Sanumá

Family
Yanomaman
Region
South America
ISO 639-3
xsu
Location
1.32°, -67.65°
Notes
Features
Basic Vocabulary
Flora Fauna Vocabulary
Cultural Vocabulary
Grammatical Data
Ethnographic Information
Data Sources
Borgman, Donald M. 1990. Sanuma. In Derbyshire, Desmond C. and Pullum, Geoffrey K. (eds.), Handbook of Amazonian Languages, 15-248. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. Migliazza, Ernest C. 1972. Yanomama grammar and intelligibility. PhD diss, Indiana University. Taylor, Kenneth I. 1972. Sanuma (Yanoama) food prohibitions: the multiple classification of society and fauna. Ph.D. diss. Madison: University of Wisconsin.


Basic Vocabulary (192)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Etymology Notes Source Created By
above encima, arriba acima location hɨsɨka (EM72) hɨsɨka inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
again de nuevo, otra vez de novo grammar kõ, sota (EM72) kõ, sota inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
all todo todos other pewə (EM72) pewə inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
and y e grammar tsolo (EM72) tsolo inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
ankle tobillo tornozelo body missing See Language page Kelsey Neely
armpit axila, sobaco axila body missing See Language page Kelsey Neely
ash ceniza(s) cinzas environment mašta pɨ (EM72) maʃta pɨ unique See Language page Kelsey Neely
at en, a em, a location missing See Language page Kelsey Neely
back espalda costas body hõo hõo unique See Language page Kelsey Neely
belly barriga barriga body pili pɨsɨma, pɨsɨmɨ (EM72) pili pɨsɨma, pɨsɨmɨ (EM72) inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
below abajo, debajo abaixo location missing See Language page Kelsey Neely
big grande grande quality pata (animate, EM72), peepə (EM72) pata, peepə inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
bite morder morder body wɨtɨ (EM72) wɨtɨ inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
black negro preto colour uši (EM72) uʃi inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
blood sangre sangue body iə (EM72) inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
blow soplar soprar body hola (EM72) hola inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
boil/pimple espinilla, granos espinha, borbulha body missing See Language page Kelsey Neely
bone hueso osso body tũ (EM72) inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
breast pecho, seno peito body pili paluku (EM72) pili paluku (EM72) unique See Language page Kelsey Neely
breathe respirar respirar body henekemo (EM72) henekemo inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
burn quemar queimar environment ĩši (EM72) ĩʃi inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
chew masticar, mascar mastigar body wãšika (EM72) wãʃika inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
child niño, niña criança human ula (EM72, "boy"), uia (EM72, "boy"), suɨ ose (EM72 "girl"), moko (EM72 "girl") ula, uia, suɨ ose, moko inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
climb subir subir motion tu (EM72) tu inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
cloud nube nuvem environment ilaši tǝ ilaʃi tə inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
cold frío frio quality ɨsɨ holele ɨsɨ holele unique See Language page Kelsey Neely
come venir vir motion huima (EM72) huima inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
cook cocinar cozinhar impact tupa/ hali (EM72) tupa/ hali unique; inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
correct/true verdad, de veras verdade quality missing See Language page Kelsey Neely
count contar contar mental missing See Language page Kelsey Neely
cry llorar chorar mental ɨ̃kɨ (EM72) ɨ̃kɨ inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
cut/hack cortar cortar impact nasi to, pati (EM72) nasi to, pati unique; unique See Language page Kelsey Neely
day día dia time wakala (EM72 "light time") wakala (EM72 "light time") inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
die/be dead morir morrer state noma noma inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
dig cavar cavar impact tie, təkatha (EM72) tie, təkatʰa inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
dingo/wolf fauna missing See Language page Kelsey Neely
dirty sucio sujo quality tsami (EM72) tsami inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
dream soñar sonhar mental mani (EM72) mani inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
drink beber, tomar beber body koa koa inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
dry seco seco quality həwe, hãšiti (both EM72) həwe, hãʃiti inheritance; unknown metathesis? See Language page Kelsey Neely
dull/blunt sin filo, mocho, desafilado, embotado, romo maçante, desamolado, não afiado quality namošiipɨ (EM72) namoʃiipɨ unique See Language page Kelsey Neely
dust polvo poeira environment tsalelo (EM72) tsalelo unique See Language page Kelsey Neely
ear oreja orelha body tsɨmɨka (EM72) tsɨmɨka inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
earth/soil tierra terra environment mašitha (EM72 "earth") maʃitʰa inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
eat comer comer body wɨtɨ (bite, EM72), oa (EM72 transitive), ia (EM72 intransitive) wɨtɨ (bite, EM72), oa (EM72 transitive), ia (EM72 intransitive) inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
egg huevo ovo fauna thethe (EM72) tʰetʰe inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
eye ojo olho body mamo (EM72) mamo inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
faeces heces, mierda, excremento, estiércol fezes body missing See Language page Kelsey Neely
fall caer cair motion ke (EM72) ke inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
far lejos longe quality paa, paipɨ (EM72) paa, paipɨ inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
fat/grease grasa gordura body tapu tapu inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
father padre, papá pai kinship -ha, '-a -ha, '-a inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
fear miedo medo mental kili (EM72) kili inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
feather pluma pena fauna missing See Language page Kelsey Neely
fire fuego fogo environment koataka (EM72) koataka (EM72) inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
fish xx xx fauna salaga bɨ (edible fish only), tsaraka salaga bɨ, tsaraka inheritance See Language page Epps Research Team
flow fluir fluir motion kale (EM72) kale inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
flower flor flor environment holehole (EM72) holehole inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
fly volar voar motion kate kate unique See Language page Kelsey Neely
fog niebla, neblina nevoeira, bruma, neblina environment ilaši (EM72) ilaʃi inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
foot pie body pili ami pili ami inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
fruit fruta fruta flora thomothomo (EM72) tʰomotʰomo unique See Language page Kelsey Neely
good bueno bom quality tote, toita, topa (all EM72) tote, toita, topa (all EM72) inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
grow crecer crescer state tsəwə (EM72) tsəwə loan (into proto-language?) Arawak tawi- See Language page Kelsey Neely
hair (of head) cabello cabelo body henotɨk (EM72) henotɨk inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
hand mano mão body matha, ami (both EM72) matʰa, ami doubtful loan; inheritance compare Arutani maʃa 'hand' See Language page Kelsey Neely
head cabeza cabeça body pili he, hɨ̃ko (EM72 "face"), he (EM72 "head") pili he, hɨ̃ko, he inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
hear oír ouvir mental hini hini inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
heavy pesado pesado quality hute (EM72) hute inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
hide esconder esconder motion sotsama (EM72) sotsama unique See Language page Kelsey Neely
hit golpear, pegar bater impact tsə (EM72) tsə inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
hold correr, asegurar, sostener segurar other huɨ (EM72) huɨ inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
how? como como grammar mina, wina (EM72) mina, wina unique; inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
if si se grammar missing See Language page Kelsey Neely
in/inside dentro, adentro dentro location hišomiha (EM72) hiʃomiha inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
intestines intestinos intestinos body šikɨ (EM72) ʃikɨ inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
itch hormiguear, sentir comezón coçar body tsululu (EM72) tsululu unique See Language page Kelsey Neely
kill matar matar impact nomama nomama inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
lake lago lago environment kotsoto (EM72) kotsoto inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
laugh reír rir mental ĩka, ĩkapa (EM72) ĩka, ĩkapa doubtful loan into proto-language Maybe Arawak source; cf. Piapoco, Baniwa íkaa See Language page Kelsey Neely
leaf hoja folha environment hena hena inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
left/left hand izquierdo esquerdo location/body hai (EM72) hai inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
lie down acostarse, echarse deitar motion pili (EM72) pili inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
lightning rayo, relámpago relampago environment missing See Language page Kelsey Neely
live/be alive vivir viver, morar body missing See Language page Kelsey Neely
liver hígado figado body pili amugu, amokɨ (EM72) pili amugu, amokɨ (EM72) inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
long largo comprido, longo quality lape (EM72) lape inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
louse piollo, piojo piolho fauna noma (EM72) noma inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
lung pulmón pulmão body missing See Language page Kelsey Neely
meat/flesh carne carne fauna tsãi tə (EM72) tsãi tə inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
moon luna lua environment pilipoma (EM72) pilipoma (EM72) inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
mother madre, mamá mãe kinship #NAME? #NAME? inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
mouth boca boca body kai (EM72) kai (EM72) inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
name nombre nome human wãh, hito (both EM72) wãh, hito (both EM72) inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
nape base del cuello, nuca nuca body missing See Language page Kelsey Neely
near/close cerca de perto quality atepə (EM72) atepə inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
neck cuello pescoço body olai (EM72) olai inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
new nuevo novo quality tute tute inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
night noche noite time numi, luɨ (both EM72, "dark time") numi, luɨ (both EM72, "dark time") inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
no/not no não grammar pəla (EM72) pəla unique See Language page Kelsey Neely
nose nariz nariz body hũa, hĩso (both EM72) hũa, hĩso inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
old viejo velho quality ole (EM72, inanimate), pate tə (EM72, elderly, respected) ole, pate tə inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
one uno um number tsami (EM72) tsami (EM72) unique See Language page Kelsey Neely
open/uncover abrir abrir other hakopa (EM72) hakopa unique See Language page Kelsey Neely
other otro outro grammar ai ai inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
pain/painful/sick dolor, doloroso, enfermo dor, doloroso, doente body sali (EM72) sali inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
person/human being persona pessoa human tsanɨma tsanɨma inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
pound/beat machacar, golpear bater impact pasɨ (EM72) pasɨ inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
rain lluvia chuva environment maa te (EM72) maa te inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
red rojo vermelho colour hanaha hanaha unique See Language page Kelsey Neely
right/right hand derecha direita location/body kate (EM72) kate doubtful loan Tupi-Guarani See Language page Kelsey Neely
road/path camino caminho manufacture pilitso pilitso inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
root raíz raiz flora našikili (EM72) naʃikili inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
rotten podrido podre quality hote (EM72) hote inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
sand arena areia environment makamaka (EM72) makamaka (EM72) inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
say decir dizer mental ku ku inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
scratch rascar rasgar impact tikoko (EM72) tikoko inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
see ver ver mental mɨ, ta (both EM72) mɨ, ta (both EM72) inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
sharp afilado, filudo, filoso afiado quality namo (EM72) namo inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
