Jaminjung

Family
Mirndi
Region
Australia
ISO 639-3
djd
Location
-15.03°, 130.36°
Notes
Features
Flora Fauna Vocabulary
Cultural Vocabulary
Ethnographic Information
Data Sources
none


Flora Fauna Vocabulary (128)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Linnean Name Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Range of Term Word Structure Word Structure Notes Classifier Classifier Notes Hypernym Source Association with Social Categories Ritual/Mythologically Significant Ritual Notes Food Source Food Notes Medicinal Medicinal Notes How Collected Who Collects How Prepared Psychotropic Psychotropic Notes Traded Trade Notes Distribution Habitat Dangerous Ethnobiology Notes Species Notes General Notes Created By
agile wallaby, river wallaby flora-fauna Macropus agilis kurtarl kurtarl unknown underived 0 1 0 0 0 no
ant (generic) hormiga formiga flora-fauna Formicidae muyu muyu unknown underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
Australian pelican flora-fauna Pelecanus conspicillatus marrimarri marrimarri unknown reduplicated 0 0 0 0 0 no
Australian snubfin dolphin flora-fauna Orcaella heinsohnii kalakalak unique missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
baler shell flora-fauna Melo amphora missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
bandicoot flora-fauna Peramelemorphia puluka unique 0 0 0 0 0
barn owl flora-fauna Tyto alba mukmuk mukmuk unknown WW %mukmuk reduplicated 0 0 0 0 0 no
barramundi flora-fauna Lates calcarifer marna marna unknown underived 1 1 0 0 0 no
bat murciélago morcego flora-fauna Chiroptera spp tyiniminy tyiniminy unknown doubtful connection to etymaset WW %tyimpirriminy underived 0 1 0 0 0 no
bindii, caltrop flora-fauna Tribulus terrestris tyinpa tyinpa unknown underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
bird pajaro, ave passaro flora-fauna jurlak tyurlak loan Ngumpin-Yapa WW %tyiriki underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
black-breasted buzzard flora-fauna Hamirostra melanosternon karrkany karrkany loan Jarragan WW %karrkiny underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
black-faced cuckoo-shrike flora-fauna Coracina novaehollandiae missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
black-headed python flora-fauna Aspidites melanocephalus warlutyapi warlutyapi loan Ngumpin-Yapa warlu 'fire' +tyapi 'end' NGY compound fire-tip in NGY 0 2 0 0 0 no
black-soil yam flora-fauna Ipomoea diamantinensis maliwu maliwu unknown underived 0 1 0 0 0 no
bloodwood flora-fauna Eucalyptus (Corymbia) bleeseri narrka narrka unknown underived 0 1 1 0 0 no
blowfly maggots flora-fauna Diptera, Sarcophagidae missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
blue-tongue lizard flora-fauna Tiliqua species luma luma inheritance luma Mirndi WW %luma underived 0 1 0 0 0 no
blue-winged kookaburra flora-fauna Dacelo leachii tyarlkurrurru tyarlkurrurru inheritance tyalkururru Mirndi WW %tyalkururru underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
brolga flora-fauna Grus rubicunda kutarrk kutarrk unknown underived 1 0 0 0 0 no
brown goshawk flora-fauna Accipiter fasciatus mityitying mityitying unknown underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
brush-tailed possum flora-fauna Trichosurus vulpecula tyakulatyi tyakulatyi inheritance tyakulatyi Mirndi Jingulu tyakulatyki underived 0 1 0 0 0 no
bush cockroach flora-fauna (many species) gumbilirr unique missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
bush stone-curlew flora-fauna Burhinus grallarius windug wintuk loan into protolanguage wirntuku Mirndi WW %wintuku underived 1 0 0 0 0 no
bush tobacco flora-fauna Lobelia quadrangularis tyarrinymawu tyarrinymawu unknown compound cave-DWELLER 0 0 0 1 0 no
