Pronominal plural: stem + nominal plural affix

Nominal Categories - Number
Pronouns use a nominal plural affix not specific to pronouns


Language Feature Status Grammatical Notes Source Created By Etymology Notes General Notes Phylogenetic Code
Cahuilla yes Jane Hill
Cupeño yes Jane Hill
Luiseño yes Jane Hill
Serrano yes Jane Hill
Kitanemuk yes Jane Hill
Kawaiisu yes Jane Hill
Timbisha yes Jane Hill
Western Mono no Jane Hill
Chemehuevi yes Jane Hill
Southern Paiute no Jane Hill
Southern Ute no Jane Hill
Shoshone yes Jane Hill
Comanche no Jane Hill
Idaho Shoshone no Jane Hill
Northern Paiute yes Jane Hill
Gabrielino yes Jane Hill
Achagua no Wilson & Levinsohn 1992: 23 Ana Paula Brandao
Resígaro no Allin, 1976: 116 Aimee Lawrence
Bare no Aikhenvald, 1995: 22 Ana Paula Brandao
Piapoco no First- and third-person plural pronouns are suppletive. The second-person plural uses the 2nd person singular and a plural marker, but it seems specific to pronouns, distinct from the nominal plural, although it is used to indicate agreement on verbs. Galindo, 2002: 160, 184 Aimee Lawrence
Yukuna no Shauer & Shauer, 2000: p. 518 Aimee Lawrence
Yavitero no 1st and 2nd pronominal plurals are completely suppletive. The third-person plural uses the third-person singular form plus another morpheme -ni, but this isn't the same plural marker used elsewhere. Mosonyi, 1987: p. 41 Aimee Lawrence
Wapishana yes Santos, 2006: 185 Ana Paula Brandao, Amanda Meeks
Wayuu no Plural pronouns are suppletive. Mansen & Captain, 2000: p. 797-798 Aimee Lawrence
Tariana no Aikhenvald notes that plural marking in pronouns is distinct from that in nouns, although pronouns with a derivational classifier take the same plural marker as a noun with a classifier. Aikhenvald, 2003: 164-165, 204 Aimee Lawrence
Apurinã no Not for subject/object marking or possessive prefixes Facundes, 2000: 345-355 Aimee Lawrence
Asheninka Apurucayali no Plural forms with augmentative -ite Mihas 2010:159,160 Amanda Meeks
Maipure no Zamponi 2003:21 Amanda Meeks
Yanesha' no Duff-Tripp 1997:61 Daniel Valle
Kinikinau no info Daniel Valle
Baure no Danielsen 2007:317 Daniel Valle
Nanti yes Michael, 2008. p. 297 Aimee Lawrence
Paresi no info Rowan 1978, Rowan and Burgess 1979, Brandão 2010 Daniel Valle
Palikur no differing set of plural pronouns Launey 2003:65 Daniel Smith
Yine no Matteson 1965 Daniel Smith
Añun no different pronouns for plural Patte 1989 Daniel Smith
Bora no Seifart - 2005:55 Amanda Meeks
Makiritare no Hall 1988: 282 Daniel Smith
Makushi yes Carson 1982: 89 Melody Ann Ross *This seems a bit odd to me- pronouns using the inanimate plural marker rather than the animate one- re-read section and still got same conclusion
Eñepa yes certain pronouns have -ton or -kon endings Payne 2012:88-89 Daniel Smith
Pemon no de Armellada 1999: 12 Shannon Dardis
Guna yes plural enclitic Smith texts Daniel Smith
Naso no Quesada 2000 Daniel Smith
Ika no Frank 1990:26 Daniel Valle
Kogi no Celedón 1886:13 Daniel Valle
Cabecar no Bourland 1976:54-56 Daniel Valle
Guaymí yes But only for third person animate Alphonse 1956:4, Quesada 2008:70 Daniel Valle
