Languages of hunter-gatherers and their neighbors
304 features in 38 categories
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs
Productive NN compounding
Productive VV serialization (without compounding)
Productive VV compounding
Verb-adjunct (aka light verb) constructions
Morphology - General
Verbal fusion (2+ categories marked by portmanteau morphemes on verb)
Inflection manifested by replacement of segmental or suprasegmental phonemes
Verbal synthesis (1+ inflectional categories marked by verbal affixes)
Prefixing/suffixing inflectional morph: strongly prefixing
Prefixing/suffixing inflectional morph: strongly suffixing
Prefixing/suffixing inflectional morph: roughly equal or one weakly preferred
Does verb root reduplication have an iterative function?
Does noun root reduplication have a plural/pluractional function?
Does adjective root reduplication mean ‘real’ X?
Does verb root reduplication have a distributive function?
Does verb root reduplication have a pluractional function?
Does noun root reduplication have an iterative function?
Does adjective root reduplication mean ‘fake’ X?
Does adjective root reduplication mean ‘very’ X?
Morphology - Incorporation
Incorporation of nouns into verbs is a productive intransitivizing process
Productive incorporation of other elements (adjectives, locatives, etc.) into verbs
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions
Adpositions mark core NPs
Case: number of cases
Case: only non-core arguments morphologically marked
Case: suffix or postpositional clitic
Case: prefix or prepositional clitic
Case: infix or inpositional clitic
Case: stem change
Case: comitative = instrumental
Does the language have ergative and instrumental syncretism?
Does the language have a distinct genitive case?
Is the locative related to the ergative with vowel change?
Is case marked on just one word in an NP?
Is case marked on all (non-pronominal) words in an NP?
Are any subordinate verbs (or whole clauses) marked with case to indicate their function?
Does ergative mark discourse functions of focus/unexpectedness?
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity
Definite or specific articles
Marker of definiteness distinct from demonstratives
Indefinite or non-specific article
Inclusive/exclusive: in free pronominals
Inclusive/exclusive: in verbal inflection (bound)
Distance contrasts in demonstratives (number)
Other contrasts in demonstratives (visibility, elevation, etc.)
Nominal Categories - Derivation
Is there a evidence for derivational morphology being distinct from inflectional on nouns?
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification
Number of noun classes/genders
Noun classifiers (distinct from noun classes/genders)
Sex is a relevant category in noun class(ification) system for animates
Sex is a relevant category in noun class(ification) system for inanimates
Animacy (w/o reference to sex) is a relevant category in the noun class(ification) system
Sex/gender distinction only in 3rd person pronouns
Shape is a relevant category in the noun class(ification) system for animates
Shape is a relevant category in the noun class(ification) system for inanimates
Numeral classifiers (specific to numerals)
Classifiers used as derivational suffixes to derive nouns
Nominal Categories - Number
Does the language have group/collective nominal suffixes?
Does the language have suppletive plural verbs?
Does the language have suppletive plural adjectives?
Singular number may be marked on the noun
Plural affix on noun
Plural marked by stem change or tone on noun
Plural marked by reduplication of noun
Plural marked on human or animate nouns only
Pronominal plural: stem + nominal plural affix
Unique associative plural marker
Does the language have a minimal/augment system?
Does the language have a unit augment system?
Does the language mark dual on nouns?
Does the language mark plural on nouns?
Nominal Categories - Numerals
Other base (specify)
Etymological transparency in any numerals under 5
Numerals do not go above 5
Numerals do not go above 10
Numerals do not go above 5 (i.e. are limited to 5 or below)
Numerals do not go above 10 (i.e. are limited to 10 or below)
Nominal Categories - Other nominal
Tense or aspect inflection on non-verbal predicates
Person inflection on non-verbal predicates
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories
Does the language have bound pronouns?
Are the bound pronouns distinct from the free pronouns?
Does the language mark moiety distinctions in pronouns?
Does the language mark generational distinctions in pronouns?
Are 'who' and 'what' distinct words?
Is there an inclusive/exclusive distinction in the dual?
Is there an inclusive/exclusive distinction in the plural?
Is there a gender distinction in third person dual pronouns?
Are there clitic pronouns?
Are there object clitic pronouns?
Are there distinct possessive and IO pronouns?
When there are both object and subject clitic pronouns, does the object pronoun follow the subject one?
Gender in 3sg pronouns
Gender in 3pl pronouns
Gender in 1st and/or 2nd person pronouns
Formal/informal distinction in pronouns
Nominal Syntax - Adjectives
Gender inflection on adjectives within the NP
Nominal Syntax - Derivation
Productive nominalizing morphology: action/state (arrive/arrival)
Productive nominalizing morphology: agentive (sing/singer)
Productive nominalizing morphology: object (sing/song)
Productive verbalizing morphology
Nominal Syntax - Other
NP coordination and comitative phrases marked differently
Nominal Syntax - Possession
Pronominal possessive affixes: prefix on N
Pronominal possessive affixes: suffix on N
Head/dependent marking in possessive NP: dependent
Head/dependent marking in possessive NP: head
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability
Morphological marking of inalienable possession
Morphological marking of alienable possession
Default marker for inalienably possessed nouns if unpossessed
Inalienable possession of kin terms
Inalienable possession of body parts (human/animal)
Generic human nouns are obligatorily bound/possessed
Phonology - Segmental
Phonemic vowel length
Phonemic glottalization/laryngealization of vowels
Word-final coda required
Oral-nasal contour segments
Phonology - Suprasegmental
Nasalization property of morpheme or syllable
Nasal spreading across some morpheme boundaries
Simple Clauses - Alignment
Alignment of case marking in full NPs: nominative-accusative w/ marked accusative
Alignment of case marking in full NPs: nominative-accusative w/ marked nominative
Alignment of case marking in full NPs: ergative-absolutive
Alignment of case marking in full NPs: tripartite
Alignment of case marking in full NPs: active-inactive
Alignment of case marking of pronouns: marked accusative
Alignment of case marking of pronouns: marked nominative
Alignment of case marking of pronouns: ergative-absolutive
Alignment of case marking of pronouns: tripartite
Alignment of case marking of pronouns: active-inactive
Alignment of verbal person-marking: nominative-accusative
Alignment of verbal person-marking: ergative-absolutive
Alignment of verbal person-marking: active-inactive
Alignment of verbal person-marking: hierarchical
Alignment of verbal person-marking: split
Simple Clauses - Desiderative expressions
Grammaticalized verbal desiderative
Simple Clauses - Discourse
Is there a focus position?
Is there a topic position?
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives
Polar questions: interrogative particle
Polar questions: verb morphology
Polar questions: word order
Polar questions: intonation only
Content questions: word order differs from declaratives
Simple Clauses - Negation
Is verbal negation a separate word?
Does the negative marker precede the verb?
Clausal negator is a preposed element
Clausal negator is a postposed element
Negatives: auxiliary verb
Distinct negative form for 'NP does not exist'
Distinct negative expression 'I don't know'
Simple Clauses - Other
Morphologically marked switch-reference system
Morphologically marked distinction between simultaneous and sequential clauses
Simple Clauses - Predication
Predicate adjectives: verbal
Predicate adjectives: nominal
Zero copula for predicate nominals is possible
Headless relative clauses
Headless relative clauses are the dominant or only form of relative clause
Relative clause may occur with a noun classifier/class marker
Relativizer is a verbal affix
Morphological relativizer is homophonous with nominalizer
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking
Are there second position clausal clitics?
Is tense marked on pronouns?
Are there predicative clitics (e.g. Darkinyung grammar p35)
Pronominal subjects: second position clitics
Pronominal subjects: pronouns in subject position
Pronominal subjects: prefixes on verb
Pronominal subjects: suffixes on verb
Pronominal subjects: clitics on variable host
Pronominal subjects: pronouns in non-subject position
Person marking on intransitive verbs
Person marking (of agents) on transitive verbs
Person-marking (of objects) on transitive verbs
3rd person zero in verbal person marking: subjects
3rd person zero in verbal person marking: objects
Number can be marked separately from person on the verb
Possessive affixes/clitics on nouns are same as verbal person markers
Gender distinguished in verbal person markers
3rd person zero in verbal person marking: A (subject of a trans clause) or for nom-acc S (subject of intrans)
3rd person zero in verbal person marking: O (object of trans) or for erg-abs S (subj of intrans)
Simple Clauses - Tense
Does the language have tense/mood/etc particles (free words)?
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice
Ditransitive constructions: indirect object
Ditransitive constructions: double object
Ditransitive constructions: secondary object
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing
Is reflexive/reciprocal marked on the verb?
Does reflexive/reciprocal change the conjugation class?
Is there a reflexive/reciprocal particle?
Is the passive typically used only with adversative semantics?
Reciprocal: dedicated morpheme
Reflexive: dedicated morpheme
Reciprocal/reflexive: same morpheme
Other intransitivizing morphology
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing
Causative marked by circumfix, stem change, or tone
Causative: serial verb or analytical construction
Causative: dedicated 'make do by proxy'
Causative: dedicated sociative
Other transitivizing morphology (adds valence)
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense
Is there an inchoative suffix?
Is there a distinct present tense verbal suffix?
Is there a continuous aspect suffix?
Is there a punctual aspect suffix?
Can tense and aspect cooccur?
Is tense marked on nouns?
Dedicated past marker(s)
Multiple past tenses, distinguishing distance from time of reference
Multiple future tenses, distinguishing distance from time of reference
Dedicated future or non-past marker(s)
Tense-aspect affixes: prefix
Tense-aspect affixes: suffix
Tense-aspect affixes: tone or ablaut
Verbal Categories - Directionals
Directional elements affixed to the verb
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality
Evidentiality: verb affix or clitic
Evidentiality: part of tense system
Evidentiality: separate particle
Evidentiality: modal morpheme
Verbal Categories - Mood
Do positive commands take the same morphology as negative commands?
Is a negative command formed from a nominalised verb (eg. "no talking!")?
Dedicated imperative morpheme or verb form
Polite imperative morpheme
Difference between negation in imperative (prohibitive) and declarative clauses
Dedicated hortative morpheme or verb form (1pl or 3rd person imperative)
Situational possibility: affix on verb
Situational possibility: verbal construction
Situational possibility: other marking
Epistemic possibility: affix on verb
Epistemic possibility: verbal construction
Epistemic possibility: other marking
Marking of expected/unexpected action or result
Reality status marking on verbs
Affect markers (positive/negative)
Verbal habitual [this is better classified as aspect than mood]
Verbal Categories - Other
Is the verb ‘say’ the same as the verb ‘do’?
Does the language have body part compound verbs?
Are there verbal agreement clitics?
Is there a verb 'be'?
Are there verb conjugation classes?
Is there a conjugation for uninflecting verbs?
Is there a grammatical category of associated motion?
Does the language have kinship verbs?
Social interaction markers
Verbal Categories - Verbal number
Verbal number suppletion
Verbal Categories - VerbalNumber
Does the language have suppletive plural nouns?
Is word order fixed in noun phrases?
Is word order fixed in verb phrases?
Are there discontinuous NP constituents?
No fixed basic constituent order
VS in intransitive clauses
VS in transitive clauses
VO in transitive clauses
OS in transitive clauses
Noun-Postposition or case suffix
Re<Noun>l (internally headed relative)
Relative clause is correlative or adjoined
Question word is clause initial