Cubeo

Family
Tukanoan
Region
South America
ISO 639-3
cub
Location
1.32°, -70.19°
Notes
Features
Basic Vocabulary
Flora Fauna Vocabulary
Cultural Vocabulary
Grammatical Data
Ethnographic Information
Data Sources
Chacon, Thiago Costa. 2012. The phonology and morphology of Kubeo: The documentation, theory, and description of an Amazonian language. University of Hawai'i at Mānoa. (Doctoral disseration). Morse, Nancy L. and Michael Maxwell. 1999. Cubeo grammar. Summer Institute of Linguistics and the University of Texas at Arlington publications in linguistics, 1040-0850 ; publication 130. Morse, Nancy L., Jay K. Salser and Neva Salser, compilers. 1999. Diccionario ilustrado bilingüe: cubeo—español español—cubeo. Bogotá: Editorial Alberto Lleras Camargo.


Basic Vocabulary (192)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Etymology Notes Source Created By
above encima, arriba acima location pʉenoi; ʉ̃mʉi pɨenoi; ɨ̃mɨi unique See Language page Kelsey Neely; Tanja Baeuerlein
again de nuevo, otra vez de novo grammar cojedeca koxedeka unknown See Language page Kelsey Neely; Tanja Baeuerlein
all todo todos other caino kaino doubtful loan Arawak See Language page Kelsey Neely; Tanja Baeuerlein
and y e grammar aru aɾu unknown See Language page Kelsey Neely; Tanja Baeuerlein
ankle tobillo tornozelo body cũachĩarʉ; cũajãrabo; cũarʉ; cʉbocũarʉ kĩaʧĩaɾɨ; kĩaxãɾabo; kĩaɾɨ; kɨbokĩaɾɨ unique See Language page Kelsey Neely; Tanja Baeuerlein
armpit axila, sobaco axila body ãricaro ãɾikaɾo inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely; Tanja Baeuerlein
ash ceniza(s) cinzas environment ũacovʉ ĩakovɨ unknown See Language page Kelsey Neely; Tanja Baeuerlein
at en, a em, a location missing See Language page Kelsey Neely; Tanja Baeuerlein
back espalda costas body yapitʉmʉ japitɨmɨ unique See Language page Kelsey Neely; Tanja Baeuerlein
belly barriga barriga body yapibʉ (stomach) japibɨ (stomach) unknown See Language page Kelsey Neely; Tanja Baeuerlein
below abajo, debajo abaixo location cãchinoi; yebai kãʧinoi; jebai unique See Language page Kelsey Neely; Tanja Baeuerlein
big grande grande quality ʉraco (f.), ʉracʉ (m.), ʉrarõ(inan.). ɨrako (f.), ɨrakɨ (m.), ɨrarõ(inan.). unique See Language page Kelsey Neely; Tanja Baeuerlein
bite morder morder body abayʉ; cũñʉ abajɨ; cĩjɨ unique; inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely; Tanja Baeuerlein
black negro preto colour ñemico (fem.), ñemicʉ (m.), ñemino (inan.) ɲɛmiko (fem.), ɲɛmikɨ (m.), ɲɛmino (inan.) inheritance cf. Andoke - ɲe See Language page Kelsey Neely; Tanja Baeuerlein
blood sangre sangue body jive xivɛ inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely; Tanja Baeuerlein
blow soplar soprar body japuyʉ xapujɨ unknown See Language page Kelsey Neely; Tanja Baeuerlein
boil/pimple espinilla, granos espinha, borbulha body cainiyabe kainijabe unique See Language page Kelsey Neely; Tanja Baeuerlein
bone hueso osso body cũaðo kũaðo inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely; Tanja Baeuerlein
breast pecho, seno peito body ñareba ɲarɛba unique See Language page Kelsey Neely; Tanja Baeuerlein
breathe respirar respirar body ũmedabʉboyʉ ĩmedabɨbojɨ unique See Language page Kelsey Neely; Tanja Baeuerlein
burn quemar queimar environment ẽoñʉ; jãpeóñʉ; juayʉ ẽojɨ; xãpeójɨ; xuajɨ inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely; Tanja Baeuerlein
chew masticar, mascar mastigar body jãjʉñʉ xãxɨjɨ unknown See Language page Kelsey Neely; Tanja Baeuerlein
child niño, niña criança human jʉeðocʉ xɨɛðokɨ unique See Language page Kelsey Neely; Tanja Baeuerlein
climb subir subir motion ẽmʉñʉ; mañʉ; mʉñʉ; tucʉẽmʉñʉ; tucʉmʉñʉ ẽmɨjɨ; majɨ; mɨjɨ; tukɨẽmɨjɨ; tukɨmɨjɨ inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely; Tanja Baeuerlein
cloud nube nuvem environment o'kó-pedĩ-bo-a (H&R) oʔkó-pedĩ-bo-a (H&R) inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely; Tanja Baeuerlein
cold frío frio quality jʉjʉco (f.), jʉjʉcʉ (m.), jʉjʉrõ (inan.) xɨxɨko (f.), xɨxɨkɨ (m.), xɨxɨɾõ (inan.) inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely; Tanja Baeuerlein
come venir vir motion dayʉ dajɨ inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely; Tanja Baeuerlein
cook cocinar cozinhar impact boayʉ; cũcañʉ; jatʉóyʉ bóajɨ; kĩkajɨ; xatɨójɨ unknown See Language page Kelsey Neely; Tanja Baeuerlein
correct/true verdad, de veras verdade quality nurino (identical with right) nuɾino unique See Language page Kelsey Neely; Tanja Baeuerlein
count contar contar mental corevayʉ koɾevajɨ unique See Language page Kelsey Neely; Tanja Baeuerlein
cry llorar chorar mental oyʉ ojɨ inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely; Tanja Baeuerlein
cut/hack cortar cortar impact burayʉ; cotʉteyʉ; cotʉvayʉ; peopeyʉ; totarĩ burayʉ: totayʉ; tuitóyʉ; tʉtoyʉ; nainóñʉ ('to cut a tree with a machete') buɾajɨ; kotɨtejɨ unknown; doubtful loan Tupi-Guarani See Language page Kelsey Neely; Tanja Baeuerlein
day día dia time jãravʉ xãravɨ unique See Language page Kelsey Neely; Tanja Baeuerlein
die/be dead morir morrer state cójipoyʉ, yaiyʉ́ kóxipojɨ, jaijɨ́ unknown; inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely; Tanja Baeuerlein
dig cavar cavar impact ĩñʉ; ũñʉ ĩjɨ; ĩjɨ inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely; Tanja Baeuerlein
dingo/wolf fauna missing See Language page Kelsey Neely; Tanja Baeuerlein
dirty sucio sujo quality docʉcʉco (f.); docʉcʉcʉ (m.); docʉcʉrõ (inan.) dokɨkɨko (f.); dokɨkɨkɨ (m.); dokɨkɨɾõ (inan.) inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely; Tanja Baeuerlein
dream soñar sonhar mental ñáñʉ; to dream of: decoboayʉ, ñóvañʉ jã́jɨ; dekoboajɨ, jóvajɨ unique See Language page Kelsey Neely; Tanja Baeuerlein
drink beber, tomar beber body ũcuñʉ, dabʉboyʉ ũkuɲɨ, dabɨbojɨ inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely; Tanja Baeuerlein
dry seco seco quality peneco (f.),penecù (m.), peneno (inan.) pɛnɛko (f.),pɛnɛkɨ (m.), pɛnɛno (inan.) unique See Language page Kelsey Neely; Tanja Baeuerlein
dull/blunt sin filo, mocho, desafilado, embotado, romo maçante, desamolado, não afiado quality he'wɨ-kɨ-be-dõ he'wɨ-kɨ-be-dõ missing See Language page Kelsey Neely; Tanja Baeuerlein
dust polvo poeira environment pena pena doubtful loan, direction unknown Sikuani - béne See Language page Kelsey Neely; Tanja Baeuerlein
ear oreja orelha body cã́muca kã́muka inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely; Tanja Baeuerlein
earth/soil tierra terra environment jobo, joborõ xobo, xoborõ inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely; Tanja Baeuerlein
eat comer comer body ãñʉ ãɲɨ inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely; Tanja Baeuerlein
egg huevo ovo fauna jĩdʉ (generic term) xĩdɨ (generic term) unique See Language page Kelsey Neely; Tanja Baeuerlein
eye ojo olho body yaco, yacorʉ jako, jakorɨ inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely; Tanja Baeuerlein
faeces heces, mierda, excremento, estiércol fezes body cᵾra, maca kɨɾa; maka inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely; Tanja Baeuerlein
fall caer cair motion duivᵾ; duruyᵾ duivɨ; duɾujɨ unique See Language page Kelsey Neely; Tanja Baeuerlein
far lejos longe quality joa; joai xoa; xoai inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely; Tanja Baeuerlein
fat/grease grasa gordura body dẽ'ṍ dẽ'ṍ unique See Language page Kelsey Neely; Tanja Baeuerlein
father padre, papá pai kinship báyʉ (vocative), pacʉ bájʉ (vocative), pakʉ inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely; Tanja Baeuerlein
fear miedo medo mental jidᵾrõ xidɨɾõ unique See Language page Kelsey Neely; Tanja Baeuerlein
feather pluma pena fauna caveðo kavɛðo unique See Language page Kelsey Neely; Tanja Baeuerlein
fire fuego fogo environment toa, uruibo toa, uruibo inheritance; unique See Language page Kelsey Neely; Tanja Baeuerlein
fish xx xx fauna moacʉ mɔakʉ doubtful loan Bora See Language page Epps Research Team
flow fluir fluir motion meivᵾ meivɨ unique See Language page Kelsey Neely; Tanja Baeuerlein
flower flor flor environment cóvᵾ cóvɨ inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely; Tanja Baeuerlein
fly volar voar motion vʉyʉ vɨjɨ inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely; Tanja Baeuerlein
fog niebla, neblina nevoeira, bruma, neblina environment abobico abobiko inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely; Tanja Baeuerlein
foot pie body cʉboba kɨboba inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely; Tanja Baeuerlein
fruit fruta fruta flora jẽidʉ xẽidɨ unique See Language page Kelsey Neely; Tanja Baeuerlein
good bueno bom quality meaco (f.), meacʉ (m.), mearo (inan.) mɛako (f.), mɛakɨ (m.), mɛaro (inan.) unique See Language page Kelsey Neely; Tanja Baeuerlein
grow crecer crescer state bʉcʉyʉ; bʉcʉre; corʉivʉ bɨkɨjɨ; bɨkɨɾe; koɾɨivɨ inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely; Tanja Baeuerlein
hair (of head) cabello cabelo body poða, poðaðo (both generic 'hair' and 'pelt') poða, poðaðo (both generic 'hair' and 'pert') inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely; Tanja Baeuerlein
hand mano mão body pʉrʉ pɨrɨ inheritance shared W. Tuk See Language page Kelsey Neely; Tanja Baeuerlein
head cabeza cabeça body jipobʉ xipobɨ inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely; Tanja Baeuerlein
hear oír ouvir mental jápiayʉ (listen) xápiajɨ (listen) inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely; Tanja Baeuerlein
heavy pesado pesado quality dʉcʉco (f.), dʉcʉcʉ (m.), dʉcʉrõ (inan.) dɨkɨko (f.), dɨkɨkɨ (m.), dɨkɨɾõ (inan.) inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely; Tanja Baeuerlein
hide esconder esconder motion bíjaroyʉ; dupióvayʉ; vaveyʉ bíxaɾojɨ; dupióvajɨ; vavejɨ unknown See Language page Kelsey Neely; Tanja Baeuerlein
hit golpear, pegar bater impact boayʉ́; jãðoðovañʉ; jãðoñʉ; jaraboayʉ; jarapeyʉ; jarapopeyʉ; pẽvavañʉ; totayʉ boajɨ́; xãðoðovajɨ; xãðojɨ; xaɾaboajɨ; xaɾapejɨ; xaɾapopejɨ; pẽvavajɨ; totajɨ inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely; Tanja Baeuerlein
hold correr, asegurar, sostener segurar other dʉrʉyʉ; tutavayʉ; tutayʉ dɨɾɨjɨ; tutavajɨ; tutajɨ unknown; inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely; Tanja Baeuerlein
how? como como grammar aipe; aipe ðarĩ aipe; aipe ðaɾĩ unique See Language page Kelsey Neely; Tanja Baeuerlein
if si se grammar baru baɾu unique See Language page Kelsey Neely; Tanja Baeuerlein
in/inside dentro, adentro dentro location jívʉ; jívʉi xívɨ; xívɨi unique See Language page Kelsey Neely; Tanja Baeuerlein
intestines intestinos intestinos body cʉrame kɨɾame inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely; Tanja Baeuerlein
itch hormiguear, sentir comezón coçar body comezón: purãcʉ puɾãkɨ unique See Language page Kelsey Neely; Tanja Baeuerlein
kill matar matar impact boarĩ́ jarʉvayʉ: boayʉ́, boarĩ́ jebeyʉ: boayʉ́, boarĩ́ yavayʉ: boayʉ́ boarĩ́ xarɨvajɨ: boajɨ́, boarĩ́ hɛbɛjɨ: boajɨ́, boarĩ́ javajɨ: boajɨ́ unique See Language page Kelsey Neely; Tanja Baeuerlein
lake lago lago environment macajitabʉ makaxitabɨ inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely; Tanja Baeuerlein
laugh reír rir mental reírse: jacoðoboyʉ; jajeðo; yʉriyʉ xakoðobojɨ; xaxeðo; jɨɾijɨ unknown See Language page Kelsey Neely; Tanja Baeuerlein
leaf hoja folha environment cainiyoca, yoca (both generic) kainijoka, joka (both generic) unique See Language page Kelsey Neely; Tanja Baeuerlein
left/left hand izquierdo esquerdo location/body on the left: cãcopũravʉ kãkopĩɾavɨ inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely; Tanja Baeuerlein
lie down acostarse, echarse deitar motion parayʉ paɾajɨ inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely; Tanja Baeuerlein
lightning rayo, relámpago relampago environment yaroino jaɾoino unique See Language page Kelsey Neely; Tanja Baeuerlein
live/be alive vivir viver, morar body cʉcʉ kɨkɨ unique See Language page Kelsey Neely; Tanja Baeuerlein
liver hígado figado body penibo pɛnibo loan Arawak See Language page Kelsey Neely; Tanja Baeuerlein
long largo comprido, longo quality joaco (f.), joacʉ (m.), joarõ (inanimate); ʉmʉjʉco (f.), ʉ̃mʉjʉcʉ (m.), ʉ̃mʉjʉrõ (inanimate) xoako (f.), xoakɨ (m.), xoaɾõ (inan.); ɨ̃mɨxɨko (f.), ɨ̃mɨxɨkɨ (m.), ɨ̃mɨxɨɾõ (inan.) inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely; Tanja Baeuerlein
louse piollo, piojo piolho fauna cʉ̃́cʉ kʉ̃́kʉ inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely; Tanja Baeuerlein
lung pulmón pulmão body vʉibo vɨibo unique See Language page Kelsey Neely; Tanja Baeuerlein
meat/flesh carne carne fauna jiarʉ (generic term), puaijaʉbo, totaibo. xiarɨ (generic term), puaixaɨbo, totaibo. inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely; Tanja Baeuerlein
moon luna lua environment aviá, aviá ñamicacʉ, ñamicacʉ aviá, aviá ɲamikakɨ, ɲamikakɨ inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely; Tanja Baeuerlein
mother madre, mamá mãe kinship paco pako inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely; Tanja Baeuerlein
mouth boca boca body jijecãmu xixɛkãmu inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely; Tanja Baeuerlein
name nombre nome human ãmiá ãmiá loan into protolanguage, direction unknown Boran, Witotoan, Tukanoan See Language page Kelsey Neely; Tanja Baeuerlein
nape base del cuello, nuca nuca body ñametʉcarʉ jametɨkaɾɨ unknown See Language page Kelsey Neely; Tanja Baeuerlein
near/close cerca de perto quality cadai; tʉcava kadai; tɨkava inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely; Tanja Baeuerlein
neck cuello pescoço body ñamemu jamemu unknown See Language page Kelsey Neely; Tanja Baeuerlein
new nuevo novo quality mamaro (inan.) mamaro (inan.) inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely; Tanja Baeuerlein
night noche noite time ñami ɲami inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely; Tanja Baeuerlein
no/not no não grammar bi bi unique See Language page Kelsey Neely; Tanja Baeuerlein
nose nariz nariz body ũeca ũɛka inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely; Tanja Baeuerlein
old viejo velho quality bʉcʉco (f.), bʉcʉcʉ (m.), javecarõ (inan.), náro (inan.) bɨkɨko (f.), bɨkɨkɨ (m.), xavɛkarõ (inan.), náro (inan.) inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely; Tanja Baeuerlein
one uno um number cũináðo ãmuyo ĩni, cũináro ("only"), (ãmujɔ = "finger", ĩni is like ĩñu "to take out") kũináðo ãmujo ĩni, kũináro unique See Language page Kelsey Neely; Tanja Baeuerlein
open/uncover abrir abrir other ovayʉ ovajɨ unique See Language page Kelsey Neely; Tanja Baeuerlein
other otro outro grammar apeco (f.), apecʉ (m.), apeno (inan.) apeko (f.), apekɨ (m.), apeno (inan.) inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely; Tanja Baeuerlein
pain/painful/sick dolor, doloroso, enfermo dor, doloroso, doente body ijimʉ iximɨ unique See Language page Kelsey Neely; Tanja Baeuerlein
person/human being persona pessoa human põecʉ põɛkɨ inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely; Tanja Baeuerlein
pound/beat machacar, golpear bater impact chĩtoñʉ; pẽ́ðayʉ; piroyʉ ʧĩtojɨ; pẽ́ðajɨ; piɾojɨ unique See Language page Kelsey Neely; Tanja Baeuerlein
rain lluvia chuva environment ocaino; ʉ̃rejibi okaino; ɨ̃ɾexibi inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely; Tanja Baeuerlein
red rojo vermelho colour jũaco (f.), jũacʉ (m.), jũaro (inan.) xĩako (f.), xĩakɨ (m.), xĩaɾo (inan.) inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely; Tanja Baeuerlein
right/right hand derecha direita location/body nurino (identical with correct/true) nuɾino unique See Language page Kelsey Neely; Tanja Baeuerlein
road/path camino caminho manufacture cainima, ma (general terms), cuima, daima, nʉima kainima, ma (generar terms), kuima, daima, nɨima inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely; Tanja Baeuerlein
root raíz raiz flora javabo; nʉo; nʉomu (all three generic terms) xavabo; nɨo; nɨomu inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely; Tanja Baeuerlein
rotten podrido podre quality to rot: maume; pojeyʉ; ʉ̃roteyʉ maume; poxejɨ; ɨ̃rotejɨ inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely; Tanja Baeuerlein