shoot tirar, disparar, balear atirar impact nia (EM72) nia inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
short corto curto quality hototi (EM72) hototi inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
shoulder hombro ombro body hakanakɨ (EM72) hakanakɨ inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
shy/ashamed tímido, vergonzoso timido, com vergonha mental missing See Language page Kelsey Neely
sit sentar(se) sentar state lo (EM72) lo inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
skin piel pele body ɨsɨ (EM72) ɨsɨ inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
sky cielo céu environment hutumosɨ (EM72) hutumosɨ inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
sleep dormir dormir body mi (EM72) mi inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
small pequeño pequeno quality išinapɨ, wanipɨ (both EM72) iʃinapɨ, wanipɨ unique See Language page Kelsey Neely
smoke humo fumaça environment wãkiši (EM72) wãkiʃi inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
sniff/smell olfatear, oler cheirar body niša, ususa (EM72) niʃa, ususa inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
spit escupir cuspir body nakima (EM72) nakima unique See Language page Kelsey Neely
split partir, dividir rachar, dividir, partir impact patho, kaka (EM72) patho, kaka inheritance; unique See Language page Kelsey Neely
squeeze estrujar, exprimir espremer impact ãuhu, hutemo (EM72) ãuhu, hutemo inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
stab/pierce apuñalar, acuchillar apunhalar impact missing See Language page Kelsey Neely
stand estar de pié ficar em pé state ɨpa (EM72) ɨpa inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
star estrella estrela environment šitikali (EM72) ʃitikali loan (into protolanguage?) Carib, e.g. Pemon sírikɨ́ See Language page Kelsey Neely
steal robar roubar other thomɨmo (EM72) tʰomɨmo inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
stick/wood palo pau, vara flora hi ti (stick CL) hi ti (stick CL) unique See Language page Kelsey Neely
stone piedra pedra environment maama, maatama (both EM72) maama, maatama (both EM72) inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
suck chupar chupar body ususa, ukuka (EM72) ususa, ukuka inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
sweat sudar suor, suar body missing See Language page Kelsey Neely
swell hincharse inchar body hɨlɨ (EM72) hɨlɨ unique See Language page Kelsey Neely
swim nadar nadar motion helɨ (EM72) helɨ inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
tail cola, rabo rabo body pili sina (pili possibly denotes that it's part an animal?), šina (EM72) pili sina, ʃina inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
that ese/esa esse grammar mi, ki (both EM72) mi, ki (both EM72) inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
thick grueso, gordo, espeso grosso quality tsupe (EM72) tsupe inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
thin delgado fino quality patete (EM72) patete inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
think pensar pensar mental pii, piiku (EM72) pii, piiku inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
this este/esta este grammar hi (EM72) hi (EM72) inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
2sg xx xx grammar kawa (EM72) kawa inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
three tres tres number išinati (EM72 "few") iʃinati unique See Language page Kelsey Neely
throat garganta garganta body missing See Language page Kelsey Neely
throw tirar, lanzar atirar, jogar impact tsətsə (EM72) tsətsə inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
thunder truenos trovão environment tsani tə (EM72) tsani tə inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
tie up/fasten atar, amarrar amarrar impact õka (EM72) õka inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
tongue lengua lingua body aka (EM72) aka (EM72) inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
tooth diente dente body na (EM72) na (EM72) inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
turn girar, volter, torcer virar other hãkoma, ioto (EM72) hãkoma, ioto unique See Language page Kelsey Neely
two dos dois number polakapi (EM72) polakapi (EM72) inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
vomit vomitar vomitar body sua (EM72) sua inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
walk caminar, andar andar motion hu (EM72) hu inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
water agua agua environment maatu (EM72) maatu (EM72) unique See Language page Kelsey Neely
wet mojado molhado quality hela (EM72) hela (EM72) inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
what? que, qué que grammar kapite (EM72) kapite (EM72) unknown See Language page Kelsey Neely
when? cuando quando grammar mina kə, wena kə kutote (EM72) mina kə, wena kə kutote unique See Language page Kelsey Neely
where? donde onde grammar witi ha (EM72) witi ha inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
white blanco branco colour au, ausi (both EM72) au, ausi (both EM72) inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
who? quien, quién quem grammar witipilia (EM72) witipila inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
wife esposa esposa kinship -hɨsopɨ (EM72) - hɨsopɨ unique See Language page Kelsey Neely
wind viento vento environment ipoko (EM72) ipoko inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
wing ala asa body hatapɨna (EM72) hatapɨna unique See Language page Kelsey Neely
woman/female mujer mulher human suɨtə (EM72) suɨtə (EM72) inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
work trabajar trabalhar other kalipolo (EM72) kalipolo unique See Language page Kelsey Neely
yawn bostezar bocejar body kahilele (EM72) kahilele inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
yellow amarillo amarelo colour hanai, hane (both EM72) hanai, hane (both EM72) inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
bad mal mal quality wani wani inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
3sg el/ella ele/ela grammar ki (he she EM72), te (it inan. EM72) ki, te inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
1sg yo eu grammar kamitʃa kamitʃa inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
leg/foot pierna perna body wakɨ (EM72) wakɨ unique See Language page Kelsey Neely
man/male hombre homem human wanotə (EM72) wanotə (EM72) doubtful loan (into proto-language?) MAYBE Carib source; cf. warawok in Akawaio, warayoʔ in Macushi, warato in Pemon See Language page Kelsey Neely
3pl ellos/ellas eles/elas grammar ki tɨkɨ (dual EM72), ki tɨpɨ (pl. non-dist. EM72) ki tɨkɨ, ki tɨpɨ inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
know/be knowledgeable saber, conecer saber, conhecer mental ta (EM72) ta inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
1pl.incl nosotros (inclusivo) nós (inclusivo) grammar kamitšamak (pl. incl. EM72) kamitʃamak inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
1pl.excl nosotros (exclusivo) nós (exclusivo) grammar missing See Language page Kelsey Neely
2pl ustedes vocês grammar kaomak (plural EM72) kaomak (plural EM72) inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
bark corteza casca environment hɨɨsɨ (EM72) hɨɨsɨ inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
fingernail uña unha body nasɨ (EM72 "nail, claw") nasɨ (EM72 "nail, claw") inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
heart corazón coração body pili khoso, kotso (EM72) pili khoso, kotso (EM72) inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
sun sol sol time motokɨ (EM72) motokɨ inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
mountain/hill montaña, colina, loma, cerro morro, serra environment heu (EM72), maamakɨ (EM72) heu, maamakɨ inheritance; inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
green verde verde quality missing See Language page Kelsey Neely
hot caliente quente quality tsopi (EM72) tsopi (EM72) inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely


Flora Fauna Vocabulary (138)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Linnean Name Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Range of Term Word Structure Word Structure Notes Classifier Classifier Notes Hypernym Source Association with Social Categories Ritual/Mythologically Significant Ritual Notes Food Source Food Notes Medicinal Medicinal Notes How Collected Who Collects How Prepared Psychotropic Psychotropic Notes Traded Trade Notes Distribution Habitat Dangerous Ethnobiology Notes Species Notes General Notes Created By
achiote, anatto achiote urucum flora-fauna Bixa orellana missing missing See Language page 1 0 0 0 1 secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens no shrub Kelsey Neely
inga guaba, guamo, guama, shimbillo (Peru) inga flora-fauna Inga spp. kepu kepu inheritance missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens. North and South America (Brazil, Peru, Bolivia, Suriname, Colombia) no Kelsey Neely
agouti (black agouti, black-rumped agouti) Guatusa Negra, Añuje, Agutí (black-rumped), picure, jochi colorado cutia flora-fauna Dasyprocta spp. thomɨ a, thomɨ sianana a, thomɨ gɨgɨ (general classification?) tʰomɨ a, tʰomɨ sianana a, tʰomɨ kɨkɨ inheritance generic? also thomɨ a, thomɨ sianana a uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Kelsey Neely
alligator, black caiman babilla; cachirre jacaré flora-fauna Melanosuchus niger, Caiman schlerops; Paleosuchus sp. iwathama iwathama unknown cf. Carib 'iguana' iwana missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Throughout Amazonia no? Port term reportedly borrowed from Tupi Kelsey Neely
Amazon dolphin bufeo, delfín, tonina (del Orinoco) boto cor-de-rosa flora-fauna Inia geoffrensis missing missing See Language page 1 0 0 0 0 Downstream of major rapids and waterfalls no Kelsey Neely
mouse, rat ratón camundongo, rata flora-fauna Mus musculus tholobo a, tholobo suɨsuɨmɨ a, haza tholobo a, hotawa a, kasana a, kasitoli a, minagɨpisilema a, wanabanaima a, tholobo gɨgɨ (possible general term) tʰolobo a, tʰolobo suɨsuɨmɨ a, haʃa tʰolobo a, hotawa a, kasana a, kasitoli a, minagɨpisilema a, wanabanaima a, tʰolobo gɨgɨ (possible general term) inheritance missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Kelsey Neely
anaconda anaconda, boa, boa acuática grande sucuri flora-fauna genus Eunectes missing missing See Language page 2 0 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonia yes Kelsey Neely
angleworm lombriz minhoca flora-fauna order Opisthopora missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Kelsey Neely
ant (generic) hormiga formiga flora-fauna Formicidae šio (EM72), kutšiaka (EM72) (both species unknown) ʃio (EM72), kutʃiaka (EM72) inheritance missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Kelsey Neely
anteater oso hormiguero; tapia pelejo or pelejo chico for Cyclopes didactylus tamanduá flora-fauna Myrmecophaga tridactyla (giant anteater); Cyclopes didactylus (silky anteater) soko a (coll. Anteater), olosomɨ a (silky anteater), tebɨ a (giant anteater, tebɨ nase a (giant anteater), tebɨ bɨ (general classification?) soko a (coll. Anteater), olosomɨ a (silky anteater), tebɨ a (giant anteater, tebɨ nase a (giant anteater), tebɨ bɨ (general classification?) inheritance soko a (coll. Anteater), olosomɨ a (silky anteater), tebɨ a (giant anteater, tebɨ nase a (giant anteater), uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonian lowlands no Kelsey Neely
armadillo armadillo, carachupa (Peru), yangunturi (Peru for Giant armadillo) tatu flora-fauna family Dasypodidae; e.g. Priodontes maximus (Giant armadillo), Dasypus novemcinctus, Dasypus kappleri obo a, sagosɨ a, opo, waka a, mono a (EM72) obo a, sagosɨ a, opo, waka a, mono a (EM72) inheritance also waka a, mono a, obo a, sagosɨ a uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Widespread in Amazonia no Kelsey Neely
arrow cane, wildcane caña flecha, caña brava, caña isana cana para flechas, frecheira, Cana-do-rio flora-fauna Gynerium sagittatum missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 tropical regions, especially river banks no plant Kelsey Neely
avocado palta, aguacate abacate flora-fauna Persea americana missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens no tree Kelsey Neely
banana, plantain banano, banana, cambur, bellaco, variedad de plátano banana flora-fauna Musa sp. okoma (EM72) okoma (EM72) semantic shift prob. Heliconia uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Names for banana/plantain may be derived from bastard plantain by semantic shift. Kelsey Neely
bat murciélago morcego flora-fauna Chiroptera spp. hɨwɨ bɨ (general "bats") hɨwɨ bɨ doubtful loan into protolanguage, direction unknown Guahiban generic 'bat' uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Kelsey Neely
beans frijoles, frejol, caraotas (negras, rojas, blancas) feijão flora-fauna Phaseolus spp. missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no plant Kelsey Neely
honeybee abeja abelha flora-fauna Apis mellifera; Tetragonisca angustula; Trigona amazonensis himoto (EM72) himoto inheritance uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Kelsey Neely
