Reality status marking on verbs

Verbal Categories - Mood
There are dedicated morpheme(s) for realis/irrealis 'actualized/unactualized events'


Language Feature Status Grammatical Notes Source Created By Etymology Notes General Notes Phylogenetic Code
Cahuilla Jane Hill
Cupeño Jane Hill
Luiseño Jane Hill
Serrano Jane Hill
Kitanemuk Jane Hill
Kawaiisu Jane Hill
Timbisha Jane Hill
Western Mono Jane Hill
Chemehuevi Jane Hill
Southern Paiute Jane Hill
Southern Ute Jane Hill
Shoshone Jane Hill
Comanche Jane Hill
Idaho Shoshone Jane Hill
Northern Paiute Jane Hill
Gabrielino Jane Hill
Achagua no info Wilson & Levinsohn 1992 Ana Paula Brandao
Resígaro no The formulations of verb stems and verb words do not include this type of morphology. Allin, 1976: 105, 124 Aimee Lawrence
Bare no Aikhenvald, 1995: 33 Ana Paula Brandao
Piapoco yes Dubitative -ɵi is used to express the speaker's doubt that the speaker has about the existence/reality of the event, the realis -ka is used to signal the reality or existence of the event. "Virtual" -ha is used when the speaker is not sure the event is go Galindo, 2002: 173-174, 176-177 Aimee Lawrence
Yukuna no Shauer identifies a "subjunctive" category used to express desire, intention, or possibility, but each of these subtypes have distinct morphological expression. Shauer & Shauer, 2000: p. 523 Aimee Lawrence
Yavitero no There are morphemes indicating "conditional," "desiderative," etc., but no realis/irrealis distinction. Mosonyi, 1987: p. 66-69 Aimee Lawrence
Wapishana no Santos 2006: 166 Ana Paula Brandao, Amanda Meeks
Wayuu no Mansen & Captain, 2000: p. 800 Aimee Lawrence
Tariana no No discussion of realis/irrealis distinction in chapter on mood/modality morphology. Aikhenvald, 2003: 371-399 Aimee Lawrence
Apurinã no Not listed among verbal morphology or "bound formatives" (clitics). Facundes, 2000: 305-327, 379-410 Aimee Lawrence
Asheninka Apurucayali yes Mihas 2010:146 Daniel Smith
Maipure yes Affix for irrealis. Zamponi 2003:40 Amanda Meeks
Yanesha' no Irrealis meaning is marked by an auxiliary verb Duff-Tripp 1997:121 Daniel Valle
Kinikinau yes The subjunctive suffix indicates irrealis Souza 2008:92-3 Daniel Valle
Baure no info Danielsen 2007 Daniel Valle
Nanti yes Michael, 2008. p. 249 Aimee Lawrence
Paresi yes There is a irrealis particle marker but not for realis Brandão 2007:50-1 Daniel Valle
Palikur no Launey 2003 Daniel Smith
Yine no Matteson 1965:70-81 Daniel Smith
Añun no info no discussion of mood Patte 1989 Daniel Smith
Bora no Seifart - 2005 Amanda Meeks
Makiritare yes only an irrealis marker Hall 1988: 204, 341, 358, 382 Melody Ann Ross No realis marker, only irrealis
Makushi no Abbott 1991: 117-122 Melody Ann Ross
Eñepa no Payne 2012 Daniel Smith
Pemon no info de Armellada 1999: 121 to 136 Shannon Dardis
Guna no Smith texts Daniel Smith
Naso no Quesada 2000 Daniel Smith
Ika no Daniel Valle
Kogi no info Daniel Valle
Cabecar no info Daniel Valle
Guaymí yes There is a realis/irrealis distinction in which both terms receive a particular morpheme Quesada 2008:100-8 Daniel Valle
Damana no Daniel Valle
Sikuani yes author calls them factual/virtual Queixalós 2000:575-576 Daniel Smith
Macaguan no info Buenaventura 1993 Daniel Smith
Aguaruna no info Daniel Valle
Northern Emberá no There is no irrealis marker Mortensen 1999:85 Daniel Valle Catío
Waorani yes Orr et all. 1991:41 Daniel Valle There is only overt marking for irrealis aspect
Ingá no Levinson 1978:11-23 Daniel Valle
Matses no info Daniel Valle
Mapudungun no info most likely not Daniel Valle
Páez no info Daniel Valle
Quechua Ayacuchano no info Daniel Valle
Tikuna no info Daniel Valle
Urarina yes Olawsky:482 Daniel Valle
Waunana no info Daniel Valle
Andoke yes realis: unmarked, irrealis (virtuel) verbal prefixes fused with directionals: ná- (no directionality), ĩna- centripetal, ní, centrifugal Landaburu 1979: 194-195 Kelsey Neely
Puinave yes Giron 2008: p270-275 Mitz Perez, Daniel Valle
Central Aymara no Huayhua Pari 2001: 135 to 140 Shannon Dardis
Kakua no not sure yet Bolaños fieldnotes Katherine Bolaños
Kaingang no /ra/ seems to have several functions, which may include realis/irrealis Goncalves 2011 Daniel Smith
Minica Witoto no info not indicated/expected Minor and Minor 1982. p.101-102 Daniel Smith
Hup no Epps 2008 Pattie Epps
Nadëb/Roçado dialect yes cf. 'indicative' vs. 'non-indicative' mood marking - looks like non-ind functions like irrealis (polar questions, some sub clauses, negatives) Weir 1984 Katherine Bolaños
Dâw no Martins 2004 Katherine Bolaños
Desano no all future tense is in irrealis Miller 1999, p. 71 Amanda Novak
Cubeo yes only irrealis mood Morse & Maxwell 1999, p. 26 Amanda Novak
Kotiria yes Stenzel 2004, p. 377 Amanda Novak
Makuna yes Smothermon & Smothermon 1993, p.47 Chris Clack
Koreguaje no Cook & Criswell 1993, p.53- Chris Clack
Barasano yes Jones & Jones 1991, p.83,88 Chris Clack
Tanimuca yes Strom 1992, p.80 Chris Clack There are four modal suffixes which indicate non-actual (irrealis) events.
