bark

Semantic Field
environment
Part of Speech
Meaning Spanish
corteza
Meaning Portuguese
casca

Languages

Language Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Etymology Notes Source Created By General Notes
Baniwa -ya -ja inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
Achagua íimanaʃi íimanaʃi inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
Yukuna ímaji ímahi inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
Resígaro da?mí daʔmí unknown See Language page Ana Paula B.
Yavitero kamújlita kamúľ̥ita See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
Wapishana atʰamɨnɨ mada atʰamɨnɨ mada inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
Wayuu hɨ-ta See Language page PLE Also means 'skin' 04.120.
Yine mta; pata See Language page PLE Former also means 'skin' 04.120. *Piro-Apuriná form is *'mata.
Paresi tyama (of tree) tyama (of tree) inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
Ignaciano 'taumama; 'taumama-ki See Language page PLE
Trinitario 'točohi See Language page PLE
Baure ečopi etʃopi inheritance See Language page Anissa Capuccino
Waurá ažata; ata-mai ažata; ata-mai inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick
Arutani kõhã (also used for skin) kõhã (also used for skin) See Language page John Blaha
Sape kui, kuy (also used for skin) kui, kuy (also used for skin) See Language page John Blaha
Cha'palaa 'či-'kika See Language page PLE Lit. 'tree-skin' 04.120.
Bora ḯméʔé ʔačḯe-mɨ́ɨ́ʔo ɯ́mέʔέ ʔatʃɯ́ɛ-mɨ́ɨ́ʔo inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
Muinane (kuu)-mééʔu (kuu)-mέέʔu See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
Akawaio yöi biikpö yöɪ biʔpö inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin
Akawaio/Ingariko dialect piʔpɤ piʔpɤ See Language page Lauren Franklin
Apalai pihpyry pihpɨrɨ inheritance See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
Wayana pitpë pitpǝ inheritance See Language page PLE
Carijona hitihə (SM) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
Tiriyó pihpë pihpǝ inheritance See Language page Becky Walker
Eñepa iye pi-hpə ije pi-hpə inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross
Makushi yéi-piipɨ yéi-piipɨ inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross
Mapoyo yëhE pi'bë (lit. skin of the tree) yɛhə pi'bɛ (lit. skin of the tree) See Language page Melody Ann Ross
Pemon yeei piikpö (E1980); ipi'pö (M2000) ʎeɪ piʔpö (E1980) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
Wai Wai weewe Φičho weewe Φičho inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross
Yabarana pihpə, pihpeh See Language page Ana Paula B., John Blaha
Yukpa okóchare wepʂo See Language page Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross
Kalapalo ipufi ipufi inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick
Muisca huca huka See Language page Daniel Valle
Barí aɨgšuu See Language page PLE Colombia: ʔəgšurə; cf. 'skin' 04.120. *Chibchan form is *huka.
Epena pa'kʰuru e See Language page PLE Lit. 'tree skin'.
Guayabero pa-bók-t, ne-bók-t inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
Macaguan bokát bokát inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
Sikuani boko (2) bóko inheritance See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, Rebecca Khorram, PLE
Cofán ttono thono See Language page Daniel Valle phonemic transcriptions are ESTIMATIONS
Candoshi-Shapra korótanázi koɾótanáʂĩ unique See Language page Daniel Valle
Taushiro ye´chi jɨʔʃi See Language page Daniel Valle
Páez cati kati See Language page Daniel Valle
Tikuna nãitʃamɨ unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
Andoke kǝ(ü)ktanekǝ(üh) (RW52) unique See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
Waorani õtapo unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez, PLE
Hodï toto unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez
Pumé tó í See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
Puinave pun-pik; pun-ta pun-pik; pun-ta unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
Máku či:mu tʃi:mu See Language page PLE
Ashuar sáap sa:p See Language page Daniel Valle
Huambisa saepe saɨpɨ See Language page Daniel Valle
Aguaruna saepé saɨpɨ inheritance See Language page Daniel Valle
Nukak tɨ4naʔ4 nɨi3 unique See Language page Lauren Franklin
Kakua ʧûw unique See Language page Katherine Bolaños
Hup b'ɔk b'ɔk inheritance See Language page Pattie Epps
Yuhup b'ɔk b'ɔk See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
Dâw bʉk bɨk inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
Nadëb/Roçado dialect bɔ̱g inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
Nadëb/Rio Negro dialect bɔ̱g See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
Matses bitsi bitsi inheritance See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
Kakataibo ṣ̌a'ka See Language page PLE *Panoan *ṣ̌akata, with related meanings 'skin, husk, empty'.