bird pajaro, ave passaro flora-fauna tsalo tsalo inheritance uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Kelsey Neely
bitterwood tortuga caspi, pretina (Peru for tree and tumpline); carahuasca (Peru) envira flora-fauna Duguetia sp. OR Fusaea longifolia OR Guatteria chrysopetala missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 secondary forests, native to Brazil no tree Kelsey Neely
black palm bacaba, mapora, pusui, patabá bacaba flora-fauna Oenocarpus bacaba missing missing See Language page 2 1 0 0 0 Mature forests of Rio Negro and Upper Amazon no may be confused in some entries with O. bataua Kelsey Neely
boa boa; mantona (red-tailed boa); boa de altura jiboia flora-fauna family Boidae, subf. Boinae missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Kelsey Neely
bottle-gourd (vine) or calabash (tree) calabazo, calabaza; auyama (Dominican Republic and Venezuela), ayote (parts of Central America), zapallo (parts of South America), tutumo/totumo/totuma (Cresc tree), huingo (Peru for Crescentia cujete), tapara cabaça flora-fauna Crescentia cujete (round variety - tree); (Cucurbita) Lagenaria siceraria (bottle variety - vine) kaukusɨ ('calabash', EM72), holokoto ('gourd', EM72) kaukusɨ ('calabash', EM72), holokoto ('gourd', EM72) inheritance both terms inherited uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 indigenous gardens no plant; tree Kelsey Neely
brazil nut castaña castanha do para (B. excelsa); castanha de cutia (C. edulis) flora-fauna Bertholletia excelsa [cf. Couepia edulis 'castanha do cutia'] missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 1) Couepia: restricted area within Brazil, Rio Purus basin and middle Solimões. 2) Bertholletia: elev: consistently about 200m; mature forests. Widely distributed from Peru, E. Colombia, Brazil to Nicaragua. no tree Kelsey Neely
brown woolly monkey Mono Lanudo Común, Choro, Churucu, mono choro (Peru), mono lanudo cafe, barrigudo de Humboldt macaco barrigudo flora-fauna Lagothrix lagothricha wisa a wisa a unknown uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Kelsey Neely
bullet ant, lesser giant hunter ant conga, hormiga yanabe (Colombia), isula (Peru), Hormiga Veinticuatro tocandira flora-fauna Paraponera clavata ʃio, kutʃiaka ʃio, kutʃiaka missing (both species unknown) uncoded See Language page 2 0 0 0 0 yes Kelsey Neely
butterfly, moth mariposa borboleta flora-fauna order Lepidoptera missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Kelsey Neely
capybara Capibara, Carpincho, Ronsoco capivara flora-fauna Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris kazu a, katsu (EM72) kaʃu a, katsu loan (into protolg?) North Arawak e.g. Wapishana kaʃu uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Kelsey Neely
cashew anarcado, castaña de cajú, nuez de la India, marañon, cajú, merey (Venezuela) caju flora-fauna Anacardium occidentale / giganteum missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens no tree; most sources will not distinguish between occidentale and other varieties Kelsey Neely
cashew anarcado, castaña de cajú, nuez de la India, marañon, cajú, merey (Venezuela) caju flora-fauna Anacardium giganteum missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Brazil, Peru, Suriname, Venezuela, Guyana no
centipede ciempiés centopéia flora-fauna class Chilopoda missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Kelsey Neely
cicada cigarra, chicharra cigarra flora-fauna super fam. Cicadoidea missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Kelsey Neely
cipó vine tamishi, bejuco, yare cipó flora-fauna Heteropsis spp. thotho thotho missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 secondary forest, floodplain no vine Kelsey Neely
coca coca coca flora-fauna Erythroxylum coca missing missing See Language page 1 0 0 1 1 secondary scrub vegetation. lower alt. of eastern Andes no plant Kelsey Neely
cockroach cucaracha barata-do-mato flora-fauna order Blattaria missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Kelsey Neely
collared peccary sajino, pecarí de collar, jabalf, Javelina, Saíno, Pecarí de Collar caititu, caetitu flora-fauna Pecari tajacu, Tayassu tajacu pose a (unspec. Peccary) pose a (unspec. Peccary) inheritance also wale a (other unspecified peccary type) uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Kelsey Neely
cotamundi, coatimundi Coatí, Tejón, Achuni, zorro guache quati flora-fauna genus Nasua salusi a, salusi kɨsɨkɨsɨmɨ a, salusi gɨgɨ (possible general term) salusi a, salusi kɨsɨkɨsɨmɨ a, salusi kɨkɨ (possible general term) inheritance generic? also salusi a, salusi kɨsɨkɨsɨmɨ a uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Kelsey Neely
cotton algodón algodão flora-fauna Gossypium (barbadense: long fibers; hirsutum: short fibers) šinanu (EM72) ʃinanu doubtful loan Arawak: Piapoco sáawali uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 1 secondary scrub vegetation no plant; some sources may confound with kapok Ceiba pentandra (esp. if a single gloss for 'cotton' is given') Kelsey Neely
crab cangrejo caranguejo flora-fauna infraorder Brachyura õko bɨ (general "crabs"), oko (EM72) õko bɨ (general "crabs"), oko (EM72) inheritance uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Kelsey Neely
cricket saltón, grillo grilo flora-fauna family Gryllidae missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Kelsey Neely
curassow mitu, montete (Peru), paujil/panjuil (Peru), paujil de Salvin (Peru for Mitu salvini) mutum flora-fauna Crax sp., Nothocrax sp. paluli (EM72) paluli (EM72) inheritance uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Amazonia no Kelsey Neely
deer venado veado, cariacu flora-fauna family Cervidae, esp. Odocoileus virginianus haza a , haza kadumɨ a, haza gɨgɨ (general classification?) haʃa a , haʃa katumɨ a, haʃa kɨkɨ (general classification?) inheritance generic? also haza a , haza kadumɨ a uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Kelsey Neely
dog (camp, domestic) perro cachorro flora-fauna Canis famililaris poie (EM72) poie (EM72) unique uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 Not native; widespread no Kelsey Neely
dog (wild; bush dog) sachaperro, Perro de Monte, Zorro Vinagre, Guanfando; Zorro Ojizarco, Zorro Negro, Perro de Orejas Corta cachorro-do-mato flora-fauna Speothos venaticus; Atelocynus microtis missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonia no Kelsey Neely
dove paloma pomba flora-fauna family Columbidae missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Kelsey Neely
duck pato pato, marreco flora-fauna Anatidae family missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Kelsey Neely
edible palm-dwelling larva (palm weevil) suri, mojojoy larva, broca-do-coqueiro, aramandaiá flora-fauna Rhynchophorus sp. missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Kelsey Neely
electric eel anguila eléctrica poraquê flora-fauna Electrophorus electricus missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 yes Kelsey Neely
fish (generic) pez peixe flora-fauna salaga bɨ (edible fish only), tsaraka (EM72) salaga bɨ (edible fish only), tsalaka (EM72) inheritance salaga bɨ (edible fish only) uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Kelsey Neely
fish (large type) paiche, pirarucú o arapaima pirarucu flora-fauna Arapaima gigas missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 big rivers only no
fish poison, barbasco barbasco, matapez (Colombia) timbó flora-fauna Lonchocarpus spp. thoo thoo unique missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 secondary forests and secondary srcrub vegetation yes [used to poison people] shrub/tree Kelsey Neely
flea pulga pulga flora-fauna order Siphonaptera noma (EM72) noma inheritance uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Kelsey Neely
blowfly/housefly mosca mosca flora-fauna Diptera moo (EM72) mo: inheritance uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Kelsey Neely
genipap jagua, majagua - Colombia, caruto, xagua - Venezuela, bigrande - Bolivia, huito, yaguayagua - Peru, ygualti - Nicaragua, maluco - Mexico genipapo, jenipapo flora-fauna Genipapa americana missing missing See Language page 1 0 0 0 0 widespread lowland SA no shrub Kelsey Neely
giant otter Lobo Grande de Río, nutria gigante, lutria ariranha flora-fauna Pteronura brasiliensis hadamɨ hadamɨ missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Kelsey Neely
grass hierba, pasto capim, grama flora-fauna (generic) sĩsi sĩsi missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Kelsey Neely
gray-winged trumpeter Grulla, Trompetero Ala Gris jacamim flora-fauna Psophia crepitans missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Northern Amazonia (N of Solimões), not in northern Colombia; Dark-winged trumpeter is found south of Solimões no Kelsey Neely
great egret Garza Blanca, Guyratî Garça-Branca-Grande flora-fauna Ardea alba missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Widespread South America no Kelsey Neely
green acouchi Guatín, Punchana, curi, picurito rabudo, picurito rabilargo cutiara flora-fauna Myoprocta pratti missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Kelsey Neely
guan pava, pucacunga (Peru), pava de Spix (Peru) jacu flora-fauna Penelope sp. manasi manasi loan - WW %mare missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Different types have different localized ranges no Kelsey Neely
hallucinogenic vine, banisterium, ayahuasca ayahuasca, yage ayahuasca, caapi flora-fauna Banisteriopsis caapi missing missing See Language page 1 0 0 1 0 semi-domesticated, native to Amazonian basin, esp. NW no vine Kelsey Neely
hawk halcón, gavilán gavião flora-fauna family Accipitridae kokoi kokoi loan Arawak e.g. Yavitero kukuwi uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Kelsey Neely
horse caballo cavalho flora-fauna Equus caballus missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Kelsey Neely
hot pepper ají, pimentón/pimiento rojo, pucunucho (Peru), charapilla (Peru) pimenta flora-fauna Capsicum sp., principally chinensis and frutescens paki paki inheritance missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 secondary scrub vegetation, indigenous garden no plant Kelsey Neely
howler monkey (red-handed) mono aullador, mono coto (Peru) guariba flora-fauna Alouatta belzebul [or other Alouatta sp.] ilo a ilo a inheritance uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Kelsey Neely
hummingbird colibrí, picaflor (Peru) beija-flor flora-fauna family Trochilidae teso (EM72) teso (EM72) inheritance uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 Widespread no Kelsey Neely
iguana iguana, garipiares (Colombia) camaleão flora-fauna Iguana sp. missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no iguana' is reportedly from Arawak iwana Kelsey Neely
insect (generic) insecto insecto flora-fauna generic missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Kelsey Neely
jaguar yaguar, yaguareté, jaguar, otorongo (Peru), tigre (Peru) onca flora-fauna Panthera onca tului a, sanuna a?, ɨla (EM72) tului a, sanuna a?, ɨla (EM72) inheritance also sanuna a?, ɨla uncoded See Language page 1 2 0 0 0 yes Kelsey Neely
japurá oreja de murcielago japurá flora-fauna Erisma japura missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no large tree Kelsey Neely
kapok ceiba, huimba, lupuna (Peru for Ceiba sp.) sumaumeira flora-fauna Ceiba pentandra missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 northern South America and central America; common in disturbed areas no tree Kelsey Neely
açai palm huasí (Peru), asahi, manaca (Ven), asaí, palmiche (Colombia) açaí flora-fauna Euterpe sp. missing missing See Language page 2 1 0 0 0 floodplains, swamp; esp. northern Amazonia no Kelsey Neely
cará tuber, purple or white camote, sachapapa cará roxo, branco flora-fauna Dioscorea sp. missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 secondary scrub vegetation; forest clearings no plant Kelsey Neely
kingfisher martín pescador, catalan (Peru) martim-pescador flora-fauna family Alcedinidae missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonia no Kelsey Neely
leaf-cutter ant Colombia: zampopo, hormiga arriera; Venezuela: bachaco; Peru: curuhuinse saúva flora-fauna Atta sp. missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Kelsey Neely
firefly, lightning bug lampírido, luciérnaga (Peru), añañahui (Peru), cocuyo (attributed Taino origin) vagalume flora-fauna fam: Elateridae, Fengodidae, Lampyridae missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Kelsey Neely
macaw ara, guacamaya Arara flora-fauna family Psittacidae; Ara sp. ala (EM72, red), kulikatsa (EM72, blue) ala (EM72, red), kulikatsa (EM72, blue) loan into protolanguage - WW %arara Panare ara; see also Arawak, e.g. Mandawaka adáːlu. Also kulikatsa (blue macaw) WW %ara uncoded See Language page 1 1 0 0 1 Widespread Amazonia no Kelsey Neely
maize, corn mazorca, maiz milho flora-fauna Zea mays sinimo sinimo inheritance? missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 widespread, esp. in river floodplains no plant Kelsey Neely
manatee vaca marina, manatí peixe-boi flora-fauna Trichechus sp. missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Kelsey Neely
