Luiseño

Family
Uto-Aztecan
Region
North America
ISO 639-3
lui
Location
33.32°, -116.94°
Notes
Features
Basic Vocabulary
Flora Fauna Vocabulary
Cultural Vocabulary
Grammatical Data
Ethnographic Information
Data Sources
none


Basic Vocabulary (185)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Etymology Notes Source Created By
above encima, arriba acima location 7e/echi inheritance Elliott Jane Hill
again de nuevo, otra vez de novo grammar yu7pun, yu7pan unknown Jane Hill
all todo todos other cho:7un unknown Jane Hill
and y e grammar pi7 unknown Bright 1968 Jane Hill
ankle tobillo tornozelo body 7iye/7yish unknown Elliott Jane Hill
armpit axila, sobaco axila body qwalma (psd only) inheritance Jane Hill
ash ceniza(s) cinzas environment te:lingi-sh inheritance Jane Hill
at en, a em, a location -nga inheritance Elliott Jane Hill
back espalda costas body ma:cha-t inheritance Jane Hill
bad mal mal quality 7ala/xwi- “to be bad” loan direction unknown Jane Hill
belly barriga barriga body te:7-la loan Jane Hill
below abajo, debajo abaixo location to:-ngax inheritance Jane Hill
big grande grande quality yo-t inheritance Jane Hill
bite morder morder body ko7i- inheritance Jane Hill
black negro preto colour yuva/-ta~i- “to be black” inheritance Jane Hill
blood sangre sangue body 7ow-la inheritance Jane Hill
blow soplar soprar body puxi- inheritance Jane Hill
boil/pimple espinilla, granos espinha, borbulha body mu:ki-l inheritance Jane Hill
bone hueso osso body kula:wu-t inheritance Jane Hill
breast pecho, seno peito body pi-t inheritance Jane Hill
breathe respirar respirar body hakwi/s- inheritance Jane Hill
burn quemar queimar environment chuya~i unknown Jane Hill
chew masticar, mascar mastigar body me:cha~i- unknown Jane Hill
child niño, niña criança human kiha:-t loan direction unknown Jane Hill
climb subir subir motion hila/la~i unknown Jane Hill
cloud nube nuvem environment tuvi/icha inheritance Elliott Jane Hill
cold frío frio quality 7i/itaat inheritance Elliott Jane Hill
come venir vir motion mon- inheritance Jane Hill
cook cocinar cozinhar impact kocha~i- inheritance Elliott Jane Hill
correct/true verdad, de veras verdade quality 7a-Su:n (lit. “its-heart”) inheritance Jane Hill
count contar contar mental woy7a~i unknown Jane Hill
cry llorar chorar mental nga:- inheritance Jane Hill
cut/hack cortar cortar impact woki- inheritance Jane Hill
day día dia time time/-t inheritance Jane Hill
die/be dead morir morrer state pi7muk- inheritance Jane Hill
dig cavar cavar impact heya~i inheritance Jane Hill
dingo/wolf fauna 7i/s-wu-t inheritance Jane Hill
dirty sucio sujo quality kwila/li- “to make dirty” inheritance Jane Hill
dream soñar sonhar mental puti7- “dream of, dream about” inheritance Jane Hill
drink beber, tomar beber body pa:7i- inheritance Jane Hill
dry seco seco quality wa/xa- inheritance Jane Hill
dull/blunt sin filo, mocho, desafilado, embotado, romo maçante, desamolado, não afiado quality navu/-nvu-sh unknown Jane Hill
dust polvo poeira environment to:wu-t inheritance Jane Hill
ear oreja orelha body naq-la inheritance Jane Hill
earth/soil tierra terra environment 7ex-la inheritance Jane Hill
eat comer comer body kwa7- inheritance Jane Hill
egg huevo ovo fauna pa:ni-l inheritance Jane Hill
eye ojo olho body push-la inheritance Jane Hill
faeces heces, mierda, excremento, estiércol fezes body Sa:7i-sh inheritance Jane Hill
fall caer cair motion hulu/ka!i (singular subject) unknown Jane Hill
far lejos longe quality wa:m loan Jane Hill
fat/grease grasa gordura body wi7 (possessed only) inheritance Jane Hill
father padre, papá pai kinship na7 (possessed only) inheritance Jane Hill
fear miedo medo mental na:la- unknown Jane Hill
feather pluma pena fauna pe7 (possessed only), inheritance Jane Hill
fire fuego fogo environment ku-t inheritance Jane Hill
fish xx xx fauna kiyu/:-l inheritance Jane Hill
flow fluir fluir motion ya7- inheritance Jane Hill
flower flor flor environment So:7 (possessed only) inheritance Jane Hill
fly volar voar motion wi:la- (singular subject) unknown Jane Hill
fog niebla, neblina nevoeira, bruma, neblina environment mes-ma-l inheritance Jane Hill
foot pie body 7e-t inheritance Jane Hill
fruit fruta fruta flora push-la inheritance Jane Hill
good bueno bom quality 7aya/alinik inheritance Elliott Jane Hill
grow crecer crescer state wola- inheritance Jane Hill
hair (of head) cabello cabelo body yu:-la (of head) inheritance Jane Hill
hand mano mão body ma-t inheritance Jane Hill
3sg el/ella ele/ela grammar po:7 inheritance Jane Hill
head cabeza cabeça body yu:-la inheritance Jane Hill
hear oír ouvir mental naqma- inheritance Jane Hill
heavy pesado pesado quality wima~i- “to be heavy” inheritance Jane Hill
hide esconder esconder motion heli- inheritance Jane Hill
hit golpear, pegar bater impact kopa~i- unknown Jane Hill
hold correr, asegurar, sostener segurar other ya:w- inheritance Jane Hill
how? como como grammar micha-xa/ni-nuk inheritance Jane Hill
1sg yo eu grammar no:7 inheritance Jane Hill
if si se grammar tee unknown Elliott Jane Hill
in/inside dentro, adentro dentro location -nga inheritance Jane Hill
intestines intestinos intestinos body Si: (possessed only) inheritance Jane Hill
itch hormiguear, sentir comezón coçar body Suyi- inheritance Jane Hill
kill matar matar impact moknu- inheritance Jane Hill
know/be knowledgeable saber, conecer saber, conhecer mental 7o7na- inheritance Jane Hill
lake lago lago environment paala pokwo/oyaqala unique Elliott Jane Hill
laugh reír rir mental tooya unknown Elliott Jane Hill
leaf hoja folha environment pavla-sh loan Jane Hill
left/left hand izquierdo esquerdo location/body 7echva-sh “left hand” inheritance Jane Hill
leg/foot pierna perna body 7e-t inheritance Jane Hill
lie down acostarse, echarse deitar motion howa- (singular subject) inheritance Jane Hill
lightning rayo, relámpago relampago environment Siwa/ri- “to flash of lightning” inheritance Jane Hill
live/be alive vivir viver, morar body 7a:w- (singular subject) unknown Jane Hill
liver hígado figado body no:ma (possessed only) inheritance Jane Hill
long largo comprido, longo quality tavu-lvu-sh (sg.), ta:talvi-sh (pl.) inheritance Jane Hill
louse piollo, piojo piolho fauna 7ula:-t (head) inheritance Jane Hill
lung pulmón pulmão body sava/-sva-sh inheritance Jane Hill
man/male hombre homem human ya7a/-sh unique Jane Hill
meat/flesh carne carne fauna wa:7i-sh inheritance Jane Hill
moon luna lua environment moy-la inheritance Jane Hill
mother madre, mamá mãe kinship yo7 (possessed only) inheritance Jane Hill
mouth boca boca body tama/-t inheritance Jane Hill
name nombre nome human tung-la inheritance Jane Hill
nape base del cuello, nuca nuca body qala/-t inheritance Elliott Jane Hill
near/close cerca de perto quality neshkin (like kin?) unknown Jane Hill
neck cuello pescoço body qela/-t inheritance Jane Hill
new nuevo novo quality 7i:pi-t loan Jane Hill
night noche noite time tu:ku-mi-t inheritance Jane Hill
no/not no não grammar qay inheritance Jane Hill
nose nariz nariz body mu:vi-l inheritance Jane Hill
old viejo velho quality 7anxa inheritance Jane Hill
one uno um number supu/l inheritance Jane Hill
open/uncover abrir abrir other heda~i- unknown Jane Hill
other otro outro grammar 7awo: inheritance Jane Hill
pain/painful/sick dolor, doloroso, enfermo dor, doloroso, doente body tiwa “to hurt, ache unknown Elliott Jane Hill
person/human being persona pessoa human 7a-ta:x inheritance Jane Hill
pound/beat machacar, golpear bater impact paqa~i- inheritance Jane Hill
rain lluvia chuva environment xila~i “to rain” unknown Jane Hill
red rojo vermelho colour qwaya/qwya-sh, 7ava- “to be red” loan into protolanguage Jane Hill
right/right hand derecha direita location/body pli (possessed only, “right hand”) inheritance Jane Hill
road/path camino caminho manufacture pe-t inheritance Jane Hill
root raíz raiz flora -towla inheritance Elliott Jane Hill
rotten podrido podre quality pisa/7a- “to rot” inheritance Jane Hill
sand arena areia environment 7exva-l inheritance Jane Hill
say decir dizer mental ya- inheritance Jane Hill
scratch rascar rasgar impact $okapa~i inheritance Elliott Jane Hill
see ver ver mental tow- inheritance Jane Hill
sharp afilado, filudo, filoso afiado quality Sowa~i “to be sharp” inheritance Jane Hill
shoot tirar, disparar, balear atirar impact mu7a/n- inheritance Jane Hill
short corto curto quality kapa/-kpa-ma-l inheritance Jane Hill
shoulder hombro ombro body So:ka (possessed only) inheritance Jane Hill
shy/ashamed tímido, vergonzoso timido, com vergonha mental hamo:-ya- (to be shy) inheritance Jane Hill
sit sentar(se) sentar state tawa- (singular subject) inheritance Jane Hill
skin piel pele body ta:va-sh unknown Jane Hill
sky cielo céu environment tu:pa-sh inheritance Jane Hill
sleep dormir dormir body kup- inheritance Jane Hill
small pequeño pequeno quality 7alu/'-ma-l loan direction unknown Jane Hill
smoke humo fumaça environment ku:mi-t inheritance Jane Hill
sniff/smell olfatear, oler cheirar body huSi- unknown Jane Hill
spit escupir cuspir body chuxi- loan direction unknown Jane Hill
split partir, dividir rachar, dividir, partir impact pava~i- unknown Jane Hill
squeeze estrujar, exprimir espremer impact yona~i- unknown Jane Hill
stab/pierce apuñalar, acuchillar apunhalar impact pora~i- loan Jane Hill
stand estar de pié ficar em pé state wi:ta- (singular subject) unknown Elliott Jane Hill
star estrella estrela environment Su7-la inheritance Jane Hill
steal robar roubar other 7uyo:-tu- inheritance Jane Hill
stick/wood palo pau, vara flora kula:wu-t inheritance Jane Hill
stone piedra pedra environment to:-ta inheritance Jane Hill
suck chupar chupar body hi:pa~i inheritance Elliott Jane Hill
sweat sudar suor, suar body xula- (to sweat) unknown Jane Hill
swell hincharse inchar body hava/cha- unknown Jane Hill
swim nadar nadar motion wa:ya- inheritance Jane Hill
tail cola, rabo rabo body qasii/vish inheritance Elliott Jane Hill
that ese/esa esse grammar 7o:no unknown Elliott Jane Hill
3pl ellos/ellas eles/elas grammar pom-o/m inheritance Jane Hill
thick grueso, gordo, espeso grosso quality tupu/tpu-sh, tupu/tpi-sh inheritance Elliott Jane Hill
thin delgado fino quality 7alu/7-ma-l loan direction unknown Jane Hill
think pensar pensar mental woy7a- inheritance Jane Hill
this este/esta este grammar 7iv-i/ inheritance Jane Hill
2sg xx xx grammar 7om inheritance Jane Hill
three tres tres number pa:hay inheritance Jane Hill
throat garganta garganta body xa:ra-sh unknown Elliott Jane Hill
throw tirar, lanzar atirar, jogar impact hata~i- unknown Elliott Jane Hill
thunder truenos trovão environment to:ma-wu-t inheritance Jane Hill
tie up/fasten atar, amarrar amarrar impact pona~i- inheritance Jane Hill
tongue lengua lingua body we:yi (possessed only) unique Jane Hill
tooth diente dente body tama/-t inheritance Jane Hill
turn girar, volter, torcer virar other moma~i- inheritance Jane Hill
two dos dois number weh inheritance Jane Hill
vomit vomitar vomitar body muyi- unknown Elliott Jane Hill
walk caminar, andar andar motion mon- inheritance Jane Hill
water agua agua environment pa:l inheritance Jane Hill
1pl.excl nosotros (exclusivo) nós (exclusivo) grammar missing Jane Hill
1pl.incl nosotros (inclusivo) nós (inclusivo) grammar cha:7um inheritance Jane Hill
wet mojado molhado quality pa:-muwi-sh inheritance Jane Hill
what? que, qué que grammar hi:-cha inheritance Jane Hill
when? cuando quando grammar mi:ki-nga inheritance Jane Hill
where? donde onde grammar micha/-7 inheritance Jane Hill
white blanco branco colour xwaya- (to be) inheritance Jane Hill
who? quien, quién quem grammar hax inheritance Jane Hill
wife esposa esposa kinship - Sunga:-ki inheritance Jane Hill
wind viento vento environment hung-la unique Jane Hill
wing ala asa body kawi/-t unknown Jane Hill
woman/female mujer mulher human Sunga:-l inheritance Jane Hill
work trabajar trabalhar other 7uwo/7u- unknown Jane Hill
yawn bostezar bocejar body haka-, ha:qwi- unknown Jane Hill
yellow amarillo amarelo colour 7aSo/-7Su-sh unknown Jane Hill
2pl ustedes vocês grammar 7om-o/m (?) inheritance Jane Hill


Flora Fauna Vocabulary (130)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Linnean Name Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Range of Term Word Structure Word Structure Notes Classifier Classifier Notes Hypernym Source Association with Social Categories Ritual/Mythologically Significant Ritual Notes Food Source Food Notes Medicinal Medicinal Notes How Collected Who Collects How Prepared Psychotropic Psychotropic Notes Traded Trade Notes Distribution Habitat Dangerous Ethnobiology Notes Species Notes General Notes Created By
abalone flora-fauna Haliotis spp. 7áyla ʹɁajla abalone (generic), archaic to Mrs. Hyde, perhaps used in a song. Harrington: Black abalone. semantic shift *ayaC Uto-Aztecan S2359 “turtle” (Stubbs 2009:316). Problematic, as “tortoise shell” is 'aya-t, which is regular. Why is second vowel lost? Stubbs' etymology may be wrong and this is from Chumash t'-aya (attested in Ineseno (Applegate 134) narrower (Black abalone only) other complex ʹɁaj-la black.abalone-non.possessed.noun no info Elliott 1999:163 no info 2 used in shell inlay on ceremonial wands and staffs 1 no info gathered (wild) no info fishooks from the “central portions of haliotis shell where the grain twists” (Kroeber 1925:652) Used in shell inlay on ceremonial wands 0 1 Haliotis shell a well-known trade item; Mojave traders came to Lu. territory as per archaeological evidence, must have sought this West coast of North America cold coastal waters no
ant (generic) hormiga formiga flora-fauna Formicidae 7áanat ʹɁa:nat ant (generic term) inheritance *ʔalɨn- Uto-Aztecan S44 (Stubbs 2009:44) same other complex ʹɁa:na-t Elliott 1999:95 no info 0 ant ordeal at puberty (White 1963:153) 0 no info gathered (wild) men kept live for ant ordeal 0 0 Americas diverse (depends on species) no
antelope flora-fauna Antilocapra americana tónla ʹtonla antelope inheritance *tɨn(nV)- Northern Uto-Aztecan S52 (Stubbs 2009:45), the *tɨm(V)nV- possibility is worth considering. May be a loan into PNUA from Proto-Kiowa-Tanoan. same other complex ʹton-la pronghorn-non.possessed.noun tó'wiyam “wild animals, principally edible meat animals” ; the sixth stage of Creation (Harrington 1978:116) Elliott 1999:955 no info 2 1 last were killed 20 years before Sparkman; lived arond Temecula no info hunted men like deer, presumably 0 0 Western North America open areas no
badger flora-fauna Taxidea taxus húunal ʹhu:nal badger inheritance *hula- Uto-Aztecan S105 (Stubbs 2009:53) same other complex ʹhu:na-l badger-non.possessed.noun Elliott 1999:363 no info 2 1 may have been classed with predators no info hunted men skin used for quiver (Harrington 1978:155) 0 0 North America chaparral, woodland yes
bald eagle flora-fauna Haliaeetus leucocephalus páam'ush ʹpa:mɁuʃ eagle sp., Sparkman: White-headed or bald eagle, found only on coast inheritance *pamu7- Cupan Cupeño pa7mush “bird sp., a water bird”, Cahuilla pamu7ish “bald eagle” (not in Stubbs) (re Cup. form, Bald Eagle is a fishing bird) same other complex ʹpa:mɁu-ʃ “bald.eagle-non.possessed.noun” -ʔaʃ "pet" possessive classifier; NPN form of noun is ʔaʃla uncertain if is 7ehéngmal Elliott 1999:667 no info 1 feathers can be used in skirts for dance; a Chingichngish animal; killed in Eagle Ceremony 2 not eaten (Kroeber 1925:652) no info hunted men fledglings raised to maturity, killed in ceremony, fathers kept for dance skirts 0 1 eagle-feather dance skirts a very expensive trade item North America Prefers habitat with large areas of water; this is a fishing bird no
band-tail pigeon flora-fauna Patagioenas fasciata mixéevawut miʹxe:vawut pigeon inheritance *makahVwi Uto-Aztecan S676 (Stubbs 2009:126); vowel /e:/ perhaps from ahVwi>ahwi>awi>ai>e:, e < *ai well known in other langs, loss of -w- is regional. Other egs? same derived miʹxe:-va-wu-t dove-?-augmentative-non.possessed.noun -ʔaʃ "pet" possessive classifier; NPN form of noun is ʔaʃla 7ehéngmal Elliott 1999: 530 no info 0 muuta, qeweewish, mixeel, mixeevawut (Y1134) 1 not eaten due to “superstitious motives” (Sparkman 1908:199) no info N/A N/A N/A 0 0 Americas Oak and pine forests, feeds on acorns no
