say

Semantic Field
mental
Part of Speech
Meaning Spanish
decir
Meaning Portuguese
dizer

Languages

Language Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Etymology Notes Source Created By General Notes
Bankalachi Toloim alā>wi (K1907 “speak”) inheritance Jane Hill
Big Smokey Valley Shoshone missing missing Jane Hill
Cahuilla -yax- H150 inheritance S&H 1979 Jane Hill
Central Sierra Miwok ka/ch:y- inheritance Jane Hill
Chemehuevi mai inheritance Jane Hill
Chumash Barbareno 7ip inheritance Klar 1977:109 Jane Hill
Chumash Cruzeno 7i inheritance Klar 1977:109 Jane Hill
Chumash Ineseno 7ip inheritance Klar 1977:109 Jane Hill
Chumash Obispeno 7ipi inheritance Klar 1977:109 Jane Hill
Chumash Ventureno ipi B67:14, yp “di” B67:16 inheritance Jane Hill
Cocopa 7i: inheritance Jane Hill
Comanche ty7awe inheritance Charney 1993 Jane Hill
Cupeño yax-0 [ˈyax], [yəx] inheritance Jane Hill
Esselen al-pa “speak” unknown Shaul 1995:199 Jane Hill
Gabrielino pa:ri- unknown Jane Hill
Iipay 'Aa wii [wiˑ] inheritance Jane Hill
Kawaiisu mee- inheritance Jane Hill
Kiliwa 7ii, 7ii-t inheritance Jane Hill
Kitanemuk hak loan direction unknown Jane Hill
Lake Miwok li/law- unknown Jane Hill
Luiseño ya- inheritance Jane Hill
Maidu ma/\j unknown Jane Hill
Mojave i'ii=, i= inheritance Jane Hill
Mutsun kuwa, ko:- “to say” unknown O77:203 Jane Hill
Nisenan ha-, inheritance Jane Hill
Northern Paiute yni “say” inheritance SAA 1982:64 Jane Hill
Northern Sierra Miwok kac:yksy- inheritance Jane Hill
Plains Miwok kac:y- inheritance Jane Hill
Salinan A *ho'yi7 (A) “say” unknown Jane Hill
Salinan M he/k'a' 'tell, say' unknown Mason 1918:140 Jane Hill
Seri (Comcaac) quee unknown Jane Hill
Serrano qy-i inheritance Jane Hill
Southern Paiute ai-S “to say, to make a sound” inheritance Jane Hill
Southern Sierra Miwok kac:- inheritance Jane Hill
Southern Ute mai, maa, maikH inheritance Jane Hill
Tübatulabal ky-t inheritance Jane Hill
Tümpisa Shoshone jykwi” inheritance Jane Hill
Wappo ca/u:si7 unknown Jane Hill
Washo i/d unknown J309 Jane Hill
Western Mono inee- “say, tell” inheritance Jane Hill
Wintu ti:n “talk, say, scold” unknown Jane Hill
Yavapai ?i/ inheritance Jane Hill
Yokuts Palewyami xai-si “talk” K 1963 inheritance K1963 Jane Hill
Yokuts Yawdanchi wid 253 inheritance K07:253 Jane Hill
Yokuts Yowlumne wiye:, wiyi inheritance N1944:31, N1964 Jane Hill
Yuki 7i:m, 7e:m inheritance S&S 1984 Jane Hill
Yuma a7i/, a7e “to say” H2:150 a7i:m “he says” inheritance Jane Hill
Carijona ka (M2000) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
Cubeo a-'jɨ́- a-'jɨ́- inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely; Tanja Baeuerlein
Dâw nãà nã̂ inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
Desano ã'rĩ́- ã'rĩ́- inheritance See Language page Ana Paula; Tanja Baeuerlein
Hodï ũtɨ missing See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez
Waorani ã missing See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez, PLE
Hup nɔ- ~dɔ- inheritance See Language page Pattie Epps
Kakua nih doubtful loan (into proto-language?) Tukanoan, e.g. Tukano nii 'say'; see also Quechua See Language page Katherine Bolaños
Nheengatu yẽ'ẽ jẽʔẽ inheritance See Language page John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
Ninam inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