bush turkey, Australian bustard flora-fauna Ardeotis australis pulurrmin pulurrmin unknown underived 0 1 0 0 0 no
bush yam flora-fauna Vigna lanceolata var. lanceolata wayita wayita loan Mudburra WW %wayita underived 0 1 2 0 1 no
butterfly, moth mariposa borboleta flora-fauna Lepidoptera kartarting kartarting unknown underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
carpet snake flora-fauna Morelia spilota missing 0 1 0 0 0
caterpillar flora-fauna Lepidoptera wanbura wanbura loan loan into Jaru wapurra? WW %wanpura underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
catfish flora-fauna (many species) warrak warrak unknown underived 0 1 0 0 0 no
centipede ciempiés centopéia flora-fauna Chilopoda, Myriapoda tyalarriny tyalarriny unknown underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
channel-billed cuckoo flora-fauna Scythops novaehollandiae missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
crested pigeon flora-fauna Ocyphaps lophotes pititypurru pititypurru unknown underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
darter/cormorant flora-fauna Anhinga melanogaster, Phalacrocorax species barragbarrag barragbarrag unknown reduplicated 0 1 0 0 0 no
death adder, five-minute snake flora-fauna Acanthophis praelongus bulurr bulurr unknown underived 0 0 0 0 0 yes
dingo flora-fauna Canis familiaris dingo ngurrakiny ngurrakiny unknown underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
dog (camp, domestic) perro cachorro flora-fauna Canis familiaris wirip wirip unknown underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
duck pato pato, marreco flora-fauna Anatidae tyipilyukun tyipilyukun loan WW %tyipily underived 0 1 0 0 0 no
dugong flora-fauna Dugon dugong missing Jarragan missing 1 1 0 0 0 no
earthworm flora-fauna Annelida, Oligochaeta missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
emu flora-fauna Dromaius novaehollandiae gumirrinji gumirrinji inheritance kumingirrintyi Mirndi underived 2 1 2 0 0 no
fish (generic) pez peixe flora-fauna yag yag inheritance kaku Mirndi ?kaku>yaku; regular loss of -u WW %yaku underived 0 1 0 0 0 N/A
flower flora-fauna (NA) yurru yurru inheritance yurrku Mirndi underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
blowfly/housefly mosca mosca flora-fauna Diptera kunama kunama unknown underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
flying-fox (generic) flora-fauna (many species) natyuna natyuna unknown underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
freshwater crocodile flora-fauna Crocodylus johnstoni warrity warrity inheritance warrityi Mirndi WW WW %warrity underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
freshwater mussel flora-fauna Velesunio wilsoni taka taka unknown Wardaman underived 0 1 0 0 0 no
freshwater prawn flora-fauna Macrobrachium rosenbergii tyurlity tyurlity loan Kija, Gur jaarlity- WW %tyality underived 0 1 0 0 0 no
frill-necked lizard flora-fauna Chlamydosaurus kingii kartan kartan loan Jarragan underived 0 1 0 0 0 no
frog (generic) flora-fauna (many species) malara malara unknown underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
galah flora-fauna Eolophus roseicapilla kilik:ilik kilik:ilik loan direction unknown WW %kulinykuliny 0 0 0 0 0
turtle (generic) flora-fauna (many species) kuwarlamparla kuwarlamparla unknown also in Gurindji underived 0 1 0 0 0 no
ghost gum flora-fauna Eucalyptus papuana (Corymbia bella) missing missing 2 0 1 0 0 no
goanna (generic) or sand goanna flora-fauna Varanus spp marlatyaku marlatyaku unknown underived 0 1 2 0 0 no
grass hierba, pasto capim, grama flora-fauna (NA) warnta warnta unknown underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
grasshopper flora-fauna Orthoptera palman palman unknown underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
