bad

Semantic Field
quality
Part of Speech
Meaning Spanish
mal
Meaning Portuguese
mal

Languages

Language Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Etymology Notes Source Created By General Notes
Bankalachi Toloim tŭs, tĭs 179 inheritance Jane Hill
Big Smokey Valley Shoshone acai” inheritance Jane Hill
Cahuilla ele/le-ma loan direction unknown S&H 1979 Jane Hill
Central Sierra Miwok 7ysh:y- loan Jane Hill
Chemehuevi yvy-j inheritance Jane Hill
Chumash Barbareno xinch'i unknown Ono 1996:71 Jane Hill
Chumash Cruzeno 7anisnemsh unknown JPH Jane Hill
Chumash Ineseno s-7axymyk' “to be bad” loan direction unknown A 219 Jane Hill
Chumash Obispeno ts'u7i/sy7 “el mal”, ts'u7isy “mal” unknown JPH Jane Hill
Chumash Ventureno muschum unknown JPH Jane Hill
Cocopa xcaq, xca:q “to be” unknown Jane Hill
Comanche aity inheritance Jane Hill
Cupeño 'elel'i-sh [ɁəlˈəlɁɪʃ] loan direction unknown Jane Hill
Esselen pach- (Doc 19) unknown Shaul 1995:219 Jane Hill
Gabrielino moha:y “malo”; pl. momo:hem unknown Jane Hill
Iipay 'Aa wellich [wəˈɫɪtʃ] unknown Jane Hill
Kawaiisu 7ataa- loan direction unknown Jane Hill
Kiliwa h-u7-luuy, h-u7-luy-u unknown Jane Hill
Kitanemuk kysha7 loan direction unknown Jane Hill
Lake Miwok 7o/bu “to be bad” inheritance Jane Hill
Luiseño 7ala/xwi- “to be bad” loan direction unknown Jane Hill
Maidu wasa/ loan direction unknown Jane Hill
Mojave 7alay= “be bad, be ugly”, loan direction unknown Munro et al. 1992 Jane Hill
Mutsun 7ekeT-tak “in badness”;7ekTe to be evil, bad unknown O77:81, 211 Jane Hill
Nisenan 7os loan direction unknown Jane Hill
Northern Paiute syta “bad, badly” unknown Thornes 03:200 Jane Hill
Northern Sierra Miwok saj:e- inheritance Jane Hill
Plains Miwok saj:e- inheritance Jane Hill
Salinan A (k)e/sene7 (A) loan direction unknown Jane Hill
Salinan M missing missing Jane Hill
Seri (Comcaac) cmiipla unknown Jane Hill
Serrano kYSa:7 loan Jane Hill
Southern Paiute yvy-g e.g. yvy-pa: “bad-water, whiskey” inheritance Jane Hill
Southern Sierra Miwok 7yh:yTy- loan direction unknown Jane Hill
Southern Ute yvyy-, yvyypyni, yvyypuni inheritance Jane Hill
Tübatulabal tysh, tyshwa-n inheritance Jane Hill
Tümpisa Shoshone kee tsawih inheritance Jane Hill
Wappo 7u/wa loan direction unknown Jane Hill
Washo 7nu/k'ubi unknown J 117 Jane Hill
Western Mono azaani-tU “bad”; inheritance Jane Hill
Wintu c'Epkal inheritance Jane Hill
Yavapai ?la/ loan direction unknown Jane Hill
Yokuts Palewyami tiT'ipis, inheritance Gamble 1991 Jane Hill
Yokuts Yawdanchi toTHe inheritance K07:244,G64 Jane Hill
Yokuts Yowlumne toT'i7 inheritance Golla 1964 Jane Hill
Yuki ka7ach'am inheritance S&S1984 Jane Hill
Yuma 7ala:/yk “it is bad” loan direction unknown Jane Hill
Arabana kurlu-kurlu unique Claire Bowern
Bardi aleg alik inheritance Claire Bowern
Bunuba [missing] missing Claire Bowern
Burarra -nerra unknown Claire Bowern
Dhangu biḏila doubtful loan Claire Bowern
Dhuwal yätj Claire Bowern
Dhuwala biḏila unknown Claire Bowern
Diyari malhanytyi inheritance Claire Bowern
DiyariREU madlanti inheritance Claire Bowern
Djambarrpuyngu 1850 inheritance Claire Bowern
Djapu yätj inheritance Claire Bowern
Djinang mirgi inheritance Claire Bowern
Gajirrabeng gerlbegang unique NJ Claire Bowern
Gooniyandi yijgawoo Claire Bowern
Gupapuyngu biḏila unknown Claire Bowern
Gurindji wankaj unique Claire Bowern
Jabirr-Jabirr rib rib inheritance Claire Bowern
Jaru marnany unique Claire Bowern
Jawi logal lukal inheritance Claire Bowern
Karajarri jati unknown Claire Bowern
Kija yilkuwurru unique NJ Claire Bowern
Malyangapa wanju inheritance Claire Bowern
Mangala yakurr inheritance Claire Bowern
Miriwung gelga- unique NJ Claire Bowern
Mithaka tirra inheritance Claire Bowern