mandi catfish maparate (used in Peru for some types of catfish, including Auchenipterus sp.), cunchi (used in Peru for some types of catfish), bagre (catfish) mandi flora-fauna Auchenipterus sp. missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonia no Kelsey Neely
manioc (bitter or generic) yuca brava mandioca flora-fauna Manihot esculenta našikoko (EM72) naʃikoko inheritance uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 not generally cultivated in western (subAndean) Amazon. Arroyo-Kalin (2010) argues for a correlation with distribution of dark earths, mostly formed after 1AD, and the modeled-incised pottery tradition. no Provides more starch and is more pest-resistant than the sweet variety, but requires much processing. Arroyo-Kalin (2010) proposes that bitter type was developed from sweet through post-ceremic agricultural intensification (motivated by high starch yield Kelsey Neely
manioc (sweet) yuca, caribe macaxeira flora-fauna Manihot esculenta walemo koko (EM72) walemo koko (EM72) unknown uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Primary staple in western/subAndean Amazonia, less important elsewhere no No processing required, but lower starch yield and pest resistance than bitter variety Kelsey Neely
miriti palm moriche (Col, Ven), aguaje (Col, Peru), achual, miriti buriti flora-fauna Mauritia flexuosa missing missing See Language page 2 1 0 0 0 Brazil, Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guyana, Peru, Venezuela; in and near swamps no trunks contain sago-like starch Kelsey Neely
mosquito mosquito, zancudo mosquito, carapana flora-fauna Anopheles sp. ukišili ukiʃili inheritance uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Kelsey Neely
moth mariposa nocturna, polilla mariposa flora-fauna order Lepidoptera missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Kelsey Neely
mushroom champiñón, hongo cogumelo flora-fauna (any edible generic) missing missing See Language page 0 2 0 0 0 no prioritize generic term that includes any edible species Kelsey Neely
neotropical otter (small) Nutria, Lobo de Agua, lobito de rio, perro de agua (Colombia) lontra flora-fauna Lontra longicaudis plolo plolo inheritance also hadamɨ a uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Kelsey Neely
opossum zarigüeya, rabipelado, zorro, zorrillo mucura flora-fauna family Didelphidae pumodomɨ a, pumodomɨ tanama a pumodomɨ a, pumodomɨ tanama a unique uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Kelsey Neely
owl (large) búho, lechuza corujão flora-fauna order Strigiformes missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 Widespread no Kelsey Neely
paca (lowland) Guanta, Paca, Majaz, majás (Peru), labba (Guyana) paca flora-fauna Cuniculus paca (Agouti paca is sometimes used as well although cuniculus is the correct term.) amotha a amotʰa a inheritance uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Kelsey Neely
pacu fish palometa, garopita, garopa, curhuara (Peru) pacu flora-fauna Mylossoma sp. missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Kelsey Neely
palm for roof thatch pui, irapay, hoja de irapay, caraná caraná flora-fauna Mauritiella armata OR Lepidocaryum tenue (irapay), Mauritius carana missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 Mauritia carana is limited principally to the Rio Negro and Upper Orinoco regions; dry catinga forests no palm Kelsey Neely
parrot loro real, loro (Sp. form is a loan from Carib) papagaio flora-fauna Amazona amazonica kulikiasa bɨ (general term "parrots") kulikiasa bɨ (general term "parrots") loan - WW %kuli Baniwa; Yavitero kul'i-kul'i uncoded See Language page 1 0 0 0 1 Widespread no Kelsey Neely
paxiuba palm pona, huacrapona, cashapona, macanilla, pachiuba paxiuba flora-fauna Iriartea exorrhiza OR Iriartea deltoidea missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonia no palm Kelsey Neely
peach palm, pejibaye palm chontaduro (Col, Ecuador); pipire (Col); pijuayo (Peru), pijiguao (Ven); tembe (Bol) pupunha flora-fauna Bactris gasipaes missing missing See Language page 2 1 0 0 0 no Kelsey Neely
peanut maní (may be loan from Taino Arawak), cacahuete amendoim flora-fauna Arachis hypogaea missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no plant Kelsey Neely
pineapple piña abacaxi flora-fauna Ananas comosus missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no plant Kelsey Neely
pirana piraña, caribe piranha flora-fauna subfamily Serrasalmidae missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonia no [not in this region] Kelsey Neely
porcupine puerco espín, erizo (Peru), casha cushillo (Peru) cuandu, porco-espinho flora-fauna family Erethizontidae hiwala a, hoobɨ a hiwala a, ho:bɨ a inheritance uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Kelsey Neely
potato papa batata flora-fauna Solanum tuberosum missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 secondary scrub vegetation no compare entries for sweet potato Kelsey Neely
praying mantis, stick insects mantis religiosa louva-a-deus flora-fauna order Mantodea, family Mantidae missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Kelsey Neely
rubber tree (sorva) caucho, siringa, shiringa seringa, borracha flora-fauna Hevea sp. missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonia no tree Kelsey Neely
scorpion escorpión; alacran escorpião flora-fauna order Scorpiones missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 yes Kelsey Neely
seje palm ungurahui (Peru), palma de seje, milpesos, patabá patoá, patuá flora-fauna Jessenia bataua, aka Oenocarpus bataua missing missing See Language page 2 1 0 0 0 mostly north of Equator; common in Amazonia no may be confused with O. bacaba - compare entries Kelsey Neely
sloth pereza, pelejo (Peru), perezoso (Peru) macaco preguica flora-fauna Choloepus sp., Bradypus sp. simɨ a, saulemɨ a, simɨ gɨgɨ (possible general term) simɨ a, saulemɨ a, simɨ gɨgɨ (possible general term) inheritance simɨ a, saulemɨ a uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonia no Kelsey Neely
small lizard lagartija calango flora-fauna order Squamata sɨlasi bɨ (general "lizards") sɨlasi bɨ (general "lizards") unique Broader (generic 'lizard') uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Kelsey Neely
snail caracol, churo (Peru) caracol flora-fauna class Gastropoda missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Kelsey Neely
snake (generic) culebra, serpiente cobra flora-fauna olɨgɨgɨ (edible snakes only), olɨkɨkɨ (EM72) olɨgɨgɨ (edible snakes only), olɨkɨkɨ (EM72) inheritance Narrower (edible snakes only) uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Kelsey Neely
snake (poisonous generic) or rattlesnake víbora (Peru), jergón (Peru), yarara jararaca flora-fauna Bothrops jararaca/atrox aloamɨgɨgɨ aloamɨgɨgɨ inheritance uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 Widespread South America yes Kelsey Neely
speckled catfish surubí, pintadillo surubim, sorubim flora-fauna Pseudoplatystoma sp. missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonia no Kelsey Neely
spider araña aranha flora-fauna Arachnidae, Araneae missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Kelsey Neely
squash calabaza, calabacines, auyamas, zapallos, huingo (Peru) abóbora flora-fauna Cucurbita sp. missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no plant Kelsey Neely
squirrel ardilla, danta (Ven) serelepe, quatipuru, esquilo flora-fauna family Sciuridae wazabasi a (unspecified species), wazabasi kusukusumɨ a (unspecified), wazabasi gɨgɨ (possible general term) waʃabasi a (unspecified species), waʃabasi kusukusumɨ a (unspecified), waʃabasi gɨgɨ (possible general term) inheritance Carib Mapoyo wayari, or Quechua waywash, see also Ashuar (Q loan); generic? also wazabasi a (unspecified species), wazabasi kusukusumɨ a (unspecified) uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Kelsey Neely
stingray (generic) rayas látigo, raya arraia flora-fauna Potamotrygon sp. missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Kelsey Neely
potato, sweet potato camote, batata dulce, batata, cumara batata-doce flora-fauna Ipomoea batatas missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no plant Kelsey Neely
tapir sachavaca, danta anta flora-fauna Tapirus terrestris sama a, tsama (EM72) sama a, tsama (EM72) inheritance tsama (Migliazza 1972) uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Kelsey Neely
termites, white-ants comején (Peru), termitas cupim flora-fauna order Isoptera missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Kelsey Neely
tick garrapata carrapato flora-fauna superfam Ixodoidea missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Kelsey Neely
tigerfish taraira, guabina, huasaco (Peru) traíra flora-fauna Hoplias sp. missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonia no Kelsey Neely
tinamou tinamu, perdiz, gallineta inambu, inhambu flora-fauna family Tinamidae missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonia no Kelsey Neely
toad sapo sapo flora-fauna order Anura sozo bɨ (general "toads") soʃo bɨ inheritance uncoded See Language page 0 2 0 0 0 no Kelsey Neely
tobacco tabaco tabaco flora-fauna Nicotiana tabacum pini (EM72) pini (EM72) inheritance uncoded See Language page 1 0 0 0 1 no plant Kelsey Neely
tortoise (red foot, yellow foot/giant) tortuga, morrocoy, motelo jabutí, tartaruga flora-fauna Yellow-footed: Geochelone denticulata; Red-footed: Geochelone carbonaria missing missing See Language page 2 1 0 0 0 Widespread no Kelsey Neely
toucan tucán, pinsha (Peru) tucano flora-fauna Ramphastos sp. mazubɨ bɨ (general "toucans"), matsupɨ (EM72) maʃubbɨ bɨ (general "toucans"), matsupɨ (EM72) inheritance generic 'toucan' uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonia no Kelsey Neely
tree árbol arvore flora-fauna hiiti (EM72) hiiti inheritance uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Kelsey Neely
tufted capuchin monkey mono negro (Peru), Machín Negro, Maicero Cachón, mono maicero macaco prego flora-fauna Cebus apella missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Kelsey Neely
cunuri (tree) cunuri cunuri flora-fauna Cunurea spruceana missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Amazonia no
ucuqui yugo, caimitillo del monte (Peru) ucuqui flora-fauna Pouteria ucuqui missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 native to NW Amazonia, found primarily in Vaupes and Caqueta regions no other species of Pouteria exist and have much-used edible fruit; these can be subsituted where relevant Kelsey Neely
vulture buitre, gallinazo, rinahui (Peru) urubu flora-fauna family Cathartidae missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 Widespread South America no Kelsey Neely
wasp avispa; specific type: ronzapa/ronsapa caba flora-fauna order Hymenoptera, sub: Apocrita kobinana bɨ (general term "wasps") kobinana bɨ (general term "wasps") inheritance generic 'wasp' uncoded See Language page 0 2 0 0 0 no Kelsey Neely
white-fronted capuchin Machín Blanco, mono blanco, Maicero Cariblanco, mono blanco (Peru) Caiarara flora-fauna Cebus albifrons waasi a wa:si a loan North Arawak, prob. Yavitero huatsĩ Yavitero huatsĩ 'tufted capuchin' uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Kelsey Neely
white-fronted spider monkey Machin Blanco, Mono Araña de Vientre Amarillo, maquisapa (Peru), braceadora (Colombia) macaco aranha, coatá, quatá flora-fauna Ateles belzebuth/paniscus paso a (spider monkey) paso a (spider monkey) inheritance uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Kelsey Neely
white-lipped peccary Chancho de Monte, Cariblanco, Huangana queixada flora-fauna Tayassu pecari wale wale inheritance missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Kelsey Neely
Amazon tree-grape uva de monte, uvilla (Peru), puruma, caime, caimarona (and variants; Col.) cucura flora-fauna Pourouma cecropiifolia missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 grows wild in Western Amazon basin; cultivated in Colombia since pre-Colombian times no a tree; not a true grape Kelsey Neely
woodpecker pájaro carpintero, carpintero pica-pau flora-fauna family Picidae missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonia no Kelsey Neely
tannia, yautia huitina (Peru), ñame taioba branca flora-fauna Xanthosoma spp. missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Kelsey Neely
hallucinogenic snuff vilca, cebil, yopo paricá, yopo flora-fauna Anadenanthera sp. or virola sagona sai (from tree of Myristicacae family) sagona sai See Language page Kelsey Neely
dog (camp, domestic) perro cachorro flora-fauna poie poie unique See Language page Epps Research Team
deer venado veado, cariacu flora-fauna haza a , haza kadumɨ a, haza gɨgɨ (general classification?) haza a, haza kadumɨ a, haza gɨgɨ inheritance See Language page Epps Research Team


Cultural Vocabulary (97)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Word Structure Word Structure Notes General Notes Source Created By
basket (general) canasta, canasto, cesta cesto culture-material inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
basket, small canasta, canasto, cesta cesto pequeno, tampado culture-material wɨ (EM72) See Language page Kelsey Neely