sand arena areia environment ẽpa ɛ̃pa inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely; Tanja Baeuerlein
say decir dizer mental a-'jɨ́- a-'jɨ́- inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely; Tanja Baeuerlein
scratch rascar rasgar impact ãcʉricʉ ãkɨɾikɨ inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely; Tanja Baeuerlein
see ver ver mental jã́ñʉ xã́ɲɨ inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely; Tanja Baeuerlein
sharp afilado, filudo, filoso afiado quality ʉpʉjino ɨpɨxino unknown See Language page Kelsey Neely; Tanja Baeuerlein
shoot tirar, disparar, balear atirar impact missing See Language page Kelsey Neely; Tanja Baeuerlein
short corto curto quality joabeco (f.), joabecʉ (m.), joabeno (inan.), ʉ̃mʉjʉbeco (f.) ʉ̃mʉjʉbecʉ (m.), ʉ̃mʉjʉbeno (inan.) xoabeko (f.), xoabekɨ (m.), xoabeno (inan.), ɨ̃mɨxɨbeko (f.) ɨ̃mɨxɨbekɨ (m.), ɨ̃mɨxɨbeno (inan.) inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely; Tanja Baeuerlein
shoulder hombro ombro body arʉbo aɾɨbo unique See Language page Kelsey Neely; Tanja Baeuerlein
shy/ashamed tímido, vergonzoso timido, com vergonha mental missing See Language page Kelsey Neely; Tanja Baeuerlein
sit sentar(se) sentar state dobacʉ; tubacʉ dobakɨ; tubakɨ inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely; Tanja Baeuerlein
skin piel pele body caje kaxɛ inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely; Tanja Baeuerlein
sky cielo céu environment cavarõ; cavarõ mearo kavaɾõ; kavaɾõ meaɾo inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely; Tanja Baeuerlein
sleep dormir dormir body cãñʉ kãɲɨ inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely; Tanja Baeuerlein
small pequeño pequeno quality quĩ́jico (f.), quĩ́jicʉ (m.), quĩ́jino (inan.) kĩ́xiko (f.), kĩ́xikɨ (m.), kĩ́xino (inan.) unique See Language page Kelsey Neely; Tanja Baeuerlein
smoke humo fumaça environment bico biko inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely; Tanja Baeuerlein
sniff/smell olfatear, oler cheirar body vĩñʉ vĩjɨ inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely; Tanja Baeuerlein
spit escupir cuspir body jẽcutuñʉ xẽkutujɨ unique See Language page Kelsey Neely; Tanja Baeuerlein
split partir, dividir rachar, dividir, partir impact bojeðayʉ; cotʉyʉ boxeðajɨ; kotɨjɨ inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely; Tanja Baeuerlein
squeeze estrujar, exprimir espremer impact pipoyʉ; tuyʉ; cʉ̃oroyʉ pipojɨ; tujɨ; kɨ̃oɾojɨ inheritance; inheritance; inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely; Tanja Baeuerlein
stab/pierce apuñalar, acuchillar apunhalar impact pẽvañʉ; pẽvavañʉ; totayʉ pẽvajɨ; pẽvavajɨ; totajɨ unique See Language page Kelsey Neely; Tanja Baeuerlein
stand estar de pié ficar em pé state núcʉ núkɨ inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely; Tanja Baeuerlein
star estrella estrela environment abiácorʉ abiákorɨ unique See Language page Kelsey Neely; Tanja Baeuerlein
steal robar roubar other ñavañʉ javajɨ inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely; Tanja Baeuerlein
stick/wood palo pau, vara flora aboðo; buraitʉcarʉ; jocʉjarave aboðo; buɾaitɨkaɾɨ; xokɨxaɾave unique; unknown See Language page Kelsey Neely; Tanja Baeuerlein
stone piedra pedra environment cʉ̃ra, cʉ̃rabo kɨ̃ra, kɨ̃rabo inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely; Tanja Baeuerlein
suck chupar chupar body neneñʉ; nuñʉ; teyʉ; viviyʉ nenejɨ; nujɨ; tejɨ; vivijɨ unique; inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely; Tanja Baeuerlein
sweat sudar suor, suar body ijovacʉ ixovakɨ unknown See Language page Kelsey Neely; Tanja Baeuerlein
swell hincharse inchar body cocoroyʉ; chĩ́vʉ; jãmuiñʉ; yevajʉcʉ kokoɾojɨ; ʧĩ́vɨ; xãmuijɨ; jevaxɨkɨ unique See Language page Kelsey Neely; Tanja Baeuerlein
swim nadar nadar motion tayʉ tajɨ unique See Language page Kelsey Neely; Tanja Baeuerlein
tail cola, rabo rabo body pĩcoro pĩkoro inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely; Tanja Baeuerlein
that ese/esa esse grammar ãðo (fem.), ãñʉ (masc.) ãðo (fem.), ãɲɨ (masc.) unique See Language page Kelsey Neely; Tanja Baeuerlein
thick grueso, gordo, espeso grosso quality jiacʉco (f.), jiacʉcʉ (m.); ʉraco (f.), ʉracʉ (m.); cainitʉcabo; edurõ; tʉcabo; ʉrajipocʉ; ʉrarõ; dacabo xiakɨko (f.), xiakɨkɨ (m.); ɨɾako (f.), ɨɾakɨ (m.); kainitɨkabo; eduɾõ; tɨkabo; ɨɾaxipokɨ; ɨɾaɾõ; dakabo unique See Language page Kelsey Neely; Tanja Baeuerlein
thin delgado fino quality jiacʉbeco (f.), jiacʉbecʉ (m.), edubeno (inan.) xiakɨbeko (f.), xiakɨbekɨ (m.), edubeno (inan.) unique See Language page Kelsey Neely; Tanja Baeuerlein
think pensar pensar mental ãrʉcʉ; dápiayʉ ãɾɨkɨ; dápiajɨ inheritance; unknown See Language page Kelsey Neely; Tanja Baeuerlein
this este/esta este grammar ico (fem.), ñai (masc.) iko (fem.), ɲai (masc.) inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely; Tanja Baeuerlein
2sg xx xx grammar mi mi inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely; Tanja Baeuerlein
three tres tres number yóbecʉrõa (three), yóbecʉriyoa ãmuyoa ĩni (three fingers out. . .see "one") jóbɛkɨrõa, jóbɛkɨrijoa ãmujoa ĩni unknown See Language page Kelsey Neely; Tanja Baeuerlein
throat garganta garganta body jãrʉóime xãɾɨóime unique See Language page Kelsey Neely; Tanja Baeuerlein
throw tirar, lanzar atirar, jogar impact toayʉ toajɨ unique See Language page Kelsey Neely; Tanja Baeuerlein
thunder truenos trovão environment õpo õpo inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely; Tanja Baeuerlein
tie up/fasten atar, amarrar amarrar impact bʉoyʉ; cãteñʉ bɨojɨ; kãtejɨ unique; unique See Language page Kelsey Neely; Tanja Baeuerlein
tongue lengua lingua body jemedo xɛmɛdo inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely; Tanja Baeuerlein
tooth diente dente body cõpi, cõpiyo (both generic) kõpi, kõpijo (both generic) inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely; Tanja Baeuerlein
turn girar, volter, torcer virar other cũturuvañʉ; turuyayʉ kũtuɾuvajɨ; tuɾujajɨ unique; unique See Language page Kelsey Neely; Tanja Baeuerlein
two dos dois number pʉcarã (anim. "two"), pʉcarõa (inan. "two"); pʉcaðoa ãmuyoa ĩni ("two fingers out/up" see entry for "one) pɨkarã, pɨkarõa; pɨkaðoa ãmujoa ĩni inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely; Tanja Baeuerlein
vomit vomitar vomitar body bijoyʉ bixojɨ inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely; Tanja Baeuerlein
walk caminar, andar andar motion nʉñʉ nɨɲɨ unique See Language page Kelsey Neely; Tanja Baeuerlein
water agua agua environment oco oko inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely; Tanja Baeuerlein
wet mojado molhado quality cócʉco (f.), yacʉco (f.), cócʉcʉ (m.), cócʉrõ (inan.),yacʉcʉ (m.), yacʉrõ (inan.) kókɨko (f.), jakɨko (f.), kókɨkɨ (m.), kókɨrõ (inan.),jakɨkɨ (m.), jakɨrõ (inan.) inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely; Tanja Baeuerlein
what? que, qué que grammar aipe, ye aipɛ, jɛ inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely; Tanja Baeuerlein
when? cuando quando grammar aipiyede aipijede unique See Language page Kelsey Neely; Tanja Baeuerlein
where? donde onde grammar ã́ri ã́ɾi unique See Language page Kelsey Neely; Tanja Baeuerlein
white blanco branco colour boco, miacó (f.), bocʉ (m.), borõ (inan.), miacʉ́ (m.), miaró (inan.) boko, miakó (f.), bokɨ (m.), borõ (inan.), miakɨ́ (m.), miaró (inan.) inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely; Tanja Baeuerlein
who? quien, quién quem grammar ñame ɲamɛ inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely; Tanja Baeuerlein
wife esposa esposa kinship márepaco, yóvaimo márɛpako, jóvaimo inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely; Tanja Baeuerlein
wind viento vento environment ũmebo; ũmecʉraino (strong wind) ĩmebo; ĩmekɨɾaino (strong wind) unknown See Language page Kelsey Neely; Tanja Baeuerlein
wing ala asa body cave; caveba kave; kaveba inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely; Tanja Baeuerlein
woman/female mujer mulher human nomió nomió inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely; Tanja Baeuerlein
work trabajar trabalhar other memeñʉ memejɨ inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely; Tanja Baeuerlein
yawn bostezar bocejar body vʉo ðavayʉ vɨo ðavajɨ inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely; Tanja Baeuerlein
yellow amarillo amarelo colour cʉ̃rajʉmecʉ (m.), cʉ̃rajʉmeno (inan.), cʉ̃rajʉmeco(f.) kɨ̃raxɨmɛkɨ (m.), kɨ̃raxɨmɛno (inan.), kɨ̃raxɨmɛko(f.) unique See Language page Kelsey Neely; Tanja Baeuerlein
bad mal mal quality ãmeco (f.), ãmecʉ (m.), ãmeno (inan.) ãmɛko (f.), ãmɛkɨ (m.), ãmɛno (inan.) unique See Language page Kelsey Neely; Tanja Baeuerlein
3sg el/ella ele/ela grammar ʉ̃ (masc.), õ (fem.) ɨ̃,õ inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely; Tanja Baeuerlein
1sg yo eu grammar inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely; Tanja Baeuerlein
leg/foot pierna perna body ãraðo ãɾaðo unique See Language page Kelsey Neely; Tanja Baeuerlein
man/male hombre homem human ʉ̃mʉ ɨ̃mɨ inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely; Tanja Baeuerlein
3pl ellos/ellas eles/elas grammar dinomiva (fem.), na (masc.) dinomiva (fem.), na (masc.) inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely; Tanja Baeuerlein
know/be knowledgeable saber, conecer saber, conhecer mental coreóvayʉ, majicʉ korɛóvajɨ, maxikɨ unknown; inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely; Tanja Baeuerlein
1pl.incl nosotros (inclusivo) nós (inclusivo) grammar maja maxa inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely; Tanja Baeuerlein
1pl.excl nosotros (exclusivo) nós (exclusivo) grammar ñʉja ɲɨxa inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely; Tanja Baeuerlein
2pl ustedes vocês grammar mʉja mɨxa inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely; Tanja Baeuerlein
bark corteza casca environment jocʉcuri hokɨkuli inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely; Tanja Baeuerlein
fingernail uña unha body cʉ̃ove kɨ̃ovɛ inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely; Tanja Baeuerlein
heart corazón coração body ũmedʉ ũmɛdɨ unique See Language page Kelsey Neely; Tanja Baeuerlein
sun sol sol time aviá, aviá jãravʉcacʉ, jãravʉcacʉ aviá, aviá hãlavɨkakɨ, hãlavɨkakɨ inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely; Tanja Baeuerlein
mountain/hill montaña, colina, loma, cerro morro, serra environment cʉ̃racũ ʉ̃mʉjʉricũ, ʉ̃mʉcacũchibʉ kɨ̃lakũ ɨ̃mɨhɨlikũ, ɨ̃mɨkakũtʃibɨ inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely; Tanja Baeuerlein
green verde verde quality jʉ̃meco (f.), jʉ̃mecʉ (m.), jʉ̃meno (inan.) hɨ̃mɛko (f.), hɨ̃mɛkɨ (m.), hɨ̃mɛno (inan.) inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely; Tanja Baeuerlein
hot caliente quente quality toaijico (f.), toaijicʉ (m.), toaijino (inan.) toaihiko (f.), toaihikɨ (m.), toaihino (inan.) unique See Language page Kelsey Neely; Tanja Baeuerlein


Flora Fauna Vocabulary (138)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Linnean Name Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Range of Term Word Structure Word Structure Notes Classifier Classifier Notes Hypernym Source Association with Social Categories Ritual/Mythologically Significant Ritual Notes Food Source Food Notes Medicinal Medicinal Notes How Collected Who Collects How Prepared Psychotropic Psychotropic Notes Traded Trade Notes Distribution Habitat Dangerous Ethnobiology Notes Species Notes General Notes Created By
achiote, anatto achiote urucum flora-fauna Bixa orellana mujariyo muhalijo, bũ'hã́ inheritance Proto-Tukanoan uncoded See Language page 1 0 0 0 1 secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens no shrub Amanda Meeks
inga guaba, guamo, guama, shimbillo (Peru) inga flora-fauna Inga spp. missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens. North and South America (Brazil, Peru, Bolivia, Suriname, Colombia) no Amanda Meeks
agouti (black agouti, black-rumped agouti) Guatusa Negra, Añuje, Agutí (black-rumped), picure, jochi colorado cutia flora-fauna Dasyprocta spp. jʉbʉcaco; buʉ (R95) bu'ɨ́, hʉbʉkako inheritance Or ɣʉbʉkakɔ Broader (also Green Acouchy) uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Amanda Meeks
alligator, black caiman babilla; cachirre jacaré flora-fauna Melanosuchus niger, Caiman schlerops; Paleosuchus sp. hi'á-bɨ hi'á-bɨ inheritance East Tukanoan Attested in only a few languages, but throughout ET family tree uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Throughout Amazonia no? Port term reportedly borrowed from Tupi Amanda Meeks
Amazon dolphin bufeo, delfín, tonina (del Orinoco) boto cor-de-rosa flora-fauna Inia geoffrensis missing missing See Language page 1 0 0 0 0 Downstream of major rapids and waterfalls no Amanda Meeks
mouse, rat ratón camundongo, rata flora-fauna Mus musculus beibo (generic term), ẽmubeibo, ẽtabeibo bɛibo (generic term), be'í-bo, ɛ̃mubɛibo, ɛ̃tabɛibo inheritance East Tukanoan Broader (rat and mouse) uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Amanda Meeks
anaconda anaconda, boa, boa acuática grande sucuri flora-fauna genus Eunectes ã'ĩ-kɨ ã'ĩ-kɨ unique uncoded See Language page 2 0 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonia yes Amanda Meeks
angleworm lombriz minhoca flora-fauna order Opisthopora cæcʉ (generic term), boricũcʉ, corocũcʉ, júcʉ, ṹmʉcacũcʉ kakʉ (generic term), bolikũkʉ, kolokũkʉ, húkʉ, ṹmʉkakũkʉ unique Also bɔlikũkʉ, kɔlɔkũkʉ, ɣúkʉ, ṹmʉkakũkʉ uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Amanda Meeks
ant (generic) hormiga formiga flora-fauna Formicidae bẽ'ã́-kɨ bẽ'ã́-kɨ inheritance Proto-Tukanoan uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Amanda Meeks
anteater oso hormiguero; tapia pelejo or pelejo chico for Cyclopes didactylus tamanduá flora-fauna Myrmecophaga tridactyla (giant anteater); Cyclopes didactylus (silky anteater) mie, mijacʉ bĩ'é̃, miɛ, mihakɨ inheritance Proto-Tukanoan uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonian lowlands no Amanda Meeks
armadillo armadillo, carachupa (Peru), yangunturi (Peru for Giant armadillo) tatu flora-fauna family Dasypodidae; e.g. Priodontes maximus (Giant armadillo), Dasypus novemcinctus, Dasypus kappleri pãmurʉ (general), jevebo, jiapãmurʉ, pãmuboridʉ, piarápãmurʉ, põepamurʉ pã'bú-ri, pãmulɨ, hɛvɛbo, hiapãmulʉ, pãmubolidʉ, pialápãmulʉ, põɛpamulrʉ inheritance Proto-Tukanoan Also ɣɛvɛbɔ, ɣiapãmulʉ, pãmubɔlidʉ, pialápãmulʉ, pɔ̃ɛpamulrʉ uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Widespread in Amazonia no Amanda Meeks
arrow cane, wildcane caña flecha, caña brava, caña isana cana para flechas, frecheira, Cana-do-rio flora-fauna Gynerium sagittatum ka'wábẽdẽ ka'wábẽdẽ unique uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 tropical regions, especially river banks no plant Amanda Meeks
avocado palta, aguacate abacate flora-fauna Persea americana ũñurʉ ũɲulʉ inheritance East Tukanoan uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens no tree Amanda Meeks
banana, plantain banano, banana, cambur, bellaco, variedad de plátano banana flora-fauna Musa sp. ṍre (generic term), abujuõreve, duiõreve, ẽmuoreve, vajaõreve ṍlɛ (generic term), abuhuõlɛvɛ, duiõlɛvɛ, ɛ̃muolɛvɛ, vahaõlɛvɛ, palatʃanaɲʉ unknown prob. inheritance Possibly related to other Tukanoan forms. Also abuɣuɔ̃lɛvɛ, duiɔ̃lɛvɛ, ɛ̃muɔlɛvɛ, vaɣaɔ̃lɛvɛ uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Names for banana/plantain may be derived from bastard plantain by semantic shift. Amanda Meeks
bat murciélago morcego flora-fauna Chiroptera spp. oðorʉ (término genérico), cũioðorʉ, meaoðorʉ o'jó-rɨ, oðolʉ (término genérico), kũioðolʉ, mɛaoðolʉ inheritance Proto-Tukanoan Also cũioðorʉ, meaoðorʉ, o'jó-rɨ uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Amanda Meeks
beans frijoles, frejol, caraotas (negras, rojas, blancas) feijão flora-fauna Phaseolus spp. peyauyabe, veamuyabe [Pt loan] pɛjaujabɛ, vɛamujabɛ loan Portuguese Also vɛamujabɛ uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no plant Amanda Meeks
