Pronominal subjects: prefixes on verb

Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking
Pronominal subjects are marked as verbal prefixes (free pronouns may be another option)


Language Feature Status Grammatical Notes Source Created By Etymology Notes General Notes Phylogenetic Code
Cahuilla Jane Hill
Cupeño Jane Hill
Luiseño no Jane Hill
Serrano no Jane Hill
Kitanemuk Jane Hill
Kawaiisu no Jane Hill
Timbisha no Jane Hill
Western Mono no Jane Hill
Chemehuevi no Jane Hill
Southern Paiute no Jane Hill
Southern Ute no Jane Hill
Shoshone no Jane Hill
Comanche no Jane Hill
Idaho Shoshone Jane Hill
Northern Paiute no Jane Hill
Gabrielino no Jane Hill
Achagua yes Wilson & Levinsohn 1992: 23 Ana Paula Brandao
Resígaro yes Allin, 1976: 318 Aimee Lawrence
Bare yes Aikhenvald, 1995: 22 Ana Paula Brandao
Piapoco yes Galindo, 2002: 157-159 Aimee Lawrence
Yukuna yes Shauer & Shauer, 1978: 41-42 Aimee Lawrence
Yavitero yes Yavitero verbs always carry cross-referencing prefixes, so this may be better described as "pro-drop." Mosonyi, 1987: p. 60-61 Aimee Lawrence
Wapishana yes In addition to free pronouns. Do not usually co-occur; prefixes typically occur when there are multiple arguments, rather than just a subject/object. Santos 2006 Ana Paula Brandao, Amanda Meeks
Wayuu yes Pronominal subjects can be indicated with either prefixes or suffixes on the verb (for both transitives and intransitives). Suffixes only distinguish gender, not person, but there is no other indication that these are adjectives (not verbs). Mansen & Captain, 2000: p. 802 Aimee Lawrence
Tariana no Aikhenvald, 2003: 203 Aimee Lawrence
Apurinã yes Facundes, 2000: 464 Aimee Lawrence
Asheninka Apurucayali yes Prefix vs. suffix placement depends on transitivity status of the verb. Payne 1982:2324, 9096; Payne 1981:34 Amanda Meeks
Maipure yes Zamponi 2003:37 Amanda Meeks
Yanesha' yes Duff-Tripp 1997:72 Daniel Valle
Kinikinau no info Daniel Valle
Baure no Danielsen 2007:174 Daniel Valle
Nanti yes Proclitic, in complementary distribution with non-focused referential NPs. Michael, 2008. p. 345 Aimee Lawrence
Paresi yes Based on the examples Rowan and Burgues 1979:32 Daniel Valle
Palikur no free pronouns Launey 2003:65 Daniel Smith
Yine yes Matteson 1965:72, Daniel Smith
Añun yes Patte 1989:46 Daniel Smith
Bora no Seifart - 2005:52-54 Amanda Meeks
Makiritare yes Hall 1988: 281 Melody Ann Ross
Makushi no Abbott 1991: 99 Melody Ann Ross
Eñepa yes in past perfective, A and O are both prefixed to V Payne 2012:153 Daniel Smith
Pemon yes de Armellada 1999:16-7 Daniel Valle
Guna no Smith texts Daniel Smith
Naso no Quesada 2000 Daniel Smith
Ika yes Frank 1990:7-8 Daniel Valle
Kogi no info Daniel Valle
Cabecar no info Daniel Valle
Guaymí no Quesada 2008:99 Daniel Valle
Damana no Daniel Valle
Sikuani no Queixalós 2000 Daniel Smith
Macaguan no Before consonants: ta- (1st), ne- (2nd), pe- (3rd). Before vowel "a": t- (1st), ni- (2nd), pi- (3rd). Buenaventura - 1993:49 Daniel Smith
Aguaruna no Overall 2007:328-31, 361-5 Daniel Valle
Northern Emberá no Mortensen 1999:16, 59 Daniel Valle Catío
Waorani no info Daniel Valle
Ingá no Levinson 1974:9 Daniel Valle
Matses no Fleck:341-4 Daniel Valle
Mapudungun no Salas 1992, p.116 Daniel Valle
Páez no Jung:136-8 Daniel Valle
Quechua Ayacuchano no Parker 1965:23 Daniel Valle
Tikuna yes Montes 2005:133-135 Daniel Valle
Urarina no Olawsky:487 Daniel Valle
Waunana no Mejía 2000:90 Daniel Valle
Andoke yes Landaburu 1979; p.62; 212-215 Kelsey Neely
Puinave yes Giron 2008: p206 Mitz Perez, Daniel Valle
Central Aymara no info Shannon Dardis
Kakua yes Bolaños fieldnotes Katherine Bolaños
Kaingang no no person inflection Goncalves 2011 Daniel Smith
Minica Witoto no Minor and Minor 1982. p.78-80 Christopher Clack
Hup no Epps 2008 Pattie Epps
Nadëb/Roçado dialect yes Weir 1984 Katherine Bolaños
Dâw no Martins 2004 Katherine Bolaños
Desano no Miller 1999, p. 123 Amanda Novak