bead abalorio, mostacilla, cuenta, gota, puca; necklace=collar miçanga culture-material mazulu mazulu loan Arawak, cf. Warekena majúlu; see also Makiritare maju:du See Language page Kelsey Neely
bed cama cama culture-material missing See Language page Kelsey Neely
hammock hamaca, chinchorro rede culture-material makamothotho (EM72) makamotʰotʰo inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
bench, seat banco, silla, asiento banco culture-material missing See Language page Kelsey Neely
canoe canoa canoa transport kutiata kutiata unknown maybe %kanawa See Language page Kelsey Neely
drum (large signal) tambor, manguaré, maguaré (Colombia) tambor culture missing Used to be used by Tukanoan peoples (and others?), sound carried for long distances See Language page Kelsey Neely
drum tambor tambor culture-mythology missing See Language page Kelsey Neely
shaman, healer chamán, brujo xaman, pajé, feiticeiro culture-mythology sapuli sapuli inheritance In RN region, there is typically one person per village (if that) who is a full-fledged 'shaman'. He is very much a specialist and has considerable power to cure, as well as power to curse. He is respected and feared. Shamans are thought to turn themselv See Language page Kelsey Neely
healer curandero benzador, curandeiro, kumu (Tukano) culture-mythology Refers to a lower-level healer; in RN region, most older men in a village have this capacity, and command a repertoire of healing spells. Power is primarily for good, whereas the true shaman is capable of malignant acts as well. See Language page Kelsey Neely
broom escoba vassoura culture-material missing See Language page Kelsey Neely
clothing ropa roupa culture-mythology missing See Language page Kelsey Neely
fence, palisade cerco cerca other missing may be related to defense/warfare? See Language page Kelsey Neely
firewood leña lenha other thalõkõ thalõkõ inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
Curupira (spirit type) Curupira, Madremonte Curupira culture-mythology malignant forest spirit, covered with long hair, feet turned backward; in Upper Rio Negro region See Language page Kelsey Neely
ghost (of dead person)/evil spirit espíritu malo, espíritu maligno, fantasma, demonio espirito culture-mythology sai dɨbɨ sai dɨbɨ inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
deity/powerful spirit/culture figure dios(es), deidad divinidade, figura mítica culture-mythology missing In RN region, frequently translates as 'Bone-Son', 'One on the bone', etc. See Language page Kelsey Neely
flute flauta, quena (Peru) flauta culture-mythology missing multiple types? japurutu, deer-bone, etc. See Language page Kelsey Neely
panpipe carrizo, zampoñas, flautas de pan, rondadora caniço, flauta de pã culture-mythology See Language page Kelsey Neely
hollow log/trough for beer-making canoa para chicha cocho de caxiri narcotics See Language page Kelsey Neely
ritual song cycle (kapiwaya) kapiwaya capiwaya culture-mythology See Language page Kelsey Neely
knife cuchillo faca culture-material boa (large cutting tool, esp. for meat), thomɨnakɨ(EM72) boa, tʰomɨnakɨ semantic shift (axe?); inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
machete machete facão culture-material boasai (Brazilian machete) boasai (Brazilian machete) semantic shift from 'knife' See Language page Kelsey Neely
axe/stone axe hacha (de piedra) machado (de pedra) subsistence tool boa hẽdu (hatchet) boa hẽdu (hatchet) inheritance? especially for clearing fields See Language page Kelsey Neely
arrow flecha flecha subsistence tool silaga, arali nam (barbed arrow head made of arali tree), šilaka (EM72) silaga, aɹali nam, ʃilaka inheritance hunting, warfare See Language page Kelsey Neely
spear lanza lança subsistence tool sokopi, laga (large lance point), laga alugusiai (smaller lance point), samha, sokopi (EM72) sokopi, laka (large lance point), laka alugusiai (smaller lance point), samha (EM72) inheritance; unknown See Language page Kelsey Neely
bow arco arco subsistence tool silaka nahi (EM72) silaka nahi (EM72) inheritance arco See Language page Kelsey Neely
paddle/oar remo remo transport saka saka unique See Language page Kelsey Neely
plate plato prato culture-material missing See Language page Kelsey Neely
pot olla, pote panela, vasilha subsistence tool hapoka hapoka inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
basin/bowl tazón, plato hondo, taza tijela culture-material missing See Language page Kelsey Neely
griddle for cooking flatbread tiesto (Colombia), budare (Venezuela), tortera (Peru) forno para beiju subsistence tool missing agriculture? See Language page Kelsey Neely
rattle matraca, maraca marico, chocalho culture-mythology missing See Language page Kelsey Neely
resin resina, brea, copal resina, brea, breu subsistence tool missing See Language page Kelsey Neely
wax cera cera other missing See Language page Kelsey Neely
honey miel mel food pu pu inheritance only gathered in wild throughout Amazonia? See Language page Kelsey Neely
stone for lighting fires piedra para hacer fuego pedra para acender fogo culture-material See Language page Kelsey Neely
rope/string mecate, cuerda, soga corda culture thãi thatha, thothotho (EM72) tʰãi tʰatʰa, tʰotʰotʰo inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
tattoo tatuaje, tatu tatuagem culture-mythology See Language page Kelsey Neely
thatch/roof crisneja palha, caraná culture-material missing See Language page Kelsey Neely
yurupari, jurupari (or any flutes forbidden to women) yurupari jurupari culture-mythology a ritual complex in various parts of Amazonia involving sacred flutes/trumpets, forbidden to women. See Language page Kelsey Neely
fetish, charm fetiche, encanto, filtro de amor, pusanga feitiço, puçanga culture-mythology See Language page Kelsey Neely
feather headdress plumaje, corona de plumas enfeite/capacete de penas culture-mythology See Language page Kelsey Neely
paint body, body paint pintura corporal pintura corporal culture-mythology See Language page Kelsey Neely
afterworld, land of dead, Heaven tierra do los muertos terra dos mortos culture-mythology See Language page Kelsey Neely
school escuela escola acculturation (lit. 'the house in order to customarily explain paper to us') (lit. 'the house in order to customarily explain paper to us') See Language page Kelsey Neely
bottle botella garrafa acculturation teia te (Pt) teia te (Pt) See Language page Kelsey Neely
paper papel papel acculturation waheta (Pt) waheta (Pt) loan Span/Port 'papel' See Language page Kelsey Neely
dream sueño, soñar sonho, sonhar culture-mythology mani mani See Language page Kelsey Neely
chicken gallina galinha acculturation kalaka kalaka loan - WW %karaka See Language page Kelsey Neely
grave tumba, sepultura, sepulcro sepultura, sepulcro, cova culture-mythology See Language page Kelsey Neely
pipe for tobacco pipa cachimbo other See Language page Kelsey Neely
sugarcane/sugar azúcar, caña de azúcar açucar (de cana) acculturation pu pu See Language page Kelsey Neely
skirt falda, saya, fustan, pollera saia culture-material missing See Language page Kelsey Neely
shoes zapatos sapatos dress See Language page Kelsey Neely
policeman polícia policía acculturation See Language page Kelsey Neely
soldier soldado soldado acculturation sotato sotato loan Span/Port soldado See Language page Kelsey Neely
cat gato gato acculturation missing See Language page Kelsey Neely
gun arma, escopeta espingarda, fusil acculturation atakusa atakusa loan Span arcabuz, via Carib See Language page Kelsey Neely
hat sombero chapéu dress missing See Language page Kelsey Neely
chief/leader jefe, cacique chefe culture-mythology missing See Language page Kelsey Neely
club garrote, cachiporra clava, porrete subsistence tool missing See Language page Kelsey Neely
loincloth taparrabos, guayuco, pampanilla tanga, tapa-sexo dress See Language page Kelsey Neely
fireplace hogar lareira other See Language page Kelsey Neely
fishing line cordel/cuerda p/ pescar, sedal, tanze linha de pesca subsistence tool See Language page Kelsey Neely
salt sal sal food missing See Language page Kelsey Neely
song (generic) canción, canto canção culture-mythology ama ama inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
blowgun cerbatana, pucuna (Peru) zarabatana subsistence tool missing currently limited to certain groups (favoring h-g orientation, e.g. Nadahup) within RN region See Language page Kelsey Neely
dart (blowgun) dardo, birote (Peru), bala (Peru) dardo, seta subsistence tool hunting and warfare See Language page Kelsey Neely
fan abanico abanador, abano subsistence tool tsauha (EM72) tsauha (EM72) inheritance esp. for fanning a cooking fire See Language page Kelsey Neely
fish (with line) anzuelear, pescar con linea pescar (com linha) food tsokɨ (EM72) tsokɨ (EM72) See Language page Kelsey Neely
fish (with fish-poison) pescar con barbasco, barbasquear pescar com timbó; tinguijar food missing See Language page Kelsey Neely
hunt cazar caçar food nama hu (EM72) nama hu (EM72) See Language page Kelsey Neely
game animal caza, animal de caza caça, animal de caça food tsalo (EM72) tsalo (EM72) inheritance Interesting correlation to 'fish' in Tukanoan languages See Language page Kelsey Neely
gourd (dipper/bowl) cucharón, pate (Peru), totomo, totuma, totumo cuia subsistence tool kaukusɨ ('calabash', EM72), holokoto ('gourd', EM72) kaukusɨ ('calabash', EM72), holokoto ('gourd', EM72) unknown; doubtful loan (into protolg?) - WW %koto/matoko See Language page Kelsey Neely
grater rallador, rallo ralador, ralo subsistence tool hɨlɨka (EM72) hɨlɨka inheritance esp. for grating manioc, but can be used for other things as well See Language page Kelsey Neely
grid of sticks for smoking meat or placing objects (shelf) barbacoa jirau subsistence tool missing See Language page Kelsey Neely
mortar mortero pilão subsistence tool missing See Language page Kelsey Neely
pestle pilón, mano de mortero, mazo, moledor mão de pilão subsistence tool See Language page Kelsey Neely
fermented drink masato, chicha caxiri, chicha culture missing prioritizes manioc beer where distinction is made See Language page Kelsey Neely
flour/meal from manioc fariña, mañoco (Venezuela); harina farinha food missing agriculture See Language page Kelsey Neely
flat bread, cassava bread pan de yuca, casabe/cazabe beiju food ĩšaai (EM72) ĩʃa:i unique manioc' forms not missing initial /n/ usually manioc; agriculture, but also can be made from certain wild seeds/fruits See Language page Kelsey Neely
starch (tapioca, other) almidón goma de tapioca food missing See Language page Kelsey Neely
tapioca drink, mingau cahuana, caguana mingau food missing agriculture See Language page Kelsey Neely
tipiti (manioc squeezer) tipiti, matafrio, sebucán, exprimador, prensa para yuca tipiti food missing word of Tupi origin; agriculture: specifically for squeezing poison out of manioc See Language page Kelsey Neely
tripod for washing manioc trípode tripé subsistence tool agriculture See Language page Kelsey Neely
venom for darts, poison veneno curare subsistence tool missing hunting, currently is falling out of use in Vaupés region, associated primarily with h-g groups (but this may be recent?) See Language page Kelsey Neely
woven strainer/sieve colador tejido, cedazo (Peru), cernedor (Peru) peneira, cumatá subsistence tool missing agriculture? commonly used for sifting dry manioc flour See Language page Kelsey Neely
bait for fishing cebo, carnada para pescar, empate (Peru) isca subsistence tool can refer to worms; more generic See Language page Kelsey Neely
fishtrap trampa de peces, trampa matapi, cacuri subsistence tool See Language page Kelsey Neely
bottom grinding stone manufacture missing if different word from top grinding stone See Language page Kelsey Neely
digging stick subsistence tool missing See Language page Kelsey Neely
top grinding stone metate, mano; piedra de moler metate, mano manufacture missing use word for top grinding stone if different from bottom stone See Language page Kelsey Neely
boomerang/throwing stick (generic) subsistence tool missing See Language page Kelsey Neely
spearthrower subsistence tool missing See Language page Kelsey Neely
house other tsai (EM72) tsai (EM72) inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely


Grammatical Data (226)
Category Grammatical Feature Grammatical Feature: Notes Feature Status Phonemicized Form Orthographic Form Grammatical Notes Source Created By Etymology Notes General Notes Phylogenetic Code
Phonology - Segmental Pre-/post-nasalized stops Analysis posits that the stop is the most relevant underlying phoneme. Comment in notes on whether the nasal contour is understood as a phonetic (allophonic) effect, or is phonologically contrastive. no Migliazza 1972: p.38-39 Kelsey Neely
Phonology - Segmental Glottalized/ejective consonants Phonemic contrast [NOT counting glottal stop/fricative] no Migliazza 1972: p.38-39 Kelsey Neely
Phonology - Segmental Palatalized stops Phonemic contrast no allophonic palatalization does exist, some attributed to Makiritare Carib influence Migliazza 1972: p.214 Kelsey Neely palatalization of k before i, possible Makiritare feature.
