨ́te, ianori dʒaɯ́tɛ, janori (B83) unknown; inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
Wari wixicam pin (lit. completely small; E&K97) wiʃikam pin (lit. completely small; E&K97) See Language page PLE 'Here (this)' is i kaʔ. ka om hwarao wa 'to be not far'.
Araona hakʷepati, c̷awa See Language page PLE Also dawewe; wec̷iowe.
Ese Ejja -čipi; wešaʔama unique See Language page PLE
Ese Ejja/Huarayo kia-čii-nee kia-čii-nee See Language page Joyce McCormick
Tacana nari; weðoe; e-naha-so See Language page PLE
Cavineña hapa-da-ma; re-wa; deke-ya (hapa-da-ma is literally "far-negative"; hapa-da means "far", and "-ma" is a negation, or no) hapa-da-ma; re-wa; deke-ya unique See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
Central Aymara jak´a xakˀa See Language page PLE
Cayuvava ya'raama- ~ na'raama- See Language page PLE
Itonama makapalahna; makahtˀidiʔna See Language page PLE
Kwazá bo-, du-, kuro-, tãi-, tja?atje-, tsje- bo-, du-, kuro-, tãi-, tja?atje-, tsje- See Language page Joyce McCormick
Mosetén-Chimané 'tčei'ỹaʔ See Language page Joyce McCormick, PLE
Movima su-we su-we See Language page Anissa Capuccino, Becky Walker
Trumai fuik; fuik-man fuik; fuik-man unique See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
Kaingang kakò, rã kakɔ; rã See Language page PLE
Canela ii-put See Language page PLE *Jê form is *mut.
Suyá kená kená See Language page Rebekah Evans
Karajá ɔtitɨ See Language page PLE
Djeoromitxi kapfütxe kaɸøtʃe See Language page PLE
Chipaya xeeku See Language page PLE 'Here' is tikʰu.
Mocoví s-ḳoyoḳ-ake See Language page PLE Lit. 'negative-far-to'.
Pilagá sa ḳa'ya-ake See Language page PLE Lit. 'not far-desire (?)'.
Toba sa ḳaya-pke See Language page PLE
Lengua kyito See Language page PLE
Sanapaná/Dialect Angaité ankitoi See Language page PLE
Sanapaná/Dialect Enlhet neŋaʔtooʔ See Language page PLE
Wichí Lhamtés Güisnay niʔ'tuhʷaya See Language page PLE Negative form of 'far' 12.440.
Chorote, Iyojwa'ja xa-tofʷe See Language page PLE Lit. 'not-far' 12.440.
Maca met; -met-im See Language page PLE Also niteʔ toχii, 'not far'.
Nivaclé šaɬa near (adv) https://ids.clld.org/ PLE
Ayoreo i'dogosiʔ See Language page PLE See 12.320.
Mapudungun pɨlʸe See Language page PLE Ranquel form is pičiṭ͡ʀipale-.
Qawasqar ḳwaḳyaḳ See Language page PLE
Selknam manek See Language page PLE
Tehuelche 'ekˀl; 'ene-kˀ; '-or ~ 'orh See Language page PLE
Lokono bithi bitʰi near Pet 1987:365 Camille Unger
Kariña rato rato near Yamada 2010:799 Camille Unger