bat murciélago morcego flora-fauna Chiroptera spp taválalakmay taʹvalalakmaj bat loan Chumash may contain vala <*patiʔa, but note also Tepiman *nakamɨri “ear-run” WW %tamakala same derived ta-válalak-ma-l; note the reduplication. Given Tepiman forms, ma-y, ma-l diminutive may be false etymology -ʔaʃ "pet" possessive classifier; NPN form of noun is ʔaʃla Elliott 1999:920 no info 0 1 no info no info no info no info 0 0 Americas diverse habitats no
beaver flora-fauna Castor missing missing missing 2 1 0 0 0 no
beetle flora-fauna Coleoptera spp $ísqila ʹşisqila stinkbug; Sparkman: the general name for insects known as beetles inheritance *sisiko(ŋi) Californian S312 (Stubbs 2009:83); Tubatulabal shikkol “lizard sp.” belongs in this set same other complex ʹşisqi-la beetle-non.possessed.noun (probable reduplication in root) Elliott 1999:860 Clan name at Pauma (Strong 1929:277) 2 0 no info no info no info no info 0 0 global diverse habitats no
big round tule flora-fauna Schoenoplectus acutus pivée$ash piʹve:şaʃ tule, type of pipe; Sparkman:large species of rush or reed unique Is this word maybe related to piivat “tobacco”, given pipe association? See Kitanemuk pivuht, Serrano pe-wum (Merriam) same other complex piʹve:şa-ʃ big.tule-non.possessed.noun (root may be derived) Elliott 1999:730 Clan name at Pala (Strong 1929:277) 2 Couplet: piveesash, hooyawish (first people gone west); matting of this plant used for inner enclosure of the wamkish (Harrington 1978:136) 1 new shoots (and probably roots, but these are not mentioned) 1 reeds used for cauterization irons gathered (wild) WhoCollects fresh shoots eaten raw (Sparkman 1908:196, 234) 0 0 California and southern US into Mexico wet areas throughout territory no
big skunk flora-fauna Mephitis mephitis páalukut ʹpa:lukut skunk inheritance *(paa) -tɨkʷɨ Cupan -tɨkʷɨ is S1984 (Stubbs 2009:275), Cupan; Lu form would mean “big skunk”; Yuman *xwiw (*kłʸikʷ) “skunk” should be considered as source for kwe-, ku syllables (which would explain problems) same other complex páaluku-t skunk.sp-non.possessed.noun Elliott 1999 666 no info 2 couplet with saaqmal (song:word), order uncertain (Harrington) 2 no N/A N/A N/A 0 0 North America diverse habitats no
big wolf (gray wolf) flora-fauna Canis lupus íswut ʹɁiswut wolf inheritance *ʔisa-wɨ- Northern Uto-Aztecan S552 (Stubbs 2009:112); this particular derivation for “Wolf” restricted to Takic but *isa- is NUA same (sometimes confused with “Jaguar”?) derived ʹɁis-wu-t coyote-augmentative-non.possessed.noun (although Lu does not have 7isa- for “coyote”, they would know languages that do) -ʔaʃ "pet" possessive classifier; NPN form of noun is ʔaʃla Elliott 1999:191 no info 1 tukmi 7iswut, Wolf heart, North Star mentioned in mourning song (Harrington); represented in ground paintings (might be “Jaguar”) Kroeber 1925:662 2 most large predators not eaten no info N/A N/A N/A 0 0 Americas diverse habitats yes
bighorn sheep flora-fauna Ovis canadensis páa'at ʹpa:Ɂat mountain sheep inheritance *paʔaC- Northern Uto-Aztecan S204 (Stubbs 2009:67); may be a Proto-Kiowa-tanoan loan into Proto NUA same other complex ʹpa:Ɂa-t bighorn-non.possessed.noun tó'wiyam “wild animals, principally edible meat animals” ; the sixth stage of Creation (Harrington 1978:116) Elliott 1999:660 no info 2 In a Season Song for Nemoyil, “North the bighorn bears its young” (Kroeber 1925:658) 1 no hunted men roasted on coals or in earth oven, meat could be ground and stored, rarely boiled 0 0 Western North America steep slopes, cliffs no
bird pajaro, ave passaro flora-fauna 7ehéngmay Ɂeʹheŋmay bird inheritance *hini- Uto-Aztecan S897 (Stubbs 2009:152), PUA “fly”, cf. Cahuilla hingish “young bird”, but Lu. vowel is wrong same derived Ɂe-ʹheŋ-mal with diminutive; what is source of prothetic vowel??? -ʔaʃ "pet" possessive classifier; NPN form of noun is ʔaʃla Elliott 1999:171 no info 0 see for specific birds 0 songbirds eaten no info hunted all roasted, boiled, used for feathers 0 0 see specific birds N/A N/A no
black ant flora-fauna Camponotus pennsylvanicus/Lasius niger lamáqata laʹmaqata tick-like animal; a kind of black ant (Bright), bites but does not sting (Harrington) unique narrower (a species of black ant, not black ant in general) other complex laʹmaqa-ta black.ant-non.possessed.noun (long root must be derived etymologically) 7a:nat Elliott 1999:449 no info 2 0 no info no info no info no info 0 0 Americas diverse (depends on species) no
black bear flora-fauna Ursus americanus húnwut ʹhunwut bear inheritance *huna-wɨ-ta Californian S132 (Stubbs 2009:59). This is “big badger”; badger, *hura(p), is UA etymon. But only means “bear” in California. broader (includes all bears) derived ʹhun-wu-t badger-augmentative-non.possessed.noun (this is a euphemism and is felt as derived) hunwutal if dead Elliott 1999:358 no info 1 shamanism, especially 2 “never eaten” (Sparkman 1908:199) no hunted men skin, claws saved; stone erected at site of death (Sparkman 1908:199) 0 0 North America chaparral, woodland yes
black-tail Jackrabbit flora-fauna Lepus californicus $ú'ish ʹşuɁiʃ jackrabbit inheritance *suuʔit Uto-Aztecan S1713 (Stubbs 2009:243); I give Manaster-Ramer's reconstruction same other complex ʹşuɁi-ʃ jackrabbit-non.possessed.noun Elliott 1999:878 no info 2 1 most important game (Sparkman 1908:197) no info hunted men broiling on hot coals, rarely boiled. Cooked in earth oven and flesh and bones pounded in mortar for storage (Sparkman 1908:198). Skins woven into blankets 0 0 blankets may have been traded North America flat open areas no
blackberry flora-fauna Rubus ursinus píkwla ʹpikʷla blackberry, raspberry inheritance *pikwa- Takic S182 (Stubbs 2009:64); I don't like Stubbs' Chemehuevi form pipikura, probably a loan broader (than Rubus ursinus --includes other berries -- but does NOT have range of English “berry”) other complex ʹpikʷ-la berry.spp-non.possessed.noun Elliott 1999 718 no info 2 couplet: 'ushla, pikwla; a Chingichngish plant (Harrington 1978:133);“sting for chingichngish” (Kroeber 1925:679) 1 not important as “grow but sparingly” (Sparkman 1908:195) no info gathered (wild) women and children eaten fresh, dried and stored 0 0 Western North America foothills, uplands no
blue grouse flora-fauna Dendrogapus? chachaláaka tʃatʃaʹlaka bird species which is slightly larger than a quail loan Spanish Spanish chachalaca same underived sound imitative in Spanish (may come from a Mesoamerican language) -ʔaʃ "pet" possessive classifier; NPN form of noun is ʔaʃla 7ehéngmal Elliott 1999:236 no info 0 1 no info but since all sources indicate quail eaten, I assume grouse was too no info hunted men boiled, roasted, eggs eaten 0 0 California Coast ranges Edges of conifer and mixed forest no
bobcat, lynx flora-fauna Lynx rufus túukut ʹtu:kut wildcat, lynx inheritance *tuCkuC- Northern Uto-Aztecan S1306 (Stubbs 2009:200). This is a California Wanderwort; Great Basin forms giving NUA are surely loans. But loan may be early because Hopi has regular vocalism. WW %tuku same other complex ʹtu:ku-t wildcat-non.possessed.noun Elliott 1999:1000 no info 1 2 all other predators proscribed, probably this one too no hunted men skin used for quiver (Harrington 1978:155) 0 0 North America diverse habitats no
butterfly, moth mariposa borboleta flora-fauna Lepidoptera 7avélaka Ɂaʹvelaka butterfly unique S324 (Stubbs 2009:85); very similar form in Cahuilla. S's own reconstruction with *p is an anachronism since this is just Cupan same underived no non.possessed.noun suffix Elliott 1999:144 no info 2 Season Song: Butterfly has his wamkish (Kroeber 1925:658 0 no info no info no info no info 0 0 global diverse (depends on species) no
California condor flora-fauna Gymnogyps californianus yungáavaywut juʹŋa:vajwut condor inheritance *juŋa:pi- Takic S336 (Stubbs 2009:87). This is probably juŋ -a-pi where *a is the ablaut vowel induced by -pi. But I don't know what *juŋ- means! Elliott 1999 has junga “archaic word for “to dance”) same derived juʹŋa:vaj-wu-t vulture-augmentative-non.possessed.noun (why junga:vaj, not jungavi???) -ʔaʃ "pet" possessive classifier; NPN form of noun is ʔaʃla uncertain if is 7ehéngmal Elliott 1999:1151 no info 1 feathers can be used in skirts for dance; could be used instead of Eagle in Eagle Ceremony (Sparkman 1908:227) 2 almost certainly with eagles as proscribed, since could be killed in Eagle Ceremony no info hunted men fledglings raised to maturity, killed in ceremony, fathers kept for dance skirts 0 1 dance regalia often bought and sold U.S. Southwest Rocky scrubland, woodland (they like cliffs) no
California jay flora-fauna Aphelocoma californica? wí'kas-ma-l ʹwiɁkasmal blue jay without crest inheritance *wiCtiki Uto-Aztecan S205, with consonant assimilation *tVk > kVk. (Stubbs 2009:67). The /s/ derivation is unclear. *kasa is a Numic “wing” word. same derived ʹwiɁka-s-mal; bird-?-diminutive. -ʔaʃ "pet" possessive classifier; NPN form of noun is ʔaʃla 7ehéngmay Elliott 1999:1047 no info 2 1 must have been eaten, but never mentioned. Jays cache food; owners of trees collected tree caches for human use and even felled trees to reach acorns no info no info no info no info 0 0 throughout western North America (distributions from Wikipedia unless otherwise noted) scrublands, woodlands (Habitats from Wikipedia unless otherwise noted) no
California woodpecker flora-fauna Melanerpes formicivorus? $óola ʹşo:la woodpecker; Bright, California woodpecker, Sparkman, This woodpecker stores acorns in the bark of trees doubtful loan *cutu Uto-Aztecan no information S206 (Stubbs 2009:67), but Lu. form has inexplicably non-corresponding vowels, as does Mono. same other complex ʹşo:-la California.woodpecker-non.possessed.noun -ʔaʃ "pet" possessive classifier; NPN form of noun is ʔaʃla 7ehéngmal Elliott 1999:870 no info 2 1 acorn caches eaten, owners even felled trees to retrieve no info no info no info no info 0 1 Southern Oregon, California, south to Colombia Oak woodlands no
chia flora-fauna Salvia columbariae páa$al ʹpa:şal chia inheritance *pasa/i Californian S1599 (Stubbs 2009:233). Only Numic is Tumpisa Shoshone, almost certainly a loan from Tubatulabal. This shows up in Chumash, Salinan, may be an old Californianism. WW %pasv same other complex ʹpa:şa-l chia-non.possessed.noun Elliott 1999:670 no info (although stands were surely owned by “clans/villages”, this is not mentioned specifically even in White for Chia 1 ball of seed and salt placed in girls' mouths at initiation (Strong 1929:298) and given to boys at end of Ant Ordeal (Strong 1929:317) 1 most esteemed seed(Sparkman 1908:196) no info gathered (wild) women seeds parched and mixed with other seeds for pinole mush 0 0 California and Southwest Below 6000 feet in dry open areas, extensive stands in chaparral no
chipmunk flora-fauna Tamias spp. wískun ʹwiskun chipmunk inheritance *wiskun Takic in several Takic languages and irregular, probably a loan into early Takic same underived probable loan although widespread Elliott 1999:1080 no info 2 wiskun made a coffin of a great log for Wuyot (Harrington) 1 no info no info no info no info 0 0 North America woodlands no
cliff swallow flora-fauna Petrochelidon pyrrhonota pál'vismal ʹpalɁvismal swallow (type of bird) inheritance *pati7a/*paCti7a “bat”; *pata “fly” Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2009:56-57 derives from *pati7a/*paCti7a “bat” (S124). But Numic and Cora all have pa[c/ch]a, which should reflect *paCtsV. -Cts- regularly yields Cahuilla /s/, not /l/. A problematic set. Note *pata “fly” S902, p. 153. same derived ʹpalɁ-vis-ma-l bat-?-diminutive-non.possessed.noun (I'm conjecturing based on Cahuilla palily “bat”) -ʔaʃ "pet" possessive classifier; NPN form of noun is ʔaʃla 7ehéngmal Elliott 1999:681 no info 2 1 songbirds eaten no info hunted all roasted, boiled, eggs eaten (no info on feathers) 0 0 Breed in North America Cliffs, and now in, on buildings no
coot flora-fauna Fulica americana $áyla ʹşajla mud hen inheritance *saya(C) Northern Uto-Aztecan S217 (and 710) Stubbs 2009:69, very consistently for “coot, mud-hen” except in Cahuilla same other complex ʹşaj-la mud.hen-non.possessed.noun -ʔaʃ "pet" possessive classifier; NPN form of noun is ʔaʃla no info Elliott 1999: 846 no info 2 1 not eaten (Sparkman 1908:199) no info N/A N/A N/A 0 0 West coastal and southern North America to Central America Wetlands, open water no
cottontail rabbit flora-fauna Sylvilagus audobonii tóo$axit ʹto:şaxit cottontail rabbit inheritance *tosa-kammu Northern Uto-Aztecan S1709 (Stubbs 2009:242) compound -- white-jackrabbit; frankly I doubt the *kammu part but white is fine same other complex ʹto:şaxi-t cottontail-non.possessed.noun Elliott 1999:963 no info 2 couplet: toovit, too$axit “brush rabbit, cottontail” 1 most important game (Sparkman 1908:197) no info hunted men broiling on hot coals, rarely boiled. Cooked in earth oven and flesh and bones pounded in mortar for storage (Sparkman 1908:198); skin woven into blankets 0 0 blankets may have been traded North America diverse habitats no
cottonwood flora-fauna Populus spp. 7aváaxat Ɂaʹva:xat cottonwood tree inheritance *ʔavaaxa-t Cupan S544 (Stubbs 2009:111); Stubbs also likes Arizona Yaqui avaso and possibly O'odham 'auppa; if good perhaps UA, more likely a regionalism. A loan possible? Cocopa x?a,, Mojave ?ah?a, Yavapai ?ha:, for the -xat part? But that isn't stressed at all. same other complex Ɂaʹva:xa-t cottonwood-non.possessed.noun Elliott 1999: 143 no info 2 couplet: pawxit, 'avaaxat (referring to place names in the west); used in construction of wamkish (Harrington 1978:36) 0 no info gathered (wild) women no info 0 0 southern Canada south to northern Mexico moist areas no
coyote flora-fauna Canis latrans 'anó' ɁaʹnoɁ coyote unique same underived note absence of non.possessed.noun suffix; might be a loan -ʔaʃ "pet" possessive classifier; NPN form of noun is ʔaʃla Elliott 1999: 120 7anoyum, a “party” (lineage complex, perhaps formerly a moiety) at Pauma (White 1963:153); see ground squirrel 1 The star Aldebaran, always stalking the Pleiades, who are pretty girls (E); ate Wuyot's heart (White 1963:141) 2 not eaten (Kroeber 1925:652) no info hunted men skin used for quiver (Harrington 1978:155) 0 0 North and Central America diverse habitats no
crow flora-fauna Corvus brachyrhynchos alwut ʹɁalwut crow loan into protolanguage *ʔata-wɨ-ta Uto-Aztecan Yok-Utian S582 (Stubbs 2009:116); Loaned into Yokuts WW %alwut same derived ʹɁal-wu-t crow-augmentative-non.possessed.noun -ʔaʃ "pet" possessive classifier; NPN form of noun is ʔaʃla 7ehéngmal Elliott 1999:112 no info 2 feathers for headdress (Sparkman 1908:208); has ceremonial couplet, muuta, qeweewish, mixeel, mixeevawut (Y1134); crow danced hilariously at Wuyot's funeral, so people forgot themselves and laughed (Harrington 1978:122) 1 eggs at least must have been eaten no info hunted men feathers 0 0 dance regalia often bought and sold, but crow-feather items not mentioned global diverse habitats no
datura flora-fauna Datura wrightii náqtumush ʹnaqtumuʃ jimsonweed, toloache, boys' tea for initiation purposes inheritance *naqtumu- Cupan Not in Stubbs, but note Cupeño naqtemela7ash “Datura, drunk-instrument”. naq may be “ear” broader (the plant, and the drink) other complex ʹnaqtumu-ʃ drunk-non.possessed.noun (probably deverbal) Elliott 1999:593 no info 1 hallucinogen administered at boys' initiation ceremony, probably also used by shamans. A Chingichngish plant (Harrington 1978:133) 1 probably too dangerous to eat no info gathered (wild) men fresh roots pounded in ceremonial mortar (taamyash) and mixed with water to make the drink (Harrington 1978:162) 1 0 probably not traded, grows everywhere and must be prepared fresh by an expert US Southwest, California, Mexico “sandy, gravelly, open areas below 4000 feet throughout Southern California” (Bean & Saubel 1972:60) yes