Phonology - Segmental Phonemic vowel length Does the language have long and short vowels? no Migliazza 1972: p. 38-39 Kelsey Neely
Phonology - Segmental Phonemic glottalization/laryngealization of vowels no Migliazza 1972: p. 38-39 Kelsey Neely
Phonology - Segmental Complex onsets Onset consists of more than one consonant phoneme no Migliazza 1972: p.205 Kelsey Neely
Phonology - Segmental No codas *(C)VC [no also equals highly constrained] yes Migliazza 1972: p.205 Kelsey Neely
Phonology - Segmental Word-final coda required Do all syllables end in a consonant? no Migliazza 1972: p.205 Kelsey Neely
Phonology - Suprasegmental Contrastive tones Note how many contrastive tones no Migliazza 1972: p. 38-39 Kelsey Neely
Phonology - Suprasegmental Contrastive stress Does stress occur on different syllables with meaning difference? no Migliazza 1972: p. 38-39 Kelsey Neely
Phonology - Suprasegmental Nasalization property of morpheme or syllable In contrast to nasalization as a property of segments yes Migliazza 1972: p.208-213 Kelsey Neely
Phonology - Suprasegmental Nasal spreading across some morpheme boundaries Do some affixes or other morphemes take the nasal/oral properties of the root they attach to? no info nasalization is a property of the morpheme, but there is no info on whether or not this spreads throughout words Migliazza 1972: p. 206 Kelsey Neely morphemic
Phonology - Suprasegmental Vowel harmony yes Migliazza 1972: p.158 Kelsey Neely Many yanomama pronouce everything partially nasalized
Morphology - General Verbal fusion (2+ categories marked by portmanteau morphemes on verb) Verb combines two or more categories (tense, aspect, mood, person, number, etc.) in portmanteau morphemes{ [ignore proclitics unless they are fused with values other than person/number] yes with certain evidentials Borgman 1990: 170 Kelsey Neely
Morphology - General Inflection manifested by replacement of segmental or suprasegmental phonemes Stem change, tone no Borgman 1990 Kelsey Neely no evidence for this
Morphology - General Verbal synthesis (1+ inflectional categories marked by verbal affixes) Morphological complexity in verbs - multiple inflectional affixes in a single verb word yes Borgman 1990: p.164-186 Kelsey Neely inferred from examples with multiple verbal suffixes denoting aspect, tense, or other categories
Morphology - General Prefixing/suffixing inflectional morph: strongly prefixing There are many more prefixes than suffixes no Borgman 1990 Kelsey Neely inferred from examples throughout text
Morphology - General Prefixing/suffixing inflectional morph: strongly suffixing There are many more suffixes than prefixes yes Borgman 1990 Kelsey Neely inferred from examples throughout text
Morphology - General Prefixing/suffixing inflectional morph: roughly equal or one weakly preferred The numbers of suffixes and prefixes are not notably different no Borgman 1990 Kelsey Neely inferred from examples throughout text
Morphology - General Reduplication: full The full morpheme is reduplicated yes Borgman 1990: p.198 Kelsey Neely
Morphology - General Reduplication: partial Only part of the morpheme is reduplicated no info Kelsey Neely
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Productive NN compounding Noun compounds created from two noun phrases are common and systematically produced no info Kelsey Neely
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Productive VV serialization (without compounding) Verb roots can be combined in a single predicate without markers of subordination (distinct from subordinating construction) or distinct inflection no info Kelsey Neely
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Productive VV compounding Serial verb constructions involve chaining of roots together in one morphophonological word yes usually involves an intransitive verb Borgman 1990: p.208 Kelsey Neely
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Verb-adjunct (aka light verb) constructions There is a set of semantically weak verbs used in complex verbal constructions, e.g. 'take a nap' no info Kelsey Neely
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Auxiliary verb(s) There are verbs that accompany main verbs of clauses and take grammatical marking not expressed by main verbs yes Borgman says it "can be considered" an auxiliary Borgman 1990: p.207 Kelsey Neely
Morphology - Incorporation Incorporation of nouns into verbs is a productive intransitivizing process Verb contains nominal segment yes doesn't intransitivize. Borgman analyzes this as "Verb Head compounds" (N and V compound). This structure is more or less identical to N incorporation in Yanomami Borgman 1990: p.207-208 Kelsey Neely
Morphology - Incorporation Productive incorporation of other elements (adjectives, locatives, etc.) into verbs Like noun incorporation, but incorporated elements are not nouns yes adverbs Borgman 1990: p.204 Kelsey Neely
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Noun classes/genders Nouns are organized into sets with distinct morphological treatment; usually affects all nouns and involves agreement within the NP no Borgman 1990: p.144-147 Kelsey Neely
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Number of noun classes/genders Note the (approximate) total number of noun classes/genders no Borgman 1990: p.144-147 Kelsey Neely
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Noun classifiers (distinct from noun classes/genders) Nouns are organized into sets, but only a limited set of nouns may be implicated, with no or limited agreement marking. If only numeral classifiers exist, indicate yes but explain. yes thin: /ösö/, root/: /koko/, rope: /thoto/, hard fruit: /ma/ about 15 Borgman 1990: p. 144-147 Kelsey Neely
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Sex is a relevant category in noun class(ification) system for animates Masculine, feminine, neuter no Borgman 1990: p. 144-151 Kelsey Neely no mention of sex distinction
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Sex is a relevant category in noun class(ification) system for inanimates no Borgman 1990: p.144-151 Kelsey Neely no mention of sex distinction
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Animacy (w/o reference to sex) is a relevant category in the noun class(ification) system Animate/inanimate, human/non-human no info Kelsey Neely
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Sex/gender distinction only in 3rd person pronouns add in notes section whether gender is present in other PNs or not in any PNs; consider with reference to pronouns and person marking only no Borgman 1990: p.149-151 Kelsey Neely no mention of sex distinction
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Shape is a relevant category in the noun class(ification) system for animates no info Kelsey Neely
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Shape is a relevant category in the noun class(ification) system for inanimates yes for noun classifiers, but not noun classes (because there are none) Borgman 1990: p.147-148 Kelsey Neely
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification "Repeater" classifiers Where no distinct classifier exists, a copy of the noun itself may function in the morphosyntactic classifier "slot" no info Kelsey Neely
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Numeral classifiers (specific to numerals) Special classifier forms that occur only with numerals no Borgman 1990: p.144-151 Kelsey Neely no mention of special numeral classifiers
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Classifiers used as derivational suffixes to derive nouns Verb + classifier = 'thing for doing V, thing that does V, etc.' no info Kelsey Neely
Nominal Categories - Number Singular number may be marked on the noun Often occurs in a small subset of nouns if a single entity is referred to, e.g. insects that normally occur in groups no info Kelsey Neely
Nominal Categories - Number Plural affix on noun no Borgman 1990 Kelsey Neely inferred from examples
Nominal Categories - Number Plural marked by stem change or tone on noun no Borgman 1990 Kelsey Neely inferred from examples
Nominal Categories - Number Plural marked by reduplication of noun no Borgman 1990 Kelsey Neely inferred from examples
Nominal Categories - Number Plural word/clitic yes töpö (3PL), pö (PL with class) Appears to pattern like Yanomami; clitic can be separated from noun by other elements Borgman 1990 Kelsey Neely inferred from examples
Nominal Categories - Number Plural marked on human or animate nouns only no info Borgman 1990 Kelsey Neely
Nominal Categories - Number Pronominal plural: stem + nominal plural affix Pronouns use a nominal plural affix not specific to pronouns no Borgman 1990: p.150 Kelsey Neely
Nominal Categories - Number Unique associative plural marker e.g. 'John and his associates', 'John and them' no info Borgman 1990 Kelsey Neely
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Definite or specific articles Definite = particular referent known to both speaker and addressee; specific = particular referent known to speaker only no certain person marking on the noun implies specificity but isn't a specific article Borgman 1990: p.144-146 Kelsey Neely
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Marker of definiteness distinct from demonstratives Focus on articles/markers whose primary function is to mark definiteness no info Kelsey Neely
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Indefinite or non-specific article or marker no info Kelsey Neely
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Inclusive/exclusive: in free pronominals Inclusive =us + you, exclusive = us but not you yes kamisamakõ (1PL.EXCL), makõ (1PL.INCL/2PL) Borgman 1990: p.150 Kelsey Neely
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Inclusive/exclusive: in verbal inflection (bound) no Borgman 1990: p.150 Kelsey Neely based on data for "short form PNs"; it's debatable whether these are bound or not
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Distance contrasts in demonstratives (number) Note the number of distances in the demonstrative system yes, 3 near speaker: /hi/, near listener: /mi/, far: /ki/ Borgman 1990: p.151 Kelsey Neely
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Other contrasts in demonstratives (visibility, elevation, etc.) no Borgman 1990: p.151 Kelsey Neely
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Gender in 3sg pronouns no Borgman 1990: p.150 Kelsey Neely
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Gender in 3pl pronouns no Borgman 1990: p.150 Kelsey Neely
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Gender in 1st and/or 2nd person pronouns no Borgman 1990: p.150 Kelsey Neely
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Formal/informal distinction in pronouns Polite pronominal variants or differential avoidance of pronouns no Borgman 1990: p.150 Kelsey Neely
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Reflexive pronouns e.g. English 'himself', Spanish 'se'; distinct form(s) from basic (non-reflexive) pronominals; distinct from reflexive verbal affix no Borgman 1990, p.43-44 Kelsey Neely
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Adpositions mark core NPs Prepositions or postpositions mark subjects, objects, beneficiaries/recipients no Borgman 1990, p. 154 Kelsey Neely
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: number of cases Note the number of grammatical relations that may be morphologically marked on the noun 3 ergative/instrumental: /-nö/, oblique: /niha, ha/, ergative and instrumental indicated with the same morpheme Borgman 1990, p. 119-126 Kelsey Neely several suffixes used for several meanings
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: only non-core arguments morphologically marked Subjects, objects, beneficiaries/recipients NOT marked, but other grammatical relations are no Only the absolutive isn't marked Borgman 1990, p. 119-126 Kelsey Neely
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: symmetrical All NPs marked if in appropriate syntactic relation; no distinction in marking based on semantics (type of entity) no Borgman 1990, p. 119-126 Kelsey Neely no discussion of this, and from data in other languages, I'm assuming not
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: asymmetrical Semantically defined subset of NPs marked for case, e.g. animates no Borgman 1990, p. 119-126 Kelsey Neely no discussion of this, and from data in other languages, I'm assuming not
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: suffix or postpositional clitic yes ergative/instrumental: /-nö/, oblique: /niha, ha/, Borgman 1990, p. 119-126 Kelsey Neely
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: prefix or prepositional clitic no Borgman 1990, p. 119-126 Kelsey Neely
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: infix or inpositional clitic no Borgman 1990, p. 119-126 Kelsey Neely
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: stem change no Borgman 1990, p. 119-126 Kelsey Neely
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: tone no Borgman 1990, p. 119-126 Kelsey Neely
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: comitative = instrumental Same marking for 'with a person' and 'with an instrument' no info Borgman 1990 Kelsey Neely probably a no since the ergative and instrumental are the same