Katukina hiwi šaka See Language page PLE Lit. 'tree covering'. Cf. 'shell' 03.655; 'fur' 06.280.
Shipibo-Konibo βiči; ṣ̌aka See Language page PLE
Yaminahua iβi βiči See Language page PLE Lit. 'tree skin'.
Chácobo ṣ̌a'kata; βiči (the latter also means "skin" or "hide") ṣ̌a'kata; βiči (the latter also means "skin" or "hide") inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick
Yagua {-jay} xaj unique See Language page Daniel Valle
Ingá ispingu, kara See Language page Daniel Valle
Napo Lowland Quichua cara kaɾa See Language page Daniel Valle
Quechua Ayacuchano qara qaɾa See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
Piaroa dau ijeta dau ĩhẽtã inheritance? See Language page Amanda Novak, Becky Walker
Sáliva ĩxe ĩxe inheritance? See Language page Becky Walker
Bará ju'kɨ́ kahero See Language page Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein
Barasano jukɨ-gase jukɨ-gase See Language page D. Jagannathan, Tanja Baeuerlein
Cubeo jocʉcuri hokɨkuli inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely; Tanja Baeuerlein
Carapana yukʉ asero jukɨ asɛɾɔ See Language page Amanda Novak, Tanja Baeuerlein
Desano gasiro gasiro inheritance See Language page Ana Paula; Tanja Baeuerlein
Kotiria pari cahsaro (Waltz) paɾi kahsaɾo (Waltz) inheritance See Language page D. Jagannathan, Tanja Bauerlein
Makuna ~rahua ~rahua unique See Language page Amanda Novak, D. Jagannathan, Tanja Bauerlein
Yuruti ju'kɨ́-kasero ju'kɨ́-kasero See Language page Ana Paula; Tanja Baeuerlein
Waikhana ju'kɨ kaʔ'se-ro ju'kɨ kaʔ'se-ro See Language page Ana Paula; Tanja Baeuerlein
Tanimuca dya'pu a'hea ʎa'pu a'hea unknown See Language page Kelsey Neely
Tatuyo jú'kɨ́ a'héri jú'kɨ́ a'héri See Language page Emily Buell, Paulina Franco
Tukano caséro kaséro inheritance See Language page Ana Paula, Amanda Novak
Tuyuka kase-'ro kase-ʔro See Language page D. Jagannathan, Paulina Franco, Ana Paula B.
Waimaja yúkʰɨ́ kʰahɛřò júkʰɨ́ kʰahɛrò See Language page Kelsey Neely
Koreguaje ko'ña khoʔɲa inheritance See Language page Daniel Valle
Siona kˀaʔni kˀaʔni inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
Secoya soquë ca'ni ʔ'sõ'kɨ' kãʔ'ni See Language page Amanda N
Karitiana pykyp pɨkɨp unknown See Language page Daniel Valle
Nheengatu pirera pirera inheritance See Language page John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
Kokama piruara (also skin) piɾuaɾa (algo skin) inheritance See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
Wayampi wɨla-pilɛ Lit. 'tree-skin' 04.120. inheritance See Language page PLE
Aché duwi unique See Language page PLE
Chiriguano ɨ'wɨra 'pire inheritance See Language page PLE
Paraguayan Guaraní ape; pire See Language page PLE See 'skin' 04.120; 'flay' 09.290; 'fish scale' 03.653.
