Kitanemuk

Family
Uto-Aztecan
Region
North America
ISO 639-3
no
Location
0.00°, 0.00°
Notes
Features
Basic Vocabulary
Flora Fauna Vocabulary
Cultural Vocabulary
Grammatical Data
Ethnographic Information
Data Sources
none


Basic Vocabulary (185)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Etymology Notes Source Created By
above encima, arriba acima location tukuhpavea inheritance Anderton 1988 Jane Hill
again de nuevo, otra vez de novo grammar hamyk inheritance Jane Hill
all todo todos other puyu inheritance Jane Hill
and y e grammar hamyk inheritance Anderton 1988 Jane Hill
ankle tobillo tornozelo body kachuach unknown Jane Hill
armpit axila, sobaco axila body kwachuhpich unknown Jane Hill
ash ceniza(s) cinzas environment kukut inheritance Jane Hill
at en, a em, a location -pea inheritance Jane Hill
back espalda costas body tyhpic inheritance Jane Hill
bad mal mal quality kysha7 loan direction unknown Jane Hill
belly barriga barriga body to7ch loan into protolanguage Jane Hill
below abajo, debajo abaixo location py(y7)htuk inheritance Jane Hill
big grande grande quality 7aty7a inheritance Jane Hill
bite morder morder body ky7 inheritance Jane Hill
black negro preto colour jo7vy7k inheritance Jane Hill
blood sangre sangue body 7ych inheritance Jane Hill
blow soplar soprar body puhea “blow on” (VT) inheritance Jane Hill
boil/pimple espinilla, granos espinha, borbulha body kaya “have a boil” unknown Jane Hill
bone hueso osso body 7oc inheritance Jane Hill
breast pecho, seno peito body pi7c inheritance Jane Hill
breathe respirar respirar body hikaw, hikay inheritance Jane Hill
burn quemar queimar environment hu7 inheritance Jane Hill
chew masticar, mascar mastigar body kaci7 unknown Jane Hill
child niño, niña criança human mayhat inheritance Jane Hill
climb subir subir motion 7ochyk (intr) inheritance Jane Hill
cloud nube nuvem environment wongat inheritance Jane Hill
cold frío frio quality shyvyt inheritance Jane Hill
come venir vir motion kim inheritance Jane Hill
cook cocinar cozinhar impact kwahan (trans), kwar (intr) inheritance Jane Hill
correct/true verdad, de veras verdade quality mymk loan Jane Hill
count contar contar mental ty7ur inheritance Jane Hill
cry llorar chorar mental jy7 inheritance Jane Hill
cut/hack cortar cortar impact ngychk inheritance Jane Hill
day día dia time tameat inheritance Jane Hill
die/be dead morir morrer state muk inheritance Jane Hill
dig cavar cavar impact hoch (dig out) inheritance Jane Hill
dingo/wolf fauna wanach inheritance Jane Hill
dirty sucio sujo quality cukwavy-c “dirt, grime” (and is a vb) inheritance Jane Hill
dream soñar sonhar mental kwahkwachamuk; cf. kum inheritance Jane Hill
drink beber, tomar beber body pa7 inheritance Jane Hill
dry seco seco quality wahk inheritance Jane Hill
dull/blunt sin filo, mocho, desafilado, embotado, romo maçante, desamolado, não afiado quality pimochk inheritance Jane Hill
dust polvo poeira environment jyrumach loan Jane Hill
ear oreja orelha body kavac inheritance Jane Hill
earth/soil tierra terra environment tyvach inheritance Jane Hill
eat comer comer body kwa7, ko7 inheritance Jane Hill
egg huevo ovo fauna pano inheritance Jane Hill
eye ojo olho body uva7 inheritance Jane Hill
faeces heces, mierda, excremento, estiércol fezes body sha7 inheritance Jane Hill
fall caer cair motion hucyk inheritance Jane Hill
far lejos longe quality pyjan inheritance Jane Hill
fat/grease grasa gordura body wipt inheritance Jane Hill
father padre, papá pai kinship na7 inheritance Jane Hill
fear miedo medo mental tyhmyk loan Jane Hill
feather pluma pena fauna mahac (flight) inheritance Jane Hill
fire fuego fogo environment kut inheritance Jane Hill
fish xx xx fauna kihuch inheritance Jane Hill
flow fluir fluir motion wanatu7 inheritance Jane Hill
flower flor flor environment 7a-shy inheritance Jane Hill
fly volar voar motion ja7 inheritance Jane Hill
fog niebla, neblina nevoeira, bruma, neblina environment pakit, papamash inheritance Jane Hill
foot pie body cakac inheritance Jane Hill
fruit fruta fruta flora 7a(-)ka7 inheritance Jane Hill
good bueno bom quality numuach loan Jane Hill
grow crecer crescer state tuch (grow up) inheritance Jane Hill
hair (of head) cabello cabelo body kopoc (head) inheritance Jane Hill
hand mano mão body mac inheritance Jane Hill
3sg el/ella ele/ela grammar 7ama7 inheritance Jane Hill
head cabeza cabeça body pishach unique Jane Hill
hear oír ouvir mental mach inheritance Jane Hill
heavy pesado pesado quality pychy7 inheritance Jane Hill
hide esconder esconder motion missing Jane Hill
hit golpear, pegar bater impact pi7, inheritance Jane Hill
hold correr, asegurar, sostener segurar other ja inheritance Jane Hill
how? como como grammar haminat “how (are you)?” inheritance Jane Hill
1sg yo eu grammar ny7 inheritance Jane Hill
if si se grammar -iva7 unknown Jane Hill
in/inside dentro, adentro dentro location -pea, vea inheritance Jane Hill
intestines intestinos intestinos body shi-ch inheritance Jane Hill
itch hormiguear, sentir comezón coçar body cung inheritance Jane Hill
kill matar matar impact myk (singular object) inheritance Jane Hill
know/be knowledgeable saber, conecer saber, conhecer mental 7yn inheritance Jane Hill
lake lago lago environment mymyt loan into protolanguage Jane Hill
laugh reír rir mental makaw inheritance Jane Hill
leaf hoja folha environment kavac inheritance Jane Hill
left/left hand izquierdo esquerdo location/body 7oci7(nga) “(at )the left hand” inheritance Jane Hill
leg/foot pierna perna body cakac inheritance Jane Hill
lie down acostarse, echarse deitar motion kwea7k unknown Jane Hill
lightning rayo, relámpago relampago environment 7a-naka7 taoch “thunder's stick” unique Jane Hill
live/be alive vivir viver, morar body yaynat “alive” inheritance Jane Hill
liver hígado figado body nymac inheritance Jane Hill
long largo comprido, longo quality meta7y7 inheritance Jane Hill
louse piollo, piojo piolho fauna 7achymch inheritance Jane Hill
lung pulmón pulmão body shongach inheritance Jane Hill
man/male hombre homem human pachuk loan Jane Hill
meat/flesh carne carne fauna 7a-tap “meat, sinew” inheritance Jane Hill
moon luna lua environment myach inheritance Jane Hill
mother madre, mamá mãe kinship jy7 inheritance Jane Hill
mouth boca boca body shichach unknown Jane Hill
name nombre nome human tyw inheritance Jane Hill
nape base del cuello, nuca nuca body myhic loan Jane Hill
near/close cerca de perto quality pop unknown Jane Hill
neck cuello pescoço body ngohoc inheritance Jane Hill
new nuevo novo quality 7amajt inheritance Jane Hill
night noche noite time tuka inheritance Jane Hill
no/not no não grammar naw unknown Jane Hill
nose nariz nariz body mukpic inheritance Jane Hill
old viejo velho quality 7uvihat “very old person” inheritance Jane Hill
one uno um number hawkup unique Jane Hill
open/uncover abrir abrir other 7a7nk (trans) unknown Jane Hill
other otro outro grammar hywach inheritance Jane Hill
pain/painful/sick dolor, doloroso, enfermo dor, doloroso, doente body muk, mukuk inheritance Jane Hill
person/human being persona pessoa human takat inheritance Jane Hill
pound/beat machacar, golpear bater impact pi7 (metate) inheritance Jane Hill
rain lluvia chuva environment wongat inheritance Jane Hill
red rojo vermelho colour kwashypk loan into protolanguage Jane Hill
right/right hand derecha direita location/body numua(nga) “good” loan Jane Hill
road/path camino caminho manufacture pokt inheritance Jane Hill
root raíz raiz flora ngakawi inheritance Jane Hill
rotten podrido podre quality pishka7 inheritance Jane Hill
sand arena areia environment 7okach inheritance Jane Hill
say decir dizer mental hak loan direction unknown Jane Hill
scratch rascar rasgar impact shym inheritance Jane Hill
see ver ver mental hiu inheritance Jane Hill
sharp afilado, filudo, filoso afiado quality tamawyt inheritance Jane Hill
shoot tirar, disparar, balear atirar impact mu inheritance Jane Hill
short corto curto quality pemisa7i7 unknown Jane Hill
shoulder hombro ombro body pumuc unique Jane Hill
shy/ashamed tímido, vergonzoso timido, com vergonha mental ciu7 “be ashamed” inheritance Jane Hill
sit sentar(se) sentar state ra7wyk inheritance Jane Hill
skin piel pele body koco inheritance Jane Hill
sky cielo céu environment tukuhpach inheritance Jane Hill
sleep dormir dormir body kum inheritance Jane Hill
small pequeño pequeno quality 7anu7si7 inheritance Jane Hill
smoke humo fumaça environment mwa7t inheritance Jane Hill
sniff/smell olfatear, oler cheirar body hukum loan direction unknown Jane Hill
spit escupir cuspir body tohvyk loan into protolanguage Jane Hill
split partir, dividir rachar, dividir, partir impact shererk unknown Jane Hill
squeeze estrujar, exprimir espremer impact kwaca7 unknown Jane Hill
stab/pierce apuñalar, acuchillar apunhalar impact cyk inheritance Jane Hill
stand estar de pié ficar em pé state co7nyk unknown Jane Hill
star estrella estrela environment hu7ch inheritance Jane Hill
steal robar roubar other 7yjyw inheritance Jane Hill
stick/wood palo pau, vara flora kuchat inheritance Jane Hill
stone piedra pedra environment tymyt inheritance Jane Hill
suck chupar chupar body cung inheritance Jane Hill
sweat sudar suor, suar body jyshky7 inheritance Jane Hill
swell hincharse inchar body pakana7 inheritance Jane Hill
swim nadar nadar motion pavacaj7e7 unique Jane Hill
tail cola, rabo rabo body kwacitac inheritance Jane Hill
that ese/esa esse grammar 7ama7 (distal) inheritance Jane Hill
3pl ellos/ellas eles/elas grammar 7amam inheritance Jane Hill
thick grueso, gordo, espeso grosso quality typuck (board) inheritance Jane Hill
thin delgado fino quality 7ivivi7 (board) unknown Jane Hill
think pensar pensar mental winikaw unknown Jane Hill
this este/esta este grammar 7ivi7 inheritance Jane Hill
2sg xx xx grammar 7ymy7 inheritance Jane Hill
three tres tres number pahi7 inheritance Jane Hill
throat garganta garganta body ngohoc inheritance Jane Hill
throw tirar, lanzar atirar, jogar impact pi7 “throw at” inheritance Jane Hill
thunder truenos trovão environment taoch inheritance Jane Hill
tie up/fasten atar, amarrar amarrar impact pyn inheritance Jane Hill
tongue lengua lingua body nyngich inheritance Jane Hill
tooth diente dente body tamac inheritance Jane Hill
turn girar, volter, torcer virar other manu7mk (vt) inheritance Jane Hill
two dos dois number woh inheritance Jane Hill
vomit vomitar vomitar body sukiuvi loan Jane Hill
walk caminar, andar andar motion nym inheritance Jane Hill
water agua agua environment pach inheritance Jane Hill
1pl.excl nosotros (exclusivo) nós (exclusivo) grammar 7icam inheritance Jane Hill
1pl.incl nosotros (inclusivo) nós (inclusivo) grammar 7icam inheritance Jane Hill
wet mojado molhado quality 7ayawcyk unknown Jane Hill
what? que, qué que grammar haminat inheritance Jane Hill
when? cuando quando grammar hinipa7 inheritance Jane Hill
where? donde onde grammar haypea inheritance Jane Hill
white blanco branco colour 7ayak unknown Jane Hill
who? quien, quién quem grammar hami(c) inheritance Jane Hill
wife esposa esposa kinship nymihung unique Jane Hill
wind viento vento environment shyvyt inheritance Jane Hill
wing ala asa body mahac inheritance Jane Hill
woman/female mujer mulher human kwihak unknown Jane Hill
work trabajar trabalhar other tumahan inheritance Jane Hill
yawn bostezar bocejar body hakwakwa7 inheritance Jane Hill
yellow amarillo amarelo colour 7amariyo7 loan Jane Hill
2pl ustedes vocês grammar missing Jane Hill


Flora Fauna Vocabulary (130)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Linnean Name Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Range of Term Word Structure Word Structure Notes Classifier Classifier Notes Hypernym Source Association with Social Categories Ritual/Mythologically Significant Ritual Notes Food Source Food Notes Medicinal Medicinal Notes How Collected Who Collects How Prepared Psychotropic Psychotropic Notes Traded Trade Notes Distribution Habitat Dangerous Ethnobiology Notes Species Notes General Notes Created By
abalone flora-fauna Haliotis spp. cikarat ˈʦikarat shell sp., the beads made from them loan Gabrielino Looks like the Gab. augmentative from cikat “shellfish sp.”, (probably mussel), but this is NOT Gab. word for “abalone” which is 7apo broader (includes the animal, the shell, and the beads) other complex ˈʦikara-t Abalone-npn Note: This is in fact derived: cika-t “shell sp.” -- maybe from Gab. cika-ro-t “big shell”??? But Anderton consideres it a fixed form -niw "possession, belongings" possessive classifier for things Anderton 1988:283 no info 2 ritual objects decorated with Haliotis inlays 1 1 lime from this shell taken with tobacco in pespibata N/A N/A no info 0 1 obtained from Chumash West coast of North America cold coastal waters no
ant (generic) hormiga formiga flora-fauna Formicidae missing missing missing 0 0 2 0 0 N/A N/A no
antelope flora-fauna Antilocapra americana tɨmɨnač ˈtɨmɨnaʧr antelope inheritance *tɨn(nV)- Northern Uto-Aztecan S52 (Stubbs 2009:45), the *tɨm(V)nV- possibility is worth considering. May be a loan into PNUA from Proto-Kiowa-Tanoan. same other complex ˈtɨmɨna-ʧr pronghorn-npn -ʔacit "pet" possessive classifier for animals Anderton 1988:529 no info 2 1 no info hunted men roasted, boiled 0 0 Western North America open areas no
badger flora-fauna Taxidea taxus hunavit ˈhunavit badger inheritance *hurap- Uto-Aztecan S105 (Stubbs 2009:53) same derived ˈhuna(-)vi-t derivational relationship with “bear” is obscure; this is how Anderton segments. Really it's hunav-t, with v from PUA *p. -ʔacit "pet" possessive classifier for animals Anderton 1988:323 no info 2 1 “Tejoneños [Yokuts] used to eat this and dog” (I assume this implies “but we did not”) no info hunted men for pelt only, apparently 0 0 North America chaparral, woodland yes
bald eagle flora-fauna Haliaeetus leucocephalus pamoiš ˈpamoiʃ white-headed eagle loan Cahuilla Cupeño pa7mush “bird sp., a water bird”, Cahuilla pamu7ish “bald eagle”, Luiseno ʹpa:mɁuʃ (not in Stubbs) (re Cup. form, Bald Eagle is a fishing bird). The non-correspondent final -ʃ and the odd /o/ in Kitanemuk argue for loan status -- perhaps from Cahu same underived possibly ˈpa-moiʃ but second part is not meaningful in any of the languages -ʔacit "pet" possessive classifier for animals Anderton 1988:458 no info 1 feathers in ritual regalia; killed in Eagle Ceremony 2 often not eaten no info hunted men eaglets raised, smothered in dance, feathers kept 0 1 feather regalia traded North America Prefers habitat with large areas of water; this is a fishing bird no
band-tail pigeon flora-fauna Patagioenas fasciata pah'-mah-kah-hōt 60-9 ˈpamakahot Band-tail pigeon inheritance *makahVwi Uto-Aztecan S676 (Stubbs 2009;126); All other languages have the augmentative suffix -wɨ, not the prefix pa:- same derived ˈpa-makaho-t big-dove-npn (there are many of these pa- forms so I am assuming it is synchronically productive/accessible) -ʔacit "pet" possessive classifier for animals http://www.archive.org/stream/bancroft_chartmerriam_1556_60#page/n1/mode/2up, p. 9 no info 0 1 no info hunted men roasted, boiled, eggs eaten 0 0 Americas Oak and pine forests, feeds on acorns no