deer, mule flora-fauna Odocoileus hemionus $úukat ʹşu:kat deer inheritance *suCkaC- Uto-Aztecan S621 (Stubbs 2009:121) WW %sok narrower (refers only to mule deer; where found, white-tail has a different name) other complex ʹşu:ka-t mule.deer-non.possessed.noun tó'wiyam “wild animals, principally edible meat animals”; the sixth stage of Creation (Harrington 1978:116) Elliott 1999:885 Clan name at Potrero (Cuca Ranch) (Strong 1929:277) 2 adornments of deer hooves worn at certain dances (Sparkman 1908:208) 1 largest game animal (Sparkman 1908); hunter does not eat own kill; the not distributes (White 1963:150) no info hunted men broiled on hot coals, or roasted in earth oven; more rarely boiled. Roasted could be ground and saved. 0 0 Western North America diverse habitats no
digger pine flora-fauna Pinus sabiniana wixétut wiʹxetut sugar pine; Bright: Pinus coulteri; Harrington: big cones; Sparkman we'etut “great-coned pine” inheritance *wokoN- Uto-Aztecan S1579a (Stubbs 2009:231); has -tu increment (“bearing”???) broader (includes the nuts of this pine) other complex wixétu-t Coulter.pine-non.possessed.noun (root derived etymologically) Elliott 1999:1063 no info 2 1 nuts eaten, and “large pines often cut down merely for the sake of acorns stored in the bark by woodpeckers” (Sparkman 1908:194) no info gathered (wild) all no info 0 0 Southern California and Baja California Pinus coulteri is generally above 4000 feet no
dog (camp, domestic) perro cachorro flora-fauna Canis familiaris 7awáal Ɂaʹwa:l dog inheritance *awa:-la Takic S670 (Stubbs 2009:125) same other complex Ɂaʹwa:-l dog-non.possessed.noun -ʔaʃ "pet" possessive classifier; NPN form of noun is ʔaʃla Elliott 1999:146 Also refers to residents of Aguanga (a joke, because Aguanga doesn't mean “in the dog” 0 0 not eaten (Kroeber 1925:652) no info N/A N/A N/A 0 0 Americas with humans no
dogbane flora-fauna Apocynum cannabinum wíicha ʹwi:ʧa Indian hemp, apocynum cannabinum inheritance *wi(k)- Uto-Aztecan S1796 (Stubbs 2009:253) same other complex ʹwi:-ʧa string-non.possessed.noun; note wiichu “to make rope, string”. A binomial form has wiichat, doubly suffixed Elliott 1999: 1051 no info 2 1 fiber (berries are poisonous) no info must have been used, but no report gathered (wild but closely managed) women soaked to remove fibers for bowstrings, netting of women's front aprons, etc. 0 0 North America from southern Canada open wooded areas, hillsides, ditches yes (but not very)
dove paloma pomba flora-fauna Zenaida macrocoura mixéel miʹxe:l (turtle) dove, pigeon inheritance *makahVwi Uto-Aztecan S676 (Stubbs 2009:126); vowel /e:/ perhaps from ahVwi>ahwi>awi>ai>e:, e < *ai well known in other langs, loss of -w- is regional. Other egs? broader (includes pigeons, apparently) other complex miʹxe:-l dove-non.possessed.noun -ʔaʃ "pet" possessive classifier; NPN form of noun is ʔaʃla 7ehéngmal Elliott 1999:529 no info 2 muuta, qeweewish, mixeel, mixeevawut (Y1134) 1 not eaten due to “superstitious motives” (Sparkman 1908:199) no info N/A N/A N/A 0 0 Southern Canada to Mexico Prefers open areas, avoids dense forests no
duck pato pato, marreco flora-fauna Anatidae qáatqat ʹqa:tqat duck unique looks like Wintu, and maybe Mics, Miss háTha:Ta- same reduplicated qáat-qat Dup-duck (I think these /t/ are NOT NPN suffixed; probably sound-imitative -ʔaʃ "pet" possessive classifier; NPN form of noun is ʔaʃla no info Elliott 1999:778 no info 0 1 meat and eggs no info hunted men no info 0 0 Americas Wetlands, open water no
elder flora-fauna Sambucus kúuta ʹku:ta elderberry inheritance *kuʔu/kuhu- Californian S179 (Stubbs 2009:64) same other complex ʹku:-ta elderberry-non.possessed.noun Elliott 1999:425 no info 2 1 “much liked” Sparkman 1908:195 1 “for female complaints” use flowers (Sparkman 1908:229) gathered (wild) women cooked and eaten fresh, or dried and stored for boiling, flour. Mixed with chia (Sparkman 1908:195-6) 0 0 North America below 4500 feet in moist areas no
elk flora-fauna Cervas elaphus páa$ukat ʹpa:şukat elk inheritance *pa-suka- Takic S788:139 “elk” WW %sok same derived ʹpa:-şuka-t big-mule.deer-NPN Elliott 1999:671 no info 2 Couplet: 7uuchanat, paa$ukat “elk, elk”; in a Season song “North the uchanut bears young North the elk bears young” (for Nemoyil) (Kroeber 1925:658) 1 vanishingly rare in Lu. territory no info hunted men like deer, presumably 0 0 Western North America, uplands, not in deserts forest edges, forest no
fish (generic) pez peixe flora-fauna 7anámat ʔaˈnamat fish, generic unique same other complex ʔaˈnama-t fish-non.possessed.noun -ʔaʃ "pet" possessive classifier; NPN form of noun is ʔaʃla Elliott 1999:118 no info 0 couplet: anámat, pipilwut “fish, shark” 1 principal food for people living on coast (Sparkman 1908:198) no info hunted all roasted, broiled, boiled, many preparations 0 0 Americas water no
flea pulga pulga flora-fauna Siphonaptera mokwáchish (B) moʹkʷatʃiʃ flea inheritance *mu-ku'a: Cupan S892 (Stubbs 2009:152), this is really 893 plus *mu- “nose” same other complex moʹkʷatʃi-ʃ flea-non.possessed.noun (root contains frozen diminutive) Elliott 1999:538 no info 2 0 no info no info no info no info 0 0 Americas diverse habitats no
flicker flora-fauna Colaptes sp. táavish ʹta:viʃ flicker bird inheritance *tapi- Uto-Aztecan S210, for large bird (Southern reflexes are for “hawk”) (Stubbs 2009:68) same other complex ʹta:vi-ʃ -ʔaʃ "pet" possessive classifier; NPN form of noun is ʔaʃla 7ehéngmay Elliott 1999:896 no into 2 cut their hair in mourning for Wuyot (Harrington 1978:121); ritual couplet is taavish, puypuy (Elliott); flicker feathers made into long bands/banners for decoration at fiestas (Harrington 1978:138) 1 surely at least eggs eaten no info no info no info no info 0 1 Americas diverse habitats no
blowfly/housefly mosca mosca flora-fauna Diptera ku'áal kuˈʔa:l fly, maggot inheritance *kuʔa- Takic S893 (Stubbs 2009:152), and see “flea” with same root broader (includes maggot) other complex kuˈʔa:-l fly/maggot-non.possessed.noun Elliott 1999:405 no info 0 0 no info N/A N/A N/A 0 0 global diverse (depends on species) no
foothills yucca flora-fauna Yucca whipplei panáa'al paʹna:Ɂal yucca sp. Bright: Spanish bayonet, Yucca whipplei inheritance *panaa- Cupan S2547 (Stubbs 2009:340). broader (stalk and plant) other complex paʹna:Ɂa-l Y.whipplei-non.possessed.noun (may be derivation in root; see Ethnobiology notes) Elliott 1999:684 no info 0 charcoal from head used to make girls' tattoos at initiation (Harrington 178:166) 1 stalk, head, flowers eaten no info gathered (wild but closely managed)) all stalk is roasted; head roasted in earth oven, flowers eaten cooked in water (Sparkman 1908:195) 0 0 “an important exchange item” (among Kumeyaay, so almost certainly among Lu.) (Lightfoot & Parrish 2009:270) Southern California and Baja California chaparral and oak woodlands, 300-2500 m no
fox flora-fauna Vulpes, Urocyon qewéewish qeʹwe:wiʃ fox inheritance *kawosi- Uto-Aztecan S556 (Stubbs 2009:113) WW %kaw narrower (does not include Vulpes, Kit fox/Desert fox, as far as I know) other complex qeʹwe:wi-ʃ fox-non.possessed.noun -ʔaʃ "pet" possessive classifier; NPN form of noun is ʔaʃla Elliott 1999:807 Clan name at Rincon (Strong 1979:277) 2 couplet: muuta, qeweewish 2 almost certainly not eaten no info hunted men skin used for quiver (Sparkman 1908:206) 0 0 Americas diverse habitats no
frog (generic) flora-fauna waxáw'kila (B) waʹxawɁkila frog inheritance *wakaC-ta Uto-Aztecan S940 (Stubbs 2009:157); Tarahumara 7awaka seems OK in this set. Lu. form waxáw'kila (B) has some kind of odd derivation, perhaps a reduplication??? WW %wakat narrower (doesn't include bullfrogs, apparently) derived waxá-w'ki-la (B) frog-dup?-non.possessed.noun -ʔaʃ "pet" possessive classifier; NPN form of noun is ʔaʃla Elliott 1999:1037 no info 2 Frog (actually waxaawut, Calif. red-legged frog) is shaman who bewitches Wuyot (White 1963:141) 2 not eaten (Kroeber 1925:652) no info N/A N/A N/A 0 0 Americas wetlands, lakes and streams no
golden eagle flora-fauna Aquila chrysaetos á$wut ʹɁaşwut eagle inheritance *ʔasa-wɨ-ta Californian S719 (Stubbs 2009:131); consider Yuman forms like ?aspa, ?ashpa, ?ihpaa ('Iipay Aa); something like this is Proto-Yuman same derived ʹɁaş-wu-t ?-augmentative-non.possessed.noun; Kroeber thought 7a$- referred to first menses; hence Eagle embodies life-giving principle (White 1963:141). But Kroeber & Grace 1960:80 derive from -7ash “pet”. -ʔaʃ "pet" possessive classifier; NPN form of noun is ʔaʃla uncertain if is 7ehéngmal Elliott 1999:134 no info 1 Eagle Killling Ceremony, feathers in dance costumes, couplet 7a$wut, waanawut “eagle, net.connectin.heaven and earth (Harrington) 2 not eaten (Kroeber 1925:652) no info hunted men fledglings raised to maturity, killed in ceremony, fathers kept for dance skirts 0 1 eagle-feather dance skirts a very expensive trade item North America They like cliffs, tall trees for nesting no
gooseberry flora-fauna Ribes spp. wu$óochish wuʹşo:tʃiʃ wild gooseberry unique same other complex wuʹşo:tʃi-ʃ gooseberry-non.possessed.noun (root includes unproductive diminutive -tʃi) Elliott 1999:1086 no info 2 1 not important as “grow but sparingly” (Sparkman 1908:195) no info gathered (wild) women eaten fresh, dried and stored 0 0 Diverse species in california chaparral, woodland no
gopher snake, bull snake flora-fauna Pituophis catenifer $ithí' şiʹδiɁ gopher snake unique perhaps a loan; I don't know source of /th/ in Lu. same underived no non.possessed.noun suffix -ʔaʃ "pet" possessive classifier; NPN form of noun is ʔaʃla píiqwala (?) Elliott 1999:860 no info 2 2 no info no info no info no info 0 0 Southern Canada to Mexico diverse habitats no
grass hierba, pasto capim, grama flora-fauna (NA) $áamut ʹşa:mut grass, weeds, hay inheritance *sama/u- Northern Uto-Aztecan S1025a (Stubbs 2009:166 broader (includes non-grass weeds and vegetation type: note $am-nga “in the fields”) other complex ʹşa:mu-t grass-non.possessed.noun Elliott 1999:828 no info 0 0 many grass seeds eaten no info gathered (wild but closely managed) women seeds parched and mixed with other seeds for pinole mush 0 0 Americas depends on species no
grasshopper flora-fauna Caelifera wi'ét wiʹɁet grasshopper inheritance *woʔV- Uto-Aztecan S1034 (Stubbs 2009:167) same other complex wiʹɁe-t grasshopper-non.possessed.noun Elliott 1999:1047 no info 2 1 no gathered (wild) all roasted en masse in pit (Sparkman 1908:200 0 0 global diverse (depends on species) no
gray ground squirrel flora-fauna Sphermophilus sp. qéengish ʹqe:ŋiʃ ground squirrel inheritance *koŋi- Northern Uto-Aztecan S2092 (Stubbs 2009:288) same other complex ʹqe:ŋi-ʃ ground.squirrel-non.possessed.noun Elliott 1999:804 This is the real name of the 'anooyam “Coyote” tribal group (today “King” JHH) 2 1 no info hunted men broiling on coals (Sparkman 1908:199) 0 0 North America diverse habitats no
gray tree squirrel flora-fauna Sciurus spp. $ukáawut şuʹka:wut flying or tree squirrel loan into protolanguage *sika-(wV) Northern Uto-Aztecan Yok-Utian S2094 (Stubbs 2009:288); may be very early loan into NUA; note similar Yokuts forms WW %sik same derived şuʹka:-wu-t flying.squirrel-augmentative-non.possessed.noun (may not be augmentative) Elliott 1999:880 no info 2 couplet: weelal, $ukaawut “animal sp., tree squirrel” 1 “tree squirrels were not eaten” (Sparkman 1908:199) no info N/A N/A N/A 0 0 Western North America woodlands no
great horned owl flora-fauna Bubo virginianus múuta ʹmu:ta horned owl inheritance *muhuN Uto-Aztecan S1542 (Stubbs 2009:227), do NOT include Raramuri form with mo- same other complex muhu-ta owl-non.possessed.noun -ʔaʃ "pet" possessive classifier; NPN form of noun is ʔaʃla 7ehéngmal Elliott1999:136 Clan name at Puerta Cruz (Strong 1929:278) 1 feathers for headdress (Sparkman 1908:208); has ceremonial couplet, muuta, qeweewish, mixeel, mixeevawut (Y1134) 2 no info hunted men feathers for cheeyat headdress (Sparkman 1908:208) 0 1 feathered costume elements were bought and sold Americas All habitats (less common in extreme deserts) no
grizzly bear flora-fauna Ursus arctos horribilis húnwut ʹhunwut bear inheritance *huna-wɨ-ta Californian S132 (Stubbs 2009:59). This is “big badger”; badger, *hura(p), is UA etymon. But only means “bear” in California. broader (includes all bears) derived ʹhun-wu-t badger-augmentative-non.possessed.noun (this is a euphemism and is felt as derived) Elliott 1999:358 no info 1 Couplet: hunwut, tukwut (Sparkman 1908: Plate 20); bear claw necklaces worn at certain dances (Sparkman 1908:2100 2 “never eaten” (Sparkman 1908:199) no hunted men skin, claws saved; stone erected at site of death (Sparkman 1908:199) 0 0 Western North America chaparral, woodlands yes
horned toad flora-fauna Phrynosomatidae chaláka tʃaʹlaka horned toad inheritance *ˈʧalaka Cupan S1332(Stubbs 2009;202). This may be a loan word. Serrano chilyaaqu “lizard sp.” and Kitanemuk ciruku' are clearly resemblant but not regularly so. Not in Yuman. same underived note absence of non.possessed.noun suffix; might be a loan -ʔaʃ "pet" possessive classifier; NPN form of noun is ʔaʃla Elliott 1999:238 no info 2 Horned Toad doctored Wuyot (E, S, etc.); in a season song for Nemoyil “North the horned toad bears young” Kroeber 1925:658 2 lizards not eaten no info N/A N/A N/A 0 0 Western U.S. and Mexico Hot, dry, sandy areas no
horse caballo cavalho flora-fauna Equus caballus kaváayu (H) kaʹva:ju horse loan Spanish WW %caballo same underived loan Elliott 1999:1477 no info 0 0 no N/A N/A N/A 0 0 Lu. bought and sold horses like everyone else in historic period Americas with humans no
hummingbird colibrí, picaflor (Peru) beija-flor flora-fauna Trochilidae túshmal ʹtuʃmal hummingbird inheritance *tuʔca Uto-Aztecan Mrs. Hyde said “tishmal”, and variation with tushma reported in several sources. S1180 (p. 185). I agree with Stubbs 2009:185 that the Cora word is cognate.. same derived ʹtuʃ-mal hummingbird-diminutive -ʔaʃ "pet" possessive classifier; NPN form of noun is ʔaʃla 7ehéngmal Elliott 1999:945 no info 0 has ceremonial couplet, tushmal nawvuxish “hummingbird, red hummingbird” (Elliott) ; one of first people, child of Temayowut (White 1963:140) 0 eggs at least must have been eaten no info no info no info no info 0 0 Americas diverse habitats no
tobacco tabaco tabaco flora-fauna Nicotiana spp. píivat ʹpi:vat tobacco, cigarette inheritance *pipaC (*pipat?) Uto-Aztecan S2290 (Stubbs 2009:310) broader (includes cigarette as well as plant and leaves) other complex ʹpi:va-t tobacco-non.possessed.noun Elliott 1999:716 no info 1 couplet: piivat, pavyut “tobacco, ceremonial.beads”; a Chingichngish plant (Harrington 1978:133); soup made of piivat at girl's initiation ceremony. Piivat is a changichngish (powerful spirit) 1 plant parts often poisonous if eaten 1 gathered (wild but closely managed) all smoked in pipe, chewed with lime, drunk as decoction depending on use (no ref for this but these uses universal in area) 1 0 Americas diverse habitats yes
insect (generic) insecto insecto flora-fauna generic no generic reported missing missing 0 0 2 0 0 variable
junco flora-fauna Junco sppp pépnash ʹpepnaʃ type of bird (extremely archaic to Mrs. Hyde); Harrington: small gray bird with black head, comes down from mountains only in wintertime inheritance *poCna Uto-Aztecan S1947 (Stubbs 2009:271), means “to play music, play drum”; from peenash “woman's song” in Lu. same derived I think this is reduplication from peenash “woman's song” -ʔaʃ "pet" possessive classifier; NPN form of noun is ʔaʃla 7ehéngmay Elliott 1999:705 no info 0 1 songbirds eaten no info hunted all roasted, boiled, eggs eaten (no info on feathers) 0 0 throughout North America coniferous and mixed forests, often forage in flocks in winter no
juniper flora-fauna Juniperus californica wáa'at ʹwa:Ɂat California juniper, Juniperus californica inheritance *waʔaC- Northern Uto-Aztecan S414 (Stubbs 2009:94) same other complex ʹwa:Ɂa-t juniper-non.possessed.noun Elliott 1999:1012 no info 2 1 no info no info no info no info 0 0 North America abundant 3000-4500 feet no