Nukak niih2 doubtful loan (into proto-language?) Tukanoan, e.g. Tukano nii 'say'; see also Quechua See Language page Lauren Franklin
Maihiki quɨayi, iyi, jɨcayi kɨaji, ĩji, xɨ̃kaji inheritance? See Language page Daniel Valle
Sanumá ku ku inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
Sikuani humáitsi, tsipáeba, -hái, al fin de la cita (at the end of a quote) inheritance See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, Rebecca Khorram, PLE
Tukano dĩ- dĩ- inheritance See Language page Ana Paula, Amanda Novak
Kotiria dĩ- dĩ- inheritance See Language page D. Jagannathan, Tanja Bauerlein
Yanomam ku ku inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
Yanomami kuu inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
Yukuna mí- mí- inheritance? See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
Yuhup ~dɔ inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
Arabana jeninta inheritance Claire Bowern
Bardi ar ar inheritance Claire Bowern
Bunuba ra, wurla unique Claire Bowern
Burarra wengga inheritance Claire Bowern
Dhangu wäŋa inheritance Claire Bowern
Dhuwal wanga_x001E_ Claire Bowern
Dhuwala ŋayawurkthun unknown Claire Bowern
Diyari jatanta unique Claire Bowern
DiyariREU [missing] missing Claire Bowern
Djambarrpuyngu [missing] missing Claire Bowern
Djapu wanga_x001E_ Claire Bowern
Djinang wangidji inheritance Claire Bowern
Gajirrabeng yirrg unique Claire Bowern
Gooniyandi jag- unique Claire Bowern
Gupapuyngu ŋayawurkthun inheritance Claire Bowern
Gurindji ma- inheritance Claire Bowern
Jabirr-Jabirr ma-djen ma-jen inheritance Claire Bowern
Jaru ma- inheritance Claire Bowern
Karajarri yintanpa (1) inheritance Claire Bowern
Kija jarrak unique Claire Bowern
Malyangapa [missing] missing Claire Bowern
Mangala marrarra!, marra- unknown Claire Bowern
Miriwung wurla loan Ngarinyin Claire Bowern
Mithaka paRingandakuli unique Claire Bowern
Mudburra yurr (ku-ya) Claire Bowern
Mudburra ma- inheritance Claire Bowern
Ngamini yata inheritance Claire Bowern
Ngandi yima inheritance Claire Bowern
Ngarluma wangka(-gu) Claire Bowern
Nhirrpi gawagawa unique Claire Bowern
Nimanburru ma-djen ma-jen inheritance Claire Bowern
Northern Mangarla mininy-pu Claire Bowern
Northern Nyangumarta wurrana- (V2) Claire Bowern
Nyangumarta muwarr Claire Bowern
Nyikina -I- -I- inheritance Claire Bowern
Nyulnyul mad@ian majan inheritance Claire Bowern
Paakantyi gulba- unique Claire Bowern
Pirriya thapaangu unique Claire Bowern
Pitta-Pitta tharupali inheritance Claire Bowern
Rirratjingu wa:ŋa Claire Bowern
Ritharrngu wanga inheritance Claire Bowern
Walmajarri ma- inheritance Claire Bowern
Wangkayutyuru tharupadi- inheritance Claire Bowern
Wubuy yama inheritance Claire Bowern
Yan-nhangu gumurk'thun inheritance Claire Bowern
Yandruwandha yandha, ngana inheritance Claire Bowern
Yarluyandi yani- inheritance Claire Bowern
Yawarrawarrka ngampari unique Claire Bowern
Yawuru ma-djon ma-jon inheritance Claire Bowern
Achagua máiri máiri inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
Piapoco íma íma See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
Kabiyari íma íma See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
Yavitero ma ma See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
Wapishana kʰia-n kʰia-n unknown See Language page Ana Paula B.