Cubeo no Morse & Maxwell 1999, p. 142 Amanda Novak
Kotiria no Stenzel 2004, p. 217 Amanda Novak
Makuna no Smothermon & Smothermon 1993, p.35-36 Chris Clack
Koreguaje no Cook & Criswell 1993, p.31-32 Chris Clack
Barasano no Jones & Jones 1991, p.108 Chris Clack
Tanimuca yes Subject pronouns are usually cliticized and prefixed to the verb (and thus are not case-marked.) Strom 1992, p.114 Chris Clack
Siona no Wheeler - 1987:170 Amanda Meeks
Tukano no West and Welch 2004: 10; Ramirez 1997 Kelsey Neely
Yanomami yes clitics, not prefixes; obligatory (person marking takes special forms relating the relative roles of two different arguments) Ramirez 1994 Kelsey Neely evidenced by examples throughout
Ninam yes Goodwin-Gomez analyzes these as separate words, but they always precede the verb Goodwin-Gomez, p.47-51 Kelsey Neely
Sanumá yes as clitics not prefixes, but Borgman analyzes these as separate words Borgman 1990: 149 Kelsey Neely
Surui yes Van der Meer (?):9 Daniel Smith
Karitiana yes Only for intransitive subjects Everett 2006:343-57 Daniel Valle
Nheengatu yes Cruz 2011:133-134 Daniel Smith
Paraguayan Guaraní yes Ayala 1996:28-9, 46-7 Daniel Valle
Aché no Rossler 2008:73-74 Daniel Valle
Kokama no however, a pronoun may be optionally cliticized to the verb phonologically Vallejos 2010:210 Daniel Smith
Nyangumarta no done 0
Jingulu yes done 1
Wambaya yes done 1
Bunuba yes done 1
Walmajarri no Done-Claire 0
Nyulnyul yes done? 1
Warrwa yes done 1
Worrorra yes 31, 84 done 1
Garrwa no done 0
Gooniyandi yes done 1
Warlpiri no done 0
Bardi yes done-Claire 1
Yugambeh Y?
Yorta Yorta no 83 done 0
Yir Yoront Done-Dan
Yindjibarndi no done-Dan 0
Yidiny no done-Catherine 0
Yanyuwa yes 91 Done-Austin 1
Yandruwandha no Done-Dan 0
Yan-nhangu not yet
Yalarnnga no 1 Done-Dan 0
Woiwurrung no 73-74 done-Amalia 0
Wirangu No 71 done 0
Wemba-Wemba no H 41 done-Amalia 0
Warumungu No 27 done-Amalia 0
Wangkumara no info done X
Uradhi No 352 Y 0
Paakantyi no Y-Hannah 0
Pitta-Pitta No 214 Done-Amalia 0
Pintupi no done-Hannah 0
Nyungar no info done x
Nhanta no Done-Hannah 0
Ngiyambaa no 123, 126 Done-Emily 0
Ngayawang No 10 done-Amalia 0
Muruwari no 106 Done-Dan 0
Mayi-Yapi No 53-54 done 0
Martuthunira no 100-109 and 136-164 done 0
Marrgany No 335 Done-Amalia 0
Kuuk Thaayorre No 216 Done-Amalia 0
Kuku Yalanji no Done-Jessica 0
Kugu-Nganhcara No 399 done-Amalia 0
Kaurna No 16 done-Amalia 0
Kalkatungu no Done-Dan 0
Jaru no Done-Amalia 0
Guugu-Yimidhirr No 65 Done-Amalia 0
Gureng Gureng no info Done-Amalia x
Gumbaynggirr no 342 done-Amalia 0
Gugu-Badhun no done-Jessica 0
Yuwaalaraay No 51 0
Dyirbal No 55 done-Amalia 0
Duungidjawu no 52 done 0
Djinang No 136 Done-Amalia 0
Djabugay done
Diyari no done-Hannah 0
Dharawal no 50-51 done-Hannah w Dhurga) 0
Darkinyung no 32 done 0
Bularnu no Done-Austin 0
Biri no 23-7 done-Jessica 0
Bidjara-Gungabula no done-Jessica 0
Batyala No 3 Done-Amalia 0
Arabana no Done-Dan 0
Alyawarr no done 0
Nyikina yes done-Claire 1
Yawuru Y-Claire
Yulparija No 30 Done-Amalia 0
Wathawurrung no 77 done 0
Mathi-Mathi no done-Amalia 0
Hunter River and Lake Macquarie no 45 done-Amalia 0
Thanggati no 42-3 done 0
Katthang no 63-65 done-Amalia 0
Panyjima no done 0
Ngarinyeri No 43 done-Amalia 0
Kurrama no 73 done-Dan 0
Yingkarta no Done-Claire 0
Githabul No 42 Done-Amalia 0
Gunya No 324 Done-Amalia 0
Kunjen No 92 Done- 0
WesternTorres no done 0
Wakaya no done 0
Yindjilindji no done 0
Bandjalang No 106 Done-Amalia 0
Ngaatjatjara No 55 done 0
Arrernte No 101 0
Kokatha No 65 0
Karajarri No 227 Done-Amalia 0
Pitjantjatjara No Y 22 0
Ritharrngu No 43 Done-Amalia 0
Warrgamay No 45 Done-Amalia 0
Warluwarra no Done-Amalia 0
Warnman No 13 Done-Amalia 0
Djapu no 0
Bilinarra no done 0
Wiradjuri no info done x
Aghu-Tharnggala No 67 Y2 0
Narungga No 74 done 0
Tharrkari No 16 0
Wajarri No 77 0
Warungu no 0
Adnyamathanha Y2
Yagua no Payne and Payne 1990:361 Daniel Smith
Baniwa yes A=Sa Ramirez 2001 Patience Epps