louse flora-fauna order Phtiraptera 7ulát (B) Ɂuʹlat head louse inheritance *ʔatɨC- Uto-Aztecan S1357 (Stubbs 2009:205); Lu. has odd vowels narrower (only head louse) other complex Ɂuʹla-t head.louse-non.possessed.noun Elliott 1999:225 no info 2 0 no N/A N/A N/A 0 0 global on people's hair no
mallard flora-fauna Anas platyrhynchos missing missing missing 2 1 0 0 0 no
manzanita flora-fauna Arctostaphylos spp. kóolul ʹko:lul manzanita; Bright: Arctostaphylos glauca inheritance *kɨta- Takic S1635 (Stubbs 2009:235), revised to accomodate Kitanemuk ˈkɨʧraʧr same other complex ʹko:lu-l manzanita-non.possessed.noun Elliott 1999:400 A family name (Elliott) 2 seeds of this plant put in the paa'ayat, ritual rattle (Harrington) 1 berries no info gathered (wild) women berries ground into meal, mixed with water and eaten without cooking (Sparkman 1908:195) 0 0 Western North America In chaparral, edges of woodlands no
milkweed, broad leaf flora-fauna Asclepias eriocarpa tókmat, tíkmat ʹtokmat white milkweed; Sparkman: Asclepias eriocarpa loan Chumash Note Southern Chumash /tok/ “Apocynum cannabinum”. Milkweed was regarded as the “lesser fiber” so “small tok” is a very likely analysis here. same other complex ʹtokma-t milkweed.sp-non.possessed.noun Elliott 1999:951 no info 2 1 gum no info gathered (wild) women sap collected from cut stems, boiled to coagulate as chewing gum, much esteemed (Sparkman 1908:197) 0 0 California and adjacent Nevada and Baja California dry barren areas 200-1900 m (Jepson Herbarium site) no
milkweed, narrow leaf flora-fauna Asclepias fascicularis páatamkat ʹpa:tamkat milkweed; Bright, Asclepias eriocarpa unique contains *pa:- “big/water” same derived ʹpa:-tamka-t big/water-plant.sp-non.possessed.noun Elliott 1999:671 no info 0 The sun set in place by a hero with his milkweed-fiber net (Strong 1929:295) -- Strong says was the “reddish” milkweed, probably fascicularis 1 1 medicinal value (Harrington) gathered (wild) women leaves soaked and fiber stripped 0 0 Inland California to Washington, Baja California dry areas, slopes, 50-2200 m (Jepson Herbarium) no
mission tule flora-fauna Juncus $óyla ʹʃojla rush plant; Bright: Juncus acutus sphaerocarpus inheritance *sɨji- Takic S1735 (Stubbs 2009:246) same other complex ʹʃoj-la mission.tule-non.possessed.noun Elliott 1999:876 no info 2 $oynga, a song word, may be name of an island (E); mat of this plant is used to store sacred objects (Sparkman 1908:234) 1 no info gathered (wild) women scapes split, soaked for basketry materials 0 0 Americas moist areas no
mockingbird flora-fauna Mimus polyglottos tamáawut taʹma:wut blabbermouth, big mouth, mockingbird inheritance *tama-wɨ-ta Cupan S215 (Stubbs 2009:68); Gabrielino tamávut “hechicera” is same word same derived taʹma:-wu-t mouth-augmentative-non.possessed.noun -ʔaʃ "pet" possessive classifier; NPN form of noun is ʔaʃla 7ehéngmal Elliott 1999:908 no info 2 1 songbirds eaten no info hunted all boiled, roasted, eggs eaten 0 0 North America, Mexico all habitats (they like habitats with high places to perch, and don't like pine trees) no
mosquito mosquito, zancudo mosquito, carapana flora-fauna Anopheles spp, Isoptera lukú'chish luʹkuɁʧiʃ Mosquito unique may include the *ku7a root same other complex luʹkuɁʧi-ʃ mosquito-non.possessed.noun (root includes unproductive diminute tshi and probably some prefixal element lu- Elliott 1999:473 Clan name at La Jolla (Strong 1929:278) 0 0 no N/A N/A N/A 0 0 global diverse (depends on species) no
moth mariposa nocturna, polilla mariposa flora-fauna Heterocera xuvóoviqat xuʹvo:viqat moth inheritance *hɨvɨviqal Cupan same relative clause xuʹvo:vi-qa-t drag-TAM.singular-nominalizer (this is probably a false etymology) Elliott 1999:1106 no info 2 0 no info no info no info no info 0 0 Americas diverse (depends on species) no
mountain lion flora-fauna Puma concolor túkwut ʹtukwut mountain lion, cougar inheritance *tuCkuC-wɨ Californian S1306b (Stubbs 2009;200) WW %tuku same derived ʹtuk-wu-t wildcat-augmentative-non.possessed.noun Elliott 1999:989 no info 1 a Chingichngish animal (Harrington 1978:131) 2 no no info no info no info 0 0 North America diverse habitats (prefers uplands) yes
mountain quail flora-fauna Oreortyx pictus qaxáawut qaʹxa:wut Southern mountain quail inheritance *kakaC- Uto-Aztecan S1702a (Stubbs 2009:241); 1702b is a different word, a Californianism. WW %kaka same derived qaʹxa:-wu-t quail-augmentative-non.possessed.noun -ʔaʃ "pet" possessive classifier; NPN form of noun is ʔaʃla 7ehéngmal Elliott 1999: 798 no info 2 couplet qaxáal, qaxáawut; cut their hair in mourning for Wuyot (Harrington 1978:121) 1 meat and eggs too no info hunted men broiling on coals (Sparkman 1908:199) 0 0 US west of Rockies and Baja California Chaparral no
mussel flora-fauna Mytilus spp. wáaxal ʹwa:xal Harrington: Large species of mussel unique narrower (a particular species of mussell) other complex ʹwa:xa-l mussel.sp-non.possessed.noun no info Elliott 1999: 1020 no info 2 1 principal food for people living on coast (Sparkman 1908:198) no info gathered (wild) all no info 0 1 shells traded inland as spoons; Lu. must have done this. Mussel nacre reported at Lake Elsinore (Grenda 1997:163) Pacific Coast of North America cold coastal waters no
olivella (olive snail) flora-fauna Callianax biplicata $áwvish ʹşawviʃ Bright: Univalve shell, Harrington: Topshell of snail inheritance *sa(w)pV Cupan S1911 (Stubbs 2009:267) same other complex ʹşawvi-ʃ olivella-non.possessed.noun Elliott 1999:844 no info 2 2 no info gathered (wild) no info made into shell money and ornaments (see Grenda 1997 for discussion of archaeological materials) 0 1 Lake Elsinore site was producing Olivella beads in industrial quantitites, although most finds are from Early period, probably pre-Luiseño Pacific Coast of North America, B.C. to Baja California sandy substrates intertidally and tidally and in bays no
pinyon jay flora-fauna Cyanocitta stelleri? cháa'ish ʹtʃa:Ɂiʃ blue jay; Bright: crested blue jay loan into protolanguage *cha7i- Northern Uto-Aztecan unknown S209, Central Numic, Tubatulabal, Takic, always “blue jay” (Stubbs 2009:68) WW %chaj same other complex ʹtʃa:Ɂi-ʃ jay-non.possessed.noun -ʔaʃ "pet" possessive classifier; NPN form of noun is ʔaʃla 7ehéngmay Elliott 1999:232 A family name (Elliott) 2 considered deer's helper, warns of hunters (Harrington in Elliott) 1 at least eggs must have been eaten no info no info no info no info 0 0 Western North America Foothills where pinyon groves occur no
pinyon pine flora-fauna Pinus monophylla tuvát tuʹvat pine nut, pinyon tree inheritance *tɨpat Northern Uto-Aztecan S1583 (Stubbs 2009:231). This is probably a loan into Proto-NUA from Proto-Kiowa-Tanoan (Hill 2008) broader (includes pine nuts and tree) other complex tuʹva-t pinyon-non.possessed.noun Elliott 1999:1084 no info 2 plural refers to the time when humans were trees. Wuyot cremated at Tuvanga -- white ash can be seen there. 1 no info gathered (wild but closely managed) all green cones roasted,seeds extracted, parched, stored, ground into flour 0 1 perhaps -- people with access to groves throughout west did trade these Southwestern North America and Mexico In pinyon-juniper woodland, 3500-9000 feet (for P. monophylla), 2500-8000 feet (for P. quadrifolia). Rocky hills and slopes. no
pismo clam flora-fauna Tivella stultorum qáp$ut ʹqapşut clam species. Harrington: small clam, white, used for plucking whiskers, Pismo clam unique same other complex ʹqapşu-t clam.sp.-non.possessed.noun (root may be derived) no info Elliott 1999:788 no info 2 1 no info gathered (wild) all no info 0 1 probably traded, but no Tivela at Lake Elsinore; shells are not pretty Pacific Coast Monterrey to Baja California sandy beaches in surf zone no
pocket gopher flora-fauna Thomomys móota ʹmo:ta gopher inheritance *mɨjɨN- Northern Uto-Aztecan S1009 (Stubbs 2009:164) same other complex ʹmo:-ta gopher-non.possessed.noun Elliott 1999:549 no info 2 helped Frog bewitch Wuyot (Harrington 1978:118) 1 no info no info no info no info 0 0 North America diverse habitats no
poison oak flora-fauna Toxicodendron diversilobum 7iyáala Ɂiʹja:la poison oak inheritance *ʔɨjaa-la Californian S1506 (Stubbs 2009:224) Huasteca Nahuatl iyatl “tobacco”is ridiculous. Kitanemuk ʔɨycič, Gab. oa:r attest to first vowel. Note Chumashan yasis same other complex Ɂiʹja:-la poison.oak-non.possessed.noun Elliott 1999:197 Clan name at Aguanga (Strong 1929:276) 2 2 no info N/A N/A N/A 0 0 Pacific coast Canada to Baja California Likes damp, shady areas, chaparral yes
rattlesnake flora-fauna Crotalus spp. $óowut ʹşo:wut black diamondback rattlesnake inheritance *sɨwɨn- Takic S2011a (Stubbs 2009:280); not Stubbs' reconstruction, but Kitanemuk, Serrano are conservative in retaining these nasals. narrower (Black diamondback only, some evidence of a generic use derived ʹşo:-wu-t snake.sp-augmentative-non.possessed.noun (I don't think -wut here is augmentative historically but clearly is treated as such, cf. $oomal, another species -ʔaʃ "pet" possessive classifier; NPN form of noun is ʔaʃla Elliott 1999: 873 no info 1 couplet: $oowut, pa'yamal “b.d. rattlesnake, raccoon” (in men's song)(E); Chingichngish animal (Sparkman 1908:218) 2 probably not, most Chingichngish animals not eaten no info no info no info no info 0 0 Southern Canada south diverse habitats yes
red ant flora-fauna Solenopsis spp 7áanat ˈʔa:nat California harvesting ant, Pogonomyrmex californicus inheritance *ʔalɨn- S44 (Stubbs 2009:44) narrower (a specific kind of red ant, not all red ants) other complex ˈʔa:na-t red.ant.sp-non.possessed.noun Harrington 1978:164 no info 1 used in ant ordeal (Harrington 1978:164) 0 1 “the medicinal ant of these people” (Harrington 1978:164), a blood medicine, for rheumatism. Could be swallowed or put on afflicted part to bite it. gathered (wild) men kept live for ant ordeal 0 0 Americas diverse habitats no
red-shouldered blackbird flora-fauna Agelaius phoeniceus páaxingish ʹpa:xiŋiʃ red-winged blackbird inheritance *paaka- Northern Uto-Aztecan Cupan *paaxiŋi-sh, Kitanemuk ˈpakoŋjat; Southern Paiute pagatcaqapI; Tumpisa Shoshone pakkwatoppe same other complex ʹpa:xiŋi-ʃ 7ehéngmay Elliott 1999:672 2 1 0 0 0 no
red-tailed hawk flora-fauna Buteo jamaicensis kwá'la ʹkʷaɁla kind of hawk; Sparkman, red-tailed hawk inheritance *kʷaʔa- Uto-Aztecan S716a (Stubbs 209:131); a loan from Yuman should be considered (Kiliwa pkwalu, 'Iipay Aa ?epkwall, Yavapai skwala, although those may be from UA -- bird words, yucch. same other complex ʹkʷaɁ-la red.tailed.hawk-non.possessed.noun -ʔaʃ "pet" possessive classifier; NPN form of noun is ʔaʃla uncertain if is 7ehéngmal Elliott 1999:430 no info 2 feathers for headdresses (Sparkman 1908:208) 2 not eaten (Kroeber 1925:652) no info HowCollected men feathers for arrows, headdresses, wands 0 0 ceremonial regalia bought and sold Americas mixed forest and field no
roadrunner flora-fauna Geococcyx californianus púypuy ʹpujpuj roadrunner inheritance *puhi/*puʔi/*puwi (all proposed) Uto-Aztecan I agree with Stubbs 2009:250 that Yecora Piman pu7i “roadrunner” fits here. S1776. In all Takic. WW %pu: same reduplicated ʹpuj-puj -ʔaʃ "pet" possessive classifier; NPN form of noun is ʔaʃla 7ehéngmal Elliott 1999:773 no info 2 roadrunner, along with Horned Toad, doctored Wuyot (E); cut their hair in mourning for Wuyot (Harrington 1978:121) 1 eggs at least must have been eaten no info no info no info no info 0 0 Southwestern US to Central America desert areas no
ruddy duck flora-fauna Oxyura jamaicensis yunúqwut juʹnuqwut small dark duck, white and blue markings on face unique same derived juʹnuq-wu-t ?-augmentative-Non.osssed.noun -ʔaʃ "pet" possessive classifier; NPN form of noun is ʔaʃla qaatqat Elliott 1999:1150 no info 2 1 meat and eggs no info hunted men no info 0 0 North America Lakes and ponds no
sage herb flora-fauna Artemisia californica húlvul ʹhulvul sagebrush; Bright, Artemisia californica inheritance *hulupa- Northern Uto-Aztecan S1597 (Stubbs 2009:233) same other complex ʹhulvu-l sage.sp-non.possessed.noun Elliott 1999: 353 no info 2 Couplet: hulvul, qawiimal; a Chingichngish plant (Harrington 1978:133); hill of hulvul in ground painting (Kroeber 1925:662) 2 no info no info no info no info 0 0 California, Baja California Chaparral and “dry foothills communities” no
salmon/steelhead flora-fauna Oncorhynchus mykiss sélwamal ˈselwamal trout unique note S869 *so ... “kind of fish” (Stubbs 2009:148) same derived ˈselwa-ma-l fish.sp-diminutive-non.possessed.noun -ʔaʃ "pet" possessive classifier; NPN form of noun is ʔaʃla Elliott 1999 1803 no info 2 1 interior Lu. used this fish no info hunted men taken by poisoning water, broiled, etc. 0 0 Entire Pacific Coast of US (NOAA website) anadromous, runs in coastal streams no
scaly lizard flora-fauna Pygopus lepidopodus? qa$íla qaʹşila lizard unique I wonder about S1328b *kwaCca, in which Stubbs 2009:202 puts Hopi qöqöci. Vowel is wrong, but ... same other complex qaʹşi-la lizard-non.possessed.noun -ʔaʃ "pet" possessive classifier; NPN form of noun is ʔaʃla no info Elliott 1999:792 no info 2 2 “a tabooed food” White 1963:143 no info N/A N/A N/A 0 0 Americas diverse habitats no
small bird flora-fauna no special term missing unknown 2 1 0 0 0 no
small brown lizard flora-fauna 7avétkala ʔaˈvetkala type of lizard, extremely archaic to Mrs. Hyde; Sparkman, common lizard unique Includes *taka (UA etymon) S1340; cf. Cahuilla tataxsily “little lizard”; ?ave- looks like the Yuman “snake” word. same compound ʔaˈve-tka-la ?-lizard.sp-non.possessed.noun -ʔaʃ "pet" possessive classifier; NPN form of noun is ʔaʃla no info Elliott 1999: 144 no info 2 2 “a tabooed food” White 1963:143 no info N/A N/A N/A 0 0 Americas desert areas no
snake (generic) culebra, serpiente cobra flora-fauna píiqwala ʹpi:qʷala snake (any kind) (but not rattlesnakes, see Species notes JHH) unique narrower (does not include rattlesnakes) other complex ʹpi:qʷa-la (root may be derived) -ʔaʃ "pet" possessive classifier; NPN form of noun is ʔaʃla Elliott 1999: 714 no info 0 1 lizards not eaten, so snakes may also be proscribed no info no info no info no info 0 0 Americas diverse habitats no
soaproot flora-fauna Chlorogalum qéenat ʹqe:nat edible plant species, extremely archaic to Mrs. Hyde. Bright: Edible bulb, Chlorogalum parviflorum unique same other complex ʹqe:na-t soaproot-non.possessed.noun Elliott 1999:804 no info 2 outer fibers incorporated into bear shaman costumes (C. pomeridium -- Timbrook) 1 bulb of C. parviflorum is eaten (Sparkman 1908:234) no info gathered (wild) women bulb crushed and particles rubbed in water for lather, bulb fibers for brushes 0 0 Southwest Oregon, California rock bluffs, grasslands, chaparral no
sour berry flora-fauna Rhus trilobata $óoval ʹşo:val squaw bush, witch hazel, three-leaf sumac. Bright: Rhus trilobata inheritance *sɨvaC Northern Uto-Aztecan Note Hopi sɨɨvi; this set turns out to be widespread, see Numic forms noted in Stubbs by my hand same other complex ʹşo:va-l sumac-non.possessed.noun Elliott 1999:871 no info 2 1 berries no info gathered (wild) women entire berry ground, mixed with water and eaten (no parching or cooking) 0 0 Western North America chaparral to 3500 feet no
sparrow hawk flora-fauna Falco kolókolokamay koˈlokolokamaj sparrow hawk inheritance *kɨlɨ- Uto-Aztecan S721 (Stubbs 2009:131); Note: Guarijío keleti̱ | kereti̱ (?) <kelecí (¿kerecí?)> ‘kind of a hawk’ (Miller 1996: 345); correspondence of medial /l/ is off, perhaps loan. Hopi kyeele “Sparrow Hawk” definitely not regular , perhaps sound-imitation affecti WW %kili same derived koˈlo-koloka-maj Dup-sparrow.hawk-diminutive (note: -maj is common variant of -ma-l with usual NPN suffix; -j may = -l -ʔaʃ "pet" possessive classifier; NPN form of noun is ʔaʃla uncertain if is 7ehéngmal Elliott 1999:398 no info 2 feathers for headdresses (Sparkman 1908:208) 2 not eaten (Kroeber 1925:652) no info hunted men feathers for arrows, headdresses, wands 0 0 ceremonial regalia bought and sold Americas diverse habitats no