bat murciélago morcego flora-fauna Chiroptera spp pɨvakat ˈpɨvakat bat inheritance *pɨvakaC- Takic “Takic” should be taken with caution because consultant was the same for Kitanemuk and Gabrielino (Mrs. Rosenmyre). But correspondence w/ Gab. po-vah-kaht looks good. same other complex ˈpɨvaka-t bat-non.possessed.noun (npn) -ʔacit "pet" possessive classifier for animals Anderton 1988:478 no info 0 1 no info no info no info no info 0 0 Americas diverse habitats no
beaver flora-fauna Castor cɨpɨʔkɨʔ ˈʦɨpɨʔkɨʔ; H heard no final ʔ beaver loan Yokuts also loaned into Chumash, e.g. Barb. chip'ik; Yokuts has toepuek, doepuk, etc., see Kroeber WW %t'ypyk same underived -ʔacit "pet" possessive classifier for animals Anderton 1988:288 no info 2 1 probably not, probably got skins in trade no info no info no info no info 0 0 beaver pelts traded; I doubt if Kitanemuk country had many beavers North America streams, wetlands no
beetle flora-fauna Coleoptera spp huʔhuʔač ˈhuʔhuʔaʧr stinkbug, pinacate inheritance *huhuCa Northern Uto-Aztecan S313 (Stubbs 2009:83); in Serrano, and also Hopi hohoyaw. Possibly a regionalism just missing in intermediate languages?? May have “fart” word. narrower (stinkbug is prototypical named beetle) other complex ˈhuʔhuʔa-ʧr stinkbug-npn (probably derived from ˈhuʔ “to fart” but if so regularly should be ˈhuʔhuʔiaʧr -ʔacit "pet" possessive classifier for animals Anderton 1988:319 no info 2 0 no info no info no info no info 0 0 global Diverse habitats no
big round tule flora-fauna Schoenoplectus acutus pivuht ˈpivuht reed sp., tule unique Is this word maybe related to piivat “tobacco”, given pipe association? See Luiseño pivee$ash. CHM records pe-wum, a similar Serrano form. broader (plant and derived materials) other complex ˈpivuh-t big.tule-npn -niw possessive classifier for things Anderton 1988:475 no info 2 almost certainly used in ritual structures 1 tubers eaten raw, lower stalk edible no info gathered (wild) all for house covering, mats 0 0 California and southern US into Mexico wet areas throughout territory no
big skunk flora-fauna Mephitis mephitis ponivač ˈponivaʧr skunk inheritance *po(C)ni Northern Uto-Aztecan S1983 (Stubbs 2009:275); see discussion of possible UA etymology that I don't care for same other complex ˈponiva-ʧr skunk-npn -ʔacit "pet" possessive classifier for animals Anderton 1988:482 no info 2 2 hides used no info hunted men no info 0 0 North America Diverse habitats no
big wolf (gray wolf) flora-fauna Canis lupus wanač ˈwanaʧr wolf, sealion inheritance *wana-ci Northern Uto-Aztecan also in Serrano. I'll bet this is S557a *wanci7a “fox” (these forms attest to an additional vowel), in Central and Southern Numic. May be an arealism/loan same other complex ˈwana-ʧr wolf-npn -ʔacit "pet" possessive classifier for animals Anderton 1988:562 no info 1 2 big predators often not eaten, but probably hunted for skin no info hunted men for skin 0 0 skins often traded Americas Diverse habitats yes
bighorn sheep flora-fauna Ovis canadensis paʔt ˈpaʔt mountain sheep inheritance *paʔaC- Northern Uto-Aztecan S204 (Stubbs 2009:67); may be a Proto-Kiowa-tanoan loan into Proto NUA same other complex ˈpaʔ-t bighorn-npn (perhaps a loan into PNUA from Proto-Kiowa-Tanoan) -ʔacit "pet" possessive classifier for animals Anderton 1988:462 no info 2 1 no info hunted men roasted, boiled 0 0 Western North America steep slopes, cliffs no
bird pajaro, ave passaro flora-fauna wicitat ˈwiʦitat bird, any kind of small songbird inheritance *wi(t)tiki Northern Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 205a (Stubbs 2009:67); wici forms in Serran and S. Numic, and Tb. has chikit (wi- is a prefix???) narrower (does not include raptors, water birds) other complex ˈwiʦita-t bird-npn -ʔacit "pet" possessive classifier for animals Anderton 1988:569 no info 0 0 no decent info but everybody ate songbirds and eggs no info hunted all roasted, boiled, eggs eaten 0 0 N/A N/A no
black ant flora-fauna Camponotus pennsylvanicus/Lasius niger yokač ˈjokaʧr ant sp: black, medium-sized inheritance *yuka Takic S47 (Stubbs 2009:44) same other complex ˈjoka-ʧr ant.sp-npn; may contain element yu - from “black” -ʔacit "pet" possessive classifier for animals Anderton 1988:591 no info 2 0 no info no info no info no info 0 0 Americas Diverse habitats no
black bear flora-fauna Ursus americanus hunaɨt ˈhunaɨt bear inheritance *huna-wɨ-ta Californian S132 (Stubbs 2009:59). This is “big badger”; badger, *hura(p), is UA etymon. But only means “bear” in California. broader (includes all bears) derived ˈhuna-ɨ-t bear-augmentative-npn (-w- lost regularly) -ʔacit "pet" possessive classifier for animals Anderton 1988:322 no info 1 bear shamanism, guardian spirits 2 no info hunted men mainly for hide, claws 0 0 North America chaparral, woodland yes
black-tail Jackrabbit flora-fauna Lepus californicus hwiʔt ˈhwiʔt hare inheritance *suuʔit Uto-Aztecan S1713 (Stubbs 2009:243); I give Manaster-Ramer's reconstruction same other complex ˈhwiʔ-t jackrabbit-npn -ʔacit "pet" possessive classifier for animals Anderton 1988:328 no info 2 1 no info hunted men roasted, boiled, bones ground, diverse preparations; fur used in blankets 0 0 rabbit-skin blankets trades North America flat open areas no
blackberry flora-fauna Rubus ursinus pikwač ˈpikwaʧr California blackberry inheritance *pi(kwa-) Takic S182 (Stubbs 2009:64); broader (plant and berries, other berries of this general type) other complex ˈpikwa-ʧr berry-npn -niw possessive classifier for things Anderton 1988:471 no info 2 1 berry eaten raw 1 tea from root for “clapp” gathered (wild) women brew tea from root 0 0 Western North America foothills, uplands no
blue grouse flora-fauna Dendrogapus? hoo'-e-hoo'-e 60-9 ˈhuʔihuʔi ? Blue grouse inheritance *hu(ʔ)i- Northern Uto-Aztecan May be a regionalism: Tumpisa Shoshone huiccu “sage grouse”; this looks like the “small bird” word ?? same reduplicated -ʔacit "pet" possessive classifier for animals http://www.archive.org/stream/bancroft_chartmerriam_1556_60#page/n1/mode/2up, p. 9 no info 0 1 no decent info but everybody ate songbirds and eggs no info hunted men roasted, boiled, eggs eaten 0 0 Western North America. I don't know why it's in Merriam's list for California, mainly a Rocky Mountain bird scrublands, woodlands no
bobcat, lynx flora-fauna Lynx rufus tukut ˈtukut Bobcat inheritance *tuCkuC- Northern Uto-Aztecan S1306 (Stubbs 2009:200). This is a California Wanderwort; Great Basin forms giving NUA are surely loans. But loan may be early because Hopi has regular vocalism. WW %tuku same other complex ˈtuku-t wildcat-npn (Old Californianism into early stage of NUA) -ʔacit "pet" possessive classifier for animals Anderton 1988:545 no info 1 2 no info hunted men mainly for hide is my guess 0 0 North America Diverse habitats no
butterfly, moth mariposa borboleta flora-fauna Lepidoptera ʔatavatava ˈʔatavatava butterfly, moth unique broader (includes both butterflies and moths) reduplicated ʔatavatava -ʔacit "pet" possessive classifier for animals Anderton 1988:273 no info 2 0 no info no info no info no info 0 0 global Diverse habitats no
California condor flora-fauna Gymnogyps californianus pah'-we-roo-kut 60-7 ˈpawirukuht California condor (this is “vulture” in Anderton and Harrington) inheritance *wiLhukuN Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 335, one of the better fits in that problematic group. same derived ˈpa-wirukuh-t big-vulture-npn -ʔacit "pet" possessive classifier for animals http://www.archive.org/stream/bancroft_chartmerriam_1556_60#page/n1/mode/2up, p. 7 no info 1 can substitute for eagle in eagle ceremony 2 unlikely was eaten no info hunted men probably just for feathers 0 1 probably feather regalia traded U. S. Southwest Rocky scrubland, woodland (they like cliffs no
California jay flora-fauna Aphelocoma californica? caycaʔy ˈʦajʦaʔj bird sp: bluish, no crest, harsh scream, seen in oak trees loan *chaʔi- Northern Uto-Aztecan Yokuts Kitanemuk cayca7y “blue jay”; S209, Central Numic, Tubatulabal, Takic, always “blue jay” (Stubbs 2009:68). Note similarity of Yokuts, Chumash words. I think this reduplicated form is recent Yokutsan loan. WW %chaj same reduplicated ˈʦajʦaʔ-j dup-jay-npn -ʔacit "pet" possessive classifier for animals wicitat Anderton 1988:281 no info 2 1 no decent info but everybody ate songbirds and eggs no info hunted men roasted, boiled, eggs eaten 0 0 throughout western North America (distributions from Wikipedia unless otherwise noted) scrublands, woodlands (Habitats from Wikipedia unless otherwise noted) no
California woodpecker flora-fauna Melanerpes formicivorus? pivanač ˈpivanaʧr woodpecker sp: smaller than šɨč inheritance Takic Note Gabrielino pe-var” 72-77, 60-423, but the derivation is not the same same derived ˈpi-ivana-ʧr peck-instrumental-npn (usually with final ʔ as possessed form; Anderton 1988:475 regards as “frozen form”) -ʔacit "pet" possessive classifier for animals wicitat Anderton 1988:475 no info 2 often figures importantly, but no info 1 especially handy as acorn-storing bird no info hunted men roasted, boiled, eggs eaten 0 1 woodpecker scalp feathers often traded, but no info Southern Oregon, California, south to Colombia oak woodlands no
chia flora-fauna Salvia columbariae pahinač pahinaʧ Chia sp.: Salvia columbariae, also called Skunk Sage inheritance *pasa/i Californian S1599 (Stubbs 2009:233). Only Numic is Tumpisa Shoshone, almost certainly a loan from Tubatulaba, and Kawaiisu. This shows up in Chumash, Salinan,Kiliwa!! may be an old Californianism. WW %pasv same other complex pahina-ʧ chia-npn -niw possessive classifier for things Anderton 1988:452 no info 1 Kitanemuk used seeds as offerings in most ceremonies 1 no info gathered (wild but closely managed) women parched and mixed with other seeds in diverse preparations 0 0 California and Southwest Below 6000 feet in dry open areas, extensive stands in chaparral no
chipmunk flora-fauna Tamias spp. missing missing missing 2 1 0 0 0 North America woodlands no
cliff swallow flora-fauna Petrochelidon pyrrhonota mawiyɨt ˈmawijɨt bird sp. resembles swallow inheritance *mawi-wɨ Takic Gab. Barn swallow:mah-wā-ō>t (> is CHM's back apostrophe) 72-77; see precautionary note with “bat” same derived ˈmawi-jɨ-t feather.fan-augmentative-npn (mawiʃr “feather fan held by dancer”) -ʔacit "pet" possessive classifier for animals wicitat Anderton 1988:394 no info 2 involved somehow with fans; perhaps by resemblance 1 no decent info but everybody ate songbirds and eggs no info hunted men roasted, boiled, eggs eaten 0 0 if feathers are in fans, would have been traded Breed in North America Cliffs (and now in/on buildings) no
coot flora-fauna Fulica americana pah-kwe-nee-tah-hah kwah-he-ŭt pang-aht-sah “mud hen” ˈpakʷinitay ˈkʷaʔiwɨt ˈpaŋaʦaʔ Coot unique good UA vocabulary but probably a nonce form same phrase ˈpakʷini-ta-y ˈkʷaʔi-wɨ-t ˈpaŋaʦaʔ mud-npn-obj eat-augmentative-npn duck (probably a nonce formation) -ʔacit "pet" possessive classifier for animals ˈpaŋacaʔ http://www.archive.org/stream/bancroft_chartmerriam_1556_60#page/n1/mode/2up, p. 15 no info 2 1 probably no info hunted men roasted, boiled, eggs eaten 0 0 West coastal and southern North America to Central America wetlands and open water no
cottontail rabbit flora-fauna Sylvilagus audobonii tɨhokt ˈtɨhokt rabbit sp., with white tail inheritance *tosa-kammu Northern Uto-Aztecan S1709 (Stubbs 2009:242) compound -- white-jackrabbit, pretty eroded in this language! Frankly I doubt the kammu part. Note Central and Southern Sierra Miwok Tós:ewe-, Cupeno tisixat. same other complex ˈtɨhok-t cottontail-npn (ultimately from adjective for “white”, PUA *tosa-ka- -ʔacit "pet" possessive classifier for animals Anderton 1988:521 no info 2 1 no info hunted men roasted, boiled, bones ground, diverse preparations; fur used in blankets 0 0 rabbit-skin blankets trades North America Diverse habitats no
cottonwood flora-fauna Populus spp. wamat ˈwamat cottonwood tree unique Serran same other complex ˈwama-t cottonwood-npn -niw possessive classifier for things Anderton 1988:562 no info 2 0 1 medicine for broken bones gathered (wild) women bark (outer and inner) used 0 0 southern Canada south to northern Mexico moist areas no
coyote flora-fauna Canis latrans wahiʔ ˈwahiʔ coyote inheritance Serran Also in Serrano same underived perhaps sound imitative but not the usual *wo- -ʔacit "pet" possessive classifier for animals Anderton 1988:560 no info 1 always an important figure, but no info 2 often not eaten, but probably hunted for skin no info hunted men for skin 0 0 skins often traded North and Central America Diverse habitats no
crow flora-fauna Corvus brachyrhynchos ʔaʔaʔ ˈʔaʔaʔ crow loan Chumash Ventureno ʔaʔa-ʔiwaʃ “crow-pejorative” > ʔaʔawaʃ same reduplicated -ʔacit "pet" possessive classifier for animals wicitat Anderton 1988:262 no info 2 1 no decent info but everybody ate songbirds and eggs no info hunted men roasted, boiled, eggs eaten 0 0 Americas diverse habitats no
datura flora-fauna Datura wrightii manič ˈmaniʧr Jimsonweed, toloache (hallucinogenic drink made from its root) loan *mani- Takic Takic may be a loan; S1639 (Stubbs 2009:235); Gabrielino a good candidate for source language within Takic WW %mani broader (the plant and the drink) other complex ˈmani-ʧr datura-npn -niw possessive classifier for things Anderton 1988:391 no info 1 given to boy for vision quest 1 1 to ease pain gathered (wild) men root peeled, mashed soaked in cold water, drunk in AM, 3 times, 3 days apart 1 0 U.S. Southwest, California, Mexico “sandy, gravelly, open areas below 4000 feet throughout Southern California” (Bean & Saubel 1972:60) yes
deer, mule flora-fauna Odocoileus hemionus hukaht ˈhukaht deer inheritance *suCkaC- Uto-Aztecan S621 (Stubbs 2009:121) WW %sok narrower (mule deer only, I assume) other complex ˈhukah-t deer-npn -ʔacit "pet" possessive classifier for animals Anderton 1988:319 no info 2 1 no info hunted men roasted, boiled 0 0 Western North America Diverse habitats no
digger pine flora-fauna Pinus sabiniana wokoht ˈwokoht Digger pine, Pinus sabiniana, or its nut inheritance *wokoN- Uto-Aztecan S1579a (Stubbs 2009:231) broader (tree and nuts) other complex ˈwokoh-t -niw possessive classifier for things Anderton 1988:580 no info 2 1 no info gathered (wild) all cones roasted to pop out nuts 0 0 California central valley, Sierra foothills, Coast Ranges to Tehachapis, also on Channel Islands foothills no
dog (camp, domestic) perro cachorro flora-fauna Canis familiaris kuciʔ ˈkuʦiʔ dog loan no information *ku- words for dog are areal, oriented northward; loan into Serran, since also in Serrano same underived -ʔacit "pet" possessive classifier for animals Anderton 1988:362 no info 0 0 “Tejoneños [Yokuts] used to eat [badger] and dog” (I assume this implies “but we did not”) no info N/A N/A N/A 0 0 Americas with humans no