Siona yes Wheeler - 1987:170 Amanda Meeks
Tukano no Ramirez 1997 Kelsey Neely no evidence for this
Yanomami yes Ramirez 1994: 318 Kelsey Neely
Ninam no info Goodwin-Gomez Kelsey Neely
Sanumá no info Kelsey Neely
Surui no info Daniel Valle
Karitiana no info more likely not Daniel Valle
Nheengatu no Cruz 2011 Daniel Smith
Paraguayan Guaraní no info Daniel Valle
Aché no info Daniel Valle
Kokama no Vallejos 2010 Daniel Smith
Nyangumarta no done 0
Jingulu yes done 1
Wambaya yes done 1
Bunuba yes done 1
Walmajarri yes Done-Claire 1
Nyulnyul yes done? 1
Warrwa yes done 1
Worrorra yes 64 done 1
Garrwa no info done X
Gooniyandi yes done 1
Warlpiri no info done 0
Bardi no done-Claire 0
Yugambeh Y?
Yorta Yorta no 83 done 0
Yir Yoront Done-Dan
Yindjibarndi yes 103-104 done-Dan 1
Yidiny no done-Catherine 0
Yanyuwa yes 4 Done-Austin 1
Yandruwandha no info Done-Dan x
Yan-nhangu not yet
Yalarnnga yes 44 Done-Dan 1
Woiwurrung no info done-Amalia x
Wirangu yes 121-125 done 1
Wemba-Wemba yes H 45 done-Amalia 1
Warumungu yes 34 done-Amalia 1
Wangkumara yes 34, 35 done 1
Uradhi No 363 Y 0
Paakantyi no info Y-Hannah X
Pitta-Pitta No 225 Done-Amalia 0
Pintupi no info done-Hannah x
Nyungar no info done x
Nhanta yes Done-Hannah 1
Ngiyambaa yes 160-161 Done-Emily 1
Ngayawang yes 15 done-Amalia 1
Muruwari yes 138 Done-Dan 1
Mayi-Yapi yes 59 done 1
Martuthunira yes 179-181 done 1
Marrgany No 317 Done-Amalia 0
Kuuk Thaayorre Yes 392 Done-Amalia 1
Kuku Yalanji yes 95 Done-Jessica 1
Kugu-Nganhcara yes 406 done-Amalia 1
Kaurna yes 18 done-Amalia 1
Kalkatungu no Done-Dan 0
Jaru no info Done-Amalia x
Guugu-Yimidhirr yes 93 Done-Amalia 1
Gureng Gureng no info Done-Amalia x
Gumbaynggirr no 303 done-Amalia 0
Gugu-Badhun no info done-Jessica x
Yuwaalaraay No info 59 x
Dyirbal No 246-9 done-Amalia 0
Duungidjawu no 104-105 done 0
Djinang Yes 167 Done-Amalia 1
Djabugay done
Diyari no info done-Hannah x
Dharawal no info done-Hannah w Dhurga) x
Darkinyung yes 45 done 1
Bularnu yes 78 Done-Austin 1
Biri no info done-Jessica x
Bidjara-Gungabula no info done-Jessica x
Batyala no info Done-Amalia x
Arabana yes 187 Done-Dan 1
Alyawarr no done 0
Nyikina no done-Claire 0
Yawuru Y-Claire
Yulparija Yes 37 Done-Amalia 1
Wathawurrung no info done x
Mathi-Mathi yes 98 done-Amalia 1
Hunter River and Lake Macquarie yes 77 done-Amalia 1
Thanggati no 42-3 done 0
Katthang no 77 done-Amalia 0
Panyjima yes 170, 175 done 1
Ngarinyeri yes 42 done-Amalia 1
Kurrama no info done-Dan x
Yingkarta no Done-Claire 0
Githabul yes 24 Done-Amalia 1
Gunya No 327 Done-Amalia 0
Kunjen yes 108 Done- 1
WesternTorres yes FO 134-5 done 1
Wakaya yes 212 done 1
Yindjilindji no info done x
Bandjalang No 94 Done-Amalia 0
Ngaatjatjara yes 120 done 1
Arrernte No 220 0
Kokatha No 28 0
Karajarri Yes 215 Done-Amalia 1
Pitjantjatjara Yes G 174 1
Ritharrngu Yes 74 Done-Amalia 1
Warrgamay Yes 55 Done-Amalia 1
Warluwarra yes 912 Done-Amalia 1
Warnman No 45 Done-Amalia 0
Djapu yes 129 1
Bilinarra yes done 1
Wiradjuri no info done x
Aghu-Tharnggala Yes 72 Y2 1
Narungga No info 74 done x
Tharrkari No 31 0
Wajarri No 96 0
Warungu no 0
Adnyamathanha Y2
Yagua yes irrealis Payne and Payne 1990:403 Daniel Smith
Baniwa no Ramirez 2001 Patience Epps