Passive

Category
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing
Notes
Passive voice usually involves a change to the verb, while the object of the active voice verb is promoted to subject in the passive voice, and the former subject is deleted/demoted

Languages

Language Feature Status Grammatical Notes Source Created By Etymology Notes General Notes Phylogenetic Code
Cahuilla no Jane Hill
Cupeño yes Jane Hill
Luiseño yes Jane Hill
Serrano yes Jane Hill
Kitanemuk yes Jane Hill
Kawaiisu yes Jane Hill
Timbisha yes Jane Hill
Western Mono yes Jane Hill
Chemehuevi yes Jane Hill
Southern Paiute yes Jane Hill
Southern Ute yes Jane Hill
Shoshone yes Jane Hill
Comanche yes Jane Hill
Idaho Shoshone yes Jane Hill
Northern Paiute yes Jane Hill
Gabrielino Jane Hill
Achagua no there is a suffix used when the subject is a patient, which is used in passive constructions Wilson & Levinsohn 1992:30 Ana Paula Brandao
Resígaro no A passive derivation is not discussed in the formulation of the verb at any level. Allin, 1976: 105, 124, 204, 212 Aimee Lawrence
Bare no reflexive/reciprocal are the only intransitivizing morphology listed Aikhenvald, 1995: 38 Ana Paula Brandao, Aimee Lawrence
Warekena no Aikhenvald 1998: 366, 373 Ana Paula Brandao
Piapoco no No mention of a passive construction. Galindo, 2002: 252-262 Aimee Lawrence
Yukuna no No passivizing morphology in the Yucuna verbal template. Shauer & Shauer, 2000: p. 521 Aimee Lawrence
Yavitero no Mosonyi, 1987: p. 63 Aimee Lawrence
Wapishana yes Santos 2006 Ana Paula Brandao, Amanda Meeks
Wayuu yes Mansen & Captain, 2000: p.801, 804 Aimee Lawrence
Tariana yes Aikhenvald, 2003: 258 Aimee Lawrence
Apurinã yes This is rare in texts, but speakers accept it. Facundes, 2000: 400-402 Aimee Lawrence
Asheninka Apurucayali yes impersonal passive Payne 1981:40 Amanda Meeks
Maipure no info author does not discuss voice Zamponi 2003:37-47 Amanda Meeks
Yanesha' yes Duff-Tripp 1997:119 Daniel Valle
Kinikinau no info Daniel Valle
Baure yes ,-si Danielsen 2007: p218 Mitz Perez
Nanti yes Michael, 2008. p. 276 Aimee Lawrence
Paresi yes Brandão 2010:28-9 Daniel Valle
Palikur yes Green and Green 1972:4 Daniel Valle
Yine yes Matteson 1965:80 Daniel Smith
Añun no info no info on valence Patte 1989 Daniel Smith
Bora no Seifart - 2005:58-73 Amanda Meeks
Makiritare yes circumfix Escoriaza 1959:15 Amanda Meeks
Makushi yes Reflexives, reciprocals, and unspecified arguments are all expressed by means of the detransitivizer verb prefix at-/es-/e'- […] The only type of passive constructions in Macushi is the medial-passive described in section 4.1 [above]. Abbott 1991: 37-40 Melody Ann Ross
Eñepa yes Thomas Payne 1995:302 Daniel Valle
Pemon no info Daniel Valle
Guna yes -le is the short form Smith texts Daniel Smith
Naso no Quesada 2000 Daniel Smith
Ika no info Daniel Valle
Kogi no info Daniel Valle
Cabecar no info Daniel Valle
Guaymí yes The main verb takes the form of the realis indefinite plus the iterative suffix /-ta/ Quesada 2008:130 Daniel Valle
Damana no info Daniel Valle
Sikuani yes Queixalós 2000:128 Daniel Smith
Macaguan no info Buenaventura - 1993 Daniel Smith
Aguaruna no info Overall 2007:305 Daniel Valle More likely no
Northern Emberá no info Daniel Valle
Waorani no info Daniel Valle
Ingá no info Daniel Valle
Matses yes Passive and reflexives are treated as the same Fleck:349 Daniel Valle
Mapudungun yes Zúñiga 2006, p. 119 Daniel Valle
Páez yes Jung:71-3 Daniel Valle
Quechua Ayacuchano no info Daniel Valle
Tikuna no info Daniel Valle
Urarina yes Olawsky:594-60 Daniel Valle
Waunana no info Daniel Valle
Andoke no info Kelsey Neely
Puinave no info Mitz Perez, Daniel Valle
Central Aymara yes Huayhua Pari 2001: 295 Shannon Dardis
Kakua no info Bolaños fieldnotes Katherine Bolaños
Kaingang no info Silva 2011/Goncalves 2011 Daniel Smith
Minica Witoto yes Minor and Minor 1982. p.29, 83 Christopher Clack
Hup yes Epps 2008 Pattie Epps
Nadëb/Roçado dialect yes alternative use of same prefix Weir 1984 Katherine Bolaños