dogbane flora-fauna Apocynum cannabinum wivƗč ˈwivƗʧr red milkweed, or its fiber used in making string inheritance *wi(k)- Uto-Aztecan S1796 (Stubbs 2009:253); note Gab. wivor, a perfect cognate, suggesting Takic *wi-vɨ-ta broader (plant and fiber) other complex ˈwivƗ-ʧr milkweed-npn -niw possessive classifier for things Anderton 1988:575 no info 2 1 a fiber plant no info gathered (wild but closely managed women for fiber 0 0 Timbrook 2007;139 says groups that didn't have it traded for it Southern Canada to Mexico open wooded areas, hillsides, ravines no
dove paloma pomba flora-fauna Zenaida macrocoura makahot ˈmakahot dove inheritance *makahVwi Uto-Aztecan S676 (Stubbs 2009:126); vowel /o/ perhaps from ahVwi>ahwi>awi>aw> o loss of -w- is regional. same other complex ˈmakaho-t dove-npn -ʔacit "pet" possessive classifier for animals wicitat Anderton 1988:389 no info 2 1 no info hunted men roasted, boiled, eggs eaten 0 0 Southern Canada to Mexico Prefers open areas, avoids dense forests no
duck pato pato, marreco flora-fauna Anatidae paŋacaʔ ˈpaŋaʦaʔ duck (all kinds) unique Looks like it might be from panga tsa'i (tsayi), the water bird word, but unclear) broader (includes water birds that are not ducks) underived paŋaʦaʔ presumably includes pa-ŋa “water-in” but no other word formed this way. -ʔacit "pet" possessive classifier for animals Anderton 1988:259 no info 0 1 no info hunted men roasted, boiled, eggs eaten 0 0 Americas wetlands and open water no
elder flora-fauna Sambucus hukwat ˈhukʷat tree sp: elderberry inheritance *kuhu- Californian probably from hu-ku'V-t and in S179; kuhut also recorded; but note Cahuilla hunkat, perhaps a second set same other complex ˈhukʷa-t elderberry-npn (may be from hu-kuha-t wood-elderberry -npn although Anderton doesn't entertain this) -niw possessive classifier for things Anderton 1988:320 no info 2 1 berries eaten 1 flowers for tea for catarrh gathered (wild) women all parts of plants used (men may have gathered wood, for bows, etc.) 0 0 North America below 4500 feet in moist areas no
elk flora-fauna Cervas elaphus pahukaht ˈpahukaht elk inheritance *pa:-suka- Takic S788:139 “elk” WW %sok same derived ˈpa-hukah-t big-deer-npn -ʔacit "pet" possessive classifier for animals Anderton 1988:320 no info 2 1 no info hunted men roasted, boiled 0 0 Western North America uplands, not in deserts forest edges, forest no
fish (generic) pez peixe flora-fauna kihuč ˈkihuʧr fish inheritance *kɨcuC Uto-Aztecan S864 (Stubbs 2009;147) same other complex ˈkihu-ʧr fish-npn -ʔacit "pet" possessive classifier for animals Anderton 1988:351 no info 0 1 no info hunted men fish spears, poison. No info on preparatin. 0 0 Americas water no
flea pulga pulga flora-fauna Siphonaptera ʔatucit ˈʔatuʦit flea loan no information loan direction unknown, see Tub. moo-tsoo' 60-499, Gab. mo-tu:cey same other complex ˈʔatuʦi-t flea-npn -ʔacit "pet" possessive classifier for animals Anderton 1988:274 no info 2 0 highly unlikely no info N/A N/A N/A 0 0 Americas Diverse habitats no
flicker flora-fauna Colaptes sp. kimač ˈkimaʧr flicker inheritance *kima:- Takic Gab. ke'-mar” ; see “bat” for cautionary note same other complex ˈkima-ʧr; flicker-npn; Merriam's ke-mahts “zigzag” is this same word? perh. referring to a design shape? Anderton 1988:353 -ʔacit "pet" possessive classifier for animals wicitat Anderton 1988:353 no info 2 1 no decent info but everybody ate songbirds and eggs no info hunted men roasted, boiled, eggs eaten 0 1 Note that this name is not the “traded” woodpecker name in “pala” Americas diverse habitats no
blowfly/housefly mosca mosca flora-fauna Diptera picucuʔač ˈpiʦuʦuʔaʧr fly inheritance Serran see Gab. pi:cukwar; probably a regional element here, it's in Tub “horsefly” also; contains Stubbs 1184 *pitti, also in “hummingbird” same other complex ˈpiʦuʦuʔa-ʧr -ʔacit "pet" possessive classifier for animals Anderton 1988:470 no info 0 0 larvae probably eaten no info gathered (wild) all no info 0 0 global Diverse habitats no
foothills yucca flora-fauna Yucca whipplei ʔumoč ˈʔumoʧr stem or root of the quiote, Spanish bayonet stump) inheritance *amuwV Uto-Aztecan S4 (Stubbs 2009:40) narrower (may not mean whole plant -- although it does refer to whole plant in other languages) other complex ʔumo-č Yucca.sp.-npn -niw possessive classifier for things Anderton 1988:551 no info 0 decorated stalks used in mourning ceremony 1 no info gathered (wild) all head roasted 0 0 stalk obtained from Tubatulabal Southern California and Baja California chaparral and oak woodlands, 300-2500 m no
fox flora-fauna Vulpes, Urocyon kawčač ˈkawʧraʧr fox (used for quiver) inheritance *kawosi Northern Uto-Aztecan S556; I don't like his Tarahumara form (Stubbs 2009:113) WW %kaw narrower (does not include desert fox) other complex ˈkawʧra-ʧr fox-npn -ʔacit "pet" possessive classifier for animals Anderton 1988:347 no info 2 2 surely hunted for skin for quiver no info hunted men for skin 0 0 skins often traded Americas Diverse habitats no
frog (generic) flora-fauna wakatat ˈwakatat frog inheritance *wakaC-ta Uto-Aztecan S940 (Stubbs 2009:157); Tarahumara 7awaka seems OK in this set WW %wakat broader (includes toads) other complex ˈwakata-t frog-npn -ʔacit "pet" possessive classifier for animals Anderton 1988:562 no info 2 frog is wife of coyote (Anderton 562) 2 no info no info no info no info 0 0 Americas wetlands, lakes, ponds, streams no
golden eagle flora-fauna Aquila chrysaetos ʔahɨŋt ˈʔahɨŋt eagle inheritance Californian S719 (Stubbs 2009:131); note Yuman forms, perhaps Proto-Yuman *?as/shpa, as a possible source. But given this regular s>h, an early loan if a loan same other complex ʔahɨŋ-t golden.eagle-npn -ʔacit "pet" possessive classifier for animals Anderton 1988:265 no info 1 feathers in ritual regalia; killed in Eagle Ceremony 2 unlikely was eaten no info hunted men eaglets raised, smothered in dance, feathers kept 0 1 probably feather regalia traded North America They like cliffs, tall trees for nesting no
gooseberry flora-fauna Ribes spp. missing missing missing 2 1 1 0 0 diverse species in California chaparral, woodland no
gopher snake, bull snake flora-fauna Pituophis catenifer tahuč ˈtahuʧr snake sp. (gopher snake?) inheritance *tahu- Northern Uto-Aztecan S2015 (Stubbs 2009:280) same other complex ˈtahu-ʧr snake-npn -ʔacit "pet" possessive classifier for animals hɨŋt Anderton 1988:511 no info 2 2 no info no info no info no info 0 0 Southern Canada to Mexico Diverse habitats no
grass hierba, pasto capim, grama flora-fauna (NA) hamat ˈhamat grass, etc. (includes “any rama” inheritance *sama/u- Northern Uto-Aztecan S1025a (Stubbs 2009:166; similar Yuman forms need thought broader (grass, weeds,hay, etc) other complex ˈhama-t grass-npn -niw possessive classifier for things Anderton 1988:300 no info 0 Kitanemuk used seeds as offerings in most ceremonies 0 seeds 1 tea from one species for eyes, laxative from another gathered (wild) women seeds parched, mixed with other seeds, eaten in diverse preparations 0 0 N/A N/A no
grasshopper flora-fauna Caelifera woʔoht ˈwoʔoht grasshopper, or dragonfly inheritance *woʔV- Uto-Aztecan S1034 (Stubbs 2009:167) narrower (I think this is only one kind of grasshopper) other complex ˈwoʔoh-t grasshopper-npn -ʔacit "pet" possessive classifier for animals Anderton 1988:580 no info 2 1 no info gathered (wild) all roasted in pits, on sticks, etc. (no info specific to Kitanemuk) 0 0 global Diverse habitats no
gray ground squirrel flora-fauna Sphermophilus sp. koŋit ˈkoŋit squirrel sp.: probably Nelson's Antelope Squirrel inheritance *koŋi- Northern Uto-Aztecan S2092 (Stubbs 2009:288) same other complex ˈkoŋi-t ground.squirrel-npn -ʔacit "pet" possessive classifier for animals Anderton 1988:361 no info 2 1 no info hunted men roasted, boiled, bones ground, diverse preparations 0 0 North America Diverse habitats no
gray tree squirrel flora-fauna Sciurus spp. hikaɨt ˈhikaɨt flying squirrel loan into protolanguage *sika-(wV) Northern Uto-Aztecan Gabrielino S2094 (Stubbs 2009:288); may be very early loan into NUA; note similar Yokuts forms in Kroeber's “ground squirrel” list WW %sik same derived ˈhika-ɨ-t tree.squirrel-augmentative-npn (-w- lost regularly) -ʔacit "pet" possessive classifier for animals Anderton 1988:307 no info 2 1 no info hunted men roasted, boiled, bones ground, diverse preparations 0 0 Western North America woodlands no
great horned owl flora-fauna Bubo virginianus muŋt ˈmuŋt owl, great horned inheritance *muhuN Uto-Aztecan S1542 (Stubbs 2009:227), do NOT include Raramuri form with mo- same other complex muŋ-t owl-npn -ʔacit "pet" possessive classifier for animals Anderton 1988:413 no info 1 feathers in ritual regalia , widely taken to give omens of death 2 no info hunted men perhaps for feathers only 0 1 feathered regalia traded regularly Americas Diverse habitats (less common in extreme deserts) no
grizzly bear flora-fauna Ursus arctos horribilis hunawɨt ˈhunawɨt Grizzly Bear inheritance *huna-wɨ-ta Californian S132 (Stubbs 2009:59). This is “big badger”; badger, *hura(p), is UA etymon. But only means “bear” in California. Why is /w/ retained in this form? same derived ˈhuna-wɨ-t bear-augmentative-npn (Wju -ʔacit "pet" possessive classifier for animals Anderton 1988:322 no info 1 bear shamanism, guardian spirits 2 no info hunted men mainly for hide, claws 0 0 Western North America chaparral, woodland yes
horned toad flora-fauna Phrynosomatidae nakarakara ˈnakarakara chameleon unique same reduplicated nakara-kara horned.toad-dup (?) -ʔacit "pet" possessive classifier for animals Anderton 1988:418 no info 2 2 no info no info no info no info 0 0 Western U.S. and Mexico hot, dry, sandy areas no
horse caballo cavalho flora-fauna Equus caballus kavayoʔ ˈkavayoʔ horse loan Spanish WW %caballo same underived -ʔacit "pet" possessive classifier for animals Anderton 1988:346 no info 0 0 no info N/A N/A N/A 0 0 global with humans no
hummingbird colibrí, picaflor (Peru) beija-flor flora-fauna Trochilidae pituruʔ ˈpituruʔ hummingbird inheritance *pitsi/*pitti- Uto-Aztecan S1184 (Stubbs 2009:185); Gab form from *piyi- from *pitsi, contradicting the Serrano evidence cited in Stubbs for *piti, but Kit. also piti same underived no npn -ʔacit "pet" possessive classifier for animals wicitat Anderton 1988:474 no info 0 a good dreamhelper for a warrior (Blackburn & Bean 1978:567) 0 no decent info but everybody ate songbirds and eggs no info hunted all roasted, boiled, eggs eaten 0 0 Americas diverse habitats no
tobacco tabaco tabaco flora-fauna Nicotiana spp. civut ˈʦivut wild tobacco semantic shift *ciʔpuC “bitter” Uto-Aztecan S222 (Stubbs 2009:69) broader (plant and tobacco products like the chaw, etc) other complex ˈʦivu-t tobacco-npn (note ˈʦivuʔ “bitter”) -niw possessive classifier for things Anderton 1988:286 no info 1 given to boy at end of vision quest ritual 1 mixed with pine nuts in cakes 1 planted (intensive maintenance) all diverse preparations 1 0 Americas Diverse habitats yes
insect (generic) insecto insecto flora-fauna generic kuʔač ˈkuʔaʧr worm, bug (gen)., any “small nameless bug” (Harrington) inheritance *kuʔa- Takic S893 (Stubbs 2009:152), Broader (includes maggots and larvae, leeches, angleworms, but does NOT include named insects) other complex ˈkuʔa-ʧr bug-npn -ʔacit "pet" possessive classifier for animals Anderton 1988:362 no info 0 0 larvae eaten no info gathered (wild) all no info 0 0 N/A N/A no
junco flora-fauna Junco sppp ta-mah-we-ve-ah (“winter”) witch-e-tat ˈtamuavea ˈwiʦitat Junco unique made out of UA materials, may be a nonce form but all the languages have “winter bird” or “snow bird” same phrase ˈtamuavea ˈwiʦitat winter bird (perhaps a nonce form) -ʔacit "pet" possessive classifier for animals wicitat http://www.archive.org/stream/bancroft_chartmerriam_1556_60#page/n1/mode/2up, p. 11 no info 0 1 no decent info but everybody ate songbirds and eggs no info hunted all roasted, boiled, eggs eaten 0 0 North America coniferous and mixed forests, often forage in flocks in winter no
juniper flora-fauna Juniperus californica waʔt ˈwaʔt juniper tree inheritance *waʔaC- Northern Uto-Aztecan S414 (Stubbs 2009:94) same other complex ˈwaʔ-t juniper-npn -niw possessive classifier for things Anderton 1988:565 no info 2 1 berries eaten 1 mistletoe on Juniper good for asthma gathered (wild) women no info 0 0 North America abundant 3000-4500 feet no
louse flora-fauna order Phtiraptera ʔačɨmč ˈʔaʧɨmʧr head louse, tick inheritance *ʔatɨC- Uto-Aztecan S1357 (Stubbs 2009:205) narrower (head louse only) other complex ˈʔaʧɨmʧr does not take classifier, dirrectly possessed as -ˈʔaʧɨm Anderton 1988:264 no info 2 0 highly unlikely no info 0 0 global on people's hair no
mallard flora-fauna Anas platyrhynchos tsa-tsee-tseeh pang-aht-sah 72-591, 60-13 ˈʦaʦiʦij ˈpaŋaʦaʔ mallard unique same phrase ˈʦa-ʦi-ʦi ˈpaŋaʦaʔ hortative-dup-gather duck (?) “Let's-pick-it-up-repeatedly” duck? Probably a nonce formation -ʔacit "pet" possessive classifier for animals ˈpaŋacaʔ http://www.archive.org/stream/bancroft_chartmerriam_1556_60#page/n1/mode/2up, p. 13 no info 2 1 no info hunted men roasted, boiled, eggs eaten 0 0 global wetlands and open water no
manzanita flora-fauna Arctostaphylos spp. kɨčač ˈkɨʧraʧr manzanita inheritance *kɨta- Takic I think this is hitherto unnoticed member of S1635, requiring revision of S's reconstruction (Stubbs 2009:235) based on Cupan *kɨlV-l same other complex ˈkɨʧra-ʧr manzanita-npn -niw possessive classifier for things Anderton 1988:355 no info 2 1 1 wash from leaves gathered (wild) women berries used in diverse preparations 0 0 Western North America chaparral, edges of woodlands no
milkweed, broad leaf flora-fauna Asclepias eriocarpa kacic ˈkaʦiʦ milkweed plant unique Note Gabrielino to-hah'-che-ar' 72-79, 60-439 “chewing gum” in McC p. 247, - I'm interested in the hah'-che part, perhaps xachi- same derived kaci-c “chew-passive.nominative” “chew-ed” -niw possessive classifier for things Anderton 1988:338 no info 2 1 chewing gum from bitter cooked juice no info gathered (wild) women and children extract sap, also use fiber, sap chewed with flower 0 0 California and adjacent Nevada and Baja California dry barren areas 200-1900 m (Jepson Herbarium site) no
milkweed, narrow leaf flora-fauna Asclepias fascicularis missing missing missing 0 1 1 0 0 Inland California to Washington, Baja California dry areas, slopes, 50-2200 m (Jepson Herbarium) no
mission tule flora-fauna Juncus hwač ˈhwaʧr reed sp., like tule, 5 ft. high, used for baskets inheritance *sɨji- Takic S1735 (Stubbs 2009:246) (Gabrielino has swar, same development. Note Chumash swa7 “Scirpus sp.) broader (plant and basketry material from plant) other complex ˈhwa-ʧr Juncus-npn -niw possessive classifier for things Anderton 1988:326 no info 2 1 no info gathered (wild) women pretty scapes make different colors in baskets 0 0 Americas moist areas no