honeybee abeja abelha flora-fauna Apis mellifera; Tetragonisca angustula; Trigona amazonensis mumidʉ (honey bee, genral term), biarocʉ, jivemumidʉ, mumiboridʉ, mumijuaridʉ, mumiñeminidʉ, vácoemabo. mumidʉ (honey bee, genral term), bialokʉ, hivɛmumidʉ, mumibolidʉ, mumihualidʉ, mumiñɛminidʉ, vákoɛmabo, bũ'bĩ́-dɨ (H&R) inheritance East Tukanoan Also ãlalabɔ, kãinɛ́bɔ (carpenter), bialɔkʉ, ɣivɛmumidʉ, mumibɔlidʉ, mumiɣualidʉ, mumiñɛminidʉ, vákɔɛmabɔ uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Amanda Meeks
bird pajaro, ave passaro flora-fauna míjido (generic term); ãcapoico; ẽtarʉ; jãjabʉtoico; jiorojomu; joromimico; mítacaca; uchivʉmicʉ; vayuveco; yaomaroco; yebaroaco míxido; ãkapoiko; ẽtaɾɨ; xãxabɨtoiko; xioɾoxomu; xoɾomimiko; mítakaka; uʧivɨmikɨ; vajuveko; jaomaɾoko; jebaɾoako, bĩ́hĩ́-kɨ, bĩ́hĩ́-do (H&R) doubtful loan, direction unknown Arawak, Achagua míʃi:du Arawak Achagua "míʃi:du". Also ãkapoiko; ẽtaɾɨ; xãxabɨtoiko; xioɾoxomu; xoɾomimiko; mítakaka; uʧivɨmikɨ; vajuveko; jaomaɾoko; jebaɾoako, bĩ́hĩ́-kɨ, bĩ́hĩ́-do uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Amanda Meeks
bitterwood tortuga caspi, pretina (Peru for tree and tumpline); carahuasca (Peru) envira flora-fauna Duguetia sp. OR Fusaea longifolia OR Guatteria chrysopetala missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 secondary forests, native to Brazil no tree Amanda Meeks
black palm bacaba, mapora, pusui, patabá bacaba flora-fauna Oenocarpus bacaba missing missing See Language page 2 1 0 0 0 Mature forests of Rio Negro and Upper Amazon no may be confused in some entries with O. bataua Amanda Meeks
boa boa; mantona (red-tailed boa); boa de altura jiboia flora-fauna family Boidae, subf. Boinae missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Amanda Meeks
bottle-gourd (vine) or calabash (tree) calabazo, calabaza; auyama (Dominican Republic and Venezuela), ayote (parts of Central America), zapallo (parts of South America), tutumo/totumo/totuma (Cresc tree), huingo (Peru for Crescentia cujete), tapara cabaça flora-fauna Crescentia cujete (round variety - tree); (Cucurbita) Lagenaria siceraria (bottle variety - vine) jocobʉ, jocorʉ (from tree - prob Crescentia), mújive ('totuma', just means cuia?) hokobʉ, hokolʉ, múhivɛ; ho'kó-rɨ ('gourd', H&R) inheritance Proto-Tukanoan Also ɣɔkɔlʉ, múɣivɛ Broader (also means squash) uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 indigenous gardens no plant; tree Amanda Meeks
brazil nut castaña castanha do para (B. excelsa); castanha de cutia (C. edulis) flora-fauna Bertholletia excelsa [cf. Couepia edulis 'castanha do cutia'] jipocṹrarʉ, jṹjodedimidʉ hipokṹlalʉ, hṹhodɛdimidʉ unique Also ɣṹɣɔdɛdimidʉ uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 1) Couepia: restricted area within Brazil, Rio Purus basin and middle Solimões. 2) Bertholletia: elev: consistently about 200m; mature forests. Widely distributed from Peru, E. Colombia, Brazil to Nicaragua. no tree Amanda Meeks
brown woolly monkey Mono Lanudo Común, Choro, Churucu, mono choro (Peru), mono lanudo cafe, barrigudo de Humboldt macaco barrigudo flora-fauna Lagothrix lagothricha caparo (mico lanudo) kapalo loan - WW %kaparu, via Baniwa e.g. Kabiyari "káparu", Baniwa "káapaɻo"; see also Piaroa "kaparu" uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Amanda Meeks
bullet ant, lesser giant hunter ant conga, hormiga yanabe (Colombia), isula (Peru), Hormiga Veinticuatro tocandira flora-fauna Paraponera clavata missing missing See Language page 2 0 0 0 0 yes Amanda Meeks
butterfly, moth mariposa borboleta flora-fauna order Lepidoptera tataroco (generic term), avinatataroco, boritataroco, buʉtataroco, jiacãratataroco, jímiatataroco, joroboðatataroco, macatataroco, mácatataroco, pácorotataroco, pṹotataroco, pṹotuarotataroco, tépatataroco, vã́ritataroco, vecʉtataroco, yocatataroco, ab tataloko (generic term), avinatataloko, bolitataloko, buʉtataloko, hiakãlatataloko, hímiatataloko, holoboðatataloko, makatataloko, mákatataloko, pákolotataloko, pṹotataloko, pṹotualotataloko, tɛ́patataloko, vã́litataloko, vɛkʉtataloko, jokatataloko, a inheritance East Tukanoan Attested Wanano, Cubeo. Also avinatatalɔkɔ, bɔlitatalɔkɔ, buʉtatalɔkɔ, ɣiakãlatatalɔkɔ, ɣímiatatalɔkɔ, ɣɔlɔbɔðatatalɔkɔ, makatatalɔkɔ, mákatatalɔkɔ, pákɔlɔtatalɔkɔ, pṹɔtatalɔkɔ, pṹɔtualɔtatalɔkɔ, tɛ́patatalɔkɔ, vã́litatalɔkɔ, vɛkʉtatalɔkɔ, jɔkatatalɔkɔ, a uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Amanda Meeks
capybara Capibara, Carpincho, Ronsoco capivara flora-fauna Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris ñare, jiawecʉ (R95) dã'ré̃ unique Also jiawecʉ (R95) uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Amanda Meeks
cashew anarcado, castaña de cajú, nuez de la India, marañon, cajú, merey (Venezuela) caju flora-fauna Anacardium occidentale / giganteum missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens no tree; most sources will not distinguish between occidentale and other varieties Amanda Meeks
cashew anarcado, castaña de cajú, nuez de la India, marañon, cajú, merey (Venezuela) caju flora-fauna Anacardium giganteum missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Brazil, Peru, Suriname, Venezuela, Guyana no
centipede ciempiés centopéia flora-fauna class Chilopoda avimecʉ, cõriárʉ avimɛkʉ, kõliálʉ unique Also kɔ̃liálʉ uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Amanda Meeks
cicada cigarra, chicharra cigarra flora-fauna super fam. Cicadoidea chiaidʉ, ʉjʉyororʉ tʃiaidɨ, ɨhɨjololɨ doubtful loan - WW onomatopoeic May be onomatopoeic. Also ɨɣɨjɔlɔlɨ uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Amanda Meeks
cipó vine tamishi, bejuco, yare cipó flora-fauna Heteropsis spp. missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 secondary forest, floodplain no vine Amanda Meeks
coca coca coca flora-fauna Erythroxylum coca pátu pátu loan direction unknown - WW %patu Wanderwort; shared Arawak (also various others) WW %patu uncoded See Language page 1 0 0 1 1 secondary scrub vegetation. lower alt. of eastern Andes no plant Amanda Meeks
cockroach cucaracha barata-do-mato flora-fauna order Blattaria momaroveco momalovɛko unique uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Amanda Meeks
collared peccary sajino, pecarí de collar, jabalf, Javelina, Saíno, Pecarí de Collar caititu, caetitu flora-fauna Pecari tajacu, Tayassu tajacu vã́ri (general term), vã́rijeje vã́lihɛhɛ, wã́rĩ-hẽhẽ doubtful loan Yanomami Yanomami: Sanuma "wale a", Yanomami "warə"; Types vã́liɣɛɣɛ, wã́rĩ-hẽhẽ uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Amanda Meeks
cotamundi, coatimundi Coatí, Tejón, Achuni, zorro guache quati flora-fauna genus Nasua paipí paipi inheritance uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Amanda Meeks
cotton algodón algodão flora-fauna Gossypium (barbadense: long fibers; hirsutum: short fibers) cuitó kuitó, jɨ'í-bẽ́ (H&R) unique Carib Makushi "kotoʔkaʔ. Also jɨ'í-bẽ́ (inherited; H&R) uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 1 secondary scrub vegetation no plant; some sources may confound with kapok Ceiba pentandra (esp. if a single gloss for 'cotton' is given') Amanda Meeks
crab cangrejo caranguejo flora-fauna infraorder Brachyura cãmidʉ (freshwater, generic term), docʉcãmidʉ, macacãmidʉ, neicamidʉ, taquecãmidʉ kãmidʉ (freshwater, generic term), dokʉkãmidʉ, makakãmidʉ, nɛikamidʉ, takɛkãmidʉ inheritance Proto-Tukanoan Also dɔkʉkãmidʉ, makakãmidʉ, nɛikamidʉ, takɛkãmidʉ uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Amanda Meeks
cricket saltón, grillo grilo flora-fauna family Gryllidae mujuñoco (generic term), caraðo, paðedico, tʉcʉrʉco, yoroco muhuɲoko (generic term), kalaðo, paðɛdiko, tʉkʉlʉko, joloko unique Compare Orejon "musu ago", Secoya "pu'su". Also kalaðɔ, paðɛdikɔ, tʉkʉlʉkɔ, jɔlɔkɔ uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Amanda Meeks
curassow mitu, montete (Peru), paujil/panjuil (Peru), paujil de Salvin (Peru for Mitu salvini) mutum flora-fauna Crax sp., Nothocrax sp. bɨ̃'õ-ko bɨ̃'õ-ko unique uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Amazonia no Amanda Meeks
deer venado veado, cariacu flora-fauna family Cervidae, esp. Odocoileus virginianus ñamaco (generic term), dáñamaco, ñamajuaco, ñamajʉmeco, veacaveco jã'bã́-ko inheritance Proto-Tukanoan Also dáñamaco, ñamajuaco, ñamajʉmeco, veacaveco uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Amanda Meeks
dog (camp, domestic) perro cachorro flora-fauna Canis famililaris yavimi ja'wíbĩ, javimi semantic shift/calque from jaguar + ? May be formed from 'jaguar' uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 Not native; widespread no Amanda Meeks
dog (wild; bush dog) sachaperro, Perro de Monte, Zorro Vinagre, Guanfando; Zorro Ojizarco, Zorro Negro, Perro de Orejas Corta cachorro-do-mato flora-fauna Speothos venaticus; Atelocynus microtis maca tawimi (R95) unique uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonia no Amanda Meeks
dove paloma pomba flora-fauna family Columbidae jureco (generic term), jurituco (paloma colorada), jiaðavitavarʉaco (paloma morada), mujajureco (paloma perdiz cara roja), jureboco (paloma pipa, paloma turca) hulɛko (generic term), hulituko (paloma colorada), hiaðavitavalʉako (paloma morada), muhahulɛko (paloma perdiz cara roja), hulɛboko (paloma pipa, paloma turca) loan Proto-Tukanoan Arawak, esp for hulituko form Compare Siona jure (no other similar terms). Also ɣulitukɔ (paloma colorada), ɣiaðavitavalʉakɔ (paloma morada), muɣaɣulɛkɔ (paloma perdiz cara roja), ɣulɛbɔkɔ (paloma pipa, paloma turca) uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Amanda Meeks
duck pato pato, marreco flora-fauna Anatidae family pátu (generic term), macajitapatu, vã́rari (pato agujan), bedebo (pato granden), ãibedejĩcʉ (pato pequeñon). pátu (generic term), makahitapatu, vã́lali (pato agujan), bɛdɛbo (pato granden), ãibɛdɛhĩkʉ (pato pequeñon). loan Spanish Also makaɣitapatu, vã́lali (pato agujan), bɛdɛbɔ (pato granden), ãibɛdɛɣĩkʉ (pato pequeñon). WW %patu uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Amanda Meeks
edible palm-dwelling larva (palm weevil) suri, mojojoy larva, broca-do-coqueiro, aramandaiá flora-fauna Rhynchophorus sp. missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Amanda Meeks
electric eel anguila eléctrica poraquê flora-fauna Electrophorus electricus bue, puraqui buɛ, pulaki inheritance/loan Tupi-Guarani Nheengatu puraké. Also bue 'eel' (generic) uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 yes Amanda Meeks
fish (generic) pez peixe flora-fauna moacʉ (generic term), búpijĩcʉ, búpiyo, cuitótecarʉ, ẽtaroco, jiatʉravacacʉ, mamʉrʉmoacʉ, ocorʉmoacʉ, põejiaparidʉ moakʉ (generic term), búpihĩkʉ, búpijo, kuitótɛkarʉ, eɛ̃taroko, hiatʉravakacʉ, mamʉrʉmoakʉ, okorʉmoakʉ, põɛhiaparidʉ doubtful loan Bora/Resigaro amoo Also búpiɣĩkʉ, búpijɔ, kuitɔ́tɛkalʉ, eɛ̃talɔkɔ, ɣiatʉlavakacʉ, mamʉlʉmɔakʉ, ɔkɔlʉmɔakʉ, pɔ̃ɛɣiapalidʉ uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Amanda Meeks
fish (large type) paiche, pirarucú o arapaima pirarucu flora-fauna Arapaima gigas ɔpɛ ɔpɛ unique uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 big rivers only no
fish poison, barbasco barbasco, matapez (Colombia) timbó flora-fauna Lonchocarpus spp. cʉ̃́boacʉ, cʉ̃́cʉ, euracʉ, euracʉ ʉrayocacʉ, oteieomu kʉ̃́boakʉ, kʉ̃́kʉ, ɛulakʉ, ɛulakʉ ʉlajokakʉ, otɛiɛomu unknown; inheritance Also kʉ̃́kʉ, ɛulakʉ, ɛulakʉ ʉlajɔkakʉ, ɔtɛiɛɔmu uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 secondary forests and secondary srcrub vegetation yes [used to poison people] shrub/tree Amanda Meeks
flea pulga pulga flora-fauna order Siphonaptera tubacʉ tubakɨ, tu'bá-kɨ unique uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Amanda Meeks
blowfly/housefly mosca mosca flora-fauna Diptera tãitébo tãitébo unique May be cognat with Secoya term uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Amanda Meeks
genipap jagua, majagua - Colombia, caruto, xagua - Venezuela, bigrande - Bolivia, huito, yaguayagua - Peru, ygualti - Nicaragua, maluco - Mexico genipapo, jenipapo flora-fauna Genipapa americana missing missing See Language page 1 0 0 0 0 widespread lowland SA no shrub Amanda Meeks
giant otter Lobo Grande de Río, nutria gigante, lutria ariranha flora-fauna Pteronura brasiliensis jiaðavi hiaðavi unique uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Amanda Meeks
grass hierba, pasto capim, grama flora-fauna (generic) bʉcʉcõriaðo; cõriáðo bɨkɨkõɾiaðo; kõɾiáðo, kõdĩ'ã́ (H&R) unique cf. Arawak kanapi Also bɨkɨkõɾiaðo uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Amanda Meeks
gray-winged trumpeter Grulla, Trompetero Ala Gris jacamim flora-fauna Psophia crepitans tãitʉ́rʉ tãitʉ́lʉ inheritance Proto-Tukanoan uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Northern Amazonia (N of Solimões), not in northern Colombia; Dark-winged trumpeter is found south of Solimões no Amanda Meeks
great egret Garza Blanca, Guyratî Garça-Branca-Grande flora-fauna Ardea alba yai jai inheritance East Tukanoan uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Widespread South America no Amanda Meeks
green acouchi Guatín, Punchana, curi, picurito rabudo, picurito rabilargo cutiara flora-fauna Myoprocta pratti buʉ; jʉbʉcaco (R95) buɨ unique Salser give buɨ (see Agouti) uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Amanda Meeks
guan pava, pucacunga (Peru), pava de Spix (Peru) jacu flora-fauna Penelope sp. muhaðokalʉ, numavɛabolʉ, vɛabolʉ, ɨ̃'rẽ́-bɨ̃ṍ-ko (H&R) muhaðokalʉ, numavɛabolʉ, vɛabolʉ, ɨ̃'rẽ́-bɨ̃ṍ-ko (H&R) unique Compare Witoto múido. Also numavɛabɔlʉ, vɛabɔlʉ, ɨ̃'rẽ́-bɨ̃ṍ-ko uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Different types have different localized ranges no Amanda Meeks
hallucinogenic vine, banisterium, ayahuasca ayahuasca, yage ayahuasca, caapi flora-fauna Banisteriopsis caapi bĩ'hĩ bĩ'hĩ unique missing See Language page 1 0 0 1 0 semi-domesticated, native to Amazonian basin, esp. NW no vine Amanda Meeks
hawk halcón, gavilán gavião flora-fauna family Accipitridae míyavi (generic term), cãtama, ĩeiebʉ (gavilán bidenten), ʉ̃robo (gavilán cangrejeron), toave (gavilán enano, gavilán pantalón), taquemiyavi (gavilán pita venado), cʉrapirebʉ (gavilán plomizo), cavavidi (gavilán tijereta) míjavi, catama, ĩɛiɛbɨ, ɨ̃lobo, toavɛ, takɛmijavi, kɨlapilɛbɨ, kavavidi unique Also cãtama, ĩeiebʉ (gavilán bidenten), ʉ̃robo (gavilán cangrejeron), toave (gavilán enano, gavilán pantalón), taquemiyavi (gavilán pita venado), cʉrapirebʉ (gavilán plomizo), cavavidi (gavilán tijereta) uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Amanda Meeks
horse caballo cavalho flora-fauna Equus caballus caballo cabaju missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Amanda Meeks
hot pepper ají, pimentón/pimiento rojo, pucunucho (Peru), charapilla (Peru) pimenta flora-fauna Capsicum sp., principally chinensis and frutescens bi'á bi'á inheritance Proto-Tukanoan uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 secondary scrub vegetation, indigenous garden no plant Amanda Meeks
howler monkey (red-handed) mono aullador, mono coto (Peru) guariba flora-fauna Alouatta belzebul [or other Alouatta sp.] vao (black), ẽmu (red) vao, ɛ̃mu, ẽ'bú̃ inheritance Proto-Tukanoan Black howler: vaɔ uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Amanda Meeks
hummingbird colibrí, picaflor (Peru) beija-flor flora-fauna family Trochilidae mimiyo (generic term) mimijo, bĩ'bĩ́-jo (H&R) inheritance Proto-Tukanoan Compare Arawak, e.g. Baniwa pími. (Salser mimijɔ) uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 Widespread no Amanda Meeks
iguana iguana, garipiares (Colombia) camaleão flora-fauna Iguana sp. dúpu (generic term), cachiva, chãmaidupu, ẽpadupu, toavaridoacʉ dúpu (generic term), katʃiva, tʃãmaidupu, ɛ̃̃padupu, toavalidoakʉ loan Baniwa doopo (shift from 'lizard') Probably Bainwa dóopo or Tariana dúpu 'small lizard, iguana'; related 'small lizard' term in Wanano and Tanimuca. Also katʃiva, tʃãmaidupu, ɛ̃̃padupu, tɔavalidɔakʉ uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no iguana' is reportedly from Arawak iwana Amanda Meeks
insect (generic) insecto insecto flora-fauna generic missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Amanda Meeks
jaguar yaguar, yaguareté, jaguar, otorongo (Peru), tigre (Peru) onca flora-fauna Panthera onca yavi; yawi, tahwi (R95) ja'wí, javi doubtful loan into protolanguage, direction unknown Arawak (Chacon reconstructs); cf. TG *jawar Compare similar Arawak forms uncoded See Language page 1 2 0 0 0 yes Amanda Meeks