great bowerbird flora-fauna Chlamydera nuchalis juwayurru juwayurru loan loan into NGY; rel's to tyuwity etymaset? WW %tyuwayurr underived 1 0 0 0 0 no
green ant flora-fauna Oecophylla smaragdina yarrikan yarrikan unknown underived 0 2 2 0 0 no
green sea turtle flora-fauna Chelonia mydas tyamirri tyamirri unknown underived 1 1 0 0 0 no
green tree snake flora-fauna Dendrelaphis punctulata karning karning unknown underived 0 2 0 0 0 no
head/body lice flora-fauna Pediculus capitis, Pediculus humanus nampul nampul unknown underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
horse caballo cavalho flora-fauna Equus caballus nintu nintu loan Wati cf. Warlpiri nantuwu WW %nantu underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
hummingbird colibrí, picaflor (Peru) beija-flor flora-fauna Trochilidae missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
humpback whale flora-fauna Megaptera novaeangliae missing missing 1 1 0 0 0 no
insect (generic) insecto insecto flora-fauna generic missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
jabiru flora-fauna Ephippiorhynchus asiaticus tyimarrpi tyimarrpi loan direction unknown Ngarinyman 0 0 0 0 0
jungle-fowl (scrub-fowl) flora-fauna Megapodius freycinet missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
kangaroo (generic) flora-fauna Macropodidae parawung parawung loan Jarragan underived 2 1 0 0 0 no
land snail flora-fauna Gastropoda dininykirr dininykirr unknown underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
magpie goose flora-fauna Anseranas semipalmata tyamatypan tyamatypan unknown underived 0 1 0 0 0 no
military dragon flora-fauna Ctenophorus isolepis, Diporiphora spp., Lophognathus spp. karramanman karramanman unknown underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
mosquito mosquito, zancudo mosquito, carapana flora-fauna Anopheles spp, Isoptera wamatyngarna wamatyngarna unknown compound ?-AGENT 0 0 0 0 0 no
mud wasp, hornet flora-fauna (many species) munurr munurr loan underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
native bee flora-fauna (many species) munuwi munuwi loan Ngumpin-Yapa munuki k>w in ENG underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
native cat flora-fauna Dasyurus karnmungul karnmungul unknown underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
northern brown bandicoot flora-fauna Isoodon macrourus missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
northern kurrajong flora-fauna Brachychiton diversifolius pirtpa pirtpa unknown underived 0 1 no? 0 0 no
nut tree flora-fauna Terminalia grandifolia partiki partiki loan Jarragan underived 0 1 0 0 0 no
octopus flora-fauna Octopus australis missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
pandanus palm flora-fauna Pandanus spiralis gulmarri gulmarri unknown underived 1 1 0 0 1 no
paperbark flora-fauna Melaleuca sericea, Melaleuca stenostachya larriny larriny unknown also kurumpu underived 0 0 1 0 0 no
peaceful dove flora-fauna Geopelia placida kulkirra kulkirra unknown underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
pearlshell flora-fauna Pinctada spp tyakuli tyakuli loan Ngarinyin WW %tyakuli underived 1 1 0 0 1 no
peewee flora-fauna Gryllina cyanoleuca tititgang tititgang unknown underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
pied butcherbird flora-fauna Cracticus nigrogularis kartpukartpurr kartpukartpurr unknown reduplicated 0 0 0 0 0 no
pike eel flora-fauna Muraenesox arabicus wakura unique missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
praying mantis, stick insects mantis religiosa louva-a-deus flora-fauna Mantodea burdaj burdaj unknown homophonous with 'wind' underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