mockingbird flora-fauna Mimus polyglottos tukuahpač ˈtukuahpaʧr mockingbird unique Compare Cup. tukupuwet, some kind of woodpecker -- find other tuku- birds same other complex ˈtukuahpa-ʧr mockingbird-npn (root must be derived) -ʔacit "pet" possessive classifier for animals wicitat Anderton 1988:545 no info 2 1 no decent info but everybody ate songbirds and eggs no info hunted all roasted, boiled, eggs eaten 0 0 North America, Mexico diverse habitats (they like habitats with high places to perch, and don't like pine trees) no
mosquito mosquito, zancudo mosquito, carapana flora-fauna Anopheles spp, Isoptera hawawač ˈhawawaʧr mosquito, gnat unique Serran contains /wa-/ element in, for e.g., Taracahitan waho, Tepiman wamug; NOTE KAWAiisu waca-vi “yellow jacket” broader (includes gnats) other complex ˈhawawa-ʧr mosquito-npn -ʔacit "pet" possessive classifier for animals Anderton 1988:304 no info 0 0 highly unlikely no info N/A N/A N/A 0 0 global Diverse habitats no
moth mariposa nocturna, polilla mariposa flora-fauna Heterocera ʔatavatava ˈʔatavatava butterfly, moth unique broader (includes both butterflies and moths) reduplicated -ʔacit "pet" possessive classifier for animals Anderton 1988:273 no info 2 0 no info no info no info no info 0 0 Americas Diverse habitats no
mountain lion flora-fauna Puma concolor tukučuwat ˈtukuʧruwat Mountain lion loan no information Probably loaned from another Takic language. The derivation is irregular and non-correspondent. WW %tuku same derived ˈtukuʧruwat obviously derived from tukut but morphology obscure, this whole set of words is very loan-y -ʔacit "pet" possessive classifier for animals Anderton 1988:545 no info 1 2 no info hunted men mainly for hide is my guess 0 0 North America diverse habitats (prefers uplands) yes
mountain quail flora-fauna Oreortyx pictus kakawt ˈkakawt mountain quail inheritance *kacaC Uto-Aztecan S1702a (Stubbs 2009:241); 1702b is a different word, a Californianism. The augmentative formation is Californian. WW %kaka same derived ˈkaka-w-t quail-augmentative-npn (I would have expected kakaɨt; /w/ form is from Zigmond -ʔacit "pet" possessive classifier for animals wicitat Anderton 1988:341 from Zigmond no info 2 topknots decorate ritual regalia 1 no info hunted men roasted, boiled, eggs eaten 0 0 US west of Rockies and Baja California chaparral no
mussel flora-fauna Mytilus spp. kukunitɨ ˈkukunitɨ mussel sp. and name for beads made from it unique note Southern Chumash kiw “mussel” broader (includes the animal, the shell, and the beads) underived kukunitɨ does have reduplicated first syllable -niw "possession, belongings" possessive classifier for things Anderton 1988:367 no info 2 shell beads used as offerings (also money) 1 no info N/A N/A N/A 0 1 obtained from Chumash West coast of North America cold coastal waters no
olivella (olive snail) flora-fauna Callianax biplicata yahuč ˈyaxuʧr shell sp., white, used for beads unique broader (includes the animal, the shell, and the beads) other complex ˈyaxu-ʧr shell.sp.-npn -niw possessive classifier for things Anderton 1988:583 no info 2 shell beads used as offerings (also money) 2 no info N/A N/A N/A 0 1 obtained from Chumash Pacific Coast of North America, B.C. to Baja California sandy substrates intertidally and tidally and in bays no
pinyon jay flora-fauna Cyanocitta stelleri? hayhaʔy ˈhajhaʔj bird sp: bluish, similar to caycaʔy but with crest loan Yokuts *kayve- in Cupeño, Cahuilla; haynga chiya in Gab; Proto-NimYokuts *xay “Crested Jay” (Golla 1964:61); Southern Sierra Miwok kayka'jahnt, so Yok-Utian word, perhaps. WW %kaj same reduplicated -ʔacit "pet" possessive classifier for animals wicitat Anderton 1988:305 no info 2 1 no decent info but everybody ate songbirds and eggs no info hunted men roasted, boiled, eggs eaten 0 0 Western North America Foothills where pinyon groves occur no
pinyon pine flora-fauna Pinus monophylla tɨvat ˈtɨvat pinyon inheritance *tɨpat Northern Uto-Aztecan S1583 (Stubbs 2009:231). This is probably a loan into Proto-NUA from Proto-Kiowa-Tanoan (Hill 2008 broader (tree and nuts) other complex ˈtɨva-t pinyon-npn -niw possessive classifier for things Anderton 1988:534 no info 2 1 no info gathered (wild but closely managed all cones roasted to pop out nuts 0 1 people who had groves traded these to the coast; Tubatulabal are usually mentioned here but Kitanemuk must have done it too Southwestern U.S. and Mexico In pinyon-juniper woodland, 3500-9000 feet (for P. monophylla), 2500-8000 feet (for P. quadrifolia). Rocky hills and slopes. no
pismo clam flora-fauna Tivella stultorum kaŋawinihwaʔt ˈkaŋawinihwaʔt clam (used as tweezers) unique broader (includes the animal, the shell, and the beads) derived ˈkaŋa-win-ihwaʔ-t beard-pull.out-instrument-npn -niw possessive classifier for things Anderton 1988:343 no info 2 source of fancy shell beads used as offerings, money 1 no info N/A N/A N/A 0 1 obtained from Chumash Pacific Coast roughly Monterrey-Baja sandy beaches in surf zone no
pocket gopher flora-fauna Thomomys miŋaht ˈmiŋaht mammal sp., gopher inheritance *mɨjɨN- Northern Uto-Aztecan S1009 (Stubbs 2009:164) same other complex ˈmiŋah-t gopher-npn -ʔacit "pet" possessive classifier for animals Anderton 1988:400 no info 2 1 no info hunted men roasted, boiled, bones ground, diverse preparations 0 0 North America Diverse habitats no
poison oak flora-fauna Toxicodendron diversilobum ʔɨycič ˈʔɨjʦiʧ poison oak inheritance *ʔɨjaa- Californian S1506 (Stubbs 2009:224) Huasteca Nahuatl iyatl “tobacco”is ridiculous. Kitanemuk ʔɨycič should be in. First vowel is central, Gab. attests. same other complex ˈʔɨjʦi-ʧ poison.oak-npn; root must have some derivation historically; looks like a diminutive -niw possessive classifier for things Anderton 1988:337 no info 2 2 no info N/A N/A N/A 0 0 Pacific coast Canada to Baja California Likes damp, shady areas, chaparral yes
rattlesnake flora-fauna Crotalus spp. hɨŋt hɨŋt snake, rattlesnake inheritance *sɨwɨn- Takic S2011a (Stubbs 2009:280); not Stubbs' reconstruction, but Kitanemuk, Serrano are conservative in retaining these nasals. broader (also generic for snake, but rattlesnake prototype) other complex hɨŋ-t rattlesnake-npn -ʔacit "pet" possessive classifier for animals Anderton 1988:312 no info 1 2 no info no info no info no info 0 0 Southern Canada south Diverse habitats yes
red ant flora-fauna Solenopsis spp ʔanɨht ˈʔanɨht ant sp.: big, red, applied to body for pain inheritance *ʔalɨN- Uto-Aztecan S44 (Stubbs 2009:44) same other complex ˈʔanɨh-t red.ant-npn -ʔacit "pet" possessive classifier for animals Anderton 1988:270 no info 1 ingested in vision quest 0 1 apply to body, or eat for pain gathered (wild) men see medicinal notes 0 noted as a hallucinogen by Blackburn & Bean 1978:467 0 Americas Diverse habitats no
red-shouldered blackbird flora-fauna Agelaius phoeniceus pakoŋyat ˈpakoŋjat redwinged blackbird inheritance *paaka Proto-Northern Uto-Aztecan Cupan *paaxiŋi-ʃ; Tumpisa Shoshone pakkwatoppe; S. Paiute paqatchaqapi same other complex ˈpakoŋja-t red.winged.blackbird-npn -ʔacit "pet" possessive classifier for animals wicitat Anderton 1988:456 no info 2 1 no decent info but everybody ate songbirds and eggs no info hunted all roasted, boiled, eggs eaten 0 0 North and Central America Open grassy areas, prefers wetlands, but also found in dry upland meadows no
red-tailed hawk flora-fauna Buteo jamaicensis pakihač ˈpakihaʧr hawk sp:light, dark, gavilan inheritance *kisa Northern Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 729 (2008:131) with pa: prefix like in Gab. same derived ˈpa-kiha-ʧr big-hawk-npn (Anderton's morphological analysis is wrong; clearly this is cognate with Cupeno kisily “hawk”, etc.) -ʔacit "pet" possessive classifier for animals Anderton 1988:456 no info 2 feathers in ritual regalia 2 no info hunted men perhaps for feathers only 0 0 probably feather regalia traded Americas Mixed forest and field no
roadrunner flora-fauna Geococcyx californianus puhyɨt ˈpuhjɨt roadrunner inheritance *puhi/*puʔi/*puwi (all proposed) Uto-Aztecan augmentative added (it's also in Gab.) WW %pu: same derived ˈpuh-jɨ-t puh (sound)-augmentative-npn -ʔacit "pet" possessive classifier for animals wicitat Anderton 1988:485 no info 2 1 no decent info but everybody ate songbirds and eggs no info hunted men roasted, boiled, eggs eaten 0 0 Southwestern U.S. to Central America desert areas no
ruddy duck flora-fauna Oxyura jamaicensis o'-sah-ki pang'-aht-sah 60-13 ˈʔoʃrakay ˈpaŋaʦaʔ (?) Ruddy duck unique same phrase ˈʔoʃrakay ˈpaŋaʦaʔ painted? duck (-kay formation not attested by Anderton, but ˈʔoʃra is “write, paint”; perhaps a nonce form -ʔacit "pet" possessive classifier for animals ˈpaŋacaʔ http://www.archive.org/stream/bancroft_chartmerriam_1556_60#page/n1/mode/2up, p. 13 no info 2 1 no info hunted men roasted, boiled, eggs eaten 0 0 North America lakes and ponds, winter in coastal wetlands no
sage herb flora-fauna Artemisia californica cakeʔe ˈʦakeʔe romerillo, Artemisia californica unique broader (plant and medicine derived) underived -niw possessive classifier for things Anderton 1988:280 no info 2 2 1 tie flowers to head for a headache, smoke of this and wekwat together cures dreaming of dead people gathered (wild) women see medicinal notes 0 0 California, Baja California Chaparral and “dry foothills communities” no
salmon/steelhead flora-fauna Oncorhynchus mykiss kihuč ˈkihuʧr fish (word appears in compound “salmon-spear”) inheritance *kɨcuC Uto-Aztecan S864 (Stubbs 2009;147) broader (word is generic for “fish”) other complex ˈkihu-ʧr fish-npn -ʔacit "pet" possessive classifier for animals no info 2 1 no info hunted men fish spears, poison. No info on preparatin. 0 0 West coast North America to roughly San Diego anadromous; rivers with coastal outlets no
scaly lizard flora-fauna Pygopus lepidopodus? che'-roo-po 60-17 chiruku' (Harrington's form in Anderton) lizard, cachora (Iguana) loan Gabrielino Gab. che-roo'-ko? 60-429. See discussion at S1332 (Stubbs 2009:202). See also note with “Bat” no info underived no npn -ʔacit "pet" possessive classifier for animals Anderton 1988:285 no info 2 2 no info no info no info no info 0 0 Americas Diverse habitats no
small bird flora-fauna wicitat ˈwiʦitat bird, any kind of small songbird inheritance *wi(t)tiki Northern Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 205a (Stubbs 2009:67); wici forms in Serran and S. Numic, and Tb. has chikit (wi- is a prefix???) narrower (does not include raptors, water birds regardless of size) other complex ˈwiʦita-t bird-npn -ʔacit "pet" possessive classifier for animals wicitat Anderton 1988:569 no info 2 1 no decent info but everybody ate songbirds and eggs no info hunted all roasted, boiled, eggs eaten 0 0 N/A N/A no
small brown lizard flora-fauna che'-roo-po 60-17 chiruku' (Harrington's form in Anderton) lizard, cachora (Iguana) loan Gabrielino Gab. che-roo'-ko? 60-429. See discussion at S1332 (Stubbs 2009:202). See also note with “Bat” no info underived no npn -ʔacit "pet" possessive classifier for animals Anderton 1988:285 no info 2 2 no info no info no info no info 0 0 Western North America desert areas no
snake (generic) culebra, serpiente cobra flora-fauna hɨŋt hɨŋt snake, rattlesnake inheritance *sɨwɨn- Takic S2011a (Stubbs 2009:280); not Stubbs' reconstruction, but Kitanemuk, Serrano are conservative in retaining these nasals. broader (also generic for snake) other complex hɨŋ-t rattlesnake-npn -ʔacit "pet" possessive classifier for animals Anderton 1988:312 no info 0 1 no info no info no info no info 0 0 Americas Diverse habitats yes
soaproot flora-fauna Chlorogalum wokihwaʔt ˈwokihwaʔt escobeta, amole hair brush unique broader (plant, and brush from its fibers) derived wok-ihwaʔ-t brush-instrument-npn -niw possessive classifier for things Anderton 1988:581 no info 2 1 root could be eaten, but mainly for soap no info gathered (wild) women root chopped and used for soap, fibers make brushes 0 0 Southwest Oregon, California rock bluffs, grasslands, chaparral no
sour berry flora-fauna Rhus trilobata hɨč ˈhɨʧr plant sp., vine with red berries, used for baskets inheritance *sɨ(ta) Californian Note Cahuilla selet, Gabrielino sorat, Tubatulabal shyl broader (plant and basketry material from plant) other complex ˈhɨ-ʧr basketweed-npn; perhaps cf. hɨʔiv “to split” Anderton -niw possessive classifier for things Anderton 1988:311 no info 2 1 “red berries not edible” Anderton no info gathered (wild) women stems for basket warp 0 0 Western North America chaparral to 3500 feet no
sparrow hawk flora-fauna Falco kɨyɨkɨyɨč ˈkɨyɨkɨyɨʧ red-tailed hawk (which is wrong) inheritance *kɨLɨ; *kɨtɨ Uto-Aztecan S721 (Stubbs 2008:131); but very widespread, sound-imitative; /y/ from *L a bit odd although not unknown reduplicated ˈkɨyɨ-kɨyɨ-ʧ dup-hawk.sp-npn -ʔacit "pet" possessive classifier for animals Anderton 1988:358 no info 2 figure in stories of creation time; also are good guardian spirits 2 no info hunted men perhaps for feathers only 0 0 probably feather regalia traded Americas Diverse habitats no
spider araña aranha flora-fauna Arachnida, Araneae kukač ˈkukaʧr spider, gen. inheritance *kukkaC- Northern Uto-Aztecan S2057 (Stubbs 2009:285); Hopi form is definitely good narrower (trapdoor spider or any house spider) other complex ˈkuka-ʧr spider-npn -ʔacit "pet" possessive classifier for animals Anderton 1988:366 no info 0 0 highly unlikely no info N/A N/A N/A 0 0 Western North America diverse habitats (reclusive) yes
spotted skunk flora-fauna Spilogale gracilis ah-noo'-se pon-ne-vats ˈʔanuʦiʔ ˈponivaʧr Spotted skunk unique nonce loan translation, probably, using two good UA words same phrase ˈʔanuʦiʔ ˈponivaʧr “small skunk” (presumably a nonce form) -ʔacit "pet" possessive classifier for animals http://www.archive.org/stream/bancroft_chartmerriam_1556_60#page/n1/mode/2up, p. 3 no info 2 2 no info hunted men no info 0 0 Western U.S. Diverse habitats no
toad sapo sapo flora-fauna Bufonidae wakatat ˈwakatat frog inheritance *wakaC-ta S940 (Stubbs 2009:157); Tarahumara 7awaka seems OK in this set WW %wakat broader (includes toads) other complex ˈwakata-t frog-npn -ʔacit "pet" possessive classifier for animals Anderton 1988:562 no info 2 2 no info no info no info no info 0 0 Americas Diverse habitats no
tree árbol arvore flora-fauna (NA) kučat ʹkuʧrat stick, pole, firewood; (tree); inheritance *kut(ta) Uto-Aztecan S2345 (Stubbs 2009:315) broader (includes wood, tree, stick, etc.) other complex ʹkuʧra-t tree-npn -niw possessive classifier for things Anderton 1988:364 no info 0 0 no info N/A N/A N/A 0 0 N/A N/A no
tree yucca flora-fauna Yucca schidegera comač ˈʦomaʧr yucca sp.?; root used to dye baskets red unique Serran broader (plant, and root) other complex ˈʦoma-ʧr yucca.sp.-npn -niw possessive classifier for things Anderton 1988:290 no info 2 1 fruit not eaten (Harrington) no info gathered (wild) women for fiber for sandals, rope 0 0 Mojave and Sonoran Deserts (and obviously nearby Coast Ranges in dry areas) rocky slopes, creosote flats, 300-1200m (rarely up to 2500m) no