Damana no Daniel Valle
Sikuani yes for first and second person Queixalós 2000:13 Daniel Smith
Macaguan no info Buenaventura 1993 Daniel Smith
Aguaruna no Overall 2007:124, 195-7 Daniel Valle
Northern Emberá no Mortensen 1999:42-3 Daniel Valle Catío
Waorani no info Daniel Valle
Ingá yes Except for the first person plural pronoun Levinson 1978:6 Daniel Valle
Matses no Fleck:242 Daniel Valle
Mapudungun no However, this language distinguishes between singular, dual and plural personal pronouns which are expressed by more-or-less supletive pronoun forms Zúñiga 2006, p. 96-99 Daniel Valle
Páez no Jung:136 Daniel Valle
Quechua Ayacuchano yes But this strategy is only used for 2nd and 3rd person; 1st person plural distinguishes between inclusive and exclusive which have suppletive forms. Parker 1965:35 Daniel Valle
Tikuna no Montes 2004b:88-89 Daniel Valle
Urarina no Olawsky:213 Daniel Valle
Waunana no info Daniel Valle
Andoke no info Kelsey Neely
Puinave no Giron 2008: p170, 191 Mitz Perez, Daniel Valle
Central Aymara yes Huayhua Pari 2001: 248 Shannon Dardis
Kakua no Bolaños fieldnotes Katherine Bolaños
Kaingang no Silva 2011:146 Daniel Smith
Minica Witoto no Minor and Minor 1982. p.15-16 Christopher Clack
Hup no Epps 2008 Pattie Epps
Nadëb/Roçado dialect no Weir 1984 Katherine Bolaños
Dâw no Martins 2004 Katherine Bolaños
Desano no Miller 1999, p. 30 Amanda Novak
Cubeo yes Amanda Novak
Kotiria yes 3rd pronouns are derived from anaphoric particle root 'ti+' the noun class marker- in the 3P the animate plural class marker is used Stenzel 2004, p. 161 Amanda Novak
Makuna yes Smothermon & Smothermon 1993, p.33-36 Chris Clack
Koreguaje no Cook & Criswell 1993, p.31-32 Chris Clack
Barasano no Jones & Jones 1991, p.31 Chris Clack
Tanimuca no Strom 1992, p.60 Chris Clack
Siona no Each pronoun, including plurals, has its own form. There are no affixes for plurality for pronouns. Wheeler - 1987:135-136 Amanda Meeks
Tukano no Ramirez 1997: 322 Kelsey Neely
Yanomami no no number marked on non-possessive forms, number marked on 1st person inclusive dual and plural and on second person dual and plural with suffixes that are unique to possessive pronouns Ramirez 1994: 209-210 Kelsey Neely
Ninam no Goodwin-Gomez, p.50-51 Kelsey Neely
Sanumá no Borgman 1990: p.150 Kelsey Neely
Surui no Van der Meer (?):7-8 Daniel Valle
Karitiana no It is not stated but it seems that 1st person plural inclusive and 2pl are form by adding /-tʃa/ to the respective singular form and the final nasal of the singular forms is deleted but it leaves compensatoy lenghtening in the vowel as well as nasalizatio Everett 2006:296, 303 Daniel Valle
Nheengatu no Cruz 2011:147 Daniel Smith
Paraguayan Guaraní no Ayala 1996:28 Daniel Valle
Aché no info Daniel Valle
Kokama no Daniel Smith
Nyangumarta no done 0
Jingulu no done 0
Wambaya no done 0
Bunuba yes done 1
Walmajarri yes Done-Claire 1
Nyulnyul no info done? x
Warrwa no done 0
Worrorra no 25, ms7.2 done 0
Garrwa no info done X
Gooniyandi no done 0
Warlpiri yes BS151, n24 done 1
Bardi no done-Claire 0
Yugambeh Y?