prickle bush flora-fauna Sclerolaena bicornis missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
quail (generic) flora-fauna Coturnix species, Turnix species marrawung marrawung unknown underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
red river gum flora-fauna Eucalyptus camaldulensis timarlan timarlan unknown WW %malan compound MASC-stem 2 0 1 0 1 no
red-tailed black-cockatoo flora-fauna Calyptorhynchus banksi tirrak tirrak unknown underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
riflefish, archerfish flora-fauna Toxotes chatareus lawarra lawarra loan Jarragan WW %leparre underived 0 1 0 0 0 no
river mangrove flora-fauna Aegicera corniculatum missing missing 0 0 2 0 1 no
rock fig flora-fauna Ficus brachypoda titan titan unknown underived 0 1 0 0 0 no
sacred kingfisher flora-fauna Todiramphus sancta missing loan into Kajrrabeng 0 0 0 0 0 no
saltwater crocodile flora-fauna Crocodylus porosus yalampurrma yalampurrma unknown underived 2 2 0 0 0 yes
saltwater mussel flora-fauna Mytilidae missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
sawfish flora-fauna Pristis pectinata missing missing 1 0 0 0 0 yes
scorpion escorpión; alacran escorpião flora-fauna Arachnida, Scorpiones purrmarri purrmarri loan with meaning change missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
shark (generic) flora-fauna Selachimorpha dlilingarr dlilingarr unknown underived 0 0 0 0 0 variable
shell (generic) flora-fauna naribu naribu unknown underived 0 1 0 0 1 no
short-beaked echidna flora-fauna Tachyglossus aculeatus tyungkuwurru tyungkuwurru loan Jarragan compound elbow (Jarr) -HAVING (Jam) 0 2 0 0 0 no
snake (generic) culebra, serpiente cobra flora-fauna pulany pulany loan Bunaban Bun pirlany/parlarny - direction? Other pula snake words? WW %pulany underived 0 1 0 0 0 N/A
snappy gum flora-fauna Eucalyptus brevifolia nunytya nunytya loan loan lunytya into NGY? WW %lunytya underived 0 0 1 0 0 no
spider araña aranha flora-fauna Arachnida, Araneae karra karra inheritance karru Mirndi WW %karru underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
spinifex flora-fauna Triodia species malurna malurna unknown underived 0 0 2 0 0 no
spoonbills (yellow-billed spoonbill, black-billed spoonbill) flora-fauna Platalea flavipes, Platalea regia punulpunuk punulpunuk unknown reduplicated 0 0 0 0 0 no
stingray (generic) rayas látigo, raya arraia flora-fauna Dasyatidae ngungkulma ngungkulma unknown underived 0 1 0 0 0 variable
stripe-faced dunnart flora-fauna Sminthopsis macroura tyityikurr tyityikurr unknown underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
sugarbag wax flora-fauna piyarnak piyarnak inheritance piyarn Mirndi underived 1 1 0 0 0 no
sulphur-crested cockatoo flora-fauna Cacatua galerita ngarnalang ngarnalang unknown similar to Jarr. Ngalmarri underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
swamp eel flora-fauna Ophisternon gutturale purti purti unknown underived 0 1 0 0 0 no
swamp leech flora-fauna Annelida, Hirudinea yurlkiying yurlkiying loan loan into Gur underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
tawny frogmouth flora-fauna Podargus strigoides nyurrunyurru nyurrunyurru unknown reduplicated 0 0 0 0 0 no
termite mounds, ant hills flora-fauna Isoptera tyurrupun tyurrupun unknown underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
termites, white-ants comején (Peru), termitas cupim flora-fauna (many species) munkut munkut unknown underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
ti-tree flora-fauna Melaleuca bracteata manggarlg unique missing 0 0 1 0 0 no
tick garrapata carrapato flora-fauna Arachnida, Acarina nyente nyente unknown ? WW %mungku underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