turkey buzzard flora-fauna Cathartes aura wirukuht ˈwirukuht vulture inheritance *wiLhukuN Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 335, one of the better fits in that problematic group. same other complex ˈwiru-kuh-t vulture-npn (root perhaps derived thusly historically? -ʔacit "pet" possessive classifier for animals Anderton 1988:574 no info 2 2 unlikely was eaten no info no info no info no info 0 0 Americas Diverse habitats no
turtle (generic) flora-fauna Testudines kopotat ˈkopotat turtle loan Yuman see Stubbs 2360 (Stubbs 2009:317). These forms are ONLY in Serrano, Kitanemuk (which is same language, really). Possibly the ko- element is related to ko in “back, shell”. But note Yavapai kpít, Mojave kapet “tortoise, turtle” broader (includes tortoises) other complex kopota-t turtle-npn -ʔacit "pet" possessive classifier for animals Anderton 1988:361 no info 2 shells often used for rattles, but the rattle of this area may be cocoons or deer hooves 2 no info no info no info no info 0 1 Western North America Diverse habitats no
valley live oak flora-fauna Quercus agrifolia wiʔaht ˈwiʔaht oak sp. , a mountain variety with edible acorn inheritance *wi'aN- Northern Uto-Aztecan S1507b (Stubbs 2009:224) broader (tree and acorns) other complex ˈwiʔah-t live.oak-npn (probably a loan into Northern UA from Proto-Kiowa-Tanoan) -niw possessive classifier for things Anderton 1988:568 no info 2 1 no info gathered (wild but closely managed all acorns ground, leached, used in diverse preparations 0 1 California west of Sierra Nevada from Mendocino County to Baja California; only coastal live oak Concentrated in valleys and on lower hills below 3000 feet no
valley oak flora-fauna Quercus lobata šev ˈʃev oak sp., White Oak, Q. lobata inheritance *siˈpiC- Uto-Aztecan S1511 (Stubbs 2009:224), to which add Gabrielino sa-veCH (Merriam). This is a very conservative item. This Kitanemuk form MIGHT be a loan from Gab?? broader (tree and acorns) underived -niw possessive classifier for things Anderton 1988:498 no info 2 1 no info gathered (wild but closely managed all acorns ground, leached, used in diverse preparations 0 1 Southwest Oregon, California to Tehachapis, also on Channel Islands valley floors, riparian areas no
valley quail flora-fauna Callipepla californica kakač ˈkakaʧr quail inheritance *kacaC- Uto-Aztecan S1702a (Stubbs 2009:241); 1702b is a different word, a Californianism. WW %kaka same other complex ˈkaka-ʧr quail-npn -ʔacit "pet" possessive classifier for animals wicitat Anderton 1988:340 no info 2 topknots decorate ritual regalia 1 no info hunted men roasted, boiled, eggs eaten 0 0 Far west North America to British Columbia open woodlands, chaparral no
Washington clam flora-fauna Saxidomus nuttalli cikat ˈʦikat mussel, shellfish, clam (almeja) loan Gabrielino broader (includes the animal, the shell, and the beads) other complex ˈʦika-t shell.sp.-npn -niw possessive classifier for things Anderton 1988:283 no info 2 shell beads used as offerings (also money) 1 no info N/A N/A N/A 0 1 obtained from Chumash West coast of North America cold coastal waters no
Western Canada goose flora-fauna Branta canadensis ko-pē'pkt pang-aht-sah 60-13 kopipk ˈpaŋaʦaʔ Western Canada goose unique same phrase kopipk ˈpaŋaʦaʔ multicolored water.bird (kopipk “multicolored, pinto, of corn, horses” Anderton 1988:361) Perhaps a nonce formation -ʔacit "pet" possessive classifier for animals paŋacaʔ http://www.archive.org/stream/bancroft_chartmerriam_1556_60#page/n1/mode/2up, p. 13 no info 0 1 no info hunted men roasted, boiled, eggs eaten; other uses for bones, quills 0 0 North America wetlands, open fields no
whale flora-fauna Eschrichtius robustus kiyaw ˈkiyaw whale unique perhaps a loan of the “fish” word from another California language??? same underived -ʔacit "pet" possessive classifier for animals Anderton 1988:354 no info 2 figure in an account (presumably from Chumash) of 8 brothers who hunted them (Blackburn & Bean 1978:568) 1 no N/A N/A N/A 0 1 whale vertebra stools traded to inland, also bone Pacific coast; migratory route is Alaska-Gulf of California deep water (although California Grays may swim fairly close to shore) no
white pelican flora-fauna Pelicanus erythrorhynchos gnă-hŭ-wut pang-aht-sah ˈŋ/ɲohowɨt (?) paŋaʦaʔ White pelican unique could the first element be somehow related to the Yuman “goose” word, *nakɨ same phrase ˈŋoho-wɨ-t paŋaʦaʔ neck-augmentative-npn duck “big-necked water.bird”; probably a nonce form -ʔacit "pet" possessive classifier for animals paŋacaʔ http://www.archive.org/stream/bancroft_chartmerriam_1556_60#page/n1/mode/2up, p. 13 no info 0 Neighboring Yokuts had Brown Pelican in ceremonies, but I don't know anything about White 2 no info no info no info no info 0 0 North America breed inland and are on coasts in winter (White Pelicans) no
wild grapevine flora-fauna Vitis californica nacakwinač ˈnaʦakwinaʧ plant sp.: Desert grape (Vitis girdiana) unique broader (vine and fruit) derived ˈnaʦa-kwina-ʧ ?-?-npn (Anderton speculates that ˈnaʦa- is “girl” -- but note ˈnaʦakwinit “wild, unruly, runaway, slave, perh. a mare”) -niw possessive classifier for things Anderton 1988:415 no info 2 1 eaten as raisins, boiled or plain, or in pudding no info gathered (wild) women and children see food notes 0 0 Southwest Oregon, California common along streams and in canyon bottoms below 4000 feet no
wild oats flora-fauna Avena (introduction) missing missing missing 2 1 2 0 0 Americas Common up to about 3500 feet; abundant since at least 1835 no
wild rose flora-fauna Rosa californica ʔucuč ˈʔuʦuʧ (no Harrington attestation for retroflexion) plant sp., Rosa californica inheritance broader (plant, fruit, etc) other complex ˈʔuʦu-ʧ rose-npn -niw possessive classifier for things Anderton 1988:549 0 berries used for women's ceremonial face paint 1 berries eaten 2 0 0 Oregon, California, northern Baja California moist areas, cienegas, along streams no
wild sunflower flora-fauna Helianthus (and other genera) paʔapkač ˈpaʔapkaʧr sunflower inheritance *(pa)ʔaʔka Uto-Aztecan Kitanemuk has an extra reduplicative tweak same other complex ˈpaʔapka-ʧr sunflower-npn (historically, this is ˈpaʔa-pa:-aka-ʧr dup-big-sunflower -niw possessive classifier for things Anderton 1988:446 no info 0 1 “used only for chicken feed; no known use” Anderton 1988:446 no gathered (wild) women for chicken feed 0 0 North America Diverse habitats no
willow flora-fauna Salix spp. hakat ˈhakat willow (used in coiled basketry) inheritance *sakat Uto-Aztecan S1023 (Stubbs 2009:166) WW %saka broader (includes plant and basketry materials) other complex ˈhaka-t willow-npn -niw possessive classifier for things Anderton 1988:298 no info 2 2 mainly for basketry no info gathered (wild) women stems for basketry, other wood uses 0 0 Southwestern U.S. and Mexico Along streams and in wet places below 2000 feet no
wood rat, round-tail flora-fauna Neotoma spp. kač ˈkaʧr rat inheritance *kawa- Northern Uto-Aztecan S1423 (Stubbs 2009:242) same other complex ka-ʧr rat-npn -ʔacit "pet" possessive classifier for animals Anderton 1988:339 no info 2 1 no info hunted men roasted, boiled, bones ground, diverse preparations 0 0 Western U.S., northern Mexico Diverse habitats no
worm, hairy caterpillar flora-fauna Arctiidae (many species) pohokaʔy ˈpohokaʔj “furry”, also name for a black hairy caterpillar unique from UA *poho “fur, down” with some derivation same derived ˈpoho-kaʔj fur-adj. -ʔacit "pet" possessive classifier for animals Anderton 1988:479 no info 2 2 no info gathered (wild) all no info 0 0 Americas Diverse habitats no
worm, smooth caterpillar flora-fauna Trichoplusia ni (?) cabbage looper piʔaka ˈpiʔaka worm sp., of Sphinx moth, hairless, finger-size, black and red stripes, comes out in March inheritance *piʔakɨC Northern Uto-Aztecan S2527 (Stubbs 2009:338) same underived -ʔacit "pet" possessive classifier for animals Anderton 1988:469 no info 2 2 no info gathered (wild) all no info 0 0 Americas Diverse habitats no
yellow jacket flora-fauna Vespula spp., Dolichovespula spp. haŋač ˈhaŋaʧr Bee sp.: yellow jacket inheritance *saŋa- Takic S160 (Stubbs 2009:62) same other complex ˈhaŋa-ʧr yellow.jacket-npn -ʔacit "pet" possessive classifier for animals Anderton 1988:303 no info 2 0 larvae eaten no info gathered (wild) all no info 0 0 Americas Diverse habitats no
yellowbird flora-fauna Dendroica petechia ah-soo'-ve-ah witch'-e-tat 72-583, 60-11 ˈʔasuvia ˈwiʦitat (?) Yellowbird, Astragalinus unique same phrase probably a nonce form; no gloss for first element -ʔacit "pet" possessive classifier for animals wicitat http://www.archive.org/stream/bancroft_chartmerriam_1556_60#page/n1/mode/2up, p. 11 no info 0 1 no decent info but everybody ate songbirds and eggs no info hunted all roasted, boiled, eggs eaten 0 0 North America; the relevant subspecies is west of Sierras and in deserts and Baja California in winter open country no
yerba santa flora-fauna Eriodictyon californicum missing missing missing 2 1 1 0 0 Oregon, California ; USDA plants profile doesn't have south of Kern County??? Diverse habitats no
ant (generic) hormiga formiga flora-fauna 7anyht inheritance Jane Hill
bird pajaro, ave passaro flora-fauna wicitat inheritance Jane Hill
blowfly/housefly mosca mosca flora-fauna picucu7ach loan Jane Hill
dog (camp, domestic) perro cachorro flora-fauna kuci7 loan direction unknown Jane Hill
grass hierba, pasto capim, grama flora-fauna hamat inheritance Jane Hill
deer venado veado, cariacu flora-fauna hukaht inheritance Jane Hill
snake (generic) culebra, serpiente cobra flora-fauna hyngt inheritance Jane Hill
spider araña aranha flora-fauna kukach inheritance Jane Hill


Cultural Vocabulary (115)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Word Structure Word Structure Notes General Notes Source Created By
acorn mush food wic acorn mush inheritance *wiw Takic Stubbs 2011,1557 other complex Anderton 1988 Jane Hill
ball game food pučahkinic shinny game unknown Serran only derived, other complex Anderton 1988 Jane Hill
afterworld, land of dead, Heaven tierra do los muertos terra dos mortos culture-mythology tüypea ü is barred I, y is [j] land of the dead, hell unknown Serran only simplex Anderton 1988 Jane Hill
feather headband dress pohočumat feather headdress? unique poho- is 'feather';chumat lenited from kumat 'hat' from Yokuts; a-maha-, mawish also recorded, none really certain (mawish probably wrist band, a-maha- just means "his feathered thing") other complex is compound evident synchronically? Anderton 1988 Jane Hill
arrow flecha flecha subsistence tool šumanat arrow inheritance *suhuma Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 64 -- Serran and TO "charm" -- areal, but old because TO has #h; also huč 'short, flint-tipped war arrow' other complex Anderton 1988 Jane Hill
arrow straightener other tüŋenihwa't arrow-straightening stone unique derived, other complex Anderton 1988 Jane Hill
bait for fishing cebo, carnada para pescar, empate (Peru) isca subsistence tool missing missing Jane Hill
school escuela escola acculturation missing missing Jane Hill
stone bowl culture-material kiwüš clay or stone olla, soaptone olla, stone olla unique other complex Anderton 1988 Jane Hill
basket (general) canasta, canasto, cesta cesto culture-material pahata-t basket (gen.?) inheritance *pasa(ta) Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2011 1706 other complex Anderton 1988 Jane Hill
basket, small canasta, canasto, cesta cesto pequeno, tampado culture-material missing missing Jane Hill
basketry hat culture-material kuma-t woman's basket hat loan Yokuts Serran only other complex Anderton 1988 Jane Hill
bead abalorio, mostacilla, cuenta, gota, puca; necklace=collar miçanga culture-material tukuhpač bead (gen.?), metal, sky inheritance *tukuC-pa Northern Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2011 2032b, related to (a) "sky" other complex Anderton 1988 Jane Hill
ochre culture-mythology ohat ochre, red paint clay inheritance *osa Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2011 711; CHM 48:175 shu-reen'-kah oosh-niv 'red paint' other complex Anderton 1988 Jane Hill
bow arco arco subsistence tool pačukt bow, collarbone inheritance *pakoti Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 277 other complex Anderton 1988 Jane Hill
canoe canoa canoa transport kwiakt boat (gen.) unique other complex Anderton 1988 Jane Hill
carrying net subsistence tool kwihat net for carrying ear meat or catching fish, carrying net, also name of plant Clematis ligusticifolia inheritance *kusa Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2011 396c,d other complex Anderton 1988 Jane Hill
bottle botella garrafa acculturation pahatat basket, also basketry water jug, pinyon gum inside unique other complex Anderton 1988 Jane Hill
paper papel papel acculturation missing missing Jane Hill
chief/leader jefe, cacique chefe culture-mythology ki'ka'y capitán', chief inheritance *kika Uto-Aztecan the "villager' word derived Anderton 1988 Jane Hill
club garrote, cachiporra clava, porrete subsistence tool missing missing Jane Hill
loincloth taparrabos, guayuco, pampanilla tanga, tapa-sexo dress kwinupkü' (poss) loincloth (men's or women's) unique other complex Anderton 1988 Jane Hill
cook food food kwahan cook (VT) inheritance *kwasi/aC Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2011 421 simplex root Anderton 1988 Jane Hill
corpse food 7a-nipk-i7 corpse unique other complex Anderton 1988 Jane Hill
dance (generic) culture-mythology tuhtu' dance, gen. inheritance *tawiya Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2011 634 simplex root Anderton 1988 Jane Hill
deity/powerful spirit/culture figure dios(es), deidad divinidade, figura mítica culture-mythology tüvač, nühpa god (poss) (t), chief (poss) (n), earth, world, etc. (t…) inheritance *tu7apa Northern Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2011 2570 other complex Anderton 1988 Jane Hill
digging stick subsistence tool missing missing Jane Hill
dipper subsistence tool wahng-ahts dipper inheritance *wanga- Takic also in Gabrielino other complex Merriam 48:101 Jane Hill
dream sueño, soñar sonho, sonhar culture-mythology kwahkwačamuk dream (v or n) unknown Serran only reduplicated Anderton 1988 Jane Hill
drone pipe culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
drum tambor tambor culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
chicken gallina galinha acculturation kakawaït chicken semantic shift *kaka- Northern Uto-Aztecan the quail word other complex Anderton 1988 Jane Hill
earring other cahu-c earring inheritance *cVLu Takic Cahuilla & Cupeno, Serrano cha-hoom (CHM), Kit. chahuch, not regular, perhaps a loan from somewhere other complex Anderton 1988 Jane Hill
ghost (of dead person)/evil spirit espíritu malo, espíritu maligno, fantasma, demonio espirito culture-mythology tüy-t spirit, ghost, person that has died, 'diablo' inheritance *tew Takic other complex Anderton 1988 Jane Hill
fire drill subsistence tool nik-ko'-mah-hah fire drill unknown see Cahuilla word kutma derived, other complex ni-ku-ma-hwa? My-fire-make-INST?? Merriam 48:21 Jane Hill