Nominal Categories - Numerals Base-2 At least some part of the system involves base-2 no Migliazza 1972 Kelsey Neely
Nominal Categories - Numerals Base-5 At least some part of the system involves base-5 no Migliazza 1972 Kelsey Neely
Nominal Categories - Numerals Base-10 At least some part of the system involves base-10 no Migliazza 1972 Kelsey Neely
Nominal Categories - Numerals Other base (specify) 4, 20, etc. no Migliazza 1972 Kelsey Neely
Nominal Categories - Numerals Etymological transparency in any numerals under 5 e.g. two = 'eye-quantity' no Migliazza 1972 Kelsey Neely
Nominal Categories - Numerals Numerals do not go above 5 'Many' or some other non-exact term used no no numerals above 2 Migliazza 1972 Kelsey Neely
Nominal Categories - Numerals Numerals do not go above 10 'Many' or some other non-exact term used no no numerals above 2 Migliazza 1972 Kelsey Neely
Nominal Categories - Other nominal Tense or aspect inflection on non-verbal predicates i.e. nominal or adjectival no info Borgman 1990 Kelsey Neely probably not
Nominal Categories - Other nominal Person inflection on non-verbal predicates i.e. nominal or adjectival no info Borgman 1990 Kelsey Neely probably not
Nominal Syntax - Possession Pronominal possessive affixes: prefix on N alienable/inalienable? yes 1st person: /ipa/, 2nd person: /au/ for 1st and 2nd person Borgman 1990: p.126-128 Kelsey Neely
Nominal Syntax - Possession Pronominal possessive affixes: suffix on N alienable/inalienable? no info possibly for 3rd person Borgman 1990: p.126-128 Kelsey Neely
Nominal Syntax - Possession Head/dependent marking in possessive NP: dependent e.g. 'the boy-'s dog' no info Borgman 1990: p.126-128 Kelsey Neely
Nominal Syntax - Possession Head/dependent marking in possessive NP: head e.g. 'the boy his-dog' no info Borgman 1990: p.126-128 Kelsey Neely
Nominal Syntax - Possession Possessive classifiers There are special classifiers that occur with possessed entities no info Borgman 1990: p.126-128 Kelsey Neely
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Morphological marking of inalienable possession Where inalienable possession differs from alienable, the former takes a morphological marker (may include an associated free particle/pronoun) no info Borgman 1990: p.126-128 Kelsey Neely
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Morphological marking of alienable possession Where inalienable possession differs from alienable, the latter takes a morphological marker (may include an associated free particle/pronoun) no info Borgman 1990: p.126-128 Kelsey Neely
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Default marker for inalienably possessed nouns if unpossessed An inalienable noun that is in an unpossessed state must have a derivational affix or associated form no info Borgman 1990: p.126-128 Kelsey Neely
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Inalienable possession of kin terms 'my-father' but *father no info Borgman 1990: p.126-128 Kelsey Neely
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Inalienable possession of body parts (human/animal) 'my-leg' but *leg yes Borgman 1990: p. 128 Kelsey Neely
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Generic human nouns are obligatorily bound/possessed Human nouns must co-occur with another noun (e.g. Hup-man, NonIndian-woman, but *man) no info Borgman 1990 Kelsey Neely
Nominal Syntax - Adjectives Underived adjectives There are underived adjectives which do not have counterparts in other word classes no descriptive verbs are derived from verbs, quantifiers, however, are underived Borgman 1990: p. 209 Kelsey Neely
Nominal Syntax - Adjectives Gender inflection on adjectives within the NP There is gender agreement/concord (animate/inanimate or masc/fem, etc.) within the NP, e.g. la casa blanca, el perro blanco no Borgman: p. 209 Kelsey Neely no mention of this, probably not
Nominal Syntax - Derivation Productive nominalizing morphology: action/state (arrive/arrival) There is a morpheme which derives an event from a verb yes /wi/ Borgman 1990: 142-144 Kelsey Neely
Nominal Syntax - Derivation Productive nominalizing morphology: agentive (sing/singer) There is a morpheme which derives an agent or subject from a verb no derives "subject", but not "agent" exactly Borgman 1990: 142-144 Kelsey Neely
Nominal Syntax - Derivation Productive nominalizing morphology: object (sing/song) There is a morpheme which derives a patient or object from a verb no Borgman 1990: 142-144 Kelsey Neely
Nominal Syntax - Derivation Productive verbalizing morphology There is a morpheme which derives a verb from a noun or adjective no info Borgman 1990 Kelsey Neely
Nominal Syntax - Other NP coordination and comitative phrases marked differently 'John and Mary went to market' is marked differently from 'John went to market with Mary' no info Borgman 1990: p.34-35 Kelsey Neely no info on commitative, only on coordination
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Dedicated past marker(s) Past tense is regularly morphologically marked on the verb or elsewhere yes Borgman 1990: 169 Kelsey Neely
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Multiple past tenses, distinguishing distance from time of reference e.g. distant vs. recent past yes immediate: /ke, kehe, kuhe/; recent: /kupi, köpi, kipi/; distant: /kupili, köpili, kipili/ Borgman 1990: 169 Kelsey Neely
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Multiple future tenses, distinguishing distance from time of reference e.g. imminent vs. distant future no Borgman 1990 Kelsey Neely no evidence for this
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Dedicated future or non-past marker(s) no Borgman 1990 Kelsey Neely no evidence for this
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Tense-aspect affixes: prefix no separate word Borgman 1990: 169 Kelsey Neely
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Tense-aspect affixes: suffix no separate word Borgman 1990: 169 Kelsey Neely
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Tense-aspect affixes: tone or ablaut no Borgman 1990: 169 Kelsey Neely
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Tense-aspect suppletion no Borgman 1990: 169 Kelsey Neely
Verbal Categories - Mood Dedicated imperative morpheme or verb form There is a special morpheme (or morphemes, or a bare verb root where inflection is normally expected) used to signal imperative (command) mood no Borgman 1990: 73-76 Kelsey Neely
Verbal Categories - Mood Polite imperative morpheme There is a distinct morpheme for polite imperative constructions (specify if it has other functions in the language) no Borgman 1990: 73-76 Kelsey Neely
Verbal Categories - Mood Difference between negation in imperative (prohibitive) and declarative clauses There are different strategies for marking negation in imperative and declarative clauses no info Kelsey Neely
Verbal Categories - Mood Dedicated hortative morpheme or verb form (1pl or 3rd person imperative) as opposed to imperative; the person in control of desired state of affairs is not the addressee; ex: 'Let's sing' / 'Let him sing' yes pöko, pö desiderative Borgman 1990: 79 Kelsey Neely
Verbal Categories - Mood Situational possibility: affix on verb Inflectional marking of capacity to do something no info Kelsey Neely
Verbal Categories - Mood Situational possibility: verbal construction no info Kelsey Neely
Verbal Categories - Mood Situational possibility: other marking no info Kelsey Neely
Verbal Categories - Mood Epistemic possibility: affix on verb Modal expressing hypothesis no Borgman 1990: 172, 195-197 Kelsey Neely
Verbal Categories - Mood Epistemic possibility: verbal construction no Borgman 1990: 172, 195-197 Kelsey Neely
Verbal Categories - Mood Epistemic possibility: other marking yes kite, matimõ Borgman 1990: 172, 195-197 Kelsey Neely
Verbal Categories - Mood Marking of expected/unexpected action or result There is inflectional marking of expected/unexpected no info Kelsey Neely
Verbal Categories - Mood Verbal frustrative Modal expressing frustration ("in vain") no info Kelsey Neely
Verbal Categories - Mood Verbal habitual Modal expressing habituality yes suffix /-õ/ Borgman 1990: 173-186 Kelsey Neely
Verbal Categories - Mood Apprehensive construction There is a single morpheme or verb form to mean '(be careful lest) X happens' no info Kelsey Neely
Verbal Categories - Mood Reality status marking on verbs There are dedicated morpheme(s) for realis/irrealis 'actualized/unactualized events' no info Kelsey Neely
Verbal Categories - Mood Affect markers (positive/negative) Note whether these inflectional markers are positive or negative no info Kelsey Neely
Verbal Categories - Directionals Directional elements affixed to the verb There are grammaticalized elements indicating movement away, toward, there and back, etc. yes horizontal /la/, vertical /po/, down /kili/ (all 3 only used w/ present witnessed) Borgman 1990: 165 Kelsey Neely
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized visual Indicates information has been witnessed visually - indicate only if an overt marker yes ku- Borgman 1990: 165 Kelsey Neely
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized nonvisual Indicates information has been sensed firsthand but not visually (usually heard; also smelled, tasted, felt) no Borgman 1990: 165, 170 Kelsey Neely
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized inferential Indicates information has not been experienced firsthand, but inferred from some kind of evidence - indicate only if an overt marker. no Borgman 1990: 165, 170 Kelsey Neely
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized reportive Indicates speaker is not responsible for veracity of statement, merely reporting; 'allegedly' no Borgman 1990: 165, 170 Kelsey Neely
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized quotative Indicate presence of adjacent representation of repeated discourse no Borgman 1990: 165, 170 Kelsey Neely
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Other evidential Any other evidential values not represented above yes present: no/noa, past: thai/thali combined nonvisual and reported Borgman 1990: 170 Kelsey Neely
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Evidentiality: verb affix or clitic yes Borgman 1990: 165, 170 Kelsey Neely
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Evidentiality: part of tense system Includes portmanteau morphs yes Borgman 1990: 165, 170 Kelsey Neely
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Evidentiality: separate particle yes Borgman 1990: 165, 170 Kelsey Neely
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Evidentiality: modal morpheme no Borgman 1990: 165, 170 Kelsey Neely
Verbal Categories - Verbal number Verbal number suppletion no Borgman 1990 Kelsey Neely no evidence for this
Verbal Categories - Other Social interaction markers Note the type of interaction no Borgman 1990 Kelsey Neely no evidence for this
Word Order No fixed basic constituent order no Borgman 1990: 19 Kelsey Neely
Word Order VS in intransitive clauses Verb precedes subject no Borgman 1990: 19 Kelsey Neely
Word Order VS in transitive clauses no Borgman 1990: 19 Kelsey Neely
Word Order VO in transitive clauses Verb precedes object no Borgman 1990: 19 Kelsey Neely
Word Order OS in transitive clauses Object precedes subject no Borgman 1990: 19 Kelsey Neely
Word Order Preposition-Noun no Borgman 1990 Kelsey Neely evidenced by examples throughout
Word Order Noun-Postposition or case suffix yes Borgman 1990 Kelsey Neely evidenced by examples throughout
Word Order Gen-Noun Possessive phrase composed of a free possessor and its possessum has possessor first (e.g. John's book) yes Borgman 1990: 127 Kelsey Neely
Word Order Noun-Gen Possessive phrase composed of a free possessor and its possessum has possessum first (e.g. 'book of John') no Borgman 1990: 127 Kelsey Neely
Word Order Adj-Noun Adjective precedes the noun no Borgman 1990: 129 Kelsey Neely
Word Order Noun-Adj Adjective follows the noun yes Borgman 1990: 129 Kelsey Neely
Word Order Dem-Noun yes Borgman 1990: 129 Kelsey Neely
Word Order Noun-Dem no Borgman 1990: 129 Kelsey Neely
Word Order Num-Noun no info Kelsey Neely
Word Order Noun-Num no info Kelsey Neely
Word Order Noun-Rel Relative clause follows noun that it modifies yes Borgman 1990: 129, 133 Kelsey Neely
Word Order Rel-Noun Relative clause precedes noun that it modifies no Borgman 1990: 129, 133 Kelsey Neely
Word Order Re<Noun>l (internally headed relative) e.g. 'the dog cat chased-NMZR got away' ('the cat that the dog chased got away') no Borgman 1990: 129 Kelsey Neely
Word Order Relative clause is correlative or adjoined e.g. 'what is running, the dog chased that cat' no Borgman 1990: 129 Kelsey Neely
Word Order Question word is clause initial 'what', 'who', etc. come first in interrogative clause yes Borgman 1990: 67 Kelsey Neely
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: nominative-accusative w/ marked accusative Objects of transitive clauses ('P') have a unique marker, while subjects of transitive ('A') and intransitive ('S') clauses are unmarked or share a different marker from that occurring on objects no Borgman 1990: 121 Kelsey Neely
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: nominative-accusative w/ marked nominative Subjects of transitive and intransitive clauses share a marker, while objects of transitives are unmarked no Borgman 1990: 121 Kelsey Neely