Wayuu maa See Language page PLE
Paresi nexa neʃa doubtful loan, direction unknown Je, cf. Suya See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
Ignaciano -kaʔe; -'iča; -metaka See Language page PLE
Trinitario -koʔe; -hičo See Language page PLE
Baure 'k-ičo k-itʃo inheritance See Language page Anissa Capuccino
Waurá um-; aakata um-; aakata inheritance?; unknown See Language page Joyce McCormick
Cha'palaa 'ti-nu; 'c̷an-'di-nu See Language page PLE Lit. 'so-say'.
Bora neé (T98) neé inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
Muinane néehi, jɨ́ɨ́béguehi (W97) néeʔi, xɨ́ɨ́bégueʔi See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
Akawaio ta ta unknown See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin
Apalai kary karɨ inheritance See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
Wayana ka ka inheritance See Language page PLE
Tiriyó ka ka inheritance See Language page Becky Walker
Waimiri Atroari kak kak See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
Kalapalo ki- ki- inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick
Muisca zegusqua tʂeγuskua See Language page Daniel Valle
Barí iibaḳan See Language page PLE Colombia: ʔaabəkaynə. *Chibchan forms are *'gua- and *'gi.
Northern Emberá ha'ra- (IDS) ha'ra- (IDS) See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, PLE
Epena hara- See Language page PLE
Guayabero hum-ˀáeʧ inheritance Proto-Guahiban See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
Macaguan ʧipép inheritance Central+Macaguan subgroup See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
Cuiva humíʧi, páeba, namchi, kueikuéihei decir, say Huber & Reed 1992:291 Rebecca Khorram
Playero na-ʧi-péba See Language page Rebecca Khorram
Cofán suye sɯjɛ See Language page Daniel Valle phonemic transcriptions are ESTIMATIONS
Candoshi-Shapra táamaama táamaama unique See Language page Daniel Valle
Páez cyã´jĩ- kyãxĩ- See Language page Daniel Valle
Tikuna i4na2chi2 (A58) inatʃi unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
Urarina ajto ajto unique See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
Camsa xajanána xajanána See Language page Daniel Valle, Anissa Capuchino
Andoke kǝ̃ kǝ̃ unique See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
Pumé See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
Ashuar títin titin See Language page Daniel Valle
Huambisa titasa, tamu, tuta titasa, tamu, tuta See Language page Daniel Valle
Aguaruna tút(a) tút(a) inheritance See Language page Daniel Valle
Nadëb/Roçado dialect nǝ:, nǝŋ inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
Matses que ke inheritance See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
Kakataibo ka-ti See Language page PLE [v.a.], ki-ti [v.n.] 'to say'. ɲui-ti 'to say, explain, relate, confess'. ɲoi- 'to say, speak'.
Katukina i- See Language page PLE
Shipibo-Konibo i̯; hue See Language page PLE
Yaminahua See Language page PLE
Chácobo i-; i-kina i-; i-kina inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick
Yagua htay htaj unique See Language page Daniel Valle
Southern Pastaza Quechua nina, rimana nina, ɾimana See Language page Daniel Valle
Ingá nii nii See Language page Daniel Valle
Napo Lowland Quichua rimana, nina ɾimana, nina See Language page Daniel Valle
Quechua Ayacuchano niy nij See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
Piaroa péɨh, pEɨ'ɨh, pEéɨh, pe'ɨh péɨh, pæɨɁɨh, pæéɨh, peɁɨh unknown See Language page Amanda Novak, Becky Walker
Sáliva ajajaha, pajajaha ahahaʔa, pahahaʔa unknown See Language page Becky Walker
Bará ĩ'ĭ́- See Language page Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein
Barasano ji- ji- See Language page D. Jagannathan, Tanja Baeuerlein
Carapana jĩ́ĩ́- jĩ́ĩ́- See Language page Amanda Novak, Tanja Baeuerlein
Makuna ji- ji- inheritance See Language page Amanda Novak, D. Jagannathan, Tanja Bauerlein
Yuruti íi- íi- See Language page Ana Paula; Tanja Baeuerlein
Waikhana dĩ- dĩ- See Language page Ana Paula; Tanja Baeuerlein
Siriano ãrĩ́-rí ãrĩ́-rí See Language page Ana Paula, Kelsey Neely
Tanimuca ãrĩ-ri-ka ãrĩ-ri-ka inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
Tatuyo iĩ- iĩ- See Language page Emily Buell, Paulina Franco
Tuyuka hĩ'ĩ́- hĩ'ĩ́- See Language page D. Jagannathan, Paulina Franco, Ana Paula B.