spider araña aranha flora-fauna Arachnida, Araneae kúyxingish ʹkujxiŋiʃ black widow spider inheritance *kuyka- Northern Uto-Aztecan S2057 (Stubbs 2009:285) narrower (Black Widow spider prototype) other complex kúyxingi-sh Black.widow-non.possessed.noun (root is derived etymologically, probably comes from word for “to bite”) Elliott 1999:429 no info 0 couplet: kuyxingish, kuyee'ewut (E); a Chingichngish animal (Sparkman 1908:218); some say lit fire of Wuyot's pyre (Harrington 1978) 0 no N/A N/A N/A 0 0 Western North America diverse habitats, reclusive yes
spotted skunk flora-fauna Spilogale gracilis túkyaspal ʹtukjaspal small skunk species (Harrington) inheritance *-tɨkʷɨ- Californian contains -tɨkʷɨ s1984,Stubbs 2009:275 but derivation obscure same other complex ʹtukjaspa-l skunk.sp-non.possessed.noun (surely root is derived) Elliott 1999:988 no info 2 2 no N/A N/A N/A 0 0 Western U.S. diverse habitats no
toad sapo sapo flora-fauna Bufonidae waxáawut waʹxa:wut bullfrog, toad inheritance *wakaC-ta Uto-Aztecan S940 (Stubbs 2009:157); Tarahumara 7awaka seems OK in this set. WW %wakat broader (includes large frogs as well as toads) derived waʹxa:-wu-t frog-augmentative-non.possessed.noun -ʔaʃ "pet" possessive classifier; NPN form of noun is ʔaʃla no info Elliott 1999:1037 no info 2 Bullfrog is last child of Wuyot, and bewitched him. Couplet: waxaawut, kaarawut “bullfrog, earthworm” 2 not eaten no info N/A N/A N/A 0 0 Americas wet lands, streams and lakes no
tree árbol arvore flora-fauna (NA) kuláawut kuˈla:wut generic term for any kind of tree; wood,piece of wood, stick, log inheritance *kutawɨ/kɨtawɨ Takic S2346a (Stubbs 2009:315) Note -- Hopi is NOT part of set! broader (includes wood, sticks, logs) other complex kuˈla:wu-t wood-non.possessed.noun (-wu-t is NOT the augmentative; etymologically this is kutaC-wɨC-ta wood-gather-nominalizer Elliott 1999:408 no info 0 couplet: kuuyat, kulaawut. “Any kulaawut... can be designated th Tcangitcngic as one of his messengers for producing death” Harrington 1978:133) 0 no info gathered (wild) all depends on species 0 0 Americas diverse habitats depending on species no
tree yucca flora-fauna Yucca schidegera hunúuvat huʹnu:vat yucca; Bright: Mojave yucca, Yucca schidigera inheritance *hunuva- Cupan plus Gabrielino S2548 (Stubbs 2009:340) same other complex huʹnu:va-t yucca.sp-non.possessed.noun Elliott 1999:357 no info 2 1 flowers, pods no info gathered (wild) women flowers cooked in water (Sparkman 1908:195), pods roasted in coals (p. 196) 0 0 Mojave and Sonoran Deserts (and obviously nearby Coast Ranges in dry areas) rocky slopes, creosote flats, 300-1200m (rarely up to 2500m) no
turkey buzzard flora-fauna Cathartes aura yungáavish juʹŋa:viʃ vulture, turkey buzzard inheritance *juŋa:pi- Takic S336 (Stubbs 2009:87). This is probably juŋ -a-pi where *a is the ablaut vowel induced by -pi. But I don't know what *juŋ- means! Elliott 1999 has junga “archaic word for “to dance”) same other complex juʹŋa:vi-ʃ vulture-non.possessed.noun (root may be complex, see etymology notes) -ʔaʃ "pet" possessive classifier; NPN form of noun is ʔaʃla uncertain if is 7ehéngmal Elliott 1999:1151 no info 2 couplet: yungaavish,nikiilish; a constellation 2 almost certainly not eaten no info hunted men feathers for arrows (Sparkman 1908:203) 0 0 Americas diverse habitats no
turtle (generic) flora-fauna Testudines páa'ila ʹpa:Ɂila turtle inheritance *ʔayaC (with *pa:- Uto-Aztecan S2359 (Stubbs 2009:316) narrower (California Terrapin) derived ʹpa:-Ɂi-la where Ɂi is what's left of Ɂaji; water/big-turtle-non.possessed.noun -ʔaʃ "pet" possessive classifier; NPN form of noun is ʔaʃla Elliott 1999 661 Old family name (Harrington) 2 couplet: paa'ila, tamya$ut (the ritual mortar?); rattle made of shell of land tortoise 2 not eaten (Kroeber 1925:652) no info hunted all collected for shell, used as rattles 0 1 ceremonial regalia bought and sold Western North America diverse habitats no
valley live oak flora-fauna Quercus agrifolia wi'áa$al wiʹɁa:şal kind of live oak; Harrington, Quercus agrifolia inheritance *wiʔaN-si Northern Uto-Aztecan S1507b (Stubbs 2009:224). Cupeno, Cahuilla have -si increment. broader (includes tree and acorns) other complex wiʹɁa:şa-l coast.live.oak-non.possessed.noun (root is derived etymologically but not synchronically) Elliott 1999:1046 no info 2 plural forms refer to time when humans were trees 1 next to Black Oak, the most esteemed acorn (Sparkman 1908:193) no info gathered (wild but closely managed) all acorns ground into flour, which is leached, then cooked into bread, mush, soup 0 1 California west of Sierra Nevada from Mendocino County to Baja California; only coastal live oak Concentrated in valleys and on lower hills below 3000 feet no
valley oak flora-fauna Quercus lobata kwíila ʹkʷi:la black oak, acorns of which are best for making mush; acorns of this oak; Bright: Quercus kelloggii inheritance *kwini/*kwiyi- Northern Uto-Aztecan S1507a (Stubbs 2009:224). This is probably a loan into PNUA from Proto-Kiowa-Tanoan broader (includes tree and acorns) other complex ʹkʷi:-la black.oak-non.possessed.noun Elliott 1999:437 no info 2 couplet: $uukat, kwiila. Plural forms refer to time when humans were trees. 1 the most esteemed acorn (Sparkman 1908:193) no info gathered (wild but closely managed) all acorns ground into flour, which is leached, then cooked into bread, mush, soup 0 1 Southwest Oregon and California except in deserts Found in high hills up to 8,000 feet, especially on slopes facing away from the desert no
valley quail flora-fauna Callipepla californica qaxáal qaʹxa:l Southern valley quail inheritance *kakaC- Uto-Aztecan S1702a (Stubbs 2009:241); 1702b is a different word, a Californianism. WW %kaka same other complex qaʹxa:-l quail-non.possessed.noun -ʔaʃ "pet" possessive classifier; NPN form of noun is ʔaʃla 7ehéngmal Elliott 1999: 798 no info 2 couplet qaxáal, qaxáawut; cut their hair in mourning for Wuyot (Harrington 1978:121) 1 abundant (Sparkman 1908:199); eggs eaten (ibid) no info hunted men broiling on coals (Sparkman 1908:199) 0 0 Far west North America to B.C. open woodlands, chaparral no
Washington clam flora-fauna Saxidomus nuttalli 7óymal ʹɁojmal Harrington: bivalve-like clam 3/4 inch long unique Possible loan, note Chumash B t'o (Mary Yee cited in Ono p. 30; t- is separable) same derived ʹɁoj-ma-l clam.sp-diminutive-non.possessed.noun no info Elliott 1999:219 no info 2 1 no info gathered (wild) all no info 0 1 no Saxidomus at Lake Elsinore Pacific Coast in protected bays and near estuaries no
Western Canada goose flora-fauna Branta canadensis lá'la ʹlaɁla wild goose loan Yokuts similar forms very widespread in California, Cupan forms not correspondent in spite of S708 (Stubbs 2009:130); best match here is Yowlumne lah'-lah (Merriam 58:559) WW %lala ~ %lak same underived -ʔaʃ "pet" possessive classifier; NPN form of noun is ʔaʃla uncertain if is qaatqat Elliott 1999:445 Family name from Soboba 0 1 meat and eggs no info hunted men no info 0 0 North America Wetlands, open fields no
whale flora-fauna Eschrichtius robustus koyóowut koʹjo:wut whale inheritance *kɨcuC- Uto-Aztecan S864 (Stubbs 2009;147) narrower (this is California Gray Whale) derived koʹjo:-wu-t fish-augmentative-non.possessed.noun (except ko'jo is “water monster living near Pauma” in Lu. no info Elliott 1999:404 no info 2 Whale may be the “Big Fish” that brought tosawt “sacred stones” from island to mainland (Harrington 1978:146) 1 very infrequent; beached whales used mainly as source of bone no info no info no info no info 0 1 I assume whale bone was traded, it's found in interior Pacific coast; migratory route is Alaska-Gulf of California deep water (although California Grays may swim fairly close to shore) no
white pelican flora-fauna Pelicanus erythrorhynchos atáal Ɂaʹta:l pelican, extremely archaic to Mrs. Hyde unique broader (“pelican”, presumably White and Brown) other complex Ɂaʹta:-l pelican-non.possessed.noun -ʔaʃ "pet" possessive classifier; NPN form of noun is ʔaʃla 7ehéngmal Elliott 1999 136 no info 0 2 no info no info no info no info 0 0 North America On coasts in winter no
wild grapevine flora-fauna Vitis californica mákwit ʹmakʷit wild grape inheritance *makʷV-/maku- Uto-Aztecan S193 (Stubbs 2009:65) a new set from Stubbs that may very well be good broader (includes plant and grapes) other complex ʹmakʷi-t wild.grapes-non.possessed.noun Elliott 1999:493 no info 2 Couplet: makwit, awiiwanawut “wild grapes, clematis” 1 fruit always eaten fresh (Sparkman 1908:195) no info gathered (wild) women “fruit is cooked and used for food” Sparkman 1908:231) 0 0 Southwest Oregon and California common along streams and in canyon bottoms below 4000 feet no
wild oats flora-fauna Avena (introduction) 7urúush Ɂuʹru:ʃ wild rice; Harrington: wild oats; Sparkman: wild oats loan Spanish Spanish arroz “rice” WW %arroz same (I think Harrington is wrong about wild rice) underived a fake root-non.possessed.noun formation *Ɂuʹru:-ʃ, but no possessive forms Elliott 1999:227 no info 2 1 “a favorite” (Sparkman 1908:196) no info gathered (wild) women stripped from plant with hands, parched together with hulls, pounded into meal. Mixed with elderberries a favorite (Sparkman 1908:196) 0 0 Americas Common up to about 3500 feet; abundant since at least 1835 no
wild rose flora-fauna Rosa californica 7úshla ʹɁuʃla wild rose; Bright, Rosa californica inheritance *ʔusa-la Takic not in Stubbs; note Cahuilla ˈʔuʃal “wild rose”, Cupeño 7u$al, Cahuilla ʔúšal, Kitanemuk ʔucuč, Gabrielino ochu:r same other complex ʹɁuʃ-la wild.rose-non.possessed.noun Elliott 1999:228 no info 0 couplet: 'ushla, pikwla; a Chingichngish plant (Harrington 1978:133); “sting for chingichngish” (Kroeber 1925:679) 1 must have been eaten, but never mentioned. no info no info no info no info 0 0 Oregon, California, northern Baja California moist areas, cienegas, along streams no
wild sunflower flora-fauna Helianthus (and other genera) páa'akal pa:ʹɁakal sunflower inheritance *(pa)ʔaʔka Uto-Aztecan S2191 (Stubbs 2009:299) same other complex pa:ʹɁaka-l sunflower-non.possessed.noun (root is complex) Elliott 1999:659 no info 0 1 seeds no info gathered (wild) women seeds parched, can be mixed with other seeds in flour 0 0 North America diverse habitats no
willow flora-fauna Salix spp. $axát şaʹxat Arroyo willow inheritance *sakat Uto-Aztecan S1023 (Stubbs 2009:166) same other complex şaʹxa-t willow.sp-non.possessed.noun Elliott 1999:845 no info 2 used in construction of the wamkish (Harrington 1978:136) 2 no info gathered (wild) all twigs and branches cut 0 0 Southwestern US and Mexico Along streams and in wet places below 2000 feet no
wood rat, round-tail flora-fauna Neotoma spp. qáwla ʹqawla woodrat inheritance *kawa- Northern Uto-Aztecan S1423 (Stubbs 2009:242) same other complex ʹqaw-la woodrat-non.possessed.noun Elliott 1999:798 no info 2 1 “much liked” Sparkman 1908:198) no info hunted men roasted, boiled 0 0 Western U.S., northern Mexico diverse habitats no
worm, hairy caterpillar flora-fauna Arctiidae (many species) $akíshla şaʹkiʃla nettle; Harrington: a hairy caterpillar that stings on contact unique loan-y relationship with Cupeño sichiqily “nettle” perhaps?? broader (really means something with hairy stinging elements) other complex şaʹkiʃ-la nettle/hairy.caterpillar-non.possessed.noun Elliott 1999:833 no info 2 2 Lightfoot & Parrish 2009:272; larvae of butterflies and moths eaten by Lu. no info gathered (wild) women and children dried and stored for cooking in boiling water 0 0 Americas diverse (depends on species) no
worm, smooth caterpillar flora-fauna Trichoplusia ni (?) cabbage looper $iválaka şiʹvalaka tomato worm unique narrower (probably refers only to green edible worm) underived note absence of non.possessed.noun suffix; might be a loan Elliott 1999:861 no info 2 2 no info gathered (wild) women and children boiled in water (Sparkman 1908:200) 0 0 Americas diverse (depends on species) no
yellow jacket flora-fauna Vespula spp., Dolichovespula spp. $áa$angla ʹşa:şaŋla yellow jacket inheritance *saŋa- Takic S160 (Stubbs 2009:62) same reduplicated $áa-$ang-la Dup-yellowjacket-non.possessed.noun Elliott 1999:830 no info 2 0 no info N/A N/A N/A 0 0 Americas diverse (depends on species) no
yellowbird flora-fauna Dendroica petechia missing missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
yerba santa flora-fauna Eriodictyon californicum pálwut ʹpalwut plant species known as “hierba santa” unique same derived ʹpal-wu-t plant.sp-augmentative-non.possessed.noun Elliott 1999:683 no info 2 couplet: palwut, 'aválwut 1 Harrington: make pinole of seeds 1 “much valued” Sparkman 1908:230 gathered (wild) women seeds parched and mixed with other seeds for pinole mush 0 0 Oregon, California -- USDA, oddly, doesn't show it in southern California deserts (http://plants.usda.gov/java/county?state_name=California&statefips=06&symbol=ERCA6) diverse habitats no
ant (generic) hormiga formiga flora-fauna 7a:na-t inheritance Jane Hill
bird pajaro, ave passaro flora-fauna 7ihe/ng-ma-l inheritance Jane Hill
blowfly/housefly mosca mosca flora-fauna kwa7a:-l, ku7a:-l inheritance Jane Hill
dog (camp, domestic) perro cachorro flora-fauna 7awa:-l unknown Jane Hill
grass hierba, pasto capim, grama flora-fauna $a:-mu-t inheritance Jane Hill
deer venado veado, cariacu flora-fauna Su:ka-t inheritance Jane Hill
snake (generic) culebra, serpiente cobra flora-fauna pi:qwa-la unknown Jane Hill
spider araña aranha flora-fauna ku/yxingi-sh (black widow) inheritance Jane Hill


Cultural Vocabulary (115)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Word Structure Word Structure Notes General Notes Source Created By
acorn mush food wiiwish acorn mush inheritance *wiw Takic Stubbs 2011,1557 other complex Elliott 1999 Jane Hill
ball game food waw7kish shinny ball, shinny game itself unique other complex Elliott 1999 Jane Hill
afterworld, land of dead, Heaven tierra do los muertos terra dos mortos culture-mythology tolmul hell', underworld inheritance *tyL-mukki Cupan Stubbs 2113 other complex Elliott 1999 Jane Hill
feather headband dress cheeyat feather dance bonnet, headdress inheritance *choya Cupan Stubbs 2011 865 other complex Elliott 1999 Jane Hill
arrow flecha flecha subsistence tool huula arrow, wisdom tooth inheritance *huca Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 63 other complex Elliott 1999 Jane Hill
arrow straightener other yoowlash grooved stone for straightening arrows inheritance *jyw Cupan Stubbs 2011 2227 derived, other complex Elliott 1999 Jane Hill
bait for fishing cebo, carnada para pescar, empate (Peru) isca subsistence tool ichilash kaarawut bait, worm used for bait unique neither form attested in cognate sets phrase Elliott 1999 Jane Hill
school escuela escola acculturation piláchilash school unique derived, other complex Elliott 1999 Jane Hill
stone bowl culture-material missing missing Jane Hill
basket (general) canasta, canasto, cesta cesto culture-material tukmal basket, winnowing basket unique derived, other complex Elliott 1999 Jane Hill
basket, small canasta, canasto, cesta cesto pequeno, tampado culture-material apmal small basket inheritance *apo Northern Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2011 1711; also pa'kumal derived, other coplex Elliott 1999 Jane Hill
basketry hat culture-material yumpish hat, basketry cap inheritance *yumu Cupan see "hat" derived, other complex Elliott 1999 Jane Hill
bead abalorio, mostacilla, cuenta, gota, puca; necklace=collar miçanga culture-material pavyut ceremonial wand, ceremonial beads inheritance *payu, *papayu Takic Stubbs 2011 1268a Lu, Ca, add Gab other complex really reduplicated but probably not synchronically Elliott 1999 Jane Hill
ochre culture-mythology navyót red ochre, hematite loan Gabrielino other complex Elliott 1999 Jane Hill
bow arco arco subsistence tool kutapish bow, ash tree inheritance *kuCta Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 278, from 'wood'? derived, other complex Elliott 1999 Jane Hill
canoe canoa canoa transport pawxit yellow pine, dugout canoe semantic shift *woNko Uto-Aztecan pine tree plus pa-, either water or big, this is actually sewn plank canoe, not dugout, but given word must have been dugout at some point other complex Elliott 1999 Jane Hill
