white

Semantic Field
colour
Part of Speech
Meaning Spanish
blanco
Meaning Portuguese
branco

Languages

Language Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Etymology Notes Source Created By General Notes
Bankalachi Toloim po'-so/soo-pul' 219 unknown Jane Hill
Big Smokey Valley Shoshone tosa” inheritance Jane Hill
Cahuilla tevish-nek inheritance S&H 1979 Jane Hill
Central Sierra Miwok kele/l:-i- inheritance Jane Hill
Chemehuevi tosa/ga- V inheritance Jane Hill
Chumash Barbareno 7ow'ow inheritance Ono 1996:45 Jane Hill
Chumash Cruzeno 7alapipiw “es blanco” unknown JPH Jane Hill
Chumash Ineseno 7ow'ow “to be white” inheritance A 260 Jane Hill
Chumash Obispeno q'ele7 unknown JPH Jane Hill
Chumash Ventureno -7owow "to be white" unknown Harrington 1974:3 Jane Hill
Cocopa xma:Ly inheritance Jane Hill
Comanche tosa-, tosapI inheritance Jane Hill
Cupeño xwayaxwene-t [xʷayəxʷənət] inheritance Jane Hill
Esselen helel- , hele/l-ki unknown Henshaw in Shaul 1995:214, 219 Jane Hill
Gabrielino rawro:7 unknown Jane Hill
Iipay 'Aa nemeshap [n̯əməˈşap] inheritance Jane Hill
Kawaiisu see-gi- “to be white” loan Jane Hill
Kiliwa (kW)-m7sap inheritance Jane Hill
Kitanemuk 7ayak unknown Jane Hill
Lake Miwok ceTa/aw, ciTa/aw unknown Jane Hill
Luiseño xwaya- (to be) inheritance Jane Hill
Maidu da/lda\l unknown Jane Hill
Mojave nyamasav= inheritance Jane Hill
Mutsun chupka “is white” unknown O77:81, 211 Jane Hill
Nisenan kow “silvery white” inheritance Jane Hill
Northern Paiute toha- inheritance Thornes 03:215 Jane Hill
Northern Sierra Miwok kelel:i- inheritance Jane Hill
Plains Miwok putu7tu inheritance Jane Hill
Salinan A mA/ThaL (A), unknown Jane Hill
Salinan M mA'THa:L unknown Mason 1918:150 Jane Hill
Seri (Comcaac) cooxp unknown Jane Hill
Serrano jara:7- unknown Jane Hill
Southern Paiute toc:a-G,S inheritance Jane Hill
Southern Sierra Miwok pasas-:i- unknown Jane Hill
Southern Ute sa-, sa/g'arY loan direction unknown Jane Hill
Tübatulabal pooshy-t (be...) unknown Jane Hill
Tümpisa Shoshone tosapi(tyn) inheritance Jane Hill
Wappo k'ay'el loan direction unknown Jane Hill
Washo da:l-po\poi unknown K312 Jane Hill
Western Mono tutsidaagi- inheritance Jane Hill
Wintu xa:ja inheritance? Jane Hill
Yavapai sa/va, (ny)msa/vi (related to “silver” word wi\:nymsa_va) inheritance Jane Hill
Yokuts Palewyami Teunga(n) unique K 1963 Jane Hill
Yokuts Yawdanchi tcodod inheritance K07:244 Jane Hill
Yokuts Yowlumne c'olo:l- inheritance N 1944 108 Jane Hill
Yuki ch'a:l, ch'al loan direction unknown S&S 1984 Jane Hill
Yuma xama:ly “to be white” H4:20 inheritance Jane Hill
Baniwa háale háaɺe inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
Carijona tamutune inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
Cubeo boco, miacó (f.), bocʉ (m.), borõ (inan.), miacʉ́ (m.), miaró (inan.) boko, miakó (f.), bokɨ (m.), borõ (inan.), miakɨ́ (m.), miaró (inan.) inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely; Tanja Baeuerlein
Dâw rôò hô inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
Desano boreri boreri inheritance See Language page Ana Paula; Tanja Baeuerlein
Eñepa tamuʔɲe tamuʔɲe inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross
Hodï ʰkʸato unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez
Waorani dãbæ̃-ta unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez, PLE
Hup tohó tohó inheritance See Language page Pattie Epps
Kakua bǎb-[be.white-] unique See Language page Katherine Bolaños
Makushi áímutun áímutun inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross
Nheengatu murutinga muɾutiŋga inheritance See Language page John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
Ninam šĩe, rišiši (EM72) ʃ̌ĩe, ɾiʃiʃi unique See Language page Kelsey Neely
Nukak pat∫e3waʔ4 unique See Language page Lauren Franklin
Maihiki bo- (it is a prefix inseparable) bo inheritance See Language page Daniel Valle
Pemon aimu-tun, choramu-nan (A1981); aimuuknang (E1980); aimutun (M2000) aimutun, tʃoɾamunan (A1981); aɪmuknaŋ (E1980); aimu'tuŋ (M2000) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
Resígaro hefíí? hefííʔ unknown See Language page Ana Paula B.