fire-tender culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
fireplace hogar lareira other missing missing Jane Hill
firewood leña lenha other kuča-t stick, pole, firewood inheritance *kutawi Northern Uto-Azteca Stubbs 2011 2409a other complex Anderton 1988 Jane Hill
fish (with fish-poison) pescar con barbasco, barbasquear pescar com timbó; tinguijar food missing missing Jane Hill
fish (with line) anzuelear, pescar con linea pescar (com linha) food okwa'ni cause to catch in throat *ok Takic source of 'fishhook' other complex causative Anderton 1988 Jane Hill
fish poison barbasco, matapez (Colombia) timbó subsistence tool missing missing Jane Hill
fishing line cordel/cuerda p/ pescar, sedal, tanze linha de pesca subsistence tool okwa'nihwa't fish hook or line unique Merriam tōk-se-vat 48:101 derived, other complex Anderton 1988 Jane Hill
fish hook subsistence tool okwa'nihwa't fish hook or line unique see Luiseno 7iiqish 'fishhook' derived, other complex Anderton 1988 Jane Hill
acorn bread food kame'nič bread ('roasted in buried coals? JHH) unique other complex Anderton 1988:401 (English-K side only) Jane Hill
wheat food tariwï7 wheat loan Spanish WW %trigo simplex Anderton 1988 Jane Hill
flute flauta, quena (Peru) flauta culture-mythology wiro'inihwa't flute of eldeberry with 2 groups of 3 holes inheritance *wiLu PNUA Stubbs 912 derived, other complex Anderton 1988 Jane Hill
gambling sticks other yaykat pion stick, counter in walnut dice game unique there are some other /jaj/ words somewhere other complex Anderton 1988 Jane Hill
game animal caza, animal de caza caça, animal de caça food missing missing Jane Hill
ghost (of dead person)/evil spirit espíritu malo, espíritu maligno, fantasma, demonio espirito culture-mythology tüy-t spirit, ghost, person that has died, 'diablo' inheritance *tywi- Takic Stubbs 1799 other complex Anderton 1988 Jane Hill
glue subsistence tool napkinihwa't glue made from deer horn unique derived, other complex Anderton 1988 Jane Hill
grave tumba, sepultura, sepulcro sepultura, sepulcro, cova culture-mythology nahkamea7nic cemetery unique derived, other complex Jane Hill
alcohol food hwiskitay whiskey (obj.) loan English WW %whiskey simplex Jane Hill
Datura wrightii narcotics mani-c Jimson weed, toloache loan Gabrielino or Cahuilla loan as Kitanemuk should lose the /i/ WW %mani other complex Anderton 1988 Jane Hill
shaman, healer chamán, brujo xaman, pajé, feiticeiro culture-mythology ca-č shaman inheritance *cha-ch Takic Hill/Miller tsa-17 other complex Anderton 1988 Jane Hill
honey miel mel food piha-č sugar, honey inheritance *pisa(L) Northern Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2011 2259 other complex Anderton 1988 Jane Hill
house other ki-c house inheritance *ki: Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2011 1214 other complex Anderton 1988 Jane Hill
hunt cazar caçar food hüyn hunt, go hunting for inheritance *hya Northern Uto-Aztecan Hill/Miller hy-06 simplex root Anderton 1988 Jane Hill
initiate boy culture-mythology curupkim yüvarpa those who enter the yovar (= 7antap) unique phrase Anderton 1988 Jane Hill
initiate girl culture-mythology nihnic fiesta for girl at end of 4 months diet, < nihnea 'be accustomed' inheritance *nich- Takic grow of women; Hill/Miller no-04, -11 other complex Anderton 1988 Jane Hill
knife cuchillo faca culture-material kavo-č knife, or any iron or tools (but it's 'stone knife' in M unknown Serran only other omplex Anderton 1988 Jane Hill
mat culture-material hona-t sleeping mat unique other complex Anderton 1988 Jane Hill
mortar mortero pilão subsistence tool tükwiš mortar, small, as in house inheritance *ty-kwis Takic also in Gabrielino other complex Anderton 1988 Jane Hill
necklace other konakat necklace, belt inheritance *koLoka Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2011 1505 WW %xene other complex Anderton 1988 Jane Hill
needle/awl subsistence tool o-c bone, awl inheritance *7opi Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2011 92 other complex Anderton 1988 Jane Hill
paddle/oar remo remo transport kwektuihwa't oar unique stress pattern and geography suggest a borrowing' derived, other complex Anderton 1988 Jane Hill
pestle pilón, mano de mortero, mazo, moledor mão de pilão subsistence tool pahut pestle inheritance *paha Northern Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2011 1085 with -wut increment other complex Anderton 1988 Jane Hill
pinole food pohkinic mashed? H:mush; name for ball of islay when all made unique derived, other complex Anderton 1988 Jane Hill
pipe for tobacco pipa cachimbo other wikü' (poss) straight pipe, steatite pipe inheritance *wik Takic also in Serr, Gab simplex Anderton 1988 Jane Hill
pitch food hanat tar, used on arrows (Merriam has for 'resin or pitch' 48:101) inheritance *salaC Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2011 1634 other complex Anderton 1988 Jane Hill
pot olla, pote panela, vasilha subsistence tool kiwüš pot, gen. unique other complex Anderton 1988 Jane Hill
quiver subsistence tool paŋana-t quiver of fox, wildcat, coyote, or bear unique other complex Anderton 1988 Jane Hill
rattle matraca, maraca marico, chocalho culture-mythology ciwiciwi-č rattle made from deer hooves inheritance *cawi(la) Northern Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2011 1930, with vowel assimilatio; also kawakawa-č cocoon rattle other complex, reduplicated Anderton 1988 Jane Hill
red paint culture-mythology ohat ochre, red paint clay, red paint inheritance *osa Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2011 711; CHM 48:175 shu-reen'-kah oosh-niv 'red paint' other complex Anderton 1988 Jane Hill
salt sal sal food hyavi-t salt unique other complex Anderton 1988 Jane Hill
seed beater subsistence tool wacavihwa't seedbeater inheritance *wacap Takic see Luiseno; Merriam i-e-hwat (from ay 'collect seeds') 48:103 derived, other complex Anderton 1988 Jane Hill
clothing ropa roupa culture-mythology havït skin, blanket, clothes inheritance *ha-pyt Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2011 244; also -tavï for modern dress or clothes Anderton 1988:518 other complex Anderton 1988 Jane Hill
sinew-backed bow subsistence tool missing missing Jane Hill
skirt falda, saya, fustan, pollera saia culture-material kaha-č apron, front flap of dress unique Stubbs has a note on this after 499; Merriam ah-tah'-boo 48:93 other complex Anderton 1988 Jane Hill
snare subsistence tool wüpšaha-t trap (gen.) unique Merriam ho-ah 'snare' 48:99 other complex Anderton 1988 Jane Hill
song (generic) canción, canto canção culture-mythology cačuič song inheritance *ca Takic Stubbs 2011 1987 I don't like set, only Gab and Serran, might be a loan, correspondences not pretty derived, other complex Anderton 1988 Jane Hill
spear lanza lança subsistence tool muihwat mortar, spear (shoot, grind are homophones?) inheritance *mu7a/i Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2314 derived, other complex Anderton 1988:408 Jane Hill
stirring stick food weahut stirring stick inheritance *weahu- Takic also in Gab; note wiahut 'masher stick' 568 other complex Anderton 1988 Jane Hill
rope/string mecate, cuerda, soga corda culture wivüč red milkweed fiber twisted into cord, and the plant inheritance *wik Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2011 1843; this form and Gab form are the same other complex Anderton 1988 Jane Hill
bag, sack culture-material taŋatat bag inheritance *tanga Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2011 111 other complex Jane Hill
string of shell money other tukuhpač wampum (Merriam's def) inheritance *tukuC-pa Northern Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2011 2032b, related to (a) "sky"; same as 'bead' other complex Anderton 1988 Jane Hill
sugarcane/sugar azúcar, caña de azúcar açucar (de cana) acculturation piha-č sugar semantic shift *pisa(L) Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2011 2259 other complex Anderton 1988 Jane Hill
sweathouse other huyacaw' sweathouse unknown only Serran other complex Anderton 1988 Jane Hill
tell history culture-mythology cici'akin to tell a myth or story inheritance *tyja Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2011 1877a reduplicated Anderton 1988 Jane Hill
cremate culture-mythology ah-ho'-ye cremation unknown maybe from *soka??? other complex Merriam 48:31 Jane Hill
tobacco (native) narcotics civut Nicotiana bigelovii (cultivated) semantic shift *cipuC Uto-Aztecan < 'bitter' Stubbs 2011 231 means bitter absolutely EVERY other lg so s.s. is justifiable other complex Anderton 1988 Jane Hill
tule boat transport kwiyáxt boat, tunamijam made them of tule at Buena Vista Lake unique perhaps loan? Odd stress. Merriam hi-ēts-ko-mah-nits boat from bundle of tules 48:101 This is NOT the Yawelmani, Yawdanchi word %owon other complex Anderton 1988 Jane Hill
white paint culture-mythology towi-c white paint? inheritance *typiC Takic Stubbs 2011 757 other complex Anderton 1988 Jane Hill
winnowing basket culture-material ca(')cakinihwa'-t winnowing basket unique Merriam pi-taht 48:103 derived, other complex Anderton 1988 Jane Hill
wood tray subsistence tool missing missing Jane Hill
shoes zapatos sapatos dress navo(-)kaha-c shoe or sandal inheritance *napo-kaka Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2011 938, 1954 compound other complex I'll bet this is retrievable synchronically Anderton 1988 Jane Hill
medicine narcotics nüniliw medicine unique other complex Anderton 1988 Jane Hill
cradleboard culture-material ahpünea cradleboard unique Merriam tar-rah'-ho 48:103 other complex Anderton 1988 Jane Hill
policeman polícia policía acculturation missing missing Jane Hill
soldier soldado soldado acculturation kwakač soldier semantic shift other complex Anderton 1988 Jane Hill
corn food mayšt corn loan Spanish WW %maiz other complex Anderton 1988 Jane Hill
beans food rihïr beans loan Spanish WW %frijol simplex Anderton 1988 Jane Hill
cat gato gato acculturation ŋatï7 cat loan Spanish from an intermediate lg WW %gato simplex Anderton 1988 Jane Hill
gun arma, escopeta espingarda, fusil acculturation missing missing Jane Hill
hat sombero chapéu dress kumat (basket?) hat loan Yokuts Serran only; 2 entries, other 369 other complex Anderton 1988 Jane Hill
clapper acculturation missing missing Jane Hill
thatch/roof crisneja palha, caraná culture-material hama7n (“grass”) inheritance Jane Hill
rope/string mecate, cuerda, soga corda culture wivach “fiber” inheritance Jane Hill
bottom grinding stone manufacture cyry7ihwa7t unknown Jane Hill
digging stick subsistence tool nakat inheritance Jane Hill
winnow aventar, tirar (sementes) joeirar manufacture kajy7, kajypik inheritance Jane Hill
top grinding stone metate, mano; piedra de moler metate, mano manufacture pahut “pestle” loan direction unknown Jane Hill
boomerang/throwing stick (generic) subsistence tool missing Jane Hill
spearthrower subsistence tool pachukt “bow” loan direction unknown Jane Hill
spear lanza lança subsistence tool huch inheritance Jane Hill
house other kic inheritance Jane Hill


Grammatical Data (226)
Category Grammatical Feature Grammatical Feature: Notes Feature Status Phonemicized Form Orthographic Form Grammatical Notes Source Created By Etymology Notes General Notes Phylogenetic Code
Phonology - Segmental Pre-/post-nasalized stops Analysis posits that the stop is the most relevant underlying phoneme. Comment in notes on whether the nasal contour is understood as a phonetic (allophonic) effect, or is phonologically contrastive. Jane Hill
Phonology - Segmental Glottalized/ejective consonants Phonemic contrast [NOT counting glottal stop/fricative] no Jane Hill
Phonology - Segmental Palatalized stops Phonemic contrast Jane Hill
Phonology - Segmental Phonemic vowel length Does the language have long and short vowels? Jane Hill
Phonology - Segmental Phonemic glottalization/laryngealization of vowels Jane Hill
Phonology - Segmental Complex onsets Onset consists of more than one consonant phoneme Jane Hill
Phonology - Segmental No codas *(C)VC [no also equals highly constrained] Jane Hill
Phonology - Segmental Word-final coda required Do all syllables end in a consonant? Jane Hill
Phonology - Suprasegmental Contrastive tones Note how many contrastive tones no Jane Hill
Phonology - Suprasegmental Contrastive stress Does stress occur on different syllables with meaning difference? Jane Hill
Phonology - Suprasegmental Nasalization property of morpheme or syllable In contrast to nasalization as a property of segments Jane Hill
Phonology - Suprasegmental Nasal spreading across some morpheme boundaries Do some affixes or other morphemes take the nasal/oral properties of the root they attach to? Jane Hill
Phonology - Suprasegmental Vowel harmony Jane Hill
Morphology - General Verbal fusion (2+ categories marked by portmanteau morphemes on verb) Verb combines two or more categories (tense, aspect, mood, person, number, etc.) in portmanteau morphemes{ [ignore proclitics unless they are fused with values other than person/number] Jane Hill
Morphology - General Inflection manifested by replacement of segmental or suprasegmental phonemes Stem change, tone no Jane Hill
Morphology - General Verbal synthesis (1+ inflectional categories marked by verbal affixes) Morphological complexity in verbs - multiple inflectional affixes in a single verb word yes Jane Hill
Morphology - General Prefixing/suffixing inflectional morph: strongly prefixing There are many more prefixes than suffixes no Jane Hill
Morphology - General Prefixing/suffixing inflectional morph: strongly suffixing There are many more suffixes than prefixes yes Jane Hill
Morphology - General Prefixing/suffixing inflectional morph: roughly equal or one weakly preferred The numbers of suffixes and prefixes are not notably different no Jane Hill
Morphology - General Reduplication: full The full morpheme is reduplicated yes Jane Hill
Morphology - General Reduplication: partial Only part of the morpheme is reduplicated yes Jane Hill
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Productive NN compounding Noun compounds created from two noun phrases are common and systematically produced Jane Hill
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Productive VV serialization (without compounding) Verb roots can be combined in a single predicate without markers of subordination (distinct from subordinating construction) or distinct inflection Jane Hill
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Productive VV compounding Serial verb constructions involve chaining of roots together in one morphophonological word Jane Hill
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Verb-adjunct (aka light verb) constructions There is a set of semantically weak verbs used in complex verbal constructions, e.g. 'take a nap' Jane Hill
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Auxiliary verb(s) There are verbs that accompany main verbs of clauses and take grammatical marking not expressed by main verbs Jane Hill