carrying net subsistence tool iikat carrying net inheritance *iCkaC Cupan Stubbs 2011 1519 other complex Elliott 1999 Jane Hill
bottle botella garrafa acculturation missing missing Jane Hill
paper papel papel acculturation missing missing Jane Hill
chief/leader jefe, cacique chefe culture-mythology noo-t chief, boss, leader, spokesman inheritance *nyC-ta Cupan other complex Elliott 1999 Jane Hill
club garrote, cachiporra clava, porrete subsistence tool wotilash bat, club, chopping block unique derived, other complex from 'beat' Elliott 1999 Jane Hill
loincloth taparrabos, guayuco, pampanilla tanga, tapa-sexo dress missing missing Jane Hill
cook food food qwa$o'i to cook, make ripen inheritance *kwasi/aC Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2011 421 simplex root Elliott 1999 Jane Hill
corpse food toowish spirit, ghost, deceased person, cadaver, corpse, soul inheritance *tywi- Takic Stubbs 1799 other complex Elliott 1999 Jane Hill
dance (generic) culture-mythology pelaxish generic dance unique derived, other complex Elliott 1999 Jane Hill
deity/powerful spirit/culture figure dios(es), deidad divinidade, figura mítica culture-mythology yuungawish God, Lord semantic shift *jungavish Cupan Isn't this the vulture/condor word??? Hill/Miller ju-12 other complex Elliott 1999 Jane Hill
digging stick subsistence tool no-nah-hah nonax'a (probably no-nax'a my-digging.stick) digging stick inheritance *naka-ta Californian (Takic plus Tubatulabal) other complex Merriam 49:23 Jane Hill
dipper subsistence tool icháqilash drinking cup (from ichaqi 'to dip up liquid') unique derived, other complex Elliott 1999 Jane Hill
dream sueño, soñar sonho, sonhar culture-mythology putii'ish dream (N) unique other complex Elliott 1999 Jane Hill
drone pipe culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
drum tambor tambor culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
chicken gallina galinha acculturation qaxaavaywut chicken semantic shift *kakaC Northern Uto-Aztecan Hill/Miller ka-15; this is an embellishment of the "quail" word; Stubbs 2011 1749a derived, other complex Eliott 1999 Jane Hill
earring other paaxwichat earring unique other complex Elliott 1999 Jane Hill
ghost (of dead person)/evil spirit espíritu malo, espíritu maligno, fantasma, demonio espirito culture-mythology toowish 'alaxwish evil spirit inheritance *tywi- Takic Yok-Utian Stubbs 1799 WW %7el phrase Elliott 1999 Jane Hill
fire drill subsistence tool moorilash fire drill unique Hill/Miller my-01 takic myLi 'twist' derived, other complex Elliott 1999 Jane Hill
fire-tender culture-mythology taaxku ceremonial official who used to drink water in which clothes of dead had been washed inheritance *ta-*ku Uto-Aztecan cognate with Cupeno tekweve'esh simplex really compound but not synchronically Elliott 1999 Jane Hill
fireplace hogar lareira other kut pochuyila fire place unique phrase Eliott 1999 Jane Hill
firewood leña lenha other kulaawut wood, sticks, etc. inheritance *kutawi Northern Uto-Azteca Stubbs 2011 2409a other complex Eliott 1999 Jane Hill
fish (with fish-poison) pescar con barbasco, barbasquear pescar com timbó; tinguijar food missing missing Jane Hill
fish (with line) anzuelear, pescar con linea pescar (com linha) food 7ichi to clear from obligation, get even, to fish inheritance *itsh 'dip up' Uto-Aztecan Hill/Miller i-11 simplex root Elliott 1999 Jane Hill
fish poison barbasco, matapez (Colombia) timbó subsistence tool missing missing Jane Hill
fishing line cordel/cuerda p/ pescar, sedal, tanze linha de pesca subsistence tool hunuuvat (S) fishing line, yucca schidigera semantic shift *hunuva Takic Stubbs 2009 2548 other complex Elliott 1999 Jane Hill
fish hook subsistence tool iiqish fish hook (archaic) inheritance *ok Takic root also in the Kitanemuk word;and maybe in W. Mono; also 7orilish (S); possibly from the 'bone' word??? other complex Eliott 1999 Jane Hill
acorn bread food $aawokish tortilla, bread loan into protolanguage *saw- Takic Wintun Stubbs 2011 266c; see Cahuilla for discussion WW %saw derived, other complex Elliott 1999 Jane Hill
wheat food $aaxish grain, wheat inheritance *saki Uto-Aztecan Hill 2007 BLS other complex Eliott 1999 Jane Hill
flute flauta, quena (Peru) flauta culture-mythology wiirulash flute inheritance *wiLu PNUA Stubbs 912 derived, other complex Elliott 1999 Jane Hill
gambling sticks other missing missing Jane Hill
game animal caza, animal de caza caça, animal de caça food qwq'pish game, hunted animal to be eaten unique from qaaw 'die'?? derived, other complex and reduplicated but not synchronically is my guess Elliott 1999 Jane Hill
ghost (of dead person)/evil spirit espíritu malo, espíritu maligno, fantasma, demonio espirito culture-mythology toowish spirit, ghost, deceased person inheritance *tywi- Takic Stubbs 1799 other complex Elliott 1999 Jane Hill
glue subsistence tool $aanat glue, gum inheritance *salaC Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2011 1634 other complex Elliott 1999 Jane Hill
grave tumba, sepultura, sepulcro sepultura, sepulcro, cova culture-mythology taaxanash cemetery, grave inheritance Cupan only; Harrington collected taxanish 'cemetery' for Cupeno (3:130:140) derived, other complex Eliott 1999 Jane Hill
alcohol food paa7kilash drink of any kind, beverage, beer, cocktail, alcohol unique on 'drink' derived, other complex Eliott 1999 Jane Hill
Datura wrightii narcotics naqtumush Jimsonweed, toloache, boys' tea for initiation inheritance *naNka-tama Takic ear-mouth?? other complex compound not retrievable synchronically Elliott 1999 Jane Hill
shaman, healer chamán, brujo xaman, pajé, feiticeiro culture-mythology puu-la shaman inheritance *puha Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2011 1160a other complex Elliott 1999 Jane Hill
honey miel mel food $a$angla po'aw honey unique phrase bee its juice Elliott 1999 Jane Hill
house other kii-cha house inheritance *ki: Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2011 1214 other complex Elliott 1999 Jane Hill
hunt cazar caçar food aamo to hunt inheritance *7amu Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2011 1233 simplex root Elliott 1999 Jane Hill
initiate boy culture-mythology pumi initiate into manhood unique simplex root Elliott 1999 Jane Hill
initiate girl culture-mythology wiqeni- hold girls' puberty ceremony (I've backformed from wiqenish) unique simplex root Elliott 1999 Jane Hill
knife cuchillo faca culture-material pikát stone knife inheritance *pikkaC Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2011 1266 other complex Elliott 1999 Jane Hill
mat culture-material ngaw'lash mattress, mat, bed, mat to sleep on unique derived, other complex Elliott 1999 Jane Hill
mortar mortero pilão subsistence tool toopal mortar for grinding inheritance *typpa Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2011 1083 other complex Elliott 1999 Jane Hill
necklace other qenxat necklace, beads inheritance *koLoka Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2011 1505 WW %xene other complex Elliott 1999 Jane Hill
needle/awl subsistence tool eevish awl inheritance *7opi Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2011 92 other complex Elliott 1999 Jane Hill
paddle/oar remo remo transport wotilish oar or paddle unique derived, other complex beat Elliott 1999 Jane Hill
pestle pilón, mano de mortero, mazo, moledor mão de pilão subsistence tool toopawut pestle inheritance *typpa Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 20111083 with -wut increment like in Cahuilla derived, other complex has augmentative suffix Elliott 1999 Jane Hill
pinole food pooyish pinole inheritance *pyji- Cupan other complex Elliott 1999 Jane Hill
pipe for tobacco pipa cachimbo other piveesash tule, type of pipe unknown tobacco-reed, but I can't find reed word; also piviisaxmal, qaluunmal, ngatatmal, chetmal, etc. other complex Elliott 1999 Jane Hill
pitch food $aanut tar, pitch, gum inheritance *salaC Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2011 1634 other complex Elliott 1999 Jane Hill
pot olla, pote panela, vasilha subsistence tool peshlish generic pot, dish, earthenware bowl inheritance *pasa Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2011 1706, not sure I believe this other complex Elliott 1999 Jane Hill
quiver subsistence tool taavalkwash quiver unique other complex taav 'put in'??? Elliott 1999 Jane Hill
rattle matraca, maraca marico, chocalho culture-mythology paa'ayat turtleshell rattle inheritance *(pa)-7aya-la Cupan Stubbs 2422 but in 'rattle' meaning onlyTakic other complex Elliott 1999 Jane Hill
red paint culture-mythology paa'isval red paint made from iron-bearing pond scum unique from *os 'to draw' other complex water-paint-stuff Elliott 1999 Jane Hill
salt sal sal food engla salt, salt lick inheritance *omCa Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2011 1865 other complex Elliott 1999 Jane Hill
seed beater subsistence tool washpish seed beater inheritance *wacap Takic see Kitanemuk; Elliott has woshpish, washpish is Bright's form derived, other complex Elliott 1999 Jane Hill
clothing ropa roupa culture-mythology miyxanish clothes, dress inheritance *miyxan Cupan also in Cupeno -mixan 'belongings' derived, other complex Eliott 1999 Jane Hill
sinew-backed bow subsistence tool nemeexát bow (Sparkman, archaic) unique related to word for "wrap" other complex Elliott 1999 Jane Hill
skirt falda, saya, fustan, pollera saia culture-material olval cape-like garment, women's skirt (B) inheritance *ylaC Cupan Stubbs 2011 498 other complex Elliott 1999 Jane Hill
snare subsistence tool orilash trap unique Merriam 49:21 saw-tish 'deadfall' derived, other complex Elliott 1999 Jane Hill
song (generic) canción, canto canção culture-mythology heelaxish song unique derived, other complex Elliott 1999 Jane Hill
spear lanza lança subsistence tool $e'lalash arrow, spear (H) unique derived, other complex Elliott 1999 Jane Hill
stirring stick food iival wooden paddle inheritance *ipa Cupan Stubbs 2011 1596 other complex Elliott 1999 Jane Hill
rope/string mecate, cuerda, soga corda culture wiichut rope, string, twine inheritance *wik-tiwa Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2011 1843 other complex Elliott 1999 Jane Hill
bag, sack culture-material kunla sack, bag, purse, suitcase inheritance *kuna Northern Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2011 114a other complex Elliott 1999 Jane Hill
string of shell money other sinaval money unique other complex Elliott 1999 Jane Hill
sugarcane/sugar azúcar, caña de azúcar açucar (de cana) acculturation kó$aat sweet, candy, jam, sugar, sweets, cookies unique other complex Elliott 1999 Jane Hill
sweathouse other ha$lash sweathouse inheritance *hashla Cupan Stubbs 2011 2252 derived, other complex Elliott 1999 Jane Hill
tell history culture-mythology aa'alvi tell a story inheritance *7a7al Californian (Takic plus Tubatulabal) Stubbs 2011 1873b simplex root Elliott 1999 Jane Hill
cremate culture-mythology chuyi to light fire, cremate, burn, set fire, fire pottery unknown looks a bit like the Gab. Too-e word; Harrington has taaxan for 'cremate' instead of 'bury' simplex root Elliott 1999 Jane Hill
tobacco (native) narcotics piivat tobacco, cigarette inheritance *pipaC Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2011 2348 other complex Elliott 1999 Jane Hill
tule boat transport wixét, wixee7et song word, canoe made of tules, balsa raft semantic shift *woNko Uto-Aztecan PUA 'pine tree', but I wonder if this is a distinct etymon?? Makes no sense (the sewn plank canoe is the BIG wixet (pawxit) Elliott 1999 Jane Hill
white paint culture-mythology toovish white clay used to paint boys at initiation inheritance *typic Takic Stubbs 2011 758 other complex Elliott 1999 Jane Hill
winnowing basket culture-material tukmal basket, winnowing basket unique other complex Elliott 1999 Jane Hill
wood tray subsistence tool missing missing Jane Hill
shoes zapatos sapatos dress wachxat shoe inheritance waCci(kaC0 Northern Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2011 1955 has parens around the first C, curse excel other complex Elliott 1999 Jane Hill
medicine narcotics tengalish medicine, poultice, medicinal herb inheritance *tonga Cupan Stubbs 2011 1161 derived, other complex Elliott 1999 Jane Hill
cradleboard culture-material qeepish baby basket, crib, bassinet, cradle inheritance *qopi Takic Hill/Miller ko-42 other complex Elliott 1999 Jane Hill
policeman polícia policía acculturation to$ngukat policeman, officer, justice of the peace, commander,director, principal (of school), driver unique derived, other complex Elliott 1999 Jane Hill
soldier soldado soldado acculturation neqpikat soldier (fighter) unique derived, other complex Elliott 1999 Jane Hill
corn food kutápish shelled corn or beans unique derived, other complex Elliott 1999 Jane Hill
beans food missing missing Jane Hill
cat gato gato acculturation tuukut kingawish house cat (Harrington) unique WW %tuku phrase Elliott 1999 Jane Hill
gun arma, escopeta espingarda, fusil acculturation patkilash gun unique on pati like Cu derived, other complex Elliott 1999 Jane Hill
hat sombero chapéu dress yumpish hat inheritance *yumu Cupan derived, other complex Stubbs 2011 1148 Jane Hill
clapper acculturation qa$lapish split-stick rattle used in tatahuila dance unique derived, other complex Elliott 1999 Jane Hill
thatch/roof crisneja palha, caraná culture-material kotla-sh unknown Elliott Jane Hill
rope/string mecate, cuerda, soga corda culture wi:-cha-t, wi:-chu-t inheritance Jane Hill
bottom grinding stone manufacture mala:-l inheritance Jane Hill
digging stick subsistence tool missing Jane Hill
winnow aventar, tirar (sementes) joeirar manufacture cha:yi- unknown Jane Hill
top grinding stone metate, mano; piedra de moler metate, mano manufacture to:pa-wu-t “pestle” (no “mano”) loan into protolanguage, direction unknown Jane Hill
boomerang/throwing stick (generic) subsistence tool wa:ka-t inheritance Jane Hill
spearthrower subsistence tool ku/tupish “bow” inheritance Jane Hill
spear lanza lança subsistence tool hu:la “arrow” inheritance Jane Hill
house other ki:-cha inheritance Jane Hill


Grammatical Data (226)
Category Grammatical Feature Grammatical Feature: Notes Feature Status Phonemicized Form Orthographic Form Grammatical Notes Source Created By Etymology Notes General Notes Phylogenetic Code
Phonology - Segmental Pre-/post-nasalized stops Analysis posits that the stop is the most relevant underlying phoneme. Comment in notes on whether the nasal contour is understood as a phonetic (allophonic) effect, or is phonologically contrastive. Jane Hill
Phonology - Segmental Glottalized/ejective consonants Phonemic contrast [NOT counting glottal stop/fricative] no Jane Hill
Phonology - Segmental Palatalized stops Phonemic contrast Jane Hill
Phonology - Segmental Phonemic vowel length Does the language have long and short vowels? Jane Hill
Phonology - Segmental Phonemic glottalization/laryngealization of vowels Jane Hill
Phonology - Segmental Complex onsets Onset consists of more than one consonant phoneme Jane Hill
Phonology - Segmental No codas *(C)VC [no also equals highly constrained] Jane Hill
Phonology - Segmental Word-final coda required Do all syllables end in a consonant? Jane Hill
Phonology - Suprasegmental Contrastive tones Note how many contrastive tones no Jane Hill
Phonology - Suprasegmental Contrastive stress Does stress occur on different syllables with meaning difference? Jane Hill
Phonology - Suprasegmental Nasalization property of morpheme or syllable In contrast to nasalization as a property of segments Jane Hill
Phonology - Suprasegmental Nasal spreading across some morpheme boundaries Do some affixes or other morphemes take the nasal/oral properties of the root they attach to? Jane Hill
Phonology - Suprasegmental Vowel harmony Jane Hill