Sanumá au, ausi (both EM72) au, ausi (both EM72) inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
Sikuani niopona, ɸobia ['pale'] inheritance Sik-Cuiva-Playero group See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, Rebecca Khorram, PLE
Tariana halíte 'branco, transparente; cedo' halíte 'branco, transparente; cedo' inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
Tukano butisé butisé inheritance E Tuk See Language page Ana Paula, Amanda Novak
Kotiria yehsera jehseɾa unique cognate Piratapuyo See Language page D. Jagannathan, Tanja Bauerlein
Yanomam au, aɨ (both EM72) au, aɨ inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
Yanomami au, auši (EM72) au, auʃi inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
Yukuna kameni kameni unknown See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
Yuhup tohoh tohoh inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
Arabana waru inheritance Claire Bowern
Bardi bulgar bulkar inheritance Claire Bowern
Bunuba nginangara unknown Claire Bowern
Burarra -gungarlcha unknown Claire Bowern
Dhangu gapaṉ unknown Claire Bowern
Dhuwal watharr inheritance Claire Bowern
Dhuwala watharr inheritance Claire Bowern
Diyari warru inheritance Claire Bowern
DiyariREU waru inheritance Claire Bowern
Djambarrpuyngu watharr inheritance Claire Bowern
Djapu watharr inheritance Claire Bowern
Djinang bardjining unknown Claire Bowern
Gajirrabeng bilgirri-mawoong unique Claire Bowern
Gooniyandi labawoo doubtful loan Claire Bowern
Gupapuyngu watharr inheritance Claire Bowern
Gurindji waki loan Miriwung Claire Bowern
Jaru labawu inheritance Claire Bowern
Karajarri lali inheritance Claire Bowern
Kija ngelyak-pe unique Claire Bowern
Malyangapa Mal: patjarka unique Claire Bowern
Mangala la:li inheritance Claire Bowern
Miriwung thambalgbeng unique Claire Bowern
Mithaka warruputha inheritance Claire Bowern
Mudburra liwakarra Claire Bowern
Mudburra liwakbari unique Claire Bowern
Ngamini purlu unique Claire Bowern
Ngandi barwitj unique Claire Bowern
Ngarluma mirdamirda Claire Bowern
Ngumbarl karrmul <karrmul> unique Claire Bowern
Nhirrpi [missing] missing Claire Bowern
Northern Mangarla [missing] missing Claire Bowern
Northern Nyangumarta lali inheritance Claire Bowern
Nyangumarta mirta-mirta unknown Claire Bowern
Nyikina dub dub inheritance Claire Bowern
Nyulnyul bulgar bulkar inheritance Claire Bowern
Paakantyi goba Claire Bowern
Pirriya [missing] missing Claire Bowern
Pitta-Pitta warrhaputha inheritance Claire Bowern
Rirratjingu gaywaraŋu, watharr Claire Bowern
Ritharrngu mirlitj unique Claire Bowern
Walmajarri parpjarti inheritance Claire Bowern
Wangkayutyuru warru inheritance Claire Bowern
Warrwa dubgaya; dub dubkaya; dub inheritance Claire Bowern
Wubuy ngal-ngalngalu-j unique Claire Bowern
Yan-nhangu biriyanaraŋu loan English Claire Bowern
Yandruwandha parlu unique Claire Bowern
Yarluyandi [missing] missing Claire Bowern
Yawarrawarrka waru inheritance Claire Bowern
Yawuru dub7 dub7 inheritance Claire Bowern
Achagua kabálai kabálai inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
Piapoco cabalèeri kabalèeɾi See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
Kabiyari katare:i-ri, jarane katare:i-ri, jarane See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
Yavitero ka'haľi-hi ka'haľi-hi See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
Bare baɻi baɻi See Language page Ana Paula B.