japurá oreja de murcielago japurá flora-fauna Erisma japura missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no large tree Amanda Meeks
kapok ceiba, huimba, lupuna (Peru for Ceiba sp.) sumaumeira flora-fauna Ceiba pentandra boriyʉicʉ, jũayʉicʉ, jṹmeyʉicʉ, míyʉicʉ, yʉicʉ bolijʉikʉ, hũajʉikʉ, hṹmɛjʉikʉ, míjʉikʉ, jʉikʉ unique Also bɔlijʉikʉ, ɣũajʉikʉ, ɣṹmɛjʉikʉ, míjʉikʉ uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 northern South America and central America; common in disturbed areas no tree Amanda Meeks
açai palm huasí (Peru), asahi, manaca (Ven), asaí, palmiche (Colombia) açaí flora-fauna Euterpe sp. ẽmimoeñʉ ẽmimoejɨ inheritance Proto-Tukanoan uncoded See Language page 2 1 0 0 0 floodplains, swamp; esp. northern Amazonia no Amanda Meeks
cará tuber, purple or white camote, sachapapa cará roxo, branco flora-fauna Dioscorea sp. yapica japika inheritance Same as 'sweet potato' Broader (also means 'sweet potato') uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 secondary scrub vegetation; forest clearings no plant Amanda Meeks
kingfisher martín pescador, catalan (Peru) martim-pescador flora-fauna family Alcedinidae jãja xãxa inheritance Proto-Tukanoan uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonia no Amanda Meeks
leaf-cutter ant Colombia: zampopo, hormiga arriera; Venezuela: bachaco; Peru: curuhuinse saúva flora-fauna Atta sp. missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Amanda Meeks
firefly, lightning bug lampírido, luciérnaga (Peru), añañahui (Peru), cocuyo (attributed Taino origin) vagalume flora-fauna fam: Elateridae, Fengodidae, Lampyridae ñaparocʉ, utuve ɲapalokʉ, utuvɛ unique Also utuvɛ uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Amanda Meeks
macaw ara, guacamaya Arara flora-fauna family Psittacidae; Ara sp. no generic term; májʉmecʉ ('blue and yellow macaw'); ma ('gucamayu bandera; also: 'red macaw') ma, 'bã́ (H&R), máxɨmekɨ inheritance Proto-Tukanoan Guahiban Proto-Guahiban; e.g. Macaguan máha. Also májʉmecʉ ('blue and yellow macaw'); Narrower (red macaw) uncoded See Language page 1 1 0 0 1 Widespread Amazonia no Amanda Meeks
maize, corn mazorca, maiz milho flora-fauna Zea mays veavʉ vɛavʉ, we'á (H&R) doubtful loan into protolanguage - old WW Proto-Tukanoan %bea Possible Wanderwort? Northern Embera: bée; Witoto: beja. Reconstructs to WT. Also a loan into Nukak, prob. from Cubeo. WW %be uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 widespread, esp. in river floodplains no plant Amanda Meeks
manatee vaca marina, manatí peixe-boi flora-fauna Trichechus sp. missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Amanda Meeks
mandi catfish maparate (used in Peru for some types of catfish, including Auchenipterus sp.), cunchi (used in Peru for some types of catfish), bagre (catfish) mandi flora-fauna Auchenipterus sp. jimidʉ, mamʉjimidʉ,yavijimidʉ, yécajimidʉ himidʉ, mamʉhimidʉ, javihimidʉ, jɛ́kahimidʉ unique Also mamʉɣimidʉ, javiɣimidʉ, jɛ́kaɣimidʉ uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonia no Amanda Meeks
manioc (bitter or generic) yuca brava mandioca flora-fauna Manihot esculenta cʉica kʉika, kɨ'í inheritance Proto-Tukanoan Compare Arawak forms w/ ka uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 not generally cultivated in western (subAndean) Amazon. Arroyo-Kalin (2010) argues for a correlation with distribution of dark earths, mostly formed after 1AD, and the modeled-incised pottery tradition. no Provides more starch and is more pest-resistant than the sweet variety, but requires much processing. Arroyo-Kalin (2010) proposes that bitter type was developed from sweet through post-ceremic agricultural intensification (motivated by high starch yield Amanda Meeks
manioc (sweet) yuca, caribe macaxeira flora-fauna Manihot esculenta ãicʉica ãikʉika unknown other complex Unidentified morpheme ãi + kʉi 'manioc' See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Primary staple in western/subAndean Amazonia, less important elsewhere no No processing required, but lower starch yield and pest resistance than bitter variety Amanda Meeks
miriti palm moriche (Col, Ven), aguaje (Col, Peru), achual, miriti buriti flora-fauna Mauritia flexuosa machi, ũmenami matʃi, ũmɛnami doubtful loan, direction unknown Carib: Waimiri Atroari miʃi Waimiri-Atroari miʃi; not attested in other Carib languages in database. Also ũmɛnami uncoded See Language page 2 1 0 0 0 Brazil, Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guyana, Peru, Venezuela; in and near swamps no trunks contain sago-like starch Amanda Meeks
mosquito mosquito, zancudo mosquito, carapana flora-fauna Anopheles sp. miacʉ miakɨ, bɨ̃'rẽ́-kɨ inheritance Proto-Tukanoan uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Amanda Meeks
moth mariposa nocturna, polilla mariposa flora-fauna order Lepidoptera bʉbebo bʉbɛbo inheritance Cubeo-Tanimuca subgroup only uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Amanda Meeks
mushroom champiñón, hongo cogumelo flora-fauna (any edible generic) chĩchi (generic term), abujutoa, cũmuchĩchi tʃĩtʃi (generic term), abuhutoa, kũmutʃĩtʃi unknown Also abuɣutɔa, kũmutʃĩtʃi uncoded See Language page 0 2 0 0 0 no prioritize generic term that includes any edible species Amanda Meeks
neotropical otter (small) Nutria, Lobo de Agua, lobito de rio, perro de agua (Colombia) lontra flora-fauna Lontra longicaudis tʉmi tɨ'bĩ, tʉmi inheritance Means both giant otter and small otter across various ET languages; not clear which meaning may have been original uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Amanda Meeks
opossum zarigüeya, rabipelado, zorro, zorrillo mucura flora-fauna family Didelphidae jʉjʉve; mate (R95) xɨxɨve unique Also mate (R95) uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Amanda Meeks
owl (large) búho, lechuza corujão flora-fauna order Strigiformes pupuri (generic term),burucutucʉ pupuli (generic term), pu'púri (H&R), bulukutukʉ loan - WW; loan - WW %pupu; %murukutu / kurukutu, both via North Arawak - prob. Baniwa Kabiyari púpuri or Tariana púpuli. Also pu'púri, bulukutukʉ WW %pupu Broader (generic owl?) uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 Widespread no Amanda Meeks
paca (lowland) Guanta, Paca, Majaz, majás (Peru), labba (Guyana) paca flora-fauna Cuniculus paca (Agouti paca is sometimes used as well although cuniculus is the correct term.) jemebo hɛmɛbo, he'bé̃-bo inheritance Proto-Tukanoan uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Amanda Meeks
pacu fish palometa, garopita, garopa, curhuara (Peru) pacu flora-fauna Mylossoma sp. cãtamabo, cʉramucuribo, dárãpiaribo, numaaburidʉ kãtamabo, kʉlamukulibo, dálãpialibo, numaabulidʉ loan Arawak (Baniwa) Baniwa káattama (see also Kabiyari). Also kʉlamukulibɔ, dálãpialibɔ, numaabulidʉ uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Amanda Meeks
palm for roof thatch pui, irapay, hoja de irapay, caraná caraná flora-fauna Mauritiella armata OR Lepidocaryum tenue (irapay), Mauritius carana chínañʉ tʃínaɲʉ loan direction unknown Unknown Baniwa "t̪íɲa", different forms attested in other Arawak lgs in database. uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 Mauritia carana is limited principally to the Rio Negro and Upper Orinoco regions; dry catinga forests no palm Amanda Meeks
parrot loro real, loro (Sp. form is a loan from Carib) papagaio flora-fauna Amazona amazonica veco, vecobo (loro burrón), ẽ́jia (loro de cabeza de gavilán), tureórʉ (loro guaro, loro real), cʉpeveco (loro verde) vɛko, vɛkobo (loro burrón), ɛ̃́̃́hia (loro de cabeza de gavilán), tulɛólʉ (loro guaro, loro real), kʉpɛvɛko (loro verde), we'kó (H&R) inheritance Proto-Tukanoan Also ɛ̃́̃́ɣia (loro de cabeza de gavilán), tulɛɔ́lʉ (loro guaro, loro real), kʉpɛvɛkɔ (loro verde), we'kó Narrower (unclear) uncoded See Language page 1 0 0 0 1 Widespread no Amanda Meeks
paxiuba palm pona, huacrapona, cashapona, macanilla, pachiuba paxiuba flora-fauna Iriartea exorrhiza OR Iriartea deltoidea ñóveañʉ ñóveañʉ unknown uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonia no palm Amanda Meeks
peach palm, pejibaye palm chontaduro (Col, Ecuador); pipire (Col); pijuayo (Peru), pijiguao (Ven); tembe (Bol) pupunha flora-fauna Bactris gasipaes ṹre ṹlɛ inheritance Proto-Tukanoan uncoded See Language page 2 1 0 0 0 no Amanda Meeks
peanut maní (may be loan from Taino Arawak), cacahuete amendoim flora-fauna Arachis hypogaea missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no plant Amanda Meeks
pineapple piña abacaxi flora-fauna Ananas comosus iji, ijibo (both generic terms), cóijibo, doðeijibo, máijibo, vecʉijibo ihi, ihibo (both generic terms), kóihibo, doðɛihibo, máihibo, vɛkʉihibo semantic shift? Proto-Tukanoan from caraua? Otherwise attested in West Tuk only. Also kɔ́iɣibɔ, dɔðɛiɣibɔ, máiɣibɔ, vɛkʉiɣibɔ uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no plant Amanda Meeks
pirana piraña, caribe piranha flora-fauna subfamily Serrasalmidae muñubo, tãchimuñurʉ muɲubo, tãtʃimuɲulʉ, bũ'jṹ-bo (H&R) inheritance Proto-Tukanoan Also tãtʃimuɲulʉ, uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonia no [not in this region] Amanda Meeks
porcupine puerco espín, erizo (Peru), casha cushillo (Peru) cuandu, porco-espinho flora-fauna family Erethizontidae varorʉ vaɾoɾɨ doubtful loan (into protolg?) East Tukanoan Carib, cf. Wai Wai waaro, also Yukuna walo uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Amanda Meeks
potato papa batata flora-fauna Solanum tuberosum missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 secondary scrub vegetation no compare entries for sweet potato Amanda Meeks
praying mantis, stick insects mantis religiosa louva-a-deus flora-fauna order Mantodea, family Mantidae ábijoco ábihoko unique uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Amanda Meeks
rubber tree (sorva) caucho, siringa, shiringa seringa, borracha flora-fauna Hevea sp. yɛ́ka jɛ́ka loan direction unknown North Arawak Tariana jeká-na; Baniwa dzéeka. But compare Secoya ɨka uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonia no tree Amanda Meeks
scorpion escorpión; alacran escorpião flora-fauna order Scorpiones muri muli semantic shift from centipede Some East Tuk languages appear to have undergone shift scorpion > centipede; but the reverse direction could also have applied. uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 yes Amanda Meeks
seje palm ungurahui (Peru), palma de seje, milpesos, patabá patoá, patuá flora-fauna Jessenia bataua, aka Oenocarpus bataua missing missing See Language page 2 1 0 0 0 mostly north of Equator; common in Amazonia no may be confused with O. bacaba - compare entries Amanda Meeks
sloth pereza, pelejo (Peru), perezoso (Peru) macaco preguica flora-fauna Choloepus sp., Bradypus sp. jurãro hulãlo inheritance East Tukanoan, Branch I uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonia no Amanda Meeks
small lizard lagartija calango flora-fauna order Squamata bʉ́yoco (término genérico), cõjabʉyoco bʉ́joko (término genérico), kõhabʉjoko doubtful loan, direction unknown Carijona moyoci Also kɔ̃ɣabʉjɔkɔ uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Amanda Meeks
snail caracol, churo (Peru) caracol flora-fauna class Gastropoda cavarʉ kavalʉ doubtful loan Arawak? see Cayapa; shared Tanimuca uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Amanda Meeks
snake (generic) culebra, serpiente cobra flora-fauna no generic term ã'jã́ inheritance Proto-Tukanoan uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Amanda Meeks
snake (poisonous generic) or rattlesnake víbora (Peru), jergón (Peru), yarara jararaca flora-fauna Bothrops jararaca/atrox bu'tʃí-we bu'tʃí-we unique uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 Widespread South America yes Amanda Meeks
speckled catfish surubí, pintadillo surubim, sorubim flora-fauna Pseudoplatystoma sp. missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonia no Amanda Meeks
spider araña aranha flora-fauna Arachnidae, Araneae pṹpʉbo (generic term), ãcabo, boabéjevʉ, cuidópṹpʉbo, õporʉ, õpoyabe, taiyo, tãupʉpʉbo (araña del sol), moapʉpʉbo (araña pescador) pṹpʉbo (generic term), ãkabo, boabɛ́hɛvʉ, kuidópṹpʉbo, õpolʉ, õpojabɛ, taijo, tãupʉpʉbo (araña del sol), moapʉpʉbo (araña pescador) inheritance East Tukanoan Also ãkabɔ, bɔabɛ́ɣɛvʉ, kuidɔ́pṹpʉbɔ, ɔ̃pɔlʉ, ɔ̃pɔjabɛ, taijɔ, tãupʉpʉbɔ (araña del sol), mɔapʉpʉbɔ (araña pescador) uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Amanda Meeks
squash calabaza, calabacines, auyamas, zapallos, huingo (Peru) abóbora flora-fauna Cucurbita sp. ho'kó-rɨ ho'kó-rɨ missing Proto-Tukanoan Broader (also means bottle-gourd) uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no plant Amanda Meeks
squirrel ardilla, danta (Ven) serelepe, quatipuru, esquilo flora-fauna family Sciuridae buchitʉ̃rorʉ, jʉ̃jorʉ butʃitʉ̃lolʉ, hʉ̃holʉ unique Also ɣʉ̃ɣɔlʉ uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Amanda Meeks
stingray (generic) rayas látigo, raya arraia flora-fauna Potamotrygon sp. pãramebo (with stinger) pãlamɛbo (with stinger) unique uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Amanda Meeks
potato, sweet potato camote, batata dulce, batata, cumara batata-doce flora-fauna Ipomoea batatas yapica japika, ja'pí inheritance East Tukanoan Broader (also means cara) uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no plant Amanda Meeks
tapir sachavaca, danta anta flora-fauna Tapirus terrestris vecʉ we'kɨ́, vɛkʉ inheritance Proto-Tukanoan uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Amanda Meeks
termites, white-ants comején (Peru), termitas cupim flora-fauna order Isoptera bocomicʉ (generic term), abujucʉñʉabo, adamabocomicʉ, cũavicʉ, jobocururebocomicʉ, jupibocomicʉ, jʉbʉcabocomicʉ, mamʉbocomicʉ, miebocomicʉ, vaibocomicʉ, yavibocomicʉ. vʉ́yocʉ (comején alado, generic term), adamabocomivʉyocʉ (comején alado), cũavivʉyocʉ bokomikʉ (generic term), abuhucʉñʉabo, adamabokomikʉ, kũavikʉ, hobokululebokomikʉ, hupibokomikʉ, hʉbʉkabokomikʉ, mamʉbokomikʉ, miɛbokomikʉ, vaibokomikʉ, javibokomikʉ. vʉ́jokʉ (comején alado, generic term), adamabokomivʉjokʉ (comején alado), kũavivʉjokʉ inheritance East Tukanoan Cognate Makuna. Also abuɣucʉñʉabɔ, adamabɔkɔmikʉ, kũavikʉ, ɣɔbɔkululebɔkɔmikʉ, ɣupibɔkɔmikʉ, ɣʉbʉkabɔkɔmikʉ, mamʉbɔkɔmikʉ, miɛbɔkɔmikʉ, vaibɔkɔmikʉ, javibɔkɔmikʉ. vʉ́jɔkʉ (comején alado, generic term), adamabɔkɔmivʉjɔkʉ (comején alado), kũavivʉjɔkʉ (comej uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Amanda Meeks
tick garrapata carrapato flora-fauna superfam Ixodoidea cõðojobo (generic term), beicõðojobo, tẽumacoðojobo, vecʉcõðojobo kõðohobo (generic term), bɛikõðohobo, tɛ̃umakoðohobo, vɛkʉkõðohobo inheritance Proto-Tukanoan Cognate West Tukanoan. Also bɛikɔ̃ðɔɣɔbɔ, tɛ̃umakɔðɔɣɔbɔ, vɛkʉkɔ̃ðɔɣɔbɔ uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Amanda Meeks
tigerfish taraira, guabina, huasaco (Peru) traíra flora-fauna Hoplias sp. betacajaime, jaijome, jaime, jaiñemicʉ bɛtakahaimɛ, haihomɛ, haimɛ, haiɲɛmikʉ unique Also ɣaiɣɔmɛ, ɣaimɛ, ɣaiɲɛmikʉ uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonia no Amanda Meeks
tinamou tinamu, perdiz, gallineta inambu, inhambu flora-fauna family Tinamidae ãcabo (gallineta) ãkabo (gallineta) inheritance East Tukanoan uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonia no Amanda Meeks
toad sapo sapo flora-fauna order Anura bʉbʉco (generic term), cṹrabʉbʉco, ãchibʉbʉco (sapo gigante) bʉbʉko (generic term), bɨ'hɨ́-ko (H&R), kṹlabʉbʉko, ãtʃibʉbʉko (sapo gigante) unique Also kṹlabʉbʉkɔ, ãtʃibʉbʉkɔ (sapo gigante) uncoded See Language page 0 2 0 0 0 no Amanda Meeks
tobacco tabaco tabaco flora-fauna Nicotiana tabacum buchi, buchitʉrava bu'tʃí, butʃitʉlava unique Also butʃitʉlava uncoded See Language page 1 0 0 0 1 no plant Amanda Meeks
tortoise (red foot, yellow foot/giant) tortuga, morrocoy, motelo jabutí, tartaruga flora-fauna Yellow-footed: Geochelone denticulata; Red-footed: Geochelone carbonaria cũʉbo (generic term), ijicũʉbo, jiacũʉbo, tépacũʉbo, ʉ̃recuʉbo, yaðacũʉbo. kũʉbo, kũ'ɨ́̃-bo (generic term), ihikũʉbo, hiakũʉbo, tɛ́pakũʉbo, ʉ̃lɛkuʉbo, jaðakũʉbo. inheritance Proto-Tukanoan Also iɣikũʉbɔ, ɣiakũʉbɔ, tɛ́pakũʉbɔ, ʉ̃lɛkuʉbɔ, jaðakũʉbɔ. uncoded See Language page 2 1 0 0 0 Widespread no Amanda Meeks