Morphology - General Verbal fusion (2+ categories marked by portmanteau morphemes on verb) Verb combines two or more categories (tense, aspect, mood, person, number, etc.) in portmanteau morphemes{ [ignore proclitics unless they are fused with values other than person/number] Jane Hill
Morphology - General Inflection manifested by replacement of segmental or suprasegmental phonemes Stem change, tone no Jane Hill
Morphology - General Verbal synthesis (1+ inflectional categories marked by verbal affixes) Morphological complexity in verbs - multiple inflectional affixes in a single verb word no Jane Hill
Morphology - General Prefixing/suffixing inflectional morph: strongly prefixing There are many more prefixes than suffixes no Jane Hill
Morphology - General Prefixing/suffixing inflectional morph: strongly suffixing There are many more suffixes than prefixes yes Jane Hill
Morphology - General Prefixing/suffixing inflectional morph: roughly equal or one weakly preferred The numbers of suffixes and prefixes are not notably different no Jane Hill
Morphology - General Reduplication: full The full morpheme is reduplicated yes Jane Hill
Morphology - General Reduplication: partial Only part of the morpheme is reduplicated yes Jane Hill
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Productive NN compounding Noun compounds created from two noun phrases are common and systematically produced Jane Hill
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Productive VV serialization (without compounding) Verb roots can be combined in a single predicate without markers of subordination (distinct from subordinating construction) or distinct inflection Jane Hill
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Productive VV compounding Serial verb constructions involve chaining of roots together in one morphophonological word Jane Hill
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Verb-adjunct (aka light verb) constructions There is a set of semantically weak verbs used in complex verbal constructions, e.g. 'take a nap' Jane Hill
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Auxiliary verb(s) There are verbs that accompany main verbs of clauses and take grammatical marking not expressed by main verbs Jane Hill
Morphology - Incorporation Incorporation of nouns into verbs is a productive intransitivizing process Verb contains nominal segment Jane Hill
Morphology - Incorporation Productive incorporation of other elements (adjectives, locatives, etc.) into verbs Like noun incorporation, but incorporated elements are not nouns Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Noun classes/genders Nouns are organized into sets with distinct morphological treatment; usually affects all nouns and involves agreement within the NP no Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Number of noun classes/genders Note the (approximate) total number of noun classes/genders 0 Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Noun classifiers (distinct from noun classes/genders) Nouns are organized into sets, but only a limited set of nouns may be implicated, with no or limited agreement marking. If only numeral classifiers exist, indicate yes but explain. Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Sex is a relevant category in noun class(ification) system for animates Masculine, feminine, neuter Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Sex is a relevant category in noun class(ification) system for inanimates Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Animacy (w/o reference to sex) is a relevant category in the noun class(ification) system Animate/inanimate, human/non-human Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Sex/gender distinction only in 3rd person pronouns add in notes section whether gender is present in other PNs or not in any PNs; consider with reference to pronouns and person marking only Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Shape is a relevant category in the noun class(ification) system for animates Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Shape is a relevant category in the noun class(ification) system for inanimates Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification "Repeater" classifiers Where no distinct classifier exists, a copy of the noun itself may function in the morphosyntactic classifier "slot" Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Numeral classifiers (specific to numerals) Special classifier forms that occur only with numerals no Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Classifiers used as derivational suffixes to derive nouns Verb + classifier = 'thing for doing V, thing that does V, etc.' Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Number Singular number may be marked on the noun Often occurs in a small subset of nouns if a single entity is referred to, e.g. insects that normally occur in groups Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Number Plural affix on noun yes Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Number Plural marked by stem change or tone on noun no Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Number Plural marked by reduplication of noun no Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Number Plural word/clitic no Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Number Plural marked on human or animate nouns only no Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Number Pronominal plural: stem + nominal plural affix Pronouns use a nominal plural affix not specific to pronouns yes Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Number Unique associative plural marker e.g. 'John and his associates', 'John and them' Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Definite or specific articles Definite = particular referent known to both speaker and addressee; specific = particular referent known to speaker only yes Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Marker of definiteness distinct from demonstratives Focus on articles/markers whose primary function is to mark definiteness no Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Indefinite or non-specific article or marker no Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Inclusive/exclusive: in free pronominals Inclusive =us + you, exclusive = us but not you no Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Inclusive/exclusive: in verbal inflection (bound) no Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Distance contrasts in demonstratives (number) Note the number of distances in the demonstrative system 3 Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Other contrasts in demonstratives (visibility, elevation, etc.) Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Gender in 3sg pronouns no Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Gender in 3pl pronouns no Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Gender in 1st and/or 2nd person pronouns no Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Formal/informal distinction in pronouns Polite pronominal variants or differential avoidance of pronouns no Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Reflexive pronouns e.g. English 'himself', Spanish 'se'; distinct form(s) from basic (non-reflexive) pronominals; distinct from reflexive verbal affix Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Adpositions mark core NPs Prepositions or postpositions mark subjects, objects, beneficiaries/recipients Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: number of cases Note the number of grammatical relations that may be morphologically marked on the noun 6-7 Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: only non-core arguments morphologically marked Subjects, objects, beneficiaries/recipients NOT marked, but other grammatical relations are Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: symmetrical All NPs marked if in appropriate syntactic relation; no distinction in marking based on semantics (type of entity) yes Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: asymmetrical Semantically defined subset of NPs marked for case, e.g. animates no Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: suffix or postpositional clitic yes Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: prefix or prepositional clitic Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: infix or inpositional clitic Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: stem change Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: tone Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: comitative = instrumental Same marking for 'with a person' and 'with an instrument' no Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Numerals Base-2 At least some part of the system involves base-2 no Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Numerals Base-5 At least some part of the system involves base-5 no Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Numerals Base-10 At least some part of the system involves base-10 no Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Numerals Other base (specify) 4, 20, etc. Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Numerals Etymological transparency in any numerals under 5 e.g. two = 'eye-quantity' Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Numerals Numerals do not go above 5 'Many' or some other non-exact term used Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Numerals Numerals do not go above 10 'Many' or some other non-exact term used Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Other nominal Tense or aspect inflection on non-verbal predicates i.e. nominal or adjectival Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Other nominal Person inflection on non-verbal predicates i.e. nominal or adjectival Jane Hill
Nominal Syntax - Possession Pronominal possessive affixes: prefix on N alienable/inalienable? yes Jane Hill
Nominal Syntax - Possession Pronominal possessive affixes: suffix on N alienable/inalienable? no Jane Hill
Nominal Syntax - Possession Head/dependent marking in possessive NP: dependent e.g. 'the boy-'s dog' no Jane Hill
Nominal Syntax - Possession Head/dependent marking in possessive NP: head e.g. 'the boy his-dog' yes Jane Hill
Nominal Syntax - Possession Possessive classifiers There are special classifiers that occur with possessed entities Jane Hill
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Morphological marking of inalienable possession Where inalienable possession differs from alienable, the former takes a morphological marker (may include an associated free particle/pronoun) Jane Hill
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Morphological marking of alienable possession Where inalienable possession differs from alienable, the latter takes a morphological marker (may include an associated free particle/pronoun) Jane Hill
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Default marker for inalienably possessed nouns if unpossessed An inalienable noun that is in an unpossessed state must have a derivational affix or associated form Jane Hill
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Inalienable possession of kin terms 'my-father' but *father Jane Hill
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Inalienable possession of body parts (human/animal) 'my-leg' but *leg Jane Hill
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Generic human nouns are obligatorily bound/possessed Human nouns must co-occur with another noun (e.g. Hup-man, NonIndian-woman, but *man) Jane Hill
Nominal Syntax - Adjectives Underived adjectives There are underived adjectives which do not have counterparts in other word classes Jane Hill
Nominal Syntax - Adjectives Gender inflection on adjectives within the NP There is gender agreement/concord (animate/inanimate or masc/fem, etc.) within the NP, e.g. la casa blanca, el perro blanco Jane Hill
Nominal Syntax - Derivation Productive nominalizing morphology: action/state (arrive/arrival) There is a morpheme which derives an event from a verb Jane Hill
Nominal Syntax - Derivation Productive nominalizing morphology: agentive (sing/singer) There is a morpheme which derives an agent or subject from a verb Jane Hill
Nominal Syntax - Derivation Productive nominalizing morphology: object (sing/song) There is a morpheme which derives a patient or object from a verb Jane Hill
Nominal Syntax - Derivation Productive verbalizing morphology There is a morpheme which derives a verb from a noun or adjective Jane Hill
Nominal Syntax - Other NP coordination and comitative phrases marked differently 'John and Mary went to market' is marked differently from 'John went to market with Mary' no Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Dedicated past marker(s) Past tense is regularly morphologically marked on the verb or elsewhere Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Multiple past tenses, distinguishing distance from time of reference e.g. distant vs. recent past yes Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Multiple future tenses, distinguishing distance from time of reference e.g. imminent vs. distant future Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Dedicated future or non-past marker(s) yes Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Tense-aspect affixes: prefix no Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Tense-aspect affixes: suffix yes Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Tense-aspect affixes: tone or ablaut no Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Tense-aspect suppletion no Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Mood Dedicated imperative morpheme or verb form There is a special morpheme (or morphemes, or a bare verb root where inflection is normally expected) used to signal imperative (command) mood yes Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Mood Polite imperative morpheme There is a distinct morpheme for polite imperative constructions (specify if it has other functions in the language) Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Mood Difference between negation in imperative (prohibitive) and declarative clauses There are different strategies for marking negation in imperative and declarative clauses yes Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Mood Dedicated hortative morpheme or verb form (1pl or 3rd person imperative) as opposed to imperative; the person in control of desired state of affairs is not the addressee; ex: 'Let's sing' / 'Let him sing' Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Mood Situational possibility: affix on verb Inflectional marking of capacity to do something yes Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Mood Situational possibility: verbal construction Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Mood Situational possibility: other marking Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Mood Epistemic possibility: affix on verb Modal expressing hypothesis Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Mood Epistemic possibility: verbal construction Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Mood Epistemic possibility: other marking yes Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Mood Marking of expected/unexpected action or result There is inflectional marking of expected/unexpected Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Mood Verbal frustrative Modal expressing frustration ("in vain") Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Mood Verbal habitual Modal expressing habituality Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Mood Apprehensive construction There is a single morpheme or verb form to mean '(be careful lest) X happens' Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Mood Reality status marking on verbs There are dedicated morpheme(s) for realis/irrealis 'actualized/unactualized events' Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Mood Affect markers (positive/negative) Note whether these inflectional markers are positive or negative Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Directionals Directional elements affixed to the verb There are grammaticalized elements indicating movement away, toward, there and back, etc. Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized visual Indicates information has been witnessed visually - indicate only if an overt marker Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized nonvisual Indicates information has been sensed firsthand but not visually (usually heard; also smelled, tasted, felt) Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized inferential Indicates information has not been experienced firsthand, but inferred from some kind of evidence - indicate only if an overt marker. Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized reportive Indicates speaker is not responsible for veracity of statement, merely reporting; 'allegedly' Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized quotative Indicate presence of adjacent representation of repeated discourse Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Other evidential Any other evidential values not represented above Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Evidentiality: verb affix or clitic no Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Evidentiality: part of tense system Includes portmanteau morphs no Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Evidentiality: separate particle yes Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Evidentiality: modal morpheme no Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Verbal number Verbal number suppletion yes Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Other Social interaction markers Note the type of interaction Jane Hill