Yorta Yorta no 63 done 0
Yir Yoront Done-Dan
Yindjibarndi yes 73 done-Dan 1
Yidiny not done yet done-Catherine X
Yanyuwa no 12 Done-Austin 0
Yandruwandha no 87, 93 Done-Dan 0
Yan-nhangu not yet
Yalarnnga no 16 Done-Dan 0
Woiwurrung no done-Amalia 0
Wirangu No 86 done 0
Wemba-Wemba no H 37-8 done-Amalia 0
Warumungu No 28 done-Amalia 0
Wangkumara no info done X
Uradhi No 353 Y 0
Paakantyi no Y-Hannah 0
Pitta-Pitta No 194 Done-Amalia 0
Pintupi no done-Hannah 0
Nyungar no info done x
Nhanta yes 58, 76-77 Done-Hannah 1
Ngiyambaa no 123 Done-Emily 0
Ngayawang No 6 done-Amalia 0
Muruwari no 90 Done-Dan 0
Mayi-Yapi No 52 done 0
Martuthunira no done 0
Marrgany No 303 Done-Amalia 0
Kuuk Thaayorre No 213 Done-Amalia 0
Kuku Yalanji n/a 74 Done-Jessica 0
Kugu-Nganhcara No 421 done-Amalia 0
Kaurna No 7-8 done-Amalia 0
Kalkatungu no 31-2, 80-1 Done-Dan 0
Jaru no 64-5 Done-Amalia 0
Guugu-Yimidhirr No 66 Done-Amalia 0
Gureng Gureng no info Done-Amalia x
Gumbaynggirr no 282 done-Amalia 0
Gugu-Badhun n/a done-Jessica 0
Yuwaalaraay No 43 0
Dyirbal No done-Amalia 0
Duungidjawu no 51 done 0
Djinang No 33 Done-Amalia 0
Djabugay done
Diyari no 41; 61 done-Hannah 0
Dharawal no 49-52 done-Hannah w Dhurga) 0
Darkinyung no 28-29 done 0
Bularnu no 50 Done-Austin 0
Biri no 24, 32 done-Jessica 0
Bidjara-Gungabula n/a done-Jessica 0
Batyala No 4 Done-Amalia 0
Arabana no 110, 113 Done-Dan 0
Alyawarr no 92-3 done 0
Nyikina no done-Claire 0
Yawuru Y-Claire
Yulparija No 19 Done-Amalia 0
Wathawurrung no 72 done 0
Mathi-Mathi no 90 done-Amalia 0
Hunter River and Lake Macquarie no 40-41 done-Amalia 0
Thanggati no 23 done 0
Katthang yes 64 done-Amalia 1
Panyjima yes 156-157, 149-150 done 1
Ngarinyeri No 23 done-Amalia 0
Kurrama yes 92-93 done-Dan 1
Yingkarta no Done-Claire 0
Githabul No 15 Done-Amalia 0
Gunya No 304 Done-Amalia 0
Kunjen No 87, 91 Done- 0
WesternTorres no FO 136, 138 done 0
Wakaya no 151 done 0
Yindjilindji no 515 done 0
Bandjalang No 39 Done-Amalia 0
Ngaatjatjara No 29 done 0
Arrernte No 89 0
Kokatha No 48 0
Karajarri No 144 Done-Amalia 0
Pitjantjatjara No Y 18 0
Ritharrngu No 29 Done-Amalia 0
Warrgamay No 40 Done-Amalia 0
Warluwarra no 881 Done-Amalia 0
Warnman Yes 25 Done-Amalia 1
Djapu no 51-2 0
Bilinarra no 5.1.1 done 0
Wiradjuri no info done x
Aghu-Tharnggala No 48 Y2 0
Narungga No 58 done 0
Tharrkari No 16 0
Wajarri No 68 0
Warungu no 175, 230 0
Adnyamathanha Y2
Yagua no Payne and Payne 1990 Daniel Smith
Baniwa no Ramirez 2001 Patience Epps