toucan tucán, pinsha (Peru) tucano flora-fauna Ramphastos sp. joeve (generic term) hoɛvɛ (generic term), ho'é-we (H&R) unique (Salser & Salser ɣɔɛvɛ) uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonia no Amanda Meeks
tree árbol arvore flora-fauna jocʉcʉ (generic term) xokɨkɨ(generic term), ho'kɨ́-kɨ inheritance Proto-Tukanoan uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Amanda Meeks
tufted capuchin monkey mono negro (Peru), Machín Negro, Maicero Cachón, mono maicero macaco prego flora-fauna Cebus apella taque (capuchin); tanque (R95) ta'ké, takɛ inheritance Proto-Tukanoan uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Amanda Meeks
cunuri (tree) cunuri cunuri flora-fauna Cunurea spruceana missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Amazonia no
ucuqui yugo, caimitillo del monte (Peru) ucuqui flora-fauna Pouteria ucuqui missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 native to NW Amazonia, found primarily in Vaupes and Caqueta regions no other species of Pouteria exist and have much-used edible fruit; these can be subsituted where relevant Amanda Meeks
vulture buitre, gallinazo, rinahui (Peru) urubu flora-fauna family Cathartidae cava kava, ka'wá unique uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 Widespread South America no Amanda Meeks
wasp avispa; specific type: ronzapa/ronsapa caba flora-fauna order Hymenoptera, sub: Apocrita uchicʉ (generic term), abujubiacacʉ, bejocʉ, boborocʉ, cãricauchicʉ, cãrajʉmeuchicʉ, chĩorocauchicʉ, dainamiuchicʉ, dáuchicʉ, diñʉuchicʉ, ẽpamuuchicʉ, jẽmeuchicʉ, jʉbʉcauchicʉ, marucuuchicʉ, momauchicʉ, ñenenecʉ, pãmuuchicʉ, penabacʉ, piaráuchicʉ, pup utʃikʉ (generic term), abuhubiakakʉ, bɛhokʉ, bobolokʉ, kãlikautʃikʉ, kãlahʉmɛutʃikʉ, tʃĩorokautʃikʉ, dainamiutʃikʉ, dáutʃikʉ, diɲʉutʃikʉ, ɛ̃pamuutʃikʉ, hɛ̃mɛutʃikʉ, hʉbʉkautʃikʉ, malukuutʃikʉ, momautʃikʉ, ɲɛnɛnɛkʉ, pãmuutʃikʉ, pɛnabakʉ, pialáutʃikʉ, pup inheritance Proto-Tukanoan Also abuɣubiakakʉ, bɛɣɔkʉ, bɔbɔlɔkʉ, kãlikautʃikʉ, kãlaɣʉmɛutʃikʉ, tʃĩɔrɔkautʃikʉ, dainamiutʃikʉ, dáutʃikʉ, diɲʉutʃikʉ, ɛ̃pamuutʃikʉ, ɣɛ̃mɛutʃikʉ, ɣʉbʉkautʃikʉ, malukuutʃikʉ, mɔmautʃikʉ, ɲɛnɛnɛkʉ, pãmuutʃikʉ, pɛnabakʉ, pialáutʃikʉ, pupuliutʃikʉ, pʉɛkuluut uncoded See Language page 0 2 0 0 0 no Amanda Meeks
white-fronted capuchin Machín Blanco, mono blanco, Maicero Cariblanco, mono blanco (Peru) Caiarara flora-fauna Cebus albifrons waha waha missing Salser gives taque (mico capuchino) uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Amanda Meeks
white-fronted spider monkey Machin Blanco, Mono Araña de Vientre Amarillo, maquisapa (Peru), braceadora (Colombia) macaco aranha, coatá, quatá flora-fauna Ateles belzebuth/paniscus cuatá (Spider Monkey) wa'ó, kuatá (Spider Monkey) inheritance; loan - WW %kowata Probable Arawak source; e.g. Yucuna kuwatá; Wanderwort: probable loan (from Cubeo?) into Kakua "koatá", and (from Arawak?) into Waimiri Atroari "kwata". Also wa'ó WW %kuata uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Amanda Meeks
white-lipped peccary Chancho de Monte, Cariblanco, Huangana queixada flora-fauna Tayassu pecari ɨ'rá-wɨ-ká-kɨ ɨ'rá-wɨ-ká-kɨ unique warí (R95) uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Amanda Meeks
Amazon tree-grape uva de monte, uvilla (Peru), puruma, caime, caimarona (and variants; Col.) cucura flora-fauna Pourouma cecropiifolia missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 grows wild in Western Amazon basin; cultivated in Colombia since pre-Colombian times no a tree; not a true grape Amanda Meeks
woodpecker pájaro carpintero, carpintero pica-pau flora-fauna family Picidae kɔ̃lɛkɔ (generic term), takɛkɔ̃lɛkɔ (carpintero amarillo), kɔ̃lɛkɔ ʉlakɔ (carpintero gigante), pĩkɔlɛnɛkɔ (carpintero negro azul), kɔ̃lɛkɔ ʉlakɔ (carpintero pescuecirrojo), pidukɔ̃lɛkɔ (carpintero rabadilla roja), javikɔ̃lɛkɔ (carpintero real barbirrayad inheritance Proto-Tukanoan Also takɛkɔ̃lɛkɔ (carpintero amarillo), kɔ̃lɛkɔ ʉlakɔ (carpintero gigante), pĩkɔlɛnɛkɔ (carpintero negro azul), kɔ̃lɛkɔ ʉlakɔ (carpintero pescuecirrojo), pidukɔ̃lɛkɔ (carpintero rabadilla roja), javikɔ̃lɛkɔ (carpintero real barbirrayado), pĩkɔkɔlɛkɔ (carp uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonia no Amanda Meeks
tannia, yautia huitina (Peru), ñame taioba branca flora-fauna Xanthosoma spp. ñamuca, mʉreñamuca jã'bṹ (H&R), ɲamuka, mʉlɛɲamuka inheritance Proto-Tukanoan Also mʉlɛɲamuka uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Amanda Meeks
hallucinogenic snuff vilca, cebil, yopo paricá, yopo flora-fauna Anadenanthera sp. or virola See Language page Amanda Meeks
dog (camp, domestic) perro cachorro flora-fauna yavimi javimi inheritance See Language page Epps Research Team
deer venado veado, cariacu flora-fauna ñamaco (generic term), dáñamaco, ñamajuaco, ñamajʉmeco, veacaveco ɲamakɔ, dáɲamakɔ, ɲamaɣuakɔ, ɲamaɣɨmɛkɔ, vɛakavɛkɔ inheritance See Language page Epps Research Team


Cultural Vocabulary (106)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Word Structure Word Structure Notes General Notes Source Created By
afterworld, land of dead, Heaven tierra do los muertos terra dos mortos culture-mythology apetucubʉ apɛtukubʉ unknown Other complex ape 'other' + Classifier -tukubɨ See Language page Tanja Baeuerlein; Alyssa Wadley
arrow flecha flecha subsistence tool bejo, bejoboca, bejoðo, tẽ́muyo bɛho, bɛhoboka, bɛhoðo, tɛ̃́mujo inheritance Proto-East Tukanoan Also: bɛhɔðɔ, tɛ̃́mujɔ Simplex hunting, warfare See Language page Tanja Baeuerlein; Alyssa Wadley
axe/stone axe hacha (de piedra) machado (de pedra) subsistence tool joecʉ, joetʉrʉva, abujujoedʉ (stone) hoekʉ, hoetɨrɨva, abuhuhoedʉ (stone) stone axe unique Also: joecʉ, joetʉrʉva (general axe) Also: joecʉ, joetʉrʉva (general axe) Also: joecʉ, joetʉrʉva (general axe) Also: joecʉ, joetʉrʉva (general axe) Also: joecʉ, joetʉrʉva (general axe) Also: joecʉ, joetʉrʉva (general axe) Also: joecʉ, joetʉrʉva (general a Classifier -dɨ especially for clearing fields See Language page Tanja Baeuerlein; Alyssa Wadley
bait for fishing cebo, carnada para pescar, empate (Peru) isca subsistence tool cainipãi kainipãi missing can refer to worms; more generic See Language page Tanja Baeuerlein; Alyssa Wadley
basin/bowl tazón, plato hondo, taza tijela culture-material cõaido kõaido unknown Derived Classifier -do See Language page Tanja Baeuerlein; Alyssa Wadley
basket (general) canasta, canasto, cesta cesto culture-material pɨe basket inheritance Proto-East Tukanoan Itself acts as a classifier Simplex See Language page Epps Research Group
basket, small canasta, canasto, cesta cesto pequeno, tampado culture-material missing See Language page Tanja Baeuerlein; Alyssa Wadley
bead abalorio, mostacilla, cuenta, gota, puca; necklace=collar miçanga culture-material missing See Language page Tanja Baeuerlein; Alyssa Wadley
bed cama cama culture-material paraino paraino doubtful loan Witotoan Quechua source? See Language page Tanja Baeuerlein; Alyssa Wadley
bench, seat banco, silla, asiento banco culture-material ñʉaca ɲɨa-ka inheritance Proto-Tukanoan Classifier -ka See Language page Tanja Baeuerlein; Alyssa Wadley
blowgun cerbatana, pucuna (Peru) zarabatana subsistence tool pʉ̃́oñʉ pɨ̃o-ɲɨ unique Derived Classifier -ɲɨ currently limited to certain groups (favoring h-g orientation, e.g. Nadahup) within RN region See Language page Tanja Baeuerlein; Alyssa Wadley
bottle botella garrafa acculturation tãubʉ tãu-bɨ unique Also:tãuhibʉ Derived metal/glass + Classifier bɨ See Language page Tanja Baeuerlein; Alyssa Wadley
bow arco arco subsistence tool tẽ́mutarabʉ tɛ̃́mutara-bɨ inheritance Proto-East Tukanoan Classifier -bɨ arco See Language page Tanja Baeuerlein; Alyssa Wadley
broom escoba vassoura culture-material oeibo oɛi-bo inheritance Proto-East Tukanoan Derived sweep + Class. -bo See Language page Tanja Baeuerlein; Alyssa Wadley
canoe canoa canoa transport ejecuicũ, jiaðocũ ɛhɛkuikũ, hiaðo-kũ unique Chacon states that hiaðo is a tree sp. Also: ɛhɛkuikũ Derived Classifier -kũ See Language page Tanja Baeuerlein; Alyssa Wadley
cat gato gato acculturation pichana pitʃana loan - WW %pisana probably originally from Port bicho 'small animal'; compare E. Tukano, (e.g. Desano pisana); Arawak (e.g. Tariana pisána); Carib (Makushi pisana; Pemon pitʃana); Kakua pitʃina. But note Quechua 'broom' pitʃana WW %pisana Simplex See Language page Tanja Baeuerlein; Alyssa Wadley
chicken gallina galinha acculturation cáyucore kájukore unknown cf. %kara See Language page Tanja Baeuerlein; Alyssa Wadley
chief/leader jefe, cacique chefe culture-mythology cõjeipõecʉ kõhɛipõkʉ unknown Also:cʉrõcacʉ, jabocʉ Compound ?-person-classifier -kɨ See Language page Tanja Baeuerlein; Alyssa Wadley
club garrote, cachiporra clava, porrete subsistence tool pidãibã-jo (Chacon) pidãibã-jo (Chacon) war club unknown Classifier -jo 'long and sharp' See Language page Tanja Baeuerlein; Alyssa Wadley
coca narcotics pátu Loan direction unknown Local Maybe originally Tukanoan or Arawak? Nheengatu ipadu; Arawak (e.g. Tariana hipatú); Carijona ihatu; E. Tukano (e.g. Bará 'pátu); Daw WW %patu Simplex See Language page Epps Research Group
cook food food bóa-jɨ Unique Also: kĩkajɨ; xatɨójɨ Simplex See Language page Epps Research Group
Curupira (spirit type) Curupira, Madremonte Curupira culture-mythology awawako awawako loan direction unknown Baniwa? Also: kuidã ope-ko (one breast-FEM) Simplex malignant forest spirit, covered with long hair, feet turned backward; in Upper Rio Negro region See Language page Tanja Baeuerlein; Alyssa Wadley
dance (generic) culture-mythology upa-jɨ Unique See Language page Epps Research Group
dart (blowgun) dardo, birote (Peru), bala (Peru) dardo, seta subsistence tool pʉ̃́oðo pɨ̃́o-ðo unique Compare Koreguaje xʉodʒo Derived Classifier -ðo hunting and warfare See Language page Tanja Baeuerlein; Alyssa Wadley
deity/powerful spirit/culture figure dios(es), deidad divinidade, figura mítica culture-mythology jʉ̃menijicʉ hʉ̃mɛnihikʉ unknown Does NOT seem to derive from 'bone'. Classifier -kɨ In RN region, frequently translates as 'Bone-Son', 'One on the bone', etc. See Language page Tanja Baeuerlein; Alyssa Wadley
digging stick subsistence tool Missing See Language page Epps Research Group
dream sueño, soñar sonho, sonhar culture-mythology vʉo vʉo missing See Language page Tanja Baeuerlein; Alyssa Wadley
drum tambor tambor culture-mythology tẽmuribʉ tɛ̃muribʉ loan Portuguese (via Nheengatu?) Baniwa < > Cubeo? Span/Port source; see Baniwa tamoɻína; Carijona taburu; Nheengatu tamburina; Ninam tambor; Aguarana family WW %tamburina Classifier -bɨ See Language page Tanja Baeuerlein; Alyssa Wadley
fan abanico abanador, abano subsistence tool ñucaba ɲukaba loan, direction unknown Proto-East Tukanoan Piapoco, also shared Tuyuka Also in Tuyuka Classifier -ba esp. for fanning a cooking fire See Language page Tanja Baeuerlein; Alyssa Wadley
feather headdress plumaje, corona de plumas enfeite/capacete de penas culture-mythology mápenado mápɛnado inheritance Proto-Tukanoan Also in Siona, mabë See Language page Tanja Baeuerlein; Alyssa Wadley
fetish, charm fetiche, encanto, filtro de amor, pusanga feitiço, puçanga culture-mythology missing See Language page Tanja Baeuerlein; Alyssa Wadley
fireplace hogar lareira other missing See Language page Tanja Baeuerlein; Alyssa Wadley
firewood leña lenha other peca; pecave peka; pekave inheritance Proto-Tukanoan Classifier -vɛ See Language page Tanja Baeuerlein; Alyssa Wadley
fish (with fish-poison) pescar con barbasco, barbasquear pescar com timbó; tinguijar food missing See Language page Tanja Baeuerlein; Alyssa Wadley
fish (with line) anzuelear, pescar con linea pescar (com linha) food moacʉ (general 'to fish') moakɨ (generar 'to fish') inheritance Proto-Tukanoan See Language page Tanja Baeuerlein; Alyssa Wadley
fish poison barbasco, matapez (Colombia) timbó subsistence tool eo inheritance Proto-Tukanoan Also: kʉ̃́bɔakʉ, kʉ̃́kʉ, ɛulakʉ, ɛulakʉ ʉlajɔkakʉ, ɔtɛiɛɔmu Simplex See Language page Epps Research Group
fishing line cordel/cuerda p/ pescar, sedal, tanze linha de pesca subsistence tool jajovaime hahovaimɛ unknown May be calque or inherited complex form in Tukanoan Derived fish(v.)+ Classifier -mɛ See Language page Tanja Baeuerlein; Alyssa Wadley
fishtrap trampa de peces, trampa matapi, cacuri subsistence tool biaróido, caibá, cobobʉ, dorido, jivaiba, joquedo, ñʉoibo, yuriábʉ, yuyaido (all various traps), ẽmido (trampa para peces muy pequeños) biaróido, kaibá, kobobɨ, dorido, hivaiba, hokɛdo, ɲɨoibo, juriábɨ, jujaido (arr various traps), ɛ̃mido(trampa para peces muy pequeños) matapi unknown Also: dɔlidɔ, bialɔ́idɔ, kaibá, kɔbɔbʉ, dɔlidɔ, hivaiba, hɔkɛdɔ, ɲʉɔibɔ, juliábʉ, jujaidɔ (all various traps), ɛ̃midɔ (for very small fish) Classifier -bɨ (container) See Language page Tanja Baeuerlein; Alyssa Wadley
flat bread, cassava bread pan de yuca, casabe/cazabe beiju food ãuro ãuro inheritance Proto-Tukanoan Simplex usually manioc; agriculture, but also can be made from certain wild seeds/fruits See Language page Tanja Baeuerlein; Alyssa Wadley
flour/meal from manioc fariña, mañoco (Venezuela); harina farinha food jʉtʉra hɨtɨra unique la may mark mass nouns? agriculture See Language page Tanja Baeuerlein; Alyssa Wadley
flute flauta, quena (Peru) flauta culture-mythology japuiñʉ (generic term), cũmatʉcarʉ, cʉ̃raiñʉ, jʉaiñʉ, ñamacuaðo, ñamajipobʉ, peduyo, tarãiyo hapuiɲʉ (generic term), kũmatʉkarʉ, kʉ̃raiɲʉ, hʉaiɲʉ, ɲamakuaðo, ɲamahipobʉ, pɛdujo, tarãijo doubtful loan; unknown cf. Baniwa -hipoanhiko 'play flute' Also: kũmatʉkalʉ, kʉ̃laiɲʉ, hʉaiɲʉ, ɲamakuaðɔ, ɲamahipɔbʉ, pɛdujɔ, talãijɔ Classifier -ɲɨ multiple types? japurutu, deer-bone, etc. See Language page Tanja Baeuerlein; Alyssa Wadley
game animal caza, animal de caza caça, animal de caça food ã-i-bãrã (eat-ST-PAS.AN.P) ã-i-bãrã (eat-ST-PAS.AN.P) unique Derived eat-ST-PAS.AN.P ('eaten ones [anim]') Interesting correlation to 'fish' in Tukanoan languages See Language page Tanja Baeuerlein; Alyssa Wadley
genipap culture-mythology Missing See Language page Epps Research Group
gourd (dipper/bowl) cucharón, pate (Peru), totomo, totuma, totumo cuia subsistence tool jococʉ, mújive hokokʉ, múhivɛ inheritance See Language page Tanja Baeuerlein; Alyssa Wadley
grater rallador, rallo ralador, ralo subsistence tool pedicũ pɛdikũ unknown Classifier -kũ esp. for grating manioc, but can be used for other things as well See Language page Tanja Baeuerlein; Alyssa Wadley
grave tumba, sepultura, sepulcro sepultura, sepulcro, cova culture-mythology jobocobe hobokobɛ unique Compound earth-hole' See Language page Tanja Baeuerlein; Alyssa Wadley
grid of sticks for smoking meat or placing objects (shelf) barbacoa jirau subsistence tool kaja (Chacon14) kaja (Chacon14) inheritance See Language page Tanja Baeuerlein; Alyssa Wadley
griddle for cooking flatbread tiesto (Colombia), budare (Venezuela), tortera (Peru) forno para beiju subsistence tool pãramiva pãrami-va doubtful loan North Arawak, e.g. Yucuna poʔoɾí cassava griddle-Class. FLAT agriculture? See Language page Tanja Baeuerlein; Alyssa Wadley
gun arma, escopeta espingarda, fusil acculturation õpojiñʉ õpohiñʉ unique Derived thunder + Classifier -ɲɨ See Language page Tanja Baeuerlein; Alyssa Wadley
hammock hamaca, chinchorro rede culture-material pãucʉ pãu-kɨ inheritance Proto-Tukanoan Classfier -kɨ See Language page Tanja Baeuerlein; Alyssa Wadley
hat sombero chapéu dress bótaibo bótaibo unknown Classifier -bo See Language page Tanja Baeuerlein; Alyssa Wadley
shaman, healer chamán, brujo xaman, pajé, feiticeiro culture-mythology yavi javi semantic shift from 'jaguar' Compound medicine-person-Classifier In RN region, there is typically one person per village (if that) who is a full-fledged 'shaman'. He is very much a specialist and has considerable power to cure, as well as power to curse. He is respected and feared. Shamans are thought to turn themselv See Language page Tanja Baeuerlein; Alyssa Wadley
hollow log/trough for beer-making canoa para chicha cocho de caxiri narcotics hiaðo-bɨ hiaðo-bɨ (Chacon) unique Derived canoe + Classifier -bɨ See Language page Tanja Baeuerlein; Alyssa Wadley