Word Order No fixed basic constituent order no Jane Hill
Word Order VS in intransitive clauses Verb precedes subject no Jane Hill
Word Order VS in transitive clauses Jane Hill
Word Order VO in transitive clauses Verb precedes object Jane Hill
Word Order OS in transitive clauses Object precedes subject Jane Hill
Word Order Preposition-Noun no Jane Hill
Word Order Noun-Postposition or case suffix yes Jane Hill
Word Order Gen-Noun Possessive phrase composed of a free possessor and its possessum has possessor first (e.g. John's book) yes Jane Hill
Word Order Noun-Gen Possessive phrase composed of a free possessor and its possessum has possessum first (e.g. 'book of John') no Jane Hill
Word Order Adj-Noun Adjective precedes the noun no Jane Hill
Word Order Noun-Adj Adjective follows the noun yes Jane Hill
Word Order Dem-Noun yes Jane Hill
Word Order Noun-Dem no Jane Hill
Word Order Num-Noun yes Jane Hill
Word Order Noun-Num no Jane Hill
Word Order Noun-Rel Relative clause follows noun that it modifies yes Jane Hill
Word Order Rel-Noun Relative clause precedes noun that it modifies no Jane Hill
Word Order Re<Noun>l (internally headed relative) e.g. 'the dog cat chased-NMZR got away' ('the cat that the dog chased got away') no Jane Hill
Word Order Relative clause is correlative or adjoined e.g. 'what is running, the dog chased that cat' no Jane Hill
Word Order Question word is clause initial 'what', 'who', etc. come first in interrogative clause yes Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: nominative-accusative w/ marked accusative Objects of transitive clauses ('P') have a unique marker, while subjects of transitive ('A') and intransitive ('S') clauses are unmarked or share a different marker from that occurring on objects yes Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: nominative-accusative w/ marked nominative Subjects of transitive and intransitive clauses share a marker, while objects of transitives are unmarked no Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: ergative-absolutive Subjects of intransitive clauses and objects of transitives share a unique marker, while subjects of transitive clauses are unmarked or have a different marker no Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: tripartite Intransitive subjects, transitive subjects, and transitive objects all receive distinct case markers no Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: active-inactive Subjects of intransitive clauses are treated two different ways: like subjects of transitives if they are more agent-like (e.g. he jumped), and like objects of transitives if they are more patient-like (e.g. he fell asleep) no Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: marked accusative yes Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: marked nominative no Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: ergative-absolutive yes, no, mixed, other no Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: tripartite no Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: active-inactive no Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: nominative-accusative Same as above, for pronominal affixes/clitics on verbs no Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: ergative-absolutive yes, no, mixed, other no Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: active-inactive no Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: hierarchical Marking of A and P depends on their relative ranking on a hierarchy (usually 1>2>3 or 2>1>3) no Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: split More than one of the above systems is represented in person marking, depending on e.g. person (e.g. 1/2 vs. 3), tense-aspect value, main vs. subordinate clause type, etc. no Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: pronouns in subject position Pronominal subjects are free pronouns that occur in the same position as full NP subjects no Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: prefixes on verb Pronominal subjects are marked as verbal prefixes (free pronouns may be another option) no Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: suffixes on verb Pronominal subjects are marked as verbal suffixes (free pronouns may be another option) no Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: clitics on variable host Pronominal subjects are clitics that can attach to verbs, nominal constituents, etc. yes Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: pronouns in non-subject position Pronominal subjects are free pronouns but do not normally occur in the position expected for full NP subjects no Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Person marking on intransitive verbs Intransitive verbs take person-marking clitics/affixes no Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Person marking (of agents) on transitive verbs Transitive verbs take subject (A) markers no Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Person-marking (of objects) on transitive verbs Transitive verbs take object (P) markers no Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking 3rd person zero in verbal person marking: subjects 3rd person subjects are not overtly marked within the verbal person-marking system yes Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking 3rd person zero in verbal person marking: objects 3rd person objects are not overtly marked within the verbal person-marking system yes Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Number can be marked separately from person on the verb Verbal person marking exists, but number is (or can) be marked separately no Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Possessive affixes/clitics on nouns are same as verbal person markers Where nouns take possessive affixes, these are the same as the person-marking affixes no Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Gender distinguished in verbal person markers For any person, verbal person markers exhibit different forms depending on the gender (masc/fem, animate/inanimate, etc.) of the referent no Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice Ditransitive constructions: indirect object In ditransitives (e.g. 'John gives a book to Bill'), the theme (book) is treated in the same way as are objects of transitives, while the recipient/beneficiary (Bill) is treated differently Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice Ditransitive constructions: double object In ditransitives (e.g. 'John gives Bill a book'), both the theme (book) and the recipient/beneficiary (Bill) is treated in the same way as are objects of transitives yes Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice Ditransitive constructions: secondary object In ditransitives, the recipient/beneficiary is treated in the same way as are objects of transitives, while the theme (book) is treated differently Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Reciprocal: dedicated morpheme Verb becomes reciprocal through use of reciprocal morpheme associated with the verb (may be attached to the verb root). This morpheme is only used to mean reciprocal. no Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Reflexive: dedicated morpheme Verb becomes reflexive through use of reflexive morpheme associated with the verb (may be attached to the verb root). This morpheme is used only to mean reflexive. no Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Reciprocal/reflexive: same morpheme Verb becomes reciprocal or reflexive through use of a morpheme that means either reciprocal or reflexive which attaches to the root of the verb yes Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Passive Passive voice usually involves a change to the verb, while the object of the active voice verb is promoted to subject in the passive voice, and the former subject is deleted/demoted yes Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Antipassive Like passive, but deletes or demotes the object of a transitive verb; usually found in ergative languages no Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Other intransitivizing morphology There is/are some other mechanism(s) for reducing valency Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Applicative: benefactive Applicative adds a beneficiary/maleficiary object argument to the verb yes Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Applicative: other Applicative adds some other object argument to the verb yes Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: prefix Causative is morphological and is attached before the root of the verb Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: suffix Causative is morphological and is attached after the root of the verb Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative marked by circumfix, stem change, or tone Morphological causative other than simple prefix/suffix Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: serial verb or analytical construction Causative construction that involves periphrasis or serialization Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: dedicated 'make do by proxy' Indicates that the causer does not directly cause the action of the verb to be realized, but does so by inducing someone else to carry out the action, e.g. 'John had the house painted.' Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: dedicated sociative Indicates that causer participates in event Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Other transitivizing morphology (adds valence) There is/are some other mechanism(s) for increasing valency Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Negation Clausal negator is a preposed element Clausal negator is a preposed element Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Negation Clausal negator is a postposed element Clausal negator is a postposed element Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Negation Negatives: affix Negatives: affix Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Negation Negatives: particle Negatives: particle yes Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Negation Negatives: auxiliary verb Negatives: auxiliary verb Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Negation Negatives: double Standard (non-emphatic) negation typically requires two morphemes, e.g. French 'ne V pas' Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Negation Distinct negative form for 'NP does not exist' Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Negation Distinct negative expression 'I don't know' Lexical expression or highly idiomatic phrase Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Polar questions: interrogative particle Yes/no questions distinguished from declaratives by interrogative particle yes Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Polar questions: verb morphology Yes/no questions distinguished from declaratives by interrogative verb morphology no Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Polar questions: word order Yes/no questions distinguished from declaratives by word order (esp. subject-verb inversion) no Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Polar questions: intonation only Yes/no questions distinguished from declaratives by intonation only no Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Content questions: word order differs from declaratives Content questions distinguished from declaratives by word order (esp. subject-verb inversion) as well as by presence of Q-word (who, what, etc.) Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Predication Predicate adjectives: verbal Adjectives act like verbs in predicative position yes Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Predication Predicate adjectives: nominal Adjectives act like nouns in predicative position yes Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Predication Zero copula for predicate nominals is possible Predicate nominals may occur without a copula (i.e. grammatical in some circumstances, if not all) yes Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Predication Headless relative clauses Compare Eng 'the one that fell' (but in Eng 'one' could be considered a head) Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Predication Headless relative clauses are the dominant or only form of relative clause Relative clauses that form a constituent with a head noun (in a single noun phrase) are rare or nonexistent; some descriptions may refer to adjoined or correlative clauses. Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Predication Relative clause may occur with a noun classifier/class marker It may be unclear whether the classifier is the nominal head of the construction or is an agreement marker on the relative clause Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Predication Relativizer is a verbal affix Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Predication Morphological relativizer is homophonous with nominalizer The same morpheme marks a relative clause and is a nominalizer on verbs (and/or other word classes) Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Desiderative expressions Grammaticalized verbal desiderative Indicates that the subject desires to carry out the action denoted by the verb (distinct from verb 'want', but may be grammaticalized from it) Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Other Clause chaining Clauses can be grouped such that only one bears most of the verb morphology, and the others are marked as to whether they share a subject with this reference clause. Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Other Morphologically marked switch-reference system There are special markers to indicate same vs. different subject when two clauses are combined Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Other Morphologically marked distinction between simultaneous and sequential clauses Morphology (usually on verb) distinguishes between clauses denoting events that occur at the same time or in sequence Jane Hill


Ethnographic Information
Current population (ethnicity) Current population (speakers) Former population estimate Subsistence preference Subsistence notes Density Sedentism Ecotome (riverine/interfluvial/coastal/desert/savannah/etc.) Social hierarchies Multilingualism (rare/occasional/common) Contact languages Marriage pattern Notes Source Created By
large HG medium seasonal no