Mudburra wangi doubtful loan Claire Bowern
Mudburra wangi doubtful loan Claire Bowern
Ngamini mana inheritance Claire Bowern
Ngarluma walyga Claire Bowern
Ngumbarl lalgar <lalgar> semantic shift Claire Bowern
Nhirrpi malandyi inheritance Claire Bowern
Nimanburru rēb riib inheritance Claire Bowern
Northern Mangarla yakurr Claire Bowern
Northern Nyangumarta kurlujartiny inheritance Claire Bowern
Nyangumarta kurlu inheritance Claire Bowern
Nyikina yakoorr yakurr unknown Claire Bowern
Nyulnyul reb rreb inheritance Claire Bowern
Paakantyi boolagalli unique Claire Bowern
Pirriya mungany unique Claire Bowern
Pitta-Pitta thawinya unique Claire Bowern
Rirratjingu maḻiku Claire Bowern
Ritharrngu wakin semantic shift Claire Bowern
Walmajarri ngarla unknown Claire Bowern
Wangkayutyuru manha inheritance Claire Bowern
Warrwa girwa kirwa unknown Claire Bowern
Yan-nhangu mewal inheritance Claire Bowern
Yandruwandha madlandji inheritance Claire Bowern
Yarluyandi mana, var madna inheritance Claire Bowern
Yawarrawarrka marki loan Arabana Claire Bowern
Yawuru buka buka unknown Claire Bowern
Achagua máaʃi máaʃi inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
Piapoco báawéeri bá:wé:ɾi See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
Yukuna chapú tʃapú unknown See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
Resígaro matshíva?nú?́ matsʰívaʔnúʔ inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
Kabiyari tʃíʔka tʃíʔka See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
Yavitero kuľusi kuľusi See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
Bare maphau mapʰau See Language page Ana Paula B.
Wapishana idikʰaɨda idikʰaɨda inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
Wayuu mohu-su See Language page PLE
Paresi iniyalahare inijalahare inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
Ignaciano 'wainarahikene See Language page PLE
Trinitario faxden falen; ae-tak See Language page PLE
Baure me'hewokon me'hewokon unknown See Language page Anissa Capuccino
Waurá pɨnaya; -itʸaki (latter is a modifier) pɨnaja; -itʸaki unknown See Language page Joyce McCormick
Cha'palaa ['Φaasu] See Language page PLE From Span. 'falso'.
Bora ími-tʰyḯ-ne, ímí-tʰʸḯḯ-pekʰe ími-tʰjɯ́-nɛ, ímí-tʰʲɯ́ɯ́-pɛkʰɛ inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
Muinane ími-tɨ-no ími-tɨ-no See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
Akawaio örii öri unique See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin
Wayana etumhakë etumhakǝ unique See Language page PLE
Carijona kurake unique See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
Tiriyó (wï)rïpë wɨrɨpǝ (related to pejorative suffix -rɨpɨ) inheritance See Language page Becky Walker
Eñepa arʸɨpɨ-pe arjɨpɨ-pe inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross
Makiritare kənemhɨnɨ (IDS) (Noun form; verbal form is koneʔda); kone'da (KH) (means 'bad, evil'), konemhünü (KH) kənemhɨnɨ (IDS); koneʔda (KH), konemhɨnɨ (KH) unique See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
Makushi imakuiʔpɨ (IDS) imakuiʔpɨ (IDS) unique See Language page Melody Ann Ross
Mapoyo sekupïnï (sekuru ?) sekupʊnʊ (sekuru ?) See Language page Melody Ann Ross
Pemon auwakrö (E1980) aʊwaʔrö (E1980) unique See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
Wai Wai kičičme kičičme unique See Language page Melody Ann Ross
Waimiri Atroari kwada kwada See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
Yabarana no'pehera See Language page Ana Paula B., John Blaha
Yukpa waye (SM) waye (SM) See Language page Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross
Muisca achuenza aʂuentʂa See Language page Daniel Valle
Barí arongbɨšini; atraḳaari See Language page PLE Colombia: ʔatərə'karirə.