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: ergative-absolutive Subjects of intransitive clauses and objects of transitives share a unique marker, while subjects of transitive clauses are unmarked or have a different marker yes Borgman 1990: 121 Kelsey Neely
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: tripartite Intransitive subjects, transitive subjects, and transitive objects all receive distinct case markers no Borgman 1990: 121 Kelsey Neely
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: active-inactive Subjects of intransitive clauses are treated two different ways: like subjects of transitives if they are more agent-like (e.g. he jumped), and like objects of transitives if they are more patient-like (e.g. he fell asleep) no Borgman 1990: 121 Kelsey Neely
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: marked accusative no Borgman 1990: 121 Kelsey Neely
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: marked nominative no Borgman 1990: 121 Kelsey Neely
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: ergative-absolutive yes, no, mixed, other yes Borgman 1990: 121 Kelsey Neely
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: tripartite no Borgman 1990: 121 Kelsey Neely
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: active-inactive no Borgman 1990: 121 Kelsey Neely
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: nominative-accusative Same as above, for pronominal affixes/clitics on verbs no info Kelsey Neely
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: ergative-absolutive yes, no, mixed, other no info Kelsey Neely
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: active-inactive no info Kelsey Neely
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: hierarchical Marking of A and P depends on their relative ranking on a hierarchy (usually 1>2>3 or 2>1>3) no info Kelsey Neely
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: split More than one of the above systems is represented in person marking, depending on e.g. person (e.g. 1/2 vs. 3), tense-aspect value, main vs. subordinate clause type, etc. no info Kelsey Neely
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: pronouns in subject position Pronominal subjects are free pronouns that occur in the same position as full NP subjects yes with full forms: 1sg: /kamisa/, 2sg: /kawa/, 1pl.excl: /kamisakö/, 1pl.incl/2pl: /kamakö/, 3sg: /kama/, 3dl: /kama tõkõ/ /kama kökö/, 3pl: /kama töpö/, /kama pö/ Borman 1990:149 Kelsey Neely
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: prefixes on verb Pronominal subjects are marked as verbal prefixes (free pronouns may be another option) yes as clitics not prefixes, but Borgman analyzes these as separate words Borgman 1990: 149 Kelsey Neely
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: suffixes on verb Pronominal subjects are marked as verbal suffixes (free pronouns may be another option) no info Kelsey Neely
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: clitics on variable host Pronominal subjects are clitics that can attach to verbs, nominal constituents, etc. no info Kelsey Neely
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: pronouns in non-subject position Pronominal subjects are free pronouns but do not normally occur in the position expected for full NP subjects no info Kelsey Neely
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Person marking on intransitive verbs Intransitive verbs take person-marking clitics/affixes yes can be omitted, but not common Borgman 1990: 26 Kelsey Neely evidence from examples
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Person marking (of agents) on transitive verbs Transitive verbs take subject (A) markers yes can be omitted Borgman 1990: 29 Kelsey Neely evidence from examples
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Person-marking (of objects) on transitive verbs Transitive verbs take object (P) markers yes can be omitted Borgman 1990: 29 Kelsey Neely evidence from examples
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking 3rd person zero in verbal person marking: subjects 3rd person subjects are not overtly marked within the verbal person-marking system yes can be included or omitted, but are often omitted Borgman 1990: 39 Kelsey Neely
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking 3rd person zero in verbal person marking: objects 3rd person objects are not overtly marked within the verbal person-marking system yes can be included or omitted, but are often omitted Borgman 1990: 39 Kelsey Neely
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Number can be marked separately from person on the verb Verbal person marking exists, but number is (or can) be marked separately no info Kelsey Neely
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Possessive affixes/clitics on nouns are same as verbal person markers Where nouns take possessive affixes, these are the same as the person-marking affixes no 1sg: /ipa/, 2sg: /au/ Borgman 1990: 126 Kelsey Neely
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Gender distinguished in verbal person markers For any person, verbal person markers exhibit different forms depending on the gender (masc/fem, animate/inanimate, etc.) of the referent no info Kelsey Neely
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice Ditransitive constructions: indirect object In ditransitives (e.g. 'John gives a book to Bill'), the theme (book) is treated in the same way as are objects of transitives, while the recipient/beneficiary (Bill) is treated differently yes Borgman 1990: 32 Kelsey Neely
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice Ditransitive constructions: double object In ditransitives (e.g. 'John gives Bill a book'), both the theme (book) and the recipient/beneficiary (Bill) is treated in the same way as are objects of transitives no Borgman 1990: 32 Kelsey Neely
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice Ditransitive constructions: secondary object In ditransitives, the recipient/beneficiary is treated in the same way as are objects of transitives, while the theme (book) is treated differently no Borgman 1990: 32 Kelsey Neely
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Reciprocal: dedicated morpheme Verb becomes reciprocal through use of reciprocal morpheme associated with the verb (may be attached to the verb root). This morpheme is only used to mean reciprocal. yes suffix /-so/ Borgman 1990: 45 Kelsey Neely
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Reflexive: dedicated morpheme Verb becomes reflexive through use of reflexive morpheme associated with the verb (may be attached to the verb root). This morpheme is used only to mean reflexive. no Borgman 1990: 43 Kelsey Neely
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Reciprocal/reflexive: same morpheme Verb becomes reciprocal or reflexive through use of a morpheme that means either reciprocal or reflexive which attaches to the root of the verb no no reflexive Borgman 1990: 43-45 Kelsey Neely
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Passive Passive voice usually involves a change to the verb, while the object of the active voice verb is promoted to subject in the passive voice, and the former subject is deleted/demoted yes Borgman 1990: 46-47 Kelsey Neely I disagree with Borgman
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Antipassive Like passive, but deletes or demotes the object of a transitive verb; usually found in ergative languages no Borgman 1990: 46-47 Kelsey Neely
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Other intransitivizing morphology There is/are some other mechanism(s) for reducing valency no info Kelsey Neely
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Applicative: benefactive Applicative adds a beneficiary/maleficiary object argument to the verb no info Kelsey Neely
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Applicative: other Applicative adds some other object argument to the verb no info Kelsey Neely
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: prefix Causative is morphological and is attached before the root of the verb no Borgman 1990: 47-51 Kelsey Neely
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: suffix Causative is morphological and is attached after the root of the verb yes suffix /-ma/ Borgman 1990: 47-51 Kelsey Neely
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative marked by circumfix, stem change, or tone Morphological causative other than simple prefix/suffix no Borgman 1990: 47-53 Kelsey Neely
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: serial verb or analytical construction Causative construction that involves periphrasis or serialization no Borgman 1990: 47-53 Kelsey Neely
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: dedicated 'make do by proxy' Indicates that the causer does not directly cause the action of the verb to be realized, but does so by inducing someone else to carry out the action, e.g. 'John had the house painted.' no Borgman 1990: 47-53 Kelsey Neely
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: dedicated sociative Indicates that causer participates in event no Borgman 1990: 47-53 Kelsey Neely
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Other transitivizing morphology (adds valence) There is/are some other mechanism(s) for increasing valency no info Kelsey Neely
Simple Clauses - Negation Clausal negator is a preposed element Clausal negator is a preposed element no Borgman 1990: 82 Kelsey Neely
Simple Clauses - Negation Clausal negator is a postposed element Clausal negator is a postposed element yes /ma/ Borgman 1990: 82 Kelsey Neely
Simple Clauses - Negation Negatives: affix Negatives: affix no Borgman 1990: 82 Kelsey Neely
Simple Clauses - Negation Negatives: particle Negatives: particle yes /ma/ Borgman 1990: 82 Kelsey Neely
Simple Clauses - Negation Negatives: auxiliary verb Negatives: auxiliary verb no Borgman 1990: 82 Kelsey Neely
Simple Clauses - Negation Negatives: double Standard (non-emphatic) negation typically requires two morphemes, e.g. French 'ne V pas' no double negatives makes a positive Borgman 81-88 Kelsey Neely
Simple Clauses - Negation Distinct negative form for 'NP does not exist' no /ma/ (negative existance), /mi/ (descriptive verb: 'zero, none' quantity) Borgman 1990: 81-82 Kelsey Neely
Simple Clauses - Negation Distinct negative expression 'I don't know' Lexical expression or highly idiomatic phrase no uses /ma/ and /mi/ negation markers Borgman 1990: 81-82 Kelsey Neely
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Polar questions: interrogative particle Yes/no questions distinguished from declaratives by interrogative particle no Only difference is the lack of the sentence-final glottal stop found in declaratives Borgman 1990: 72-73 Kelsey Neely
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Polar questions: verb morphology Yes/no questions distinguished from declaratives by interrogative verb morphology no Only difference is the lack of the sentence-final glottal stop found in declaratives Borgman 1990: 72-73 Kelsey Neely
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Polar questions: word order Yes/no questions distinguished from declaratives by word order (esp. subject-verb inversion) no Only difference is the lack of the sentence-final glottal stop found in declaratives Borgman 1990: 72-73 Kelsey Neely
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Polar questions: intonation only Yes/no questions distinguished from declaratives by intonation only no intonation is identical to declarative intonation. Only difference is the lack of the sentence-final glottal stop found in declaratives Borgman 1990: 66 Kelsey Neely
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Content questions: word order differs from declaratives Content questions distinguished from declaratives by word order (esp. subject-verb inversion) as well as by presence of Q-word (who, what, etc.) no Borgman 1990: 66-67 Kelsey Neely
Simple Clauses - Predication Predicate adjectives: verbal Adjectives act like verbs in predicative position yes Borgman 1990: 209-210 Kelsey Neely
Simple Clauses - Predication Predicate adjectives: nominal Adjectives act like nouns in predicative position no Borgman 1990: 209-210 Kelsey Neely
Simple Clauses - Predication Zero copula for predicate nominals is possible Predicate nominals may occur without a copula (i.e. grammatical in some circumstances, if not all) yes Borgman 1990: 20-21 Kelsey Neely
Simple Clauses - Predication Headless relative clauses Compare Eng 'the one that fell' (but in Eng 'one' could be considered a head) no Borgman 1990: 133 Kelsey Neely
Simple Clauses - Predication Headless relative clauses are the dominant or only form of relative clause Relative clauses that form a constituent with a head noun (in a single noun phrase) are rare or nonexistent; some descriptions may refer to adjoined or correlative clauses. no Borgman 1990: 133 Kelsey Neely
Simple Clauses - Predication Relative clause may occur with a noun classifier/class marker It may be unclear whether the classifier is the nominal head of the construction or is an agreement marker on the relative