honey miel mel food mumicoro mumi-koɾo inheritance Proto-East Tukanoan Compound bee-juice only gathered in wild throughout Amazonia? See Language page Tanja Baeuerlein; Alyssa Wadley
hunt cazar caçar food ãima boayʉ́: ãimacʉ ãima boajɨ́: ãimakɨ unknown But similar complex forms calqued? see e.g. Hup 'animal-kill' Phrase animal-kill' See Language page Tanja Baeuerlein; Alyssa Wadley
knife cuchillo faca culture-material tãujive, tãuve tãuhivɛ, tãuvɛ unique tãu 'metal' Also: tãuvɛ Derived metal/glass + DIM + Classifier See Language page Tanja Baeuerlein; Alyssa Wadley
loincloth taparrabos, guayuco, pampanilla tanga, tapa-sexo dress taicaje taikahe Missing See Language page Tanja Baeuerlein; Alyssa Wadley
machete machete facão culture-material carove, tãuve karovɛ, tãuvɛ unique Also: tãuvɛ Classifier -vɛ See Language page Tanja Baeuerlein; Alyssa Wadley
mortar mortero pilão subsistence tool totaibʉ totaibɨ inheritance? cf. Orejon See Language page Tanja Baeuerlein; Alyssa Wadley
fence, palisade cerco cerca other biaido biaido fence, enclosure ('cerca') unknown Classifier -do may be related to defense/warfare? See Language page Tanja Baeuerlein; Alyssa Wadley
panpipe carrizo, zampoñas, flautas de pan, rondadora caniço, flauta de pã culture-mythology peduba pɛduba loan direction unknown Baniwa Also Kakua pelât-maʔ-г Classifier -ba See Language page Tanja Baeuerlein; Alyssa Wadley
paper papel papel acculturation papera papera loan Span/Port 'papel' Spanish/Portuguese > Nheengatu > others? Ninam liplo (metathesis); Arawak (e.g. Yucuna papera); Macaguan papéna; Tukanoan (Cubeo papela, Wanano papera pû, Tukano papéra); Nheengatu papera; Yanomam, papʰeo WW %papera Simplex See Language page Tanja Baeuerlein; Alyssa Wadley
pestle pilón, mano de mortero, mazo, moledor mão de pilão subsistence tool totaibʉ totaibɨ unknown Some similar forms in Puinave, Hoti, Orejon; may be onomatopoeic. Derived spear(v.) + Classifier bɨ See Language page Tanja Baeuerlein; Alyssa Wadley
pipe for tobacco pipa cachimbo other Missing See Language page Epps Research Group
plate plato prato culture-material jororʉ hororʉ inheritance Classifier -lɨ See Language page Tanja Baeuerlein; Alyssa Wadley
policeman polícia policía acculturation missing See Language page Tanja Baeuerlein; Alyssa Wadley
pot olla, pote panela, vasilha subsistence tool cõaiñʉ kõai-ɲʉ unknown Possibly shared with WT Derived Classifier -ɲɨ See Language page Tanja Baeuerlein; Alyssa Wadley
rattle matraca, maraca marico, chocalho culture-mythology jãjabʉ hãhabʉ inheritance Proto-East Tukanoan Classifier -bɨ See Language page Tanja Baeuerlein; Alyssa Wadley
resin resina, brea, copal resina, brea, breu subsistence tool cõenó, cõenórʉ, cõenótʉcarʉ kõɛnó, kõɛnólʉ, kõɛnótʉkalʉ unknown See Language page Tanja Baeuerlein; Alyssa Wadley
ritual song cycle (kapiwaya) kapiwaya capiwaya culture-mythology missing See Language page Tanja Baeuerlein; Alyssa Wadley
salt sal sal food yuquira jukira loan - WW %jukira Yucuna jukiɾa; Nadeb juki:ɾ; Daw xí:lʔ; Cubeo jukila WW %jukira la may mark mass nouns? See Language page Tanja Baeuerlein; Alyssa Wadley
school escuela escola acculturation bueiñami buei-ɲami Calque Local study house' all over Vaupes. study + Classifier -ñami See Language page Tanja Baeuerlein; Alyssa Wadley
shoes zapatos sapatos dress cʉraido kɨrai-do shoe (sg) unknown Derived kɨlai from 'floor' or 'step'? See Language page Tanja Baeuerlein; Alyssa Wadley
skirt falda, saya, fustan, pollera saia culture-material tʉibʉ tʉibʉ unknown Itself a classifier; term originally referred to native short covering worn by women See Language page Tanja Baeuerlein; Alyssa Wadley
soldier soldado soldado acculturation churara ʈʃurara loan - WW %surara Port via Nheengatu; also in Arawak, Carib, East Tukanoan, Yanomamo WW %surara See Language page Tanja Baeuerlein; Alyssa Wadley
song (generic) canción, canto canção culture-mythology yʉraiano jʉraiano unique See Language page Tanja Baeuerlein; Alyssa Wadley
spear lanza lança subsistence tool paribo, tãumu paribo, tãumu unknown, unique Proto-Tukanoan tãu 'metal' Also found Siona. Also: tãumu Classifier -bo See Language page Tanja Baeuerlein; Alyssa Wadley
starch (tapioca, other) almidón goma de tapioca food ẽta; ẽtarʉ ẽta; ẽtaɾɨ inheritance Proto-East Tukanoan Simplex See Language page Tanja Baeuerlein; Alyssa Wadley
stone for lighting fires piedra para hacer fuego pedra para acender fogo culture-material missing See Language page Tanja Baeuerlein; Alyssa Wadley
sugarcane/sugar azúcar, caña de azúcar açucar (de cana) acculturation cavamene, cavameneñʉ kavamɛnɛ, kavamɛnɛñʉ unknown Also:kavamɛnɛñʉ See Language page Tanja Baeuerlein; Alyssa Wadley
tapioca drink, mingau cahuana, caguana mingau food oko-kaju-e (water-mix-NMrZ) oko-kaju-e (water-mix-NMrZ) unique Compound water-mix-NMLZ agriculture See Language page Tanja Baeuerlein; Alyssa Wadley
thatch/roof crisneja palha, caraná culture-material chínañʉ tʃínaɲʉ thatch palm unique See Language page Tanja Baeuerlein; Alyssa Wadley
tipiti (manioc squeezer) tipiti, matafrio, sebucán, exprimador, prensa para yuca tipiti food nađañʉ naðaɲɨ unknown Classifier -ɲɨ word of Tupi origin; agriculture: specifically for squeezing poison out of manioc See Language page Tanja Baeuerlein; Alyssa Wadley
tobacco (native) narcotics butʃí butʃí butʃí butʃí butʃí butʃí butʃí butʃí butʃí butʃí butʃí butʃí butʃí butʃí butʃí butʃí butʃí butʃí butʃí butʃí butʃí butʃí butʃí butʃí butʃí butʃí butʃí butʃí butʃí butʃí butʃí butʃí butʃí butʃí butʃí butʃí butʃí butʃí butʃí butʃí butʃí butʃí but Unique Also: butʃitʉlava Simplex See Language page Epps Research Group
tripod for washing manioc trípode tripé subsistence tool ñamacaðava ɲamakaðava Calque, direction unknown Arawak? deer=tripod occurs in all regional ET and where attested in Arawak lgs deer + Classifier -kaðava agriculture See Language page Tanja Baeuerlein; Alyssa Wadley
venom for darts, poison veneno curare subsistence tool jĩma hĩma inheritance Proto-Tukanoan cf. %namo Simplex hunting, currently is falling out of use in Vaupés region, associated primarily with h-g groups (but this may be recent?) See Language page Tanja Baeuerlein; Alyssa Wadley
wax cera cera other vácoema vákoɛma beeswax unknown See Language page Tanja Baeuerlein; Alyssa Wadley
woven strainer/sieve colador tejido, cedazo (Peru), cernedor (Peru) peneira, cumatá subsistence tool pediba pɛdiba unknown Classifier -ba agriculture? commonly used for sifting dry manioc flour See Language page Tanja Baeuerlein; Alyssa Wadley
yurupari, jurupari (or any flutes forbidden to women) yurupari jurupari culture-mythology bɨkɨ poẽ-wa sacred trumpets/yurupari unique Other complex old person-ANIMATE.PL a ritual complex in various parts of Amazonia involving sacred flutes/trumpets, forbidden to women. See Language page Tanja Baeuerlein; Alyssa Wadley
basket (general) canasta, canasto, cesta cesto culture-material pʉe pʉɛ (round basket) inheritance See Language page Tanja Baeuerlein; Alyssa Wadley
drum (large signal) tambor, manguaré, maguaré (Colombia) tambor culture missing Used to be used by Tukanoan peoples (and others?), sound carried for long distances See Language page Tanja Baeuerlein; Alyssa Wadley
healer curandero benzador, curandeiro, kumu (Tukano) culture-mythology jʉoipõecʉ hʉoipõɛkʉ unique Refers to a lower-level healer; in RN region, most older men in a village have this capacity, and command a repertoire of healing spells. Power is primarily for good, whereas the true shaman is capable of malignant acts as well. See Language page Tanja Baeuerlein; Alyssa Wadley
clothing ropa roupa culture-mythology cuitótecaje kuitótɛkahɛ unique See Language page Tanja Baeuerlein; Alyssa Wadley
ghost (of dead person)/evil spirit espíritu malo, espíritu maligno, fantasma, demonio espirito culture-mythology põedecocʉ ('person-image-MSC); ũme põedekokɨ ('person-image-MSC); ũme unique See Language page Tanja Baeuerlein; Alyssa Wadley
paddle/oar remo remo transport jiaðove hiaðovɛ unique See Language page Tanja Baeuerlein; Alyssa Wadley
rope/string mecate, cuerda, soga corda culture boca, cainime (both generic terms); cõenó vaivéime; cuitóteme; muiñucame; odaime; tẽtume boka, kainime (both generic terms); kõenó vaivéime; kuitóteme; muijukame; oðaime; tẽtume unique; doubtful loan, direction unknown Tariana kamájana See Language page Tanja Baeuerlein; Alyssa Wadley
tattoo tatuaje, tatu tatuagem culture-mythology missing See Language page Tanja Baeuerlein; Alyssa Wadley
paint body, body paint pintura corporal pintura corporal culture-mythology See Language page Tanja Baeuerlein; Alyssa Wadley
pipe for tobacco pipa cachimbo other missing See Language page Tanja Baeuerlein; Alyssa Wadley
fermented drink masato, chicha caxiri, chicha culture yaraqui, boqueino, ũcuino jaraki, bokɛino, ũkuino loan - WW; unknown %jalaki prioritizes manioc beer where distinction is made See Language page Tanja Baeuerlein; Alyssa Wadley
bottom grinding stone manufacture missing if different word from top grinding stone See Language page Kelsey Neely; Tanja Baeuerlein
digging stick subsistence tool missing See Language page Kelsey Neely; Tanja Baeuerlein
top grinding stone metate, mano; piedra de moler metate, mano manufacture ẽpacʉrabo ẽpakɨɾabo unknown use word for top grinding stone if different from bottom stone See Language page Kelsey Neely; Tanja Baeuerlein
boomerang/throwing stick (generic) subsistence tool missing See Language page Kelsey Neely; Tanja Baeuerlein
spearthrower subsistence tool missing See Language page Kelsey Neely; Tanja Baeuerlein
house other cʉ̃rami, cójijiñami, ʉraðãmi kʉ̃rami, kóhihiɲami, ʉraðãmi unique See Language page Kelsey Neely; Tanja Baeuerlein


Grammatical Data (226)
Category Grammatical Feature Grammatical Feature: Notes Feature Status Phonemicized Form Orthographic Form Grammatical Notes Source Created By Etymology Notes General Notes Phylogenetic Code
Phonology - Segmental Pre-/post-nasalized stops Analysis posits that the stop is the most relevant underlying phoneme. Comment in notes on whether the nasal contour is understood as a phonetic (allophonic) effect, or is phonologically contrastive. yes pre-nasalized stops Chacon 2012:99 Daniel Smith
Phonology - Segmental Glottalized/ejective consonants Phonemic contrast [NOT counting glottal stop/fricative] no Morse & Maxwell 1999, p. 2-6 Amanda Novak
Phonology - Segmental Palatalized stops Phonemic contrast no Morse & Maxwell 1999, p. 2-6 Amanda Novak
Phonology - Segmental Phonemic vowel length Does the language have long and short vowels? no Morse & Maxwell 1999, p.2-3 Amanda Novak
Phonology - Segmental Phonemic glottalization/laryngealization of vowels no Morse & Maxwell 1999, p.2-3 Amanda Novak Only nasal variance.
Phonology - Segmental Complex onsets Onset consists of more than one consonant phoneme no Chacon 2012:164 Amanda Novak, Daniel Smith
Phonology - Segmental No codas *(C)VC [no also equals highly constrained] yes A syllable in Cubeo consists of (C)V. Morse & Maxwell 1999, p. 6 Amanda Novak
Phonology - Segmental Word-final coda required Do all syllables end in a consonant? no (C)V Morse & Maxwell 1999, p. 6 Amanda Novak
Phonology - Suprasegmental Contrastive tones Note how many contrastive tones yes low, mid, high and 1 Morse & Maxwell 1999, p. 6 Amanda Novak; note addition by Chris Clack According to Chacón 2012, there are high, mid, low and contour tones in Kubeo
Phonology - Suprasegmental Contrastive stress Does stress occur on different syllables with meaning difference? yes Morse & Maxwell 1999, p. 6 Daniel Smith ku'jɑwɨ - 'kujɑwɨ
Phonology - Suprasegmental Nasalization property of morpheme or syllable In contrast to nasalization as a property of segments yes Chacón 2012:81-86 Daniel Smith
Phonology - Suprasegmental Nasal spreading across some morpheme boundaries Do some affixes or other morphemes take the nasal/oral properties of the root they attach to? yes spreads to the right. only suffixes unmarked for nasality, and it is blocked by inherently oral vowels or consonants. Nasal spreading is also blocked by word boundary. Morse & Maxwell 1999, p. 8 Amanda Novak Nasalization spreads from a nasal vowel to the right across morpheme boundaries onto vowels which are unmarked for nasality and nasalizable consonants (/b d j w x r/) intervene.
Phonology - Suprasegmental Vowel harmony no Morse & Maxwell 1999, p. 13 Amanda Novak When two identical vowels are juxtaposed across morpheme boundaries, the two vowels coalesce.
Morphology - General Verbal fusion (2+ categories marked by portmanteau morphemes on verb) Verb combines two or more categories (tense, aspect, mood, person, number, etc.) in portmanteau morphemes{ [ignore proclitics unless they are fused with values other than person/number] yes e.g. nominalizer + gender Chacón 2012:234 Daniel Smith
Morphology - General Inflection manifested by replacement of segmental or suprasegmental phonemes Stem change, tone no Morse & Maxwell 1999, p.15-17 Amanda Novak
Morphology - General Verbal synthesis (1+ inflectional categories marked by verbal affixes) Morphological complexity in verbs - multiple inflectional affixes in a single verb word yes Morse & Maxwell 1999, p.15-19 Amanda Novak
Morphology - General Prefixing/suffixing inflectional morph: strongly prefixing There are many more prefixes than suffixes no Morse & Maxwell 1999, p.17 Amanda Novak
Morphology - General Prefixing/suffixing inflectional morph: strongly suffixing There are many more suffixes than prefixes yes All verbal affixes in Cubeo are suffixes, except two prefixes. Morse & Maxwell 1999, p. 17 Amanda Novak; note addition by Chris Clack The two exceptions are the directional xa- 'away from the speaker' and da- 'toward the speaker'
Morphology - General Prefixing/suffixing inflectional morph: roughly equal or one weakly preferred The numbers of suffixes and prefixes are not notably different no Morse & Maxwell 1999, p. 17 Amanda Novak
Morphology - General Reduplication: full The full morpheme is reduplicated yes The diminutive suffix, -xĩ, is occasionally duplicated, particularly with the dĩ- 'this' prefix. Chacón 2012:207-208 Daniel Smith
Morphology - General Reduplication: partial Only part of the morpheme is reduplicated yes disyllabic stems tend to reduplicate final syllable only Chacón 2012:207-208 Daniel Smith
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Productive NN compounding Noun compounds created from two noun phrases are common and systematically produced yes Chacón 2012:192-194 Daniel Smith
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Productive VV serialization (without compounding) Verb roots can be combined in a single predicate without markers of subordination (distinct from subordinating construction) or distinct inflection no Chacon (n.d.) argues that Cubeo uses converbs, not serialization Morse & Maxwell 1999, p. 65; Chacon (n.d.) Amanda Novak
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Productive VV compounding Serial verb constructions involve chaining of roots together in one morphophonological word no Morse & Maxwell 1999, p.68 Amanda Novak
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Verb-adjunct (aka light verb) constructions There is a set of semantically weak verbs used in complex verbal constructions, e.g. 'take a nap' no no info/not expected Chris Clack
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Auxiliary verb(s) There are verbs that accompany main verbs of clauses and take grammatical marking not expressed by main verbs yes Morse & Maxwell 1999, p. 60 Amanda Novak; note addition by Chris Clack As is common with languages of the OV type, auxiliary verbs in Cubeo normally appear at the end of the verb phrase.
Morphology - Incorporation Incorporation of nouns into verbs is a productive intransitivizing process Verb contains nominal segment yes The direct object of a verb may be incorporated into the verb. (the incorporated noun appears in generic form) Morse & Maxwell 1999, p. 70-72; Chacón 2012:202 Chris Clack; Daniel Smith While the incorporated noun does not carry any inflectional affixes, it may bear a derivational affix such as a classifier.