Northern Emberá kadrɨ̃́a kadrɨ̃́a See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, PLE
Epena kʰa'čia See Language page PLE
Guayabero pa-béh ('cosa mala, que no sirve' - 'bad thing, no good') inheritance Proto-Guahiban See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
Macaguan abé inheritance Proto-Guahiban See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
Sikuani abéhe, bijatja (2) abéhe, bijátja inheritance See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, Rebecca Khorram, PLE
Cuiva á-be malo, bad Huber & Reed 1992:225 Rebecca Khorram
Playero a-béhe See Language page Rebecca Khorram
Cofán egae, ega'o ɛɣaʔo See Language page Daniel Valle phonemic transcriptions are ESTIMATIONS
Candoshi-Shapra yóotarĩita jóotaɾĩita unique See Language page Daniel Valle
Taushiro ya'cantu (worthless) jaʔkantu See Language page Daniel Valle
Páez ewmée See Language page Daniel Valle
Tikuna tʃiʔekɯmã unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
Urarina baaso ba:so See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
Camsa baká, bákna sóje baká, bákna sóje See Language page Daniel Valle, Anissa Capuchino
Andoke pihikhkoowa (RW52) See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
Waorani wẽdæ wẽdæ unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez, PLE
Hodï yã-hai; yã-hã doubtful loan E Tukanoan, e.g. Bara jã'jã See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez
Pumé čʰa-ĩ-dɛ ('not good'?) See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
Puinave #NAME? #NAME? unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
Warao asa asa See Language page John Blaha
Ashuar pasé, nápchau pasɯ, napʧau See Language page Daniel Valle
Huambisa pegkerchau peŋkertʃau See Language page Daniel Valle
Aguaruna pégkechau, yájau pɨngkɨtʃau, jáxau inheritance See Language page Daniel Valle
Nukak jee3 inheritance See Language page Lauren Franklin
Kakua jehěp inheritance See Language page Katherine Bolaños
Hup páy páj unique See Language page Pattie Epps
Yuhup tæ̃hæ̃ ~tæhæ See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
Dâw kas kas unique See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
Nadëb/Roçado dialect ʃo̰:, na-ʃa: do:, na-ʃa̰: ni unique See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
Matses icsa iksa inheritance See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
Kakataibo ʔaisama See Language page PLE ɲu'sima 'bad, not understood'.
Katukina ičṣ̌a-pa See Language page PLE
Yaminahua čʰa-ĩ-dɛ See Language page PLE
Chácobo kaṣ̌aṣ̌ɨni kaṣ̌aṣ̌ɨni unknown See Language page Joyce McCormick
Yagua javityurya xawitjurja unique See Language page Daniel Valle
Ingá millai miʎai See Language page Daniel Valle
Napo Lowland Quichua paju paxu See Language page Daniel Valle
Quechua Ayacuchano mana-allin 'not good' (CP94) mana-aʎin 'not good' See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
Piaroa suropa sũɾ̃ɔphã unknown See Language page Amanda Novak, Becky Walker
Sáliva balladi badʒadi unknown See Language page Becky Walker
Bará jã'jã́ See Language page Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein
Barasano baise, bɨose; roakɨo-se, roho-se baise, bɨose; roakɨo-se, roho-se See Language page D. Jagannathan, Tanja Baeuerlein
Cubeo ãmeco (f.), ãmecʉ (m.), ãmeno (inan.) ãmɛko (f.), ãmɛkɨ (m.), ãmɛno (inan.) unique See Language page Kelsey Neely; Tanja Baeuerlein
Carapana ñuetaje, cañueto (inanimate) ɲuɛtaxɛ, kaɲuɛtɔ (inanimate) See Language page Amanda Novak, Tanja Baeuerlein
Desano ñero ñero inheritance See Language page Ana Paula; Tanja Baeuerlein
Kotiria be bad: ~ya ɲã inheritance E Tuk See Language page D. Jagannathan, Tanja Bauerlein
Makuna bɨo-rise, ~jeja-rise bɨo-rise, ~jeja-rise unknown See Language page Amanda Novak, D. Jagannathan, Tanja Bauerlein
Yuruti jũẽ jũẽ See Language page Ana Paula; Tanja Baeuerlein
Waikhana jã-rĩ jã-rĩ See Language page Ana Paula; Tanja Baeuerlein
Tanimuca ba'i 'ka ba'i 'ka unique See Language page Kelsey Neely
Tatuyo jũu-'kẽẽ ró- jũu-'kẽẽ ró- See Language page Emily Buell, Paulina Franco
Tukano ña' asé ña' asé, jãʔâro (bad/evil) inheritance E Tuk See Language page Ana Paula, Amanda Novak
Tuyuka yã'yã jãʔjã See Language page D. Jagannathan, Paulina Franco, Ana Paula B.