Dâw yes The tone on the verb root gets rising tone marking passiveness of the construction. The subject is deleted and the object takes subject position Martins 2005:518 Katherine Bolaños
Desano yes Miller 1999, p. 120 Amanda Novak
Cubeo yes passive nominalizer is attached to a stative verb stem Morse & Maxwell 1999, p. 55 Amanda Novak
Kotiria no info Stenzel 2004 Amanda Novak
Makuna yes Smothermon & Smothermon 1993, p.64 Chris Clack no info/not expected
Koreguaje yes Cook & Criswell 1993, p.71 Chris Clack
Barasano no Jones & Jones 1991, p.94 Chris Clack
Tanimuca yes Strom 1992, p.31 Chris Clack The subject can be both agent and patient.
Siona no The word order and marking systems would make this unnecessary and unproductive. Wheeler - 1970; Wheeler - 1987 Amanda Meeks
Tukano yes bound verb no'o Ramirez 1997: 186-7 Kelsey Neely
Yanomami n/a ergative-absolutive; no passive Ramirez 1994 Kelsey Neely
Ninam n/a ergative-absolutive Goodwin-Gomez Kelsey Neely
Sanumá yes Borgman 1990: 46-47 Kelsey Neely I disagree with Borgman
Surui no info Daniel Valle
Karitiana yes Everett 2006:430-7 Daniel Valle
Nheengatu no Cruz 2011 Daniel Smith
Paraguayan Guaraní yes The reflexive affix is added to the verb Ayala 1996:310-1 Daniel Valle
Aché yes Rossler 2008:89 Daniel Valle
Kokama no Vallejos 2010:372 Daniel Smith
Nyangumarta no done 0
Jingulu no done 0
Wambaya no done 0
Bunuba no info done x
Walmajarri no Done-Claire 0
Nyulnyul no done? 0
Warrwa no info done x
Worrorra no ms16.2.4 done 0
Garrwa no info done X
Gooniyandi no info done x
Warlpiri no done 0
Bardi no done-Claire 0
Yugambeh Y?
Yorta Yorta no info done x
Yir Yoront Done-Dan
Yindjibarndi yes 170-175 done-Dan 1
Yidiny no done-Catherine 0
Yanyuwa no info Done-Austin x
Yandruwandha no 186-9 Done-Dan 0
Yan-nhangu not yet
Yalarnnga no Done-Dan 0
Woiwurrung no info done-Amalia x
Wirangu No info done x
Wemba-Wemba no H 47-50 done-Amalia 0
Warumungu No info done-Amalia x
Wangkumara yes 48-9 done 1
Uradhi Maybe 376 Y 1
Paakantyi no info Y-Hannah X
Pitta-Pitta No 207 Done-Amalia 0
Pintupi no info done-Hannah x
Nyungar no info done x
Nhanta no info Done-Hannah x
Ngiyambaa no info Done-Emily x
Ngayawang No 4 done-Amalia 0
Muruwari no Done-Dan 0
Mpakwithi
Mayi-Yapi No info done x
Martuthunira yes 152 done 1
Marrgany No 339 Done-Amalia 0
Kuuk Thaayorre No 513 Done-Amalia 0
Kuku Yalanji yes 147 Done-Jessica 1
Kugu-Nganhcara no 405 done-Amalia 0
Kaurna yes 20 done-Amalia 1
Kalkatungu no Done-Dan 0
Jaru no 155 Done-Amalia 0
Guugu-Yimidhirr no 128 Done-Amalia 0
Gureng Gureng no info Done-Amalia x
Gupapuyngu
Gumbaynggirr yes 370 done-Amalia 1
Gugu-Badhun no 145 done-Jessica 0
Yuwaalaraay No 82 0
Dyirbal yes 65-6 done-Amalia 1
Duungidjawu no 85-88 done 0
Djinang No 125 Done-Amalia 0
Djabugay done
Diyari yes 76 done-Hannah 1
Dharuk
Dharawal no info done-Hannah w Dhurga) x
Darkinyung no info done x
Bularnu no info Done-Austin x
Biri no info done-Jessica x
Bidjara-Gungabula no info done-Jessica x
Batyala no info Done-Amalia x
Arabana no Done-Dan 0
Alyawarr no info done X
Nyikina no done-Claire 0
Yawuru Y-Claire
Ngarinyin
Yulparija no info Done-Amalia x
Wathawurrung no info done x
Mathi-Mathi no 99-101 done-Amalia 0
Hunter River and Lake Macquarie no 81-82 done-Amalia 0
Thanggati no 52-60 done 0
Katthang no 83-90 done-Amalia 0
Panyjima yes 177 done 1
Ngarinyeri No info done-Amalia x
Kurrama yes 200-5 done-Dan 1
Yingkarta no info Done-Claire x
Githabul No 23 Done-Amalia 0
Gunya No 339 Done-Amalia 0
Kunjen No info Done- x
WesternTorres no K85c 92-3 done 0
Wakaya no info done x
Yindjilindji no info done x
Bandjalang No 92 Done-Amalia 0
Ngaatjatjara No 71 done 0
Arrernte No 332 0
Kokatha no info x
Karajarri No 8 Done-Amalia 0
Pitjantjatjara no G 232 0
Ritharrngu no info 61 Done-Amalia x
Warrgamay No 87 Done-Amalia 0
Warluwarra no info Done-Amalia x
Warnman no info Done-Amalia x
Djapu no info x
Bilinarra no info done x
Wiradjuri no m290 done 0
Aghu-Tharnggala No 90 Y2 0
Narungga No info done x
Tharrkari No 31 0
Wajarri No 108 0
Warungu no 2 0
Adnyamathanha Y2
Yagua no Payne and Payne 1990 Daniel Smith
Baniwa yes -ka-naa Ramirez 2001 Patience Epps