tiger shark flora-fauna Galeocerdo cuvier nuniny nuniny unknown underived 0 0 0 0 0 yes
torresian crow flora-fauna Corvus orru wangkina wangkina loan wangkina W. Mirndi Jarragan WW %wangkurri underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
tree árbol arvore flora-fauna (NA) langiny langiny loan Wunambal underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
waterlily flora-fauna Nymphaea macrosperma takut takut unknown underived 0 1 2 0 0 no
wattle flora-fauna Acacia difficilis mulurrmi mulurrmi unknown underived 0 0 1 0 1 no
wedge-tailed eagle flora-fauna Aquila audax tiwana tiwana loan into protolanguage tiwana W.Mirndi Nyulnyulan WW %warrana underived 1 0 0 0 0 no
willie wagtail flora-fauna Rhipidura leucophrys tyikirrityikirrity tyikirrityikirrity inheritance tyikirrityikirrity Mirndi also in Kijs WW %tyikirrity reduplicated 1 0 0 0 0 no
witchetty grub flora-fauna (many species) lamawut lamawut unknown WW %lamawut underived 0 1 2 0 0 no
woma flora-fauna Aspidites ramsayii missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 no


Cultural Vocabulary (104)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Word Structure Word Structure Notes General Notes Source Created By
armband dress pinpiny semantic shift Gajirrabeng also = cane sp. From which they were made ; also taman =Girindji WW %pinpin Patrick McConvell
axe/stone axe hacha (de piedra) machado (de pedra) subsistence tool wirlka semantic shift <foot/leg; widely borrowed for steel axe; also litypurrk, paranyin WW %wirlka Patrick McConvell
bag (string) culture-material tupuluty loan Wardaman WW %tupuluty Patrick McConvell
body feather decorations culture-mythology tiyatiya loan Ngarinyman glossed as feathers - could be decorative sense WW %tiyatiya Patrick McConvell
boomerang/throwing stick (generic) subsistence tool karli loan Jaru also kurrupartu loan from Gajirrabeng WW %karli Patrick McConvell
boomerang (number 7) subsistence tool warrirtirla loan Mudburra WW %warrirtila Patrick McConvell
bottle botella garrafa acculturation mulukun loan Ngarinyman WW %mulukun Patrick McConvell
bowl (coolamon) culture-material lampung loan Gajirrabeng Patrick McConvell
cat gato gato acculturation wilymurrumawu derived having wire - ref to claws? The wire word is probably a loan source unknown. WW %wilmurr derived Patrick McConvell
cicatrice culture-mythology paturu inheritance loan into E.Ngumpin WW %paturu Patrick McConvell
clapsticks culture-mythology karnpij loan Wardaman also in Gajirrabeng and E. Ngumpin WW %karnpity Patrick McConvell
clothing ropa roupa culture-mythology nankurrk semantic shift <'pubic tassel for girls' loan into Gajirrabeng WW %nankurrk Patrick McConvell
club (nulla-nulla) subsistence tool kuturu loan Ngarinyman also in Gurindji, Gajirrabeng, Wardaman… WW %kuturu Patrick McConvell
drone pipe culture-mythology kulumpung loan Gajirrabeng WW %kulumpung Patrick McConvell
fish (with line) anzuelear, pescar con linea pescar (com linha) food watyama loan Gajirrabeng fishing CV, exclusively with line? Cf watyarra Wamb WW %watyama Patrick McConvell
game animal caza, animal de caza caça, animal de caça food ngayin loan Miriwung Mir. Ngarin with r.y; <*ngartin WW %ngarin Patrick McConvell
headband dress tartij inheritance loan into Ngarinyman, Gurindji WW %tartity Patrick McConvell
initiation (circumcision) culture-mythology marntiwa loan from far east WW %marntiwa Patrick McConvell
knife cuchillo faca culture-material marrimarri loan Ngarinyman also tyimintirr WW %tyiminti Patrick McConvell
loincloth taparrabos, guayuco, pampanilla tanga, tapa-sexo dress mayarung loan Gajirrabeng Gaj. Mayarung house, rag;Jam.also matyarti WW %mayarung Patrick McConvell
love song culture-mythology yarrinti loan Miriwung WW %yarrinti Patrick McConvell