Morphology - Incorporation Incorporation of nouns into verbs is a productive intransitivizing process Verb contains nominal segment Jane Hill
Morphology - Incorporation Productive incorporation of other elements (adjectives, locatives, etc.) into verbs Like noun incorporation, but incorporated elements are not nouns Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Noun classes/genders Nouns are organized into sets with distinct morphological treatment; usually affects all nouns and involves agreement within the NP no Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Number of noun classes/genders Note the (approximate) total number of noun classes/genders 0 Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Noun classifiers (distinct from noun classes/genders) Nouns are organized into sets, but only a limited set of nouns may be implicated, with no or limited agreement marking. If only numeral classifiers exist, indicate yes but explain. Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Sex is a relevant category in noun class(ification) system for animates Masculine, feminine, neuter Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Sex is a relevant category in noun class(ification) system for inanimates Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Animacy (w/o reference to sex) is a relevant category in the noun class(ification) system Animate/inanimate, human/non-human Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Sex/gender distinction only in 3rd person pronouns add in notes section whether gender is present in other PNs or not in any PNs; consider with reference to pronouns and person marking only Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Shape is a relevant category in the noun class(ification) system for animates Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Shape is a relevant category in the noun class(ification) system for inanimates Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification "Repeater" classifiers Where no distinct classifier exists, a copy of the noun itself may function in the morphosyntactic classifier "slot" Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Numeral classifiers (specific to numerals) Special classifier forms that occur only with numerals no Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Classifiers used as derivational suffixes to derive nouns Verb + classifier = 'thing for doing V, thing that does V, etc.' Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Number Singular number may be marked on the noun Often occurs in a small subset of nouns if a single entity is referred to, e.g. insects that normally occur in groups Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Number Plural affix on noun Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Number Plural marked by stem change or tone on noun Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Number Plural marked by reduplication of noun Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Number Plural word/clitic Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Number Plural marked on human or animate nouns only no Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Number Pronominal plural: stem + nominal plural affix Pronouns use a nominal plural affix not specific to pronouns yes Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Number Unique associative plural marker e.g. 'John and his associates', 'John and them' Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Definite or specific articles Definite = particular referent known to both speaker and addressee; specific = particular referent known to speaker only yes Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Marker of definiteness distinct from demonstratives Focus on articles/markers whose primary function is to mark definiteness no Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Indefinite or non-specific article or marker no Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Inclusive/exclusive: in free pronominals Inclusive =us + you, exclusive = us but not you no Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Inclusive/exclusive: in verbal inflection (bound) no Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Distance contrasts in demonstratives (number) Note the number of distances in the demonstrative system 3 Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Other contrasts in demonstratives (visibility, elevation, etc.) Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Gender in 3sg pronouns no Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Gender in 3pl pronouns no Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Gender in 1st and/or 2nd person pronouns no Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Formal/informal distinction in pronouns Polite pronominal variants or differential avoidance of pronouns no Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Reflexive pronouns e.g. English 'himself', Spanish 'se'; distinct form(s) from basic (non-reflexive) pronominals; distinct from reflexive verbal affix Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Adpositions mark core NPs Prepositions or postpositions mark subjects, objects, beneficiaries/recipients Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: number of cases Note the number of grammatical relations that may be morphologically marked on the noun 5 Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: only non-core arguments morphologically marked Subjects, objects, beneficiaries/recipients NOT marked, but other grammatical relations are Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: symmetrical All NPs marked if in appropriate syntactic relation; no distinction in marking based on semantics (type of entity) yes Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: asymmetrical Semantically defined subset of NPs marked for case, e.g. animates no Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: suffix or postpositional clitic yes Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: prefix or prepositional clitic Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: infix or inpositional clitic Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: stem change Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: tone Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: comitative = instrumental Same marking for 'with a person' and 'with an instrument' no Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Numerals Base-2 At least some part of the system involves base-2 no Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Numerals Base-5 At least some part of the system involves base-5 no Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Numerals Base-10 At least some part of the system involves base-10 yes Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Numerals Other base (specify) 4, 20, etc. no Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Numerals Etymological transparency in any numerals under 5 e.g. two = 'eye-quantity' Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Numerals Numerals do not go above 5 'Many' or some other non-exact term used no Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Numerals Numerals do not go above 10 'Many' or some other non-exact term used no Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Other nominal Tense or aspect inflection on non-verbal predicates i.e. nominal or adjectival Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Other nominal Person inflection on non-verbal predicates i.e. nominal or adjectival Jane Hill
Nominal Syntax - Possession Pronominal possessive affixes: prefix on N alienable/inalienable? yes Jane Hill
Nominal Syntax - Possession Pronominal possessive affixes: suffix on N alienable/inalienable? no Jane Hill
Nominal Syntax - Possession Head/dependent marking in possessive NP: dependent e.g. 'the boy-'s dog' no Jane Hill
Nominal Syntax - Possession Head/dependent marking in possessive NP: head e.g. 'the boy his-dog' yes Jane Hill
Nominal Syntax - Possession Possessive classifiers There are special classifiers that occur with possessed entities Jane Hill
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Morphological marking of inalienable possession Where inalienable possession differs from alienable, the former takes a morphological marker (may include an associated free particle/pronoun) Jane Hill
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Morphological marking of alienable possession Where inalienable possession differs from alienable, the latter takes a morphological marker (may include an associated free particle/pronoun) Jane Hill
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Default marker for inalienably possessed nouns if unpossessed An inalienable noun that is in an unpossessed state must have a derivational affix or associated form Jane Hill
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Inalienable possession of kin terms 'my-father' but *father Jane Hill
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Inalienable possession of body parts (human/animal) 'my-leg' but *leg Jane Hill
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Generic human nouns are obligatorily bound/possessed Human nouns must co-occur with another noun (e.g. Hup-man, NonIndian-woman, but *man) Jane Hill
Nominal Syntax - Adjectives Underived adjectives There are underived adjectives which do not have counterparts in other word classes Jane Hill
Nominal Syntax - Adjectives Gender inflection on adjectives within the NP There is gender agreement/concord (animate/inanimate or masc/fem, etc.) within the NP, e.g. la casa blanca, el perro blanco Jane Hill
Nominal Syntax - Derivation Productive nominalizing morphology: action/state (arrive/arrival) There is a morpheme which derives an event from a verb Jane Hill
Nominal Syntax - Derivation Productive nominalizing morphology: agentive (sing/singer) There is a morpheme which derives an agent or subject from a verb Jane Hill
Nominal Syntax - Derivation Productive nominalizing morphology: object (sing/song) There is a morpheme which derives a patient or object from a verb Jane Hill
Nominal Syntax - Derivation Productive verbalizing morphology There is a morpheme which derives a verb from a noun or adjective Jane Hill
Nominal Syntax - Other NP coordination and comitative phrases marked differently 'John and Mary went to market' is marked differently from 'John went to market with Mary' no Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Dedicated past marker(s) Past tense is regularly morphologically marked on the verb or elsewhere Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Multiple past tenses, distinguishing distance from time of reference e.g. distant vs. recent past no Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Multiple future tenses, distinguishing distance from time of reference e.g. imminent vs. distant future Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Dedicated future or non-past marker(s) yes Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Tense-aspect affixes: prefix no Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Tense-aspect affixes: suffix yes Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Tense-aspect affixes: tone or ablaut no Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Tense-aspect suppletion no Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Mood Dedicated imperative morpheme or verb form There is a special morpheme (or morphemes, or a bare verb root where inflection is normally expected) used to signal imperative (command) mood yes Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Mood Polite imperative morpheme There is a distinct morpheme for polite imperative constructions (specify if it has other functions in the language) Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Mood Difference between negation in imperative (prohibitive) and declarative clauses There are different strategies for marking negation in imperative and declarative clauses yes Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Mood Dedicated hortative morpheme or verb form (1pl or 3rd person imperative) as opposed to imperative; the person in control of desired state of affairs is not the addressee; ex: 'Let's sing' / 'Let him sing' Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Mood Situational possibility: affix on verb Inflectional marking of capacity to do something Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Mood Situational possibility: verbal construction yes Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Mood Situational possibility: other marking Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Mood Epistemic possibility: affix on verb Modal expressing hypothesis Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Mood Epistemic possibility: verbal construction Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Mood Epistemic possibility: other marking yes Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Mood Marking of expected/unexpected action or result There is inflectional marking of expected/unexpected Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Mood Verbal frustrative Modal expressing frustration ("in vain") Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Mood Verbal habitual Modal expressing habituality Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Mood Apprehensive construction There is a single morpheme or verb form to mean '(be careful lest) X happens' Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Mood Reality status marking on verbs There are dedicated morpheme(s) for realis/irrealis 'actualized/unactualized events' Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Mood Affect markers (positive/negative) Note whether these inflectional markers are positive or negative Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Directionals Directional elements affixed to the verb There are grammaticalized elements indicating movement away, toward, there and back, etc. Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized visual Indicates information has been witnessed visually - indicate only if an overt marker Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized nonvisual Indicates information has been sensed firsthand but not visually (usually heard; also smelled, tasted, felt) Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized inferential Indicates information has not been experienced firsthand, but inferred from some kind of evidence - indicate only if an overt marker. Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized reportive Indicates speaker is not responsible for veracity of statement, merely reporting; 'allegedly' Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized quotative Indicate presence of adjacent representation of repeated discourse Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Other evidential Any other evidential values not represented above Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Evidentiality: verb affix or clitic no Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Evidentiality: part of tense system Includes portmanteau morphs no Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Evidentiality: separate particle yes Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Evidentiality: modal morpheme no Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Verbal number Verbal number suppletion yes Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Other Social interaction markers Note the type of interaction Jane Hill