Morphology - Incorporation Productive incorporation of other elements (adjectives, locatives, etc.) into verbs Like noun incorporation, but incorporated elements are not nouns yes Morse & Maxwell 1999, p. 76 Amanda Novak A class 2 noun may also follow a stative verb stem or a nominalized adjective stem.
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Noun classes/genders Nouns are organized into sets with distinct morphological treatment; usually affects all nouns and involves agreement within the NP yes animante/inanimate; masc/fem Chacón 2012:238-240 Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Number of noun classes/genders Note the (approximate) total number of noun classes/genders 4 animante/inanimate; masc/fem Morse & Maxwell 1999, p. 73 Amanda Novak The inanimate nouns may be further classified as primitive (underived), deverbal concrete, or deverbal abstract. Animate nouns may be subdivided into human and nonhuman nouns.
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Noun classifiers (distinct from noun classes/genders) Nouns are organized into sets, but only a limited set of nouns may be implicated, with no or limited agreement marking. If only numeral classifiers exist, indicate yes but explain. yes 150+ They are suffixed to inanimate nouns of class 1, to verb roots, and to certain animate nouns; Chacón describes 17 classifiers Morse & Maxwell 1999, p. 73; Chacón 2012:242-251 Amanda Novak/Daniel Smith The classifiers of Cubeo form a continuum, with one-syllable bound morphemes at one extreme and multisyllable nonbound morphemes, which have independent stress, at the other extreme.
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Sex is a relevant category in noun class(ification) system for animates Masculine, feminine, neuter yes The most common noun gender/number suffixes used on human nouns are: -kɨ 'masculine singular', -ko 'feminine singular', and -wA 'plural.' Morse & Maxwell 1999, p. 77 Amanda Novak
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Sex is a relevant category in noun class(ification) system for inanimates no Morse & Maxwell 1999, p. 79 Amanda Novak; note addition by Chris Clack Most animals are by default masculine, but some are default feminine. A few animals simply lack masculine genders.
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Animacy (w/o reference to sex) is a relevant category in the noun class(ification) system Animate/inanimate, human/non-human yes The inanimate noun class may be further classified as primitive (underived), deverbal concrete, or deverbal abstract. Morse & Maxwell 1999, p. 73 Amanda Novak; note addition by Chris Clack
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Sex/gender distinction only in 3rd person pronouns add in notes section whether gender is present in other PNs or not in any PNs; consider with reference to pronouns and person marking only yes õ (fem), ɨ˜ (masc.) Morse & Maxwell 1999, p. 80 Amanda Novak; note addition by Chris Clack
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Shape is a relevant category in the noun class(ification) system for animates yes Morse & Maxwell 1999, p.79 Amanda Novak Evidence in 3.1.2.2: -we is a classifier for flat, thin objects.
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Shape is a relevant category in the noun class(ification) system for inanimates yes Morse & Maxwell 1999, p. 73-74 Amanda Novak
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification "Repeater" classifiers Where no distinct classifier exists, a copy of the noun itself may function in the morphosyntactic classifier "slot" yes Morse & Maxwell 1999, p.73-122 Amanda Novak
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Numeral classifiers (specific to numerals) Special classifier forms that occur only with numerals no Morse & Maxwell 1999, p.74 Amanda Novak
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Classifiers used as derivational suffixes to derive nouns Verb + classifier = 'thing for doing V, thing that does V, etc.' yes Deverbal animate nouns may be formed with the animate nonfuture active nominalizers or with the passive nominalizers . Morse & Maxwell 1999, p. 88-90 Amanda Novak The animate noun põ˜e- 'person' plus a gender/number suffix may also be suffixed to a verb, forming an agentive deverbal noun meaning 'one who does X'.
Nominal Categories - Number Singular number may be marked on the noun Often occurs in a small subset of nouns if a single entity is referred to, e.g. insects that normally occur in groups no Morse & Maxwell 1999, p.73-80 Chris Clack
Nominal Categories - Number Plural affix on noun yes -wA, -A The plural suffix used on human nouns is -wA. The plurals of classifiers are formed in the same way as the plurals of class 2 nouns: the plural suffix -A may be added to any classifier (non-human.) Morse & Maxwell 1999, p. 74-77 Amanda Novak; note addition by Chris Clack Coalesence causes plural nouns or classifiers that end in 'a' to be the same as their singular counterpart.
Nominal Categories - Number Plural marked by stem change or tone on noun no Morse & Maxwell 1999, p. 77 Amanda Novak
Nominal Categories - Number Plural marked by reduplication of noun no Morse & Maxwell 1999, p. 77 Amanda Novak
Nominal Categories - Number Plural word/clitic no Morse & Maxwell 1999, p. 77 Amanda Novak The plural of dõbɨ'õ 'women' is used as a suffix (-Rõbɨ-wA) when referring to a totally female group.
Nominal Categories - Number Plural marked on human or animate nouns only no Morse & Maxwell 1999, p. 77 Amanda Novak
Nominal Categories - Number Pronominal plural: stem + nominal plural affix Pronouns use a nominal plural affix not specific to pronouns yes Amanda Novak
Nominal Categories - Number Unique associative plural marker e.g. 'John and his associates', 'John and them' yes -xã The suffix -xã 'associative' is used on animate nouns to mean 'this one and those associated with him or her.' Morse & Maxwell 1999, p. 99 Amanda Novak; note addition by Chris Clack
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Definite or specific articles Definite = particular referent known to both speaker and addressee; specific = particular referent known to speaker only no Morse & Maxwell 1999, p. 74-95 Amanda Novak
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Marker of definiteness distinct from demonstratives Focus on articles/markers whose primary function is to mark definiteness no Morse & Maxwell 1999, p. 82-84 Amanda Novak
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Indefinite or non-specific article or marker no Morse & Maxwell 1999, p.73-75 Amanda Novak
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Inclusive/exclusive: in free pronominals Inclusive =us + you, exclusive = us but not you yes Morse & Maxwell 1999, p. 80 Amanda Novak
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Inclusive/exclusive: in verbal inflection (bound) no Morse & Maxwell 1999, p. 82 Amanda Novak
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Distance contrasts in demonstratives (number) Note the number of distances in the demonstrative system yes proximate and distal for animate referents Morse & Maxwell 1999, p. 83 Chris Clack distal and proximate plus ananphoric for inanimate referents
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Other contrasts in demonstratives (visibility, elevation, etc.) no Morse & Maxwell 1999, p. 83 Chris Clack
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Gender in 3sg pronouns yes Morse & Maxwell 1999, p. 80 Amanda Novak
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Gender in 3pl pronouns no Morse & Maxwell 1999, p. 80 Amanda Novak
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Gender in 1st and/or 2nd person pronouns no Morse & Maxwell 1999, p. 80 Amanda Novak
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Formal/informal distinction in pronouns Polite pronominal variants or differential avoidance of pronouns no Morse & Maxwell 1999, p. 80 Amanda Novak
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Reflexive pronouns e.g. English 'himself', Spanish 'se'; distinct form(s) from basic (non-reflexive) pronominals; distinct from reflexive verbal affix yes baxu formed by the possive adjective follwed by the word "baxu" Morse & Maxwell 1999, p. 81 Amanda Novak
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Adpositions mark core NPs Prepositions or postpositions mark subjects, objects, beneficiaries/recipients no Morse & Maxwell 1999, p. 134 Amanda Novak
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: number of cases Note the number of grammatical relations that may be morphologically marked on the noun 5 Cubeo has five case marking suffixes that can be attached to pronouns and nouns. (the subject case is unmarked.) Morse & Maxwell 1999, p. 110 Amanda Novak
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: only non-core arguments morphologically marked Subjects, objects, beneficiaries/recipients NOT marked, but other grammatical relations are no objects marked by suffix Morse & Maxwell 1999, p. 110 Amanda Novak The suffix -RE is used to mark both direct and indirect objects, as well as certain locative and temporal nouns.
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: symmetrical All NPs marked if in appropriate syntactic relation; no distinction in marking based on semantics (type of entity) no Morse & Maxwell 1999, p. 111 Amanda Novak
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: asymmetrical Semantically defined subset of NPs marked for case, e.g. animates yes most of the cases where the object marker is omitted, it is inanimate Morse & Maxwell 1999, p. 111 Amanda Novak The factors influencing when -RE may be omitted from a (nonincorporated) direct object, leaving it without an overt case marker, are the inanimacy of the object, introducing an animate object, and in lists.
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: suffix or postpositional clitic yes Morse & Maxwell 1999, p. 110 Amanda Novak Cubeo has five case marking suffixes that can be attached to pronouns and nouns. (the subject case is unmarked.)
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: prefix or prepositional clitic no Morse & Maxwell 1999, p. 110 Amanda Novak
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: infix or inpositional clitic no Morse & Maxwell 1999, p. 110 Amanda Novak
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: stem change no p. 11Morse & Maxwell 1999, 0 Amanda Novak
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: tone no Morse & Maxwell 1999, p. 110 Amanda Novak
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: comitative = instrumental Same marking for 'with a person' and 'with an instrument' yes -ke Morse & Maxwell 1999, p. 119 Amanda Novak The case marker for instrument and accompaniment is -ke 'with, by'
Nominal Categories - Numerals Base-2 At least some part of the system involves base-2 no Morse & Maxwell 1999 Amanda Novak pɨka 'two'(p74)
Nominal Categories - Numerals Base-5 At least some part of the system involves base-5 yes Amanda Novak
Nominal Categories - Numerals Base-10 At least some part of the system involves base-10 yes Amanda Novak
Nominal Categories - Numerals Other base (specify) 4, 20, etc. no info Amanda Novak
Nominal Categories - Numerals Etymological transparency in any numerals under 5 e.g. two = 'eye-quantity' yes Amanda Novak pɨka 'two'(p74)
Nominal Categories - Numerals Numerals do not go above 5 'Many' or some other non-exact term used no Amanda Novak
Nominal Categories - Numerals Numerals do not go above 10 'Many' or some other non-exact term used no Amanda Novak
Nominal Categories - Other nominal Tense or aspect inflection on non-verbal predicates i.e. nominal or adjectival yes Morse & Maxwell 1999, p.65 Chris Clack
Nominal Categories - Other nominal Person inflection on non-verbal predicates i.e. nominal or adjectival yes Morse & Maxwell 1999, p. 126 Amanda Novak; note addition by Chris Clack Adjectives are inflected to agree in gender or classifier and number with the noun they modify.
Nominal Syntax - Possession Pronominal possessive affixes: prefix on N alienable/inalienable? yes Morse & Maxwell 1999, p. 82 Amanda Novak; note addition by Chris Clack The demonstrative pronouns of Cubeo are, in most cases, formed from te demonstrative prefixes discussed in 3.3.1, plus gender/number suffixes.
Nominal Syntax - Possession Pronominal possessive affixes: suffix on N alienable/inalienable? yes -I The suffix -I 'genitive' also marks animate possessive noun phrases. Morse & Maxwell 1999, p. 118 Amanda Novak;Chris Clack
Nominal Syntax - Possession Head/dependent marking in possessive NP: dependent e.g. 'the boy-'s dog' yes Morse & Maxwell 1999, p. 91 Chris Clack
Nominal Syntax - Possession Head/dependent marking in possessive NP: head e.g. 'the boy his-dog' no Morse & Maxwell 1999, p. 91 Chris Clack
Nominal Syntax - Possession Possessive classifiers There are special classifiers that occur with possessed entities no Morse & Maxwell 1999, p. 82 Amanda Novak; note addition by Chris Clack When the possessed item is animate, this agreeing suffix is one of the gender/number suffixes; Similarly, with inanimate objects.
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Morphological marking of inalienable possession Where inalienable possession differs from alienable, the former takes a morphological marker (may include an associated free particle/pronoun) no Morse & Maxwell 1999, p. 91 Amanda Novak
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Morphological marking of alienable possession Where inalienable possession differs from alienable, the latter takes a morphological marker (may include an associated free particle/pronoun) yes possesion of a part by an inamite noun does not require the genitive marker Morse & Maxwell 1999, p. 118 Amanda Novak
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Default marker for inalienably possessed nouns if unpossessed An inalienable noun that is in an unpossessed state must have a derivational affix or associated form no info Morse & Maxwell 1999, p. 77-92 Amanda Novak
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Inalienable possession of kin terms 'my-father' but *father yes Kinship terms are obligatorily possessed. Morse & Maxwell 1999, p. 77 Amanda Novak; note addition by Chris Clack In the singular, most take the same suffixes that other singular human nouns take; -kɨ 'masc, sing'
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Inalienable possession of body parts (human/animal) 'my-leg' but *leg no info Morse & Maxwell 1999, p. 77-92 Amanda Novak
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Generic human nouns are obligatorily bound/possessed Human nouns must co-occur with another noun (e.g. Hup-man, NonIndian-woman, but *man) no Morse & Maxwell 1999, p. 77-92 Amanda Novak
Nominal Syntax - Adjectives Underived adjectives There are underived adjectives which do not have counterparts in other word classes yes small class of adjectives distinct from nouns and verbs Morse & Maxwell 1999, p. 124 Amanda Novak; note addition by Chris Clack The class of nonderived adjectives is small. Among the adjective roots are ape- 'other', bɨkɨ- 'old (animate)', kai- 'entire, all', pedẽ- 'dry', etc.
Nominal Syntax - Adjectives Gender inflection on adjectives within the NP There is gender agreement/concord (animate/inanimate or masc/fem, etc.) within the NP, e.g. la casa blanca, el perro blanco yes Adjectives are inflected to agree in gender and number with the noun they modify (even if that noun is not overt.) Morse & Maxwell 1999, p. 126 Amanda Novak; note addition by Chris Clack
Nominal Syntax - Derivation Productive nominalizing morphology: action/state (arrive/arrival) There is a morpheme which derives an event from a verb yes -Rõ, -E Morse & Maxwell 1999, p. 87 Amanda Novak; note addition by Chris Clack
Nominal Syntax - Derivation Productive nominalizing morphology: agentive (sing/singer) There is a morpheme which derives an agent or subject from a verb yes põẽ- The animate noun põẽ- 'person' plus a gender/number suffix may also be suffixed to a verb, forming an agentive deverbal noun meaning 'one who does X' Morse & Maxwell 1999, p. 90 Amanda Novak; note addition by Chris Clack
Nominal Syntax - Derivation Productive nominalizing morphology: object (sing/song) There is a morpheme which derives a patient or object from a verb no Morse & Maxwell 1999, p. 90 Chris Clack
Nominal Syntax - Derivation Productive verbalizing morphology There is a morpheme which derives a verb from a noun or adjective yes -hɨ -hɨ occurs very rarely Morse & Maxwell 1999, p. 54 Amanda Novak Denominal verbs are quite rare in Cubeo. One of the few examples of a suffix which derives a (stative) verb from a noun is -xi 'have a bad taste or odor of X', where X is the noun.