net subsistence tool karlarr loan Miriwung WW %karlarr Patrick McConvell
paper papel papel acculturation pakarli semantic shift paperbark>paper;larriny paper bark/paper same polysemy WW %pakarli Patrick McConvell
pipe for tobacco pipa cachimbo other larrwa loan Wardaman not in Ward word list; Nunggubuyu laruwa WW %larrwa Patrick McConvell
resin resina, brea, copal resina, brea, breu subsistence tool tini inheritance bloodwood gum cf Jingulu tiyinu cognate; spinifex wax tyinuk WW %tiyinu Patrick McConvell
song (for entertainment) culture-mythology tyunpa loan Gajirrabeng WW %tyunpa Patrick McConvell
spear (fighting) subsistence tool ngurni loan Wardaman Ward. ngone Spear; tululnguk little fighting spear made from Phragmites WW %ngone Patrick McConvell
spear (fishing) subsistence tool wilymurru loan Gajirrabeng Gaj. Wilmurrng fishing spear WW %wilmurr Patrick McConvell
spirit child culture-mythology yimaruk loan Wardaman yimerrug 'shadow' WW %yimaruk Patrick McConvell
string (from vine) culture-material munungku inheritance string in general; Jing. Munungkumi; Wambaya munungkuma (could be loan) WW %munungku Patrick McConvell
tea food nalitya loan Mudburra WW %nalitya Patrick McConvell
tobacco (European) narcotics walayarra loan Gajirrabeng also nguru<Gaj. Ngurung 'lump of tobacco'Gaj. walayerrang WW %walayarra Patrick McConvell
white paint culture-mythology kaltyi loan Gajirrabeng kaltyeng WW %kaltyi Patrick McConvell
game animal caza, animal de caza caça, animal de caça food ngayin loan Miriwung Mir. Ngarin with r.y; <*ngartin WW %ngarin Patrick McConvell
pestle pilón, mano de mortero, mazo, moledor mão de pilão subsistence tool tyintyimu loan Gajirrabeng top gtindstone Gaj. Tyintyimung Patrick McConvell
basket (general) canasta, canasto, cesta cesto culture-material tupuluty loan Wardaman same as 'bag' Patrick McConvell
fishing line cordel/cuerda p/ pescar, sedal, tanze linha de pesca subsistence tool wuyurruny loan Ngarinyman wuyurrun WW %wuyurrun Patrick McConvell
afterworld, land of dead, Heaven tierra do los muertos terra dos mortos culture-mythology missing Patrick McConvell
awl subsistence tool missing Patrick McConvell
bait for fishing cebo, carnada para pescar, empate (Peru) isca subsistence tool kilin unknown Patrick McConvell
boomerang (small) subsistence tool missing Patrick McConvell
broom escoba vassoura culture-material missing Patrick McConvell
canoe canoa canoa transport jarntu unknown Patrick McConvell
chicken gallina galinha acculturation bawurlu loan English fowl' Patrick McConvell
cook food food tyuyuk kani- inheritance Patrick McConvell
cook in earth oven food murl inheritance Patrick McConvell
corpse food missing Patrick McConvell
damper food mangarra loan direction unknown WW %mangarri Patrick McConvell
dance (generic) culture-mythology ngajija inheritance Patrick McConvell
digging stick subsistence tool tyurna inheritance Patrick McConvell
dipper (small coolamon) subsistence tool kurrki inheritance Patrick McConvell
dream sueño, soñar sonho, sonhar culture-mythology pankiyaty inheritance Patrick McConvell
dreaming culture-mythology puwarratya loan Mudburra WW %puwarraty Patrick McConvell
earth oven food missing Patrick McConvell
fire drill subsistence tool kungkala loan direction unknown Nung. Nunggala WW %kungale Patrick McConvell
fire-saw other missing Patrick McConvell
fireplace hogar lareira other kuyuk semantic shift <fire Patrick McConvell
firewood leña lenha other kuyuk inheritance fire Patrick McConvell
fish poison barbasco, matapez (Colombia) timbó subsistence tool pility unknown fish poison tree; one of several Patrick McConvell
fish (with fish-poison) pescar con barbasco, barbasquear pescar com timbó; tinguijar food missing Patrick McConvell
fish (with spear) food missing Patrick McConvell
fishtrap (permanent) subsistence tool missing Patrick McConvell
fishtrap (woven) subsistence tool missing Patrick McConvell
flour (bush) food ŋulu loan WW %ngurlu Patrick McConvell
flour (European) food pulawa loan WW flour Patrick McConvell
ghost (of dead person)/evil spirit espíritu malo, espíritu maligno, fantasma, demonio espirito culture-mythology kaya loan direction unknown devil-devil, custodian of dead WW %kaya Patrick McConvell
glue subsistence tool missing Patrick McConvell
grave tumba, sepultura, sepulcro sepultura, sepulcro, cova culture-mythology missing Patrick McConvell
grog food kuku semantic shift <water Patrick McConvell
gun arma, escopeta espingarda, fusil acculturation kuyukpurru derived kuyuk 'fire' HAVING derived Patrick McConvell
hair belt dress kuntangarra inheritance Ngaliwurru wirntangarra plaited kangaroo hair Patrick McConvell
hat sombero chapéu dress kurunyungkina derived gurunyu 'head' POSS derived Patrick McConvell
healer curandero benzador, curandeiro, kumu (Tukano) culture-mythology maparn loan direction unknown Patrick McConvell
honey miel mel food wajkany inheritance Patrick McConvell
house (European) other tyalput loan Wardaman WW %tyolpot Patrick McConvell
hunt cazar caçar food wilinyi inheritance Patrick McConvell
initiation (subincision) culture-mythology para loan direction unknown Patrick McConvell
mangrove raft transport missing Patrick McConvell
medicine narcotics missing Patrick McConvell
message stick culture-mythology missing Patrick McConvell
mortar mortero pilão subsistence tool japarlawan loan direction unknown with masc. ja- added? Nungali? WW %palawan Patrick McConvell
nosepeg other punurul derived <purnu'bone'+? derived Patrick McConvell
paddle/oar remo remo transport missing Patrick McConvell
ochre culture-mythology kitpi inheritance Patrick McConvell
paint body, body paint pintura corporal pintura corporal culture-mythology tirrmu ka- inheritance Patrick McConvell
policeman polícia policía acculturation ngalarr semantic shift <secret, taboo Patrick McConvell
public song cycle culture-mythology wangka loan Patrick McConvell
red paint culture-mythology kurrmi inheritance Patrick McConvell
salt sal sal food missing Patrick McConvell
school escuela escola acculturation karrity semantic shift <cold: sounds like 'cool' Patrick McConvell
shelter (native) other tyalput loan Wardaman WW %tyolpot Patrick McConvell
shoes zapatos sapatos dress wirlkakina derived wirlka 'foot' POSS derived Patrick McConvell
skirt falda, saya, fustan, pollera saia culture-material missing Patrick McConvell
song (generic) canción, canto canção culture-mythology tyunpa loan Gajirrabeng WW %tyunpa Patrick McConvell
spear lanza lança subsistence tool karna inheritance Patrick McConvell
spearthrower subsistence tool tyulkirr semantic shift <corkwood Patrick McConvell
speartip subsistence tool tyimpila loan direction unknown WW %tyimpila Patrick McConvell
string (from hair) culture-material missing Patrick McConvell
sugar acculturation watykan semantic shift <honey Patrick McConvell
tobacco (native) narcotics tyarrinyngarna loan Ngarinyman complex in Ngar. Cave+DWELLER Patrick McConvell
tree coffin culture-mythology missing Patrick McConvell
wax cera cera other watyan inheritance Patrick McConvell
windbreak other wilyikaty inheritance Patrick McConvell
yandy (n) culture-material missing Patrick McConvell


Ethnographic Information
Current population (ethnicity) Current population (speakers) Former population estimate Subsistence preference Subsistence notes Density Sedentism Ecotome (riverine/interfluvial/coastal/desert/savannah/etc.) Social hierarchies Multilingualism (rare/occasional/common) Contact languages Marriage pattern Notes Source Created By
medium HG low mobile