Word Order No fixed basic constituent order no Jane Hill
Word Order VS in intransitive clauses Verb precedes subject no Jane Hill
Word Order VS in transitive clauses Jane Hill
Word Order VO in transitive clauses Verb precedes object Jane Hill
Word Order OS in transitive clauses Object precedes subject Jane Hill
Word Order Preposition-Noun no Jane Hill
Word Order Noun-Postposition or case suffix yes Jane Hill
Word Order Gen-Noun Possessive phrase composed of a free possessor and its possessum has possessor first (e.g. John's book) no Jane Hill
Word Order Noun-Gen Possessive phrase composed of a free possessor and its possessum has possessum first (e.g. 'book of John') yes Jane Hill
Word Order Adj-Noun Adjective precedes the noun no Jane Hill
Word Order Noun-Adj Adjective follows the noun yes Jane Hill
Word Order Dem-Noun yes Jane Hill
Word Order Noun-Dem no Jane Hill
Word Order Num-Noun yes Jane Hill
Word Order Noun-Num no Jane Hill
Word Order Noun-Rel Relative clause follows noun that it modifies yes Jane Hill
Word Order Rel-Noun Relative clause precedes noun that it modifies no Jane Hill
Word Order Re<Noun>l (internally headed relative) e.g. 'the dog cat chased-NMZR got away' ('the cat that the dog chased got away') no Jane Hill
Word Order Relative clause is correlative or adjoined e.g. 'what is running, the dog chased that cat' no Jane Hill
Word Order Question word is clause initial 'what', 'who', etc. come first in interrogative clause no Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: nominative-accusative w/ marked accusative Objects of transitive clauses ('P') have a unique marker, while subjects of transitive ('A') and intransitive ('S') clauses are unmarked or share a different marker from that occurring on objects yes Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: nominative-accusative w/ marked nominative Subjects of transitive and intransitive clauses share a marker, while objects of transitives are unmarked no Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: ergative-absolutive Subjects of intransitive clauses and objects of transitives share a unique marker, while subjects of transitive clauses are unmarked or have a different marker no Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: tripartite Intransitive subjects, transitive subjects, and transitive objects all receive distinct case markers no Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: active-inactive Subjects of intransitive clauses are treated two different ways: like subjects of transitives if they are more agent-like (e.g. he jumped), and like objects of transitives if they are more patient-like (e.g. he fell asleep) no Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: marked accusative yes Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: marked nominative no Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: ergative-absolutive yes, no, mixed, other no Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: tripartite no Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: active-inactive no Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: nominative-accusative Same as above, for pronominal affixes/clitics on verbs yes Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: ergative-absolutive yes, no, mixed, other no Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: active-inactive no Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: hierarchical Marking of A and P depends on their relative ranking on a hierarchy (usually 1>2>3 or 2>1>3) no Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: split More than one of the above systems is represented in person marking, depending on e.g. person (e.g. 1/2 vs. 3), tense-aspect value, main vs. subordinate clause type, etc. no Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: pronouns in subject position Pronominal subjects are free pronouns that occur in the same position as full NP subjects no Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: prefixes on verb Pronominal subjects are marked as verbal prefixes (free pronouns may be another option) Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: suffixes on verb Pronominal subjects are marked as verbal suffixes (free pronouns may be another option) Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: clitics on variable host Pronominal subjects are clitics that can attach to verbs, nominal constituents, etc. no Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: pronouns in non-subject position Pronominal subjects are free pronouns but do not normally occur in the position expected for full NP subjects no Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Person marking on intransitive verbs Intransitive verbs take person-marking clitics/affixes yes Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Person marking (of agents) on transitive verbs Transitive verbs take subject (A) markers yes Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Person-marking (of objects) on transitive verbs Transitive verbs take object (P) markers no Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking 3rd person zero in verbal person marking: subjects 3rd person subjects are not overtly marked within the verbal person-marking system no Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking 3rd person zero in verbal person marking: objects 3rd person objects are not overtly marked within the verbal person-marking system Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Number can be marked separately from person on the verb Verbal person marking exists, but number is (or can) be marked separately Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Possessive affixes/clitics on nouns are same as verbal person markers Where nouns take possessive affixes, these are the same as the person-marking affixes Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Gender distinguished in verbal person markers For any person, verbal person markers exhibit different forms depending on the gender (masc/fem, animate/inanimate, etc.) of the referent Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice Ditransitive constructions: indirect object In ditransitives (e.g. 'John gives a book to Bill'), the theme (book) is treated in the same way as are objects of transitives, while the recipient/beneficiary (Bill) is treated differently Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice Ditransitive constructions: double object In ditransitives (e.g. 'John gives Bill a book'), both the theme (book) and the recipient/beneficiary (Bill) is treated in the same way as are objects of transitives yes Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice Ditransitive constructions: secondary object In ditransitives, the recipient/beneficiary is treated in the same way as are objects of transitives, while the theme (book) is treated differently Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Reciprocal: dedicated morpheme Verb becomes reciprocal through use of reciprocal morpheme associated with the verb (may be attached to the verb root). This morpheme is only used to mean reciprocal. no Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Reflexive: dedicated morpheme Verb becomes reflexive through use of reflexive morpheme associated with the verb (may be attached to the verb root). This morpheme is used only to mean reflexive. no Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Reciprocal/reflexive: same morpheme Verb becomes reciprocal or reflexive through use of a morpheme that means either reciprocal or reflexive which attaches to the root of the verb yes Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Passive Passive voice usually involves a change to the verb, while the object of the active voice verb is promoted to subject in the passive voice, and the former subject is deleted/demoted yes Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Antipassive Like passive, but deletes or demotes the object of a transitive verb; usually found in ergative languages no Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Other intransitivizing morphology There is/are some other mechanism(s) for reducing valency Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Applicative: benefactive Applicative adds a beneficiary/maleficiary object argument to the verb Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Applicative: other Applicative adds some other object argument to the verb Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: prefix Causative is morphological and is attached before the root of the verb Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: suffix Causative is morphological and is attached after the root of the verb Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative marked by circumfix, stem change, or tone Morphological causative other than simple prefix/suffix Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: serial verb or analytical construction Causative construction that involves periphrasis or serialization Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: dedicated 'make do by proxy' Indicates that the causer does not directly cause the action of the verb to be realized, but does so by inducing someone else to carry out the action, e.g. 'John had the house painted.' Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: dedicated sociative Indicates that causer participates in event Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Other transitivizing morphology (adds valence) There is/are some other mechanism(s) for increasing valency Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Negation Clausal negator is a preposed element Clausal negator is a preposed element Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Negation Clausal negator is a postposed element Clausal negator is a postposed element Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Negation Negatives: affix Negatives: affix Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Negation Negatives: particle Negatives: particle yes Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Negation Negatives: auxiliary verb Negatives: auxiliary verb Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Negation Negatives: double Standard (non-emphatic) negation typically requires two morphemes, e.g. French 'ne V pas' Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Negation Distinct negative form for 'NP does not exist' Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Negation Distinct negative expression 'I don't know' Lexical expression or highly idiomatic phrase Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Polar questions: interrogative particle Yes/no questions distinguished from declaratives by interrogative particle yes Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Polar questions: verb morphology Yes/no questions distinguished from declaratives by interrogative verb morphology no Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Polar questions: word order Yes/no questions distinguished from declaratives by word order (esp. subject-verb inversion) no Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Polar questions: intonation only Yes/no questions distinguished from declaratives by intonation only no Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Content questions: word order differs from declaratives Content questions distinguished from declaratives by word order (esp. subject-verb inversion) as well as by presence of Q-word (who, what, etc.) Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Predication Predicate adjectives: verbal Adjectives act like verbs in predicative position yes Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Predication Predicate adjectives: nominal Adjectives act like nouns in predicative position yes Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Predication Zero copula for predicate nominals is possible Predicate nominals may occur without a copula (i.e. grammatical in some circumstances, if not all) yes Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Predication Headless relative clauses Compare Eng 'the one that fell' (but in Eng 'one' could be considered a head) Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Predication Headless relative clauses are the dominant or only form of relative clause Relative clauses that form a constituent with a head noun (in a single noun phrase) are rare or nonexistent; some descriptions may refer to adjoined or correlative clauses. Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Predication Relative clause may occur with a noun classifier/class marker It may be unclear whether the classifier is the nominal head of the construction or is an agreement marker on the relative clause Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Predication Relativizer is a verbal affix Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Predication Morphological relativizer is homophonous with nominalizer The same morpheme marks a relative clause and is a nominalizer on verbs (and/or other word classes) Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Desiderative expressions Grammaticalized verbal desiderative Indicates that the subject desires to carry out the action denoted by the verb (distinct from verb 'want', but may be grammaticalized from it) Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Other Clause chaining Clauses can be grouped such that only one bears most of the verb morphology, and the others are marked as to whether they share a subject with this reference clause. Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Other Morphologically marked switch-reference system There are special markers to indicate same vs. different subject when two clauses are combined Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Other Morphologically marked distinction between simultaneous and sequential clauses Morphology (usually on verb) distinguishes between clauses denoting events that occur at the same time or in sequence Jane Hill


Ethnographic Information
Current population (ethnicity) Current population (speakers) Former population estimate Subsistence preference Subsistence notes Density Sedentism Ecotome (riverine/interfluvial/coastal/desert/savannah/etc.) Social hierarchies Multilingualism (rare/occasional/common) Contact languages Marriage pattern Notes Source Created By
small HG low mobile no