Nominal Syntax - Other NP coordination and comitative phrases marked differently 'John and Mary went to market' is marked differently from 'John went to market with Mary' no Morse & Maxwell 1999, p. 119 Chris Clack
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Dedicated past marker(s) Past tense is regularly morphologically marked on the verb or elsewhere yes Morse & Maxwell 1999, p. 40 Amanda Novak
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Multiple past tenses, distinguishing distance from time of reference e.g. distant vs. recent past yes Morse & Maxwell 1999, p. 38 Amanda Novak
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Multiple future tenses, distinguishing distance from time of reference e.g. imminent vs. distant future yes Morse & Maxwell 1999, p. 38 Amanda Novak
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Dedicated future or non-past marker(s) yes Morse & Maxwell 1999, p. 48 Amanda Novak
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Tense-aspect affixes: prefix no Morse & Maxwell 1999, p.17 Amanda Novak;Chris Clack All verbal affixes in Cubeo are suffixes, except the directional xa- 'away from the speaker' and da- 'toward the speaker'
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Tense-aspect affixes: suffix yes Morse & Maxwell 1999, p.17 Amanda Novak
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Tense-aspect affixes: tone or ablaut no Morse & Maxwell 1999, p.17 Amanda Novak
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Tense-aspect suppletion no Morse & Maxwell 1999, p.17 Amanda Novak
Verbal Categories - Mood Dedicated imperative morpheme or verb form There is a special morpheme (or morphemes, or a bare verb root where inflection is normally expected) used to signal imperative (command) mood yes -xA Morse & Maxwell 1999, p. 24 Amanda Novak
Verbal Categories - Mood Polite imperative morpheme There is a distinct morpheme for polite imperative constructions (specify if it has other functions in the language) no Morse & Maxwell 1999, p. 24 Amanda Novak
Verbal Categories - Mood Difference between negation in imperative (prohibitive) and declarative clauses There are different strategies for marking negation in imperative and declarative clauses no Morse & Maxwell 1999, p. 24 Amanda Novak
Verbal Categories - Mood Dedicated hortative morpheme or verb form (1pl or 3rd person imperative) as opposed to imperative; the person in control of desired state of affairs is not the addressee; ex: 'Let's sing' / 'Let him sing' no Morse & Maxwell 1999, p. 24 Amanda Novak
Verbal Categories - Mood Situational possibility: affix on verb Inflectional marking of capacity to do something no Morse & Maxwell 1999, p.19 Amanda Novak
Verbal Categories - Mood Situational possibility: verbal construction no info Morse & Maxwell 1999, p.19 Amanda Novak
Verbal Categories - Mood Situational possibility: other marking no info Morse & Maxwell 1999, p.19 Amanda Novak
Verbal Categories - Mood Epistemic possibility: affix on verb Modal expressing hypothesis yes Morse & Maxwell 1999, p. 26, 34 Amanda Novak
Verbal Categories - Mood Epistemic possibility: verbal construction yes desiderative Morse & Maxwell 1999, p.27 Chris Clack
Verbal Categories - Mood Epistemic possibility: other marking no Morse & Maxwell 1999, p.26-30 Amanda Novak
Verbal Categories - Mood Marking of expected/unexpected action or result There is inflectional marking of expected/unexpected yes The probable evidential indicates that the speaker considers the action probable, based on his feelings. Morse & Maxwell 1999, p.34 Chris Clack desiderative expresses the desire of the subject to do the action (p.27)
Verbal Categories - Mood Verbal frustrative Modal expressing frustration ("in vain") yes -Rĩ, -xIda (optative) also an optative frustrative Morse & Maxwell 1999, p. 28 Amanda Novak
Verbal Categories - Mood Verbal habitual Modal expressing habituality yes -wa there is an accustomed aspect Morse & Maxwell 1999, p. 52 Amanda Novak
Verbal Categories - Mood Apprehensive construction There is a single morpheme or verb form to mean '(be careful lest) X happens' no Morse & Maxwell 1999, p.32-38 Chris Clack
Verbal Categories - Mood Reality status marking on verbs There are dedicated morpheme(s) for realis/irrealis 'actualized/unactualized events' yes -itʃi,-xɨ only irrealis mood Morse & Maxwell 1999, p. 26 Amanda Novak
Verbal Categories - Mood Affect markers (positive/negative) Note whether these inflectional markers are positive or negative no info Amanda Novak
Verbal Categories - Directionals Directional elements affixed to the verb There are grammaticalized elements indicating movement away, toward, there and back, etc. yes -xa, -da Morse & Maxwell 1999, p.17 Chris Clack
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized visual Indicates information has been witnessed visually - indicate only if an overt marker no The witnessed evidential indicates that the speaker's knowledge of the action comes from his sense perception(s), e.g. sight, hearing, etc. Morse & Maxwell 1999, p. 32 Amanda Novak no distinction made for visual (separate from other senses)
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized nonvisual Indicates information has been sensed firsthand but not visually (usually heard; also smelled, tasted, felt) yes Morse & Maxwell 1999, p. 32 Amanda Novak witnessed; includes visual
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized inferential Indicates information has not been experienced firsthand, but inferred from some kind of evidence - indicate only if an overt marker. yes -kebã assumed Morse & Maxwell 1999, p. 33 Amanda Novak
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized reportive Indicates speaker is not responsible for veracity of statement, merely reporting; 'allegedly' yes -jA Unlike the other evidentials, which are indicated by a suffix that combines tense and evidential status, the reportative evidential is indicated by a separate suffix, -jA (rep.) This suffix is attached to a verb in the witnessed evidential status, after a Morse & Maxwell 1999, p. 36 Amanda Novak;Chris Clack
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized quotative Indicate presence of adjacent representation of repeated discourse no Morse & Maxwell 1999, p. 32, 144 Amanda Novak;Chris Clack Cubeo quotations are always direct quotes. A quotation is almost invariably followed by a quote margin clause, which consists of some form of the verb 'say'
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Other evidential Any other evidential values not represented above no info Chacón 2012 Daniel Smith
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Evidentiality: verb affix or clitic yes Morse & Maxwell 1999, p. 32 Chris Clack
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Evidentiality: part of tense system Includes portmanteau morphs yes Morse & Maxwell 1999, p. 32 Amanda Novak
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Evidentiality: separate particle no Morse & Maxwell 1999, p. 32 Amanda Novak
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Evidentiality: modal morpheme no Morse & Maxwell 1999, p. 32 Amanda Novak
Verbal Categories - Verbal number Verbal number suppletion yes In the recent past/durative, -Rɨ˜ replaces the person/number suffix. Morse & Maxwell 1999, p.21 Amanda Novak
Verbal Categories - Other Social interaction markers Note the type of interaction yes authoratative suffix exist that means to order command or permit an action Morse & Maxwell 1999, p. 59 Amanda Novak
Word Order No fixed basic constituent order yes Morse & Maxwell 1999, p. 141 Amanda Novak
Word Order VS in intransitive clauses Verb precedes subject yes SV is also possible Morse & Maxwell 1999, p. 141 Amanda Novak
Word Order VS in transitive clauses yes Morse & Maxwell 1999, p. 141 Amanda Novak
Word Order VO in transitive clauses Verb precedes object no OV is more common Morse & Maxwell 1999, p. 142 Amanda Novak
Word Order OS in transitive clauses Object precedes subject no info Chacón 2012 Daniel Smith
Word Order Preposition-Noun no Morse & Maxwell 1999, p. 135 Amanda Novak
Word Order Noun-Postposition or case suffix yes Morse & Maxwell 1999, p. 135 Amanda Novak
Word Order Gen-Noun Possessive phrase composed of a free possessor and its possessum has possessor first (e.g. John's book) yes Morse & Maxwell 1999, p. 91 Amanda Novak
Word Order Noun-Gen Possessive phrase composed of a free possessor and its possessum has possessum first (e.g. 'book of John') no Morse & Maxwell 1999, p. 91 Amanda Novak
Word Order Adj-Noun Adjective precedes the noun yes Chacón 2012:305 Daniel Smith
Word Order Noun-Adj Adjective follows the noun yes Morse & Maxwell 1999, p. 91 Amanda Novak
Word Order Dem-Noun yes almost always, demonstrative pronouns preced head noun Morse & Maxwell 1999, p.92 Amanda Novak
Word Order Noun-Dem no Morse & Maxwell 1999, p. 92 Amanda Novak
Word Order Num-Noun yes Morse & Maxwell 1999, p. 124 Amanda Novak
Word Order Noun-Num no Morse & Maxwell 1999, p. 124 Amanda Novak
Word Order Noun-Rel Relative clause follows noun that it modifies yes Morse & Maxwell 1999, p. 151 Amanda Novak
Word Order Rel-Noun Relative clause precedes noun that it modifies no Morse & Maxwell 1999, p. 151 Amanda Novak
Word Order Re<Noun>l (internally headed relative) e.g. 'the dog cat chased-NMZR got away' ('the cat that the dog chased got away') yes Morse & Maxwell 1999, p. 151 Amanda Novak
Word Order Relative clause is correlative or adjoined e.g. 'what is running, the dog chased that cat' no cubeo uses adjoined clauses but the relativized NP clause is not internal to the clause Morse & Maxwell 1999, p. 152 Amanda Novak
Word Order Question word is clause initial 'what', 'who', etc. come first in interrogative clause yes Morse & Maxwell 1999, p. 144 Amanda Novak
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: nominative-accusative w/ marked accusative Objects of transitive clauses ('P') have a unique marker, while subjects of transitive ('A') and intransitive ('S') clauses are unmarked or share a different marker from that occurring on objects yes -RE the -RE suffix is only obligatory on indirect objects and usually used on direct objects. The only time it is omitted on direct objects is for inanimate objects, if an animate obj is sentence final and being introduced, or in a list Morse & Maxwell 1999, p. 110 Amanda Novak
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: nominative-accusative w/ marked nominative Subjects of transitive and intransitive clauses share a marker, while objects of transitives are unmarked no Morse & Maxwell 1999, p. 110 Amanda Novak
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: ergative-absolutive Subjects of intransitive clauses and objects of transitives share a unique marker, while subjects of transitive clauses are unmarked or have a different marker no Morse & Maxwell 1999, p. 110 Amanda Novak
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: tripartite Intransitive subjects, transitive subjects, and transitive objects all receive distinct case markers no Morse & Maxwell 1999, p. 110 Amanda Novak
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: active-inactive Subjects of intransitive clauses are treated two different ways: like subjects of transitives if they are more agent-like (e.g. he jumped), and like objects of transitives if they are more patient-like (e.g. he fell asleep) no Morse & Maxwell 1999, p. 110 Amanda Novak
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: marked accusative yes -RE Morse & Maxwell 1999, p.143/110 Amanda Novak
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: marked nominative no Morse & Maxwell 1999, p.110 Amanda Novak
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: ergative-absolutive yes, no, mixed, other no Morse & Maxwell 1999, p.110 Amanda Novak
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: tripartite no Morse & Maxwell 1999, p.110 Amanda Novak
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: active-inactive no Morse & Maxwell 1999, p. 110 Amanda Novak
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: nominative-accusative Same as above, for pronominal affixes/clitics on verbs yes Morse & Maxwell 1999, p. 110 Amanda Novak
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: ergative-absolutive yes, no, mixed, other no Morse & Maxwell 1999, p. 110 Amanda Novak
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: active-inactive no there are suffixex to change the class of verbs from stative to dynamic or vice versa, but these only include tense/aspect and mood, but not person Morse & Maxwell 1999, p. 110 Amanda Novak
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: hierarchical Marking of A and P depends on their relative ranking on a hierarchy (usually 1>2>3 or 2>1>3) no Morse & Maxwell 1999, p. 110 Amanda Novak
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: split More than one of the above systems is represented in person marking, depending on e.g. person (e.g. 1/2 vs. 3), tense-aspect value, main vs. subordinate clause type, etc. no Morse & Maxwell 1999, p. 110 Amanda Novak
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: pronouns in subject position Pronominal subjects are free pronouns that occur in the same position as full NP subjects yes Morse & Maxwell 1999, p. 142 Amanda Novak
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: prefixes on verb Pronominal subjects are marked as verbal prefixes (free pronouns may be another option) no Morse & Maxwell 1999, p. 142 Amanda Novak
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: suffixes on verb Pronominal subjects are marked as verbal suffixes (free pronouns may be another option) no Morse & Maxwell 1999, p. 142 Amanda Novak
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: clitics on variable host Pronominal subjects are clitics that can attach to verbs, nominal constituents, etc. no Morse & Maxwell 1999, p. 142 Amanda Novak
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: pronouns in non-subject position Pronominal subjects are free pronouns but do not normally occur in the position expected for full NP subjects no Morse & Maxwell 1999, p. 142 Amanda Novak
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Person marking on intransitive verbs Intransitive verbs take person-marking clitics/affixes yes Morse & Maxwell 1999, p. 110 Amanda Novak
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Person marking (of agents) on transitive verbs Transitive verbs take subject (A) markers yes Morse & Maxwell 1999, p. 110 Amanda Novak
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Person-marking (of objects) on transitive verbs Transitive verbs take object (P) markers no Morse & Maxwell 1999, p. 110 Amanda Novak
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking 3rd person zero in verbal person marking: subjects 3rd person subjects are not overtly marked within the verbal person-marking system no they can be marked or not marked, usually marked Morse & Maxwell 1999, p. 40 Amanda Novak
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking 3rd person zero in verbal person marking: objects 3rd person objects are not overtly marked within the verbal person-marking system no Morse & Maxwell 1999, p. 142 Amanda Novak
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Number can be marked separately from person on the verb Verbal person marking exists, but number is (or can) be marked separately no Amanda Novak
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Possessive affixes/clitics on nouns are same as verbal person markers Where nouns take possessive affixes, these are the same as the person-marking affixes no Morse & Maxwell 1999, p. 82 Amanda Novak
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Gender distinguished in verbal person markers For any person, verbal person markers exhibit different forms depending on the gender (masc/fem, animate/inanimate, etc.) of the referent yes Morse & Maxwell 1999, p.15 Amanda Novak
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice Ditransitive constructions: indirect object In ditransitives (e.g. 'John gives a book to Bill'), the theme (book) is treated in the same way as are objects of transitives, while the recipient/beneficiary (Bill) is treated differently no Morse & Maxwell 1999, p. 110 Amanda Novak
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice Ditransitive constructions: double object In ditransitives (e.g. 'John gives Bill a book'), both the theme (book) and the recipient/beneficiary (Bill) is treated in the same way as are objects of transitives yes the IO is obligatorily marked, but DO is not all the time Morse & Maxwell 1999, p. 110 Amanda Novak
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice Ditransitive constructions: secondary object In ditransitives, the recipient/beneficiary is treated in the same way as are objects of transitives, while the theme (book) is treated differently no Morse & Maxwell 1999, p. 110 Amanda Novak
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Reciprocal: dedicated morpheme Verb becomes reciprocal through use of reciprocal morpheme associated with the verb (may be attached to the verb root). This morpheme is only used to mean reciprocal. no Morse & Maxwell 1999, p. 105 Amanda Novak
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Reflexive: dedicated morpheme Verb becomes reflexive through use of reflexive morpheme associated with the verb (may be attached to the verb root). This morpheme is used only to mean reflexive. no Morse & Maxwell 1999, p. 105 Amanda Novak
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Reciprocal/reflexive: same morpheme Verb becomes reciprocal or reflexive through use of a morpheme that means either reciprocal or reflexive which attaches to the root of the verb no there are 3 suffixes that are marked on the noun but not on the verb. Morse & Maxwell 1999, p. 105 Amanda Novak
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Passive Passive voice usually involves a change to the verb, while the object of the active voice verb is promoted to subject in the passive voice, and the former subject is deleted/demoted yes -bɨ̃, -bõ, -bãrã, - Rõ passive nominalizer is attached to a stative verb stem Morse & Maxwell 1999, p. 55 Amanda Novak
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Antipassive Like passive, but deletes or demotes the object of a transitive verb; usually found in ergative languages no agent is never made explicit in inamite passives Morse & Maxwell 1999, p. 56 Amanda Novak
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Other intransitivizing morphology There is/are some other mechanism(s) for reducing valency no Morse & Maxwell 1999, p.55-60 Amanda Novak
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Applicative: benefactive Applicative adds a beneficiary/maleficiary object argument to the verb yes -ka benefactive suffix is added to the verb follwed by the causitive suffix and aspect suffix Morse & Maxwell 1999, p. 58 Amanda Novak
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Applicative: other Applicative adds some other object argument to the verb yes authortative Morse & Maxwell 1999, p. 59 Amanda Novak
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: prefix Causative is morphological and is attached before the root of the verb no Morse & Maxwell 1999, p. 57 Amanda Novak
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: suffix Causative is morphological and is attached after the root of the verb yes -wA, -O, -A, -OwA causative has been lexicalized (i.e. 'kɨ' means be and 'kɨ-wA' means have Morse & Maxwell 1999, p. 57 Amanda Novak
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative marked by circumfix, stem change, or tone Morphological causative other than simple prefix/suffix no Morse & Maxwell 1999, p. 57 Amanda Novak
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: serial verb or analytical construction Causative construction that involves periphrasis or serialization no Morse & Maxwell 1999, p. 57 Amanda Novak
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: dedicated 'make do by proxy' Indicates that the causer does not directly cause the action of the verb to be realized, but does so by inducing someone else to carry out the action, e.g. 'John had the house painted.' no Morse & Maxwell 1999, p. 57 Amanda Novak
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: dedicated sociative Indicates that causer participates in event no Morse & Maxwell 1999, p. 57 Amanda Novak
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Other transitivizing morphology (adds valence) There is/are some other mechanism(s) for increasing valency yes -Ikõxẽ the authorative suffix is derived from verb root 'kõxẽ' Morse & Maxwell 1999, p. 59 Amanda Novak
Simple Clauses - Negation Clausal negator is a preposed element Clausal negator is a preposed element no Morse & Maxwell 1999, p. 30 Amanda Novak
Simple Clauses - Negation Clausal negator is a postposed element Clausal negator is a postposed element no Morse & Maxwell 1999, p. 30 Amanda Novak;Chris Clack To form a negative, the suffix -bE is attached to the verb following any derivational suffixes and the desiderative suffix, but preceding all other suffixes.
Simple Clauses - Negation Negatives: affix Negatives: affix yes -bE turns dynamic verb into stative verb stem also Morse & Maxwell 1999, p. 30 Amanda Novak
Simple Clauses - Negation Negatives: particle Negatives: particle no Morse & Maxwell 1999, p. 30 Amanda Novak
Simple Clauses - Negation Negatives: auxiliary verb Negatives: auxiliary verb no Morse & Maxwell 1999, p. 30 Amanda Novak
Simple Clauses - Negation Negatives: double Standard (non-emphatic) negation typically requires two morphemes, e.g. French 'ne V pas' no Morse & Maxwell 1999, p. 30 Amanda Novak
Simple Clauses - Negation Distinct negative form for 'NP does not exist' no Morse & Maxwell 1999, p. 90-96 Amanda Novak
Simple Clauses - Negation Distinct negative expression 'I don't know' Lexical expression or highly idiomatic phrase no Morse & Maxwell 1999, p. 30 Amanda Novak
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Polar questions: interrogative particle Yes/no questions distinguished from declaratives by interrogative particle no Morse & Maxwell 1999, p. 20 Amanda Novak
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Polar questions: verb morphology Yes/no questions distinguished from declaratives by interrogative verb morphology yes -xi, -bA, -RI, -Rɨ̃ Morse & Maxwell 1999, p. 20 Amanda Novak
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Polar questions: word order Yes/no questions distinguished from declaratives by word order (esp. subject-verb inversion) no Morse & Maxwell 1999, p. 20 Amanda Novak
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Polar questions: intonation only Yes/no questions distinguished from declaratives by intonation only no Morse & Maxwell 1999, p. 20 Amanda Novak
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Content questions: word order differs from declaratives Content questions distinguished from declaratives by word order (esp. subject-verb inversion) as well as by presence of Q-word (who, what, etc.) no content questions do include wh - words Morse & Maxwell 1999, p. 23 Amanda Novak
Simple Clauses - Predication Predicate adjectives: verbal Adjectives act like verbs in predicative position yes adjectives derived from stative verbs Morse & Maxwell 1999, p. 16 Amanda Novak
Simple Clauses - Predication Predicate adjectives: nominal Adjectives act like nouns in predicative position yes adjectives agree with person, number, and classifer even if noun is not overt Morse & Maxwell 1999, p. 126 Amanda Novak
Simple Clauses - Predication Zero copula for predicate nominals is possible Predicate nominals may occur without a copula (i.e. grammatical in some circumstances, if not all) no Amanda Novak
Simple Clauses - Predication Headless relative clauses Compare Eng 'the one that fell' (but in Eng 'one' could be considered a head) yes nominalized verbs can be considered relative clauses like when subjects are not overt and tehre is no relative pronoun- Morse & Maxwell 1999, p. 152 Amanda Novak
Simple Clauses - Predication Headless relative clauses are the dominant or only form of relative clause Relative clauses that form a constituent with a head noun (in a single noun phrase) are rare or nonexistent; some descriptions may refer to adjoined or correlative clauses. no they more oftenly occure in NPs without any overt head noun Morse & Maxwell 1999, p. 152 Amanda Novak
Simple Clauses - Predication Relative clause may occur with a noun classifier/class marker It may be unclear whether the classifier is the nominal head of the construction or is an agreement marker on the relative clause yes Morse & Maxwell 1999, p. 152 Chris Clack Relative clauses in Cubeo are either postnominal or, more commonly, appear in a noun phrase without any overt head noun. In the latter case, they can equally well be considered as noun phrases which happen to be headed by a nominalized verb.
Simple Clauses - Predication Relativizer is a verbal affix yes nominalizer is a verbal affix Morse & Maxwell 1999, p. 147 Amanda Novak
Simple Clauses - Predication Morphological relativizer is homophonous with nominalizer The same morpheme marks a relative clause and is a nominalizer on verbs (and/or other word classes) yes most subordinate clauses are formed by nominalizing the verb Morse & Maxwell 1999, p. 147 Amanda Novak
Simple Clauses - Desiderative expressions Grammaticalized verbal desiderative Indicates that the subject desires to carry out the action denoted by the verb (distinct from verb 'want', but may be grammaticalized from it) yes -ijɨ probably related to verb root '-ɨ' Morse & Maxwell 1999, p. 27 Amanda Novak
Simple Clauses - Other Clause chaining Clauses can be grouped such that only one bears most of the verb morphology, and the others are marked as to whether they share a subject with this reference clause. no info Morse & Maxwell 1999, p. 148 Amanda Novak
Simple Clauses - Other Morphologically marked switch-reference system There are special markers to indicate same vs. different subject when two clauses are combined no info Morse & Maxwell 1999, p. 148 Amanda Novak
Simple Clauses - Other Morphologically marked distinction between simultaneous and sequential clauses Morphology (usually on verb) distinguishes between clauses denoting events that occur at the same time or in sequence yes there are six total distinctions (simultaneously, immiediately prior, marks beginning point) Morse & Maxwell 1999, p. 163-164 Amanda Novak


Ethnographic Information
Current population (ethnicity) Current population (speakers) Former population estimate Subsistence preference Subsistence notes Density Sedentism Ecotome (riverine/interfluvial/coastal/desert/savannah/etc.) Social hierarchies Multilingualism (rare/occasional/common) Contact languages Marriage pattern Notes Source Created By
6150 large AG medium sedentary Riverine Phratric exogamy used as lingua franca