Sirionó eeke; ehe; eya eeke; ehe; eya unknown; inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
Ocaina dyacán, xonúúhca dʲakã́, xon̵ɯ́ɯ́ʔka inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
Nɨpode Witoto igóraï igóraɯ See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
Minica Witoto igóraï igóraɯ See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
Murui Witoto igora.ï igora.ɯ inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
Ninam pili si, tihisi (EM72) pili si, tihisi inheritance; inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
Yanomam fisi fisi inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
Yanomami pei sisi, hisi (EM72) pei sisi, hisi (EM72) inheritance; inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
Sanumá hɨɨsɨ (EM72) hɨɨsɨ inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
Iquito ís+qu+ (also means skin, shell of an animal or fruit) ísɨkɨ (also means skin, shell of an animal or fruit) unknown See Language page Cynthia Hansen
Záparo nakuna ichawk+ nakuna iʧawkɨ See Language page Becky Walker
Wari tapari See Language page PLE Also means 'skin' 04.120.
Araona akʷi-biki bewe; ehi See Language page PLE Lit. 'tree-skin' 04.120. Also ho-bewe, aromatic b.; misa, twisted b. to use as rope.
Ese Ejja e'he unknown See Language page PLE
Ese Ejja/Huarayo e-hee e-hee See Language page Joyce McCormick
Tacana aki biti See Language page PLE Lit. 'tree skin'.
Cavineña e-biti (Also means "skin") e-biti inheritance/Panoan See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
Central Aymara laymi, layma lajmi, lajma See Language page PLE
Cayuvava iše ~ iš- ~ ihe- See Language page PLE Also means 'skin, rind, peel'. Bark from the bibosa tree, moro, is used to make a man's bark dress.
Itonama kanadapa; časdapa; wasača See Language page PLE
Kwazá wo-, -siki, -ka wo-, -siki, -ka See Language page Joyce McCormick
Mosetén-Chimané 'šoʔpaʔ ~ šu'páʔ See Language page Joyce McCormick, PLE Also means 'skin' 04.120; 'leather' 06.290.
Movima to-ɓen̉-kʷa to-ɓen̉-kʷa See Language page Anissa Capuccino, Becky Walker
Trumai deifta deifta unique See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
Kaingang fàr #NAME? See Language page PLE
Canela ii-kʰə See Language page PLE *Jê form is *kə. Also means 'skin' 04.120.
Suyá ŋɔ ŋɔ See Language page Rebekah Evans
Djeoromitxi See Language page PLE
Chipaya čʰax̣pi See Language page PLE
Mocoví le-so See Language page PLE
Pilagá 'l-oʔok See Language page PLE Same as 'skin/covering' 04.120.
Toba l-so See Language page PLE
Lengua yamit impehik See Language page PLE Lit. 'tree skin' 08.600, 04.120.
Sanapaná/Dialect Angaité yamit ayimpihik See Language page PLE Lit. 'tree skin' 01.420, 04.120.
Sanapaná/Dialect Enlhet ayempehek (yaamet) See Language page PLE
Wichí Lhamtés Güisnay #NAME? See Language page PLE Also means 'skin' 04.120; 'fur' 06.280; 'leather' 06.290.
Chorote, Iyojwa'ja takataxay (f.) See Language page PLE Cf. 'skin' 04.120.
Nivaclé -ɔxeče bark https://ids.clld.org/ PLE
Ayoreo poor-a'ooi See Language page PLE Lit. 'tree-skin (covering)' 04.120.
Mapudungun ṭ͡ʀolɨf See Language page PLE
Qawasqar ḳʰar-ḳawes See Language page PLE Lit. 'tree-skin' 04.120. Gui records kowas; Bo records taras for Central QWS, cf. 'paper' 18.560. SpS records penar for South QWS.
Selknam šèu-tˀ See Language page PLE Also means 'torch' 07.450.
Tehuelche 'pˀat See Language page PLE Also means 'skin, hide' 04.120.
Lokono eda eda skin, bark DeGoeje 1928:128 Camille Unger
Kariña pi pi skin, peel, bark Courtz 2007:344 Camille Unger