Waimaja ĩ'ĩ́- ĩ'ĩ́- See Language page Kelsey Neely
Koreguaje chiimʉ, i'kamʉ dʒiimʉ, iʔkamʉ inheritance See Language page Daniel Valle
Siona ka-hi, 'kɨa-hi ka-hi, 'kɨa-hi doubtful loan Carib, e.g. Carijona? See Language page Kelsey Neely
Secoya ka-je, 'kɨa-je ka-je, 'kɨa-je See Language page Amanda N
Kokama kumitsa kumitsa unique See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
Wayampi yoi-kĩ joi-kĩ inheritance See Language page PLE
Aché naʔã inheritance See Language page PLE
Chiriguano -e; -i inheritance See Language page PLE
Paraguayan Guaraní e; i; ǰe See Language page PLE
Sirionó po-; i̯; hueereko (P85) i̯; hue (P85) inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
Kamayurá ˀe ˀe inheritance See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
Ocaina uun, aan ɯ̃ɯ̃, ããn unknown See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
Wari tomiʔ šoʔ tomiʔ ʃoʔ See Language page PLE Means 'say correctly'.
Araona a See Language page PLE *Tacn form is *a-.
Ese Ejja po-a-; a-ka- inheritance See Language page PLE
Ese Ejja/Huarayo a-kwe, a-ka- (Girard 1971); po-a- (Girard 1971) a-kwe, a-ka-; po-a- See Language page Joyce McCormick
Cavineña a-ya; kʷeha-ya (a-ya also means "to do" or "to make") a-ya; kʷeha-ya inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
Central Aymara saña sa-ɲa See Language page PLE
Cayuvava a-bæ ~ βæ; βei; dɔ See Language page PLE
Itonama o-sine See Language page PLE
Kwazá ute-, ta-, jã- ute-, ta-, jã- See Language page Joyce McCormick
Mosetén-Chimané he'yaki See Language page Joyce McCormick, PLE
Movima han-kʷa han-kʷa See Language page Anissa Capuccino, Becky Walker
Trumai (ha) ami (ha) ami unique See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
Kaingang tò, he, ke tɔ; he; ke See Language page PLE
Canela -hõm-pu; pu-pun See Language page PLE *Jê form is *-mu; *muɲ.
Suyá neĵ neĵ See Language page Rebekah Evans
Djeoromitxi hubä hubǝ See Language page PLE
Chipaya kʰi- See Language page PLE
Mocoví y-aʔʁat See Language page PLE
Pilagá y-ʔaʁat; ʔ-en-aak See Language page PLE
Toba i-ʔaʁat See Language page PLE
Lengua #NAME? See Language page PLE
Sanapaná/Dialect Angaité aptahak; antahak See Language page PLE
Sanapaná/Dialect Enlhet nenɬaanma; nentemeem See Language page PLE
Wichí Lhamtés Güisnay i-hʷeɬ See Language page PLE Also yo'mey.
Chorote, Iyojwa'ja -wokitee ~ -yokitee See Language page PLE
Maca #NAME? See Language page PLE
Nivaclé -tˀeš say https://ids.clld.org/ PLE
Ayoreo ikate'karẽʔ; ikate'karĩ See Language page PLE
Mapudungun feypi See Language page PLE Ranquel form is pi-.
Qawasqar ese-tel See Language page PLE Also Ag records ase-lay.
Selknam yer; ʔàr See Language page PLE
Tehuelche 'ey-; 'aʔla- See Language page PLE The latter refers to a taboo prohibition.
Lokono akan akan say Pet 1987:370 Camille Unger
Kariña ka ka say Yamada 2010:745 Camille Unger