Wapishana ˀbarakʰa-ʔu ˀbarakʰa-ʔu unknown See Language page Ana Paula B.
Wayuu kasu-to-ľu; kasu-wou-ľu See Language page PLE
Yine kľata See Language page PLE
Paresi iyomere, malohi ijomere, malohi unique See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
Ignaciano tihapu See Language page PLE
Trinitario #NAME? See Language page PLE
Baure kotipo'pin kotipo'pin inheritance See Language page Anissa Capuccino
Waurá kisuwa kisuwa inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick
Arutani araway (morphologically complex?) aɾaway (morphologically complex?) See Language page John Blaha
Sape sae sae See Language page John Blaha
Cha'palaa 'Φi'ba-ba See Language page PLE
Bora tsʰɨ́sʰɨɨ-ne, tsʰɨtsʰɨ tsʰɨ́sʰɨɨ-nɛ, tsʰɨtsʰɨ inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
Muinane séséé-ne sέsέέ-nɛ See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
Akawaio aimuuknang aɪmuʔnaŋ inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin
Apalai karimutumano karimutumano inheritance See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
Wayana tïkoloke tɨkoloke inheritance See Language page PLE
Tiriyó tïkorooje tɨkorooje inheritance See Language page Becky Walker
Makiritare təʔkeʔne (IDS); tö'ke'ne, tö'kena:to (KH) təʔkeʔne, təʔkena:to inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
Mapoyo tarimu'ne tarimu'ne See Language page Melody Ann Ross
Wai Wai tu-mut-we tu-mut-we inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross
Waimiri Atroari sakra sakra See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
Yabarana kara'sakimu, susuh'pano See Language page Ana Paula B., John Blaha
Yukpa prampa kests̺e See Language page Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross
Kalapalo talakiñe talakiñe inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick
Muisca pquyhiso pkɨhiso See Language page Daniel Valle
Barí bačii; bačiini See Language page PLE Colombia: 'bahčirə. *Chibchan form is *buLu.
Northern Emberá thoorró thoːrró See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, PLE
Epena tʰo'r̃oo See Language page PLE
Guayabero pa-póe-jax inheritance Proto-Guahiban See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
Macaguan pe-pobiha inheritance Proto-Guahiban See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
Cofán totoa totoa See Language page Daniel Valle phonemic transcriptions are ESTIMATIONS
Candoshi-Shapra boorshi mpooɾʃi unique See Language page Daniel Valle
Taushiro ha´anta haʔanta See Language page Daniel Valle
Páez chime tʃime See Language page Daniel Valle
Tikuna comũx [1, 5] komɨ̃ʔ unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
Urarina somahaj somahaj unique See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
Camsa bxántse bxántse See Language page Daniel Valle, Anissa Capuchino
Andoke po'te, pó- poʔte, pó- unique See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
Pumé bȩrȩbȩrȩá See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
Puinave #NAME? #NAME? unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
Máku kaləmate kaləmate See Language page PLE
Warao hoko (any shade of light color) hoko (any shade of light coloɾ) See Language page John Blaha
Ashuar púju, sháaram puxu, ʃa:ram See Language page Daniel Valle
Huambisa puju puxu See Language page Daniel Valle
Aguaruna chamíg tʃamíng inheritance See Language page Daniel Valle
Nadëb/Roçado dialect hawak unique See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
Nadëb/Rio Negro dialect hawak See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
Matses ushu uʃu inheritance See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
Kakataibo oṣ̌o See Language page PLE *Panoan *oṣ̌o.
Katukina hošo- See Language page PLE
Pacahuara 'hoṣ̌o See Language page PLE d'Orb ošo.
Shipibo-Konibo hoṣ̌o See Language page PLE
Yaminahua oṣ̌o See Language page PLE
Chácobo hoṣ̌o hoṣ̌o inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick
Yagua japaru- xaparu unique See Language page Daniel Valle
Southern Pastaza Quechua yura juɾa See Language page Daniel Valle
Ingá iura, lanku (Spanish loan) iura, lanku (Spaniʃ loan) See Language page Daniel Valle
Napo Lowland Quichua ruyaj ɾujax See Language page Daniel Valle
Quechua Ayacuchano yuraq yuɾaq See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
Piaroa tea'a teaʔa inheritance See Language page Amanda Novak, Becky Walker
Sáliva dea dea inheritance See Language page Becky Walker
Bará bu'ti See Language page Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein
Barasano boti-se boti-se See Language page D. Jagannathan, Tanja Baeuerlein
Carapana botirije bɔtiɾixɛ See Language page Amanda Novak, Tanja Baeuerlein
Makuna boti-rise boti-rise inheritance See Language page Amanda Novak, D. Jagannathan, Tanja Bauerlein
Yuruti bóti bóti See Language page Ana Paula; Tanja Baeuerlein
Waikhana jeʔ'se-ri jeʔ'se-ri See Language page Ana Paula; Tanja Baeuerlein
Tanimuca bo'ia; bo'ia i'taka bo'ia; bo'ia i'taka inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
Tatuyo bo'tí- bo'tí- See Language page Emily Buell, Paulina Franco
Tuyuka bu'ti buʔti See Language page D. Jagannathan, Paulina Franco, Ana Paula B.
Waimaja botʰíři botʰíri See Language page Kelsey Neely
Siona po; pohei-hi po; pohei-hi inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
Secoya poja'ico po'haʔikɔ See Language page Amanda N
Karitiana pok pok unknown See Language page Daniel Valle
Kokama tini (to be white) tini inheritance See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
Wayampi sĩ; yu sĩ; ju inheritance; unique See Language page PLE
Aché iǰu inheritance See Language page PLE
Chiriguano tĩi inheritance See Language page PLE
Paraguayan Guaraní morotĩ See Language page PLE
Sirionó ešĩ ešĩ inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
Kamayurá tsiŋ̟̟̟ tsiŋ̟̟̟ inheritance See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
Ocaina furááñ̵a ɸɯrã́ã́ɲa unique See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
Nɨpode Witoto úte-re-de útɛ-rɛ-dɛ See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
Minica Witoto úθe-re-de úθɛ-rɛ-dɛ See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
Murui Witoto uθe-re-de uθɛ-rɛ-dɛ inheritance/Witotoan See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
Iquito musútina musútina inheritance See Language page Cynthia Hansen
Záparo ushicha uʃiʧa See Language page Becky Walker
Wari towoʔ towoʔ See Language page PLE
Araona amae; apaha See Language page PLE *Tacn form is *paśa-.
Ese Ejja #NAME? loan Panoan See Language page PLE
Ese Ejja/Huarayo oše oše See Language page Joyce McCormick
Tacana pasa-ne See Language page PLE
Cavineña paha-da; paha-ya (G71) paha-da; paha-ya (G71) inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
Central Aymara janq´o xanḳˀu See Language page PLE
Cayuvava pa'boreha; ya'boreha; ra-bore See Language page PLE
Itonama rapɨhna See Language page PLE
Kwazá ha?ỹ-, hakuty- ha?ỹ-, hakuty- See Language page Joyce McCormick
Mosetén-Chimané haiʔ'batč; haiʔ'bas See Language page Joyce McCormick, PLE
Movima ta-βoh ta-βoh See Language page Anissa Capuccino, Becky Walker
Trumai tsi-tore tsi-tore unique See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
Kaingang kupri kupri See Language page PLE
Canela ĩĩ-prõ See Language page PLE *Jê form is *prõ.
Karajá ura See Language page PLE
Djeoromitxi känõrü kǝnõrø See Language page PLE
Chipaya čiwi See Language page PLE
Mocoví y-alagaḳ See Language page PLE Also l-alagaʁ-aik, 'prefix-white-adj (masc)'.
Pilagá y-apagaḳ See Language page PLE
Toba y-apagaḳ; l-apagaʁ-aik See Language page PLE
Lengua #NAME? See Language page PLE
Sanapaná/Dialect Angaité #NAME? See Language page PLE
Sanapaná/Dialect Enlhet akmopoyˀ; pak See Language page PLE
Wichí Lhamtés Güisnay pe'lah See Language page PLE
Chorote, Iyojwa'ja lemiʔ See Language page PLE
Maca foʔ See Language page PLE Cf. 'meal, flour' 05.550.
Nivaclé klim white https://ids.clld.org/ PLE
Ayoreo 'pororo-i; 'pororo See Language page PLE
Mapudungun liɣ See Language page PLE Ranquel form is pɨlan.
Qawasqar aḳyefḳyar See Language page PLE SpC records ekefkar; Sk, Bo, SpC record yekapeskar for Central QWS. Fi, Hy, SpS record akefkar for South QWS.
Selknam ṣòʔl See Language page PLE
Tehuelche 'or- See Language page PLE
Lokono halhiran haɽiɾan white Pet 1987:377 Camille Unger
Kariña tamune tamune white Yamada 2010:808 Camille Unger