Waimaja jã́'jã́-ri-he, jã́'jã́(-ro) jã́'jã́-ri-he, jã́'jã́(-ro) See Language page Kelsey Neely
Maihiki ua ja ua xã inheritance See Language page Daniel Valle
Siona kˀuʔahi kˀuʔahi inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
Secoya co'aji koʔ'ahi See Language page Amanda N
Nheengatu puxuwera puʃuwera unknown See Language page John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
Kokama aytse ajtse unknown See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
Wayampi ni-katu-i ni-katu-i inheritance See Language page PLE
Aché bučã unique See Language page PLE
Chiriguano katũ-a; kawĩ-a inheritance See Language page PLE
Paraguayan Guaraní ɲaɲa; aɲa See Language page PLE
Sirionó maða-da we; ate; eɨcuã, echarõ (P85) maða-da we; ate; eɨkuã, etʃarõ (P85) unknown See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
Ocaina úúra ɯ́ɯ́ra unique See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
Nɨpode Witoto pu.éni-da pu.έni-da See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
Minica Witoto ɸï.éni-de ɸɯ.έni-dɛ See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
Murui Witoto maraiñe-de maraiɲɛ-dɛ inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
Ninam wãlihiki, wãrihik wãlihiki, wãɾihik inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
Yanomam hošimi, manahikə hoʃimi, manahikə unique See Language page Kelsey Neely
Yanomami wãriti-wə, wãritiwə (EM72) wãɾiti-wə, wãɾitiwə inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
Sanumá wani wani inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
Iquito sɨ'ɨsana sɨ'ɨsana unknown See Language page Cynthia Hansen
Záparo ts+raniaka (malo) tsɨɾaniaka (malo) See Language page Becky Walker
Wari kayi kaji See Language page PLE Be badly made' is emʔ; 'do badly' is toʔ ara; širak.
Araona -isi; šili; masawe See Language page PLE
Ese Ejja kea-mase; kea-šoʔitai unique See Language page PLE
Ese Ejja/Huarayo kia-tai kia-tai See Language page Joyce McCormick
Tacana ḳawem; sa y-ayamaʁa-ɲi See Language page PLE
Cavineña hida-ma; hida-ma-ke; yo(ʔ)amo (hida-ma is literally "good negative"; (hida means good, -ma is negation, or no)) hida-ma; hida-ma-ke; yo(ʔ)amo unique See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
Central Aymara jan wali (jan=?; wali=good) ḳʰuru See Language page PLE
Cayuvava poreǰi See Language page PLE
Itonama okˀela; kˀelala See Language page PLE
Kwazá dotahỹ-, wãrẽdy dotahỹ-, wãrẽdy See Language page Joyce McCormick
Mosetén-Chimané ham 'hemdsi (f.) See Language page Joyce McCormick, PLE Lit. 'negative good'. 'Ugly' is aat'čis; 'mean, aggressive' is fa'koi; atčiyi.
Movima um-ɓe um-ɓe See Language page Anissa Capuccino, Becky Walker
Trumai faxden falen; ae-tak faxden falen; ae-tak unique See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
Kaingang kɔrɛŋ (IDS) kɔrɛŋ; Φe kɔrɛŋ; kɔriŋrɛŋ See Language page PLE
Karajá bina See Language page PLE
Djeoromitxi pipitxi pipitʃi See Language page PLE
Chipaya ana šuma See Language page PLE
Mocoví sḳa ʔmaʁa-raik See Language page PLE Means 'negative good'. Also se y-aʔmaʁa-ɲi, 'not 3p actor-good-down'.
Pilagá asonkoi See Language page PLE
Toba winarahi; mueperahi See Language page PLE
Lengua #NAME? See Language page PLE
Sanapaná/Dialect Angaité neŋmasom See Language page PLE
Sanapaná/Dialect Enlhet -koma; hakoma; mɨčo See Language page PLE Also rami; yoitima.
Wichí Lhamtés Güisnay 'kac̷iya See Language page PLE hʷi'c̷ah refers to a person really angry.
Chorote, Iyojwa'ja -fʷesye See Language page PLE
Maca uɬʔaχ See Language page PLE
Nivaclé sas; n-is-a bad https://ids.clld.org/ PLE
Ayoreo sii'n̥aa-i; siin̥aa-'ŋe See Language page PLE
Mapudungun weθa See Language page PLE Ranquel form is weða.
Qawasqar asar See Language page PLE Sk, Bo, Fe record c̷eɬaper for Central QWS.
Selknam ʔaymer See Language page PLE
Tehuelche 'gānknk; 'eʔnk; 'tˀer-; 'tˀero- See Language page PLE Also 'šeh 'tˀero-, bad character/ disposition; and 'ket 'tˀero-, bad behavior.
Lokono wakhajan wakʰajan bad Pet 1987:350 Camille Unger
Kariña ja'wame jaʔwame bad Yamada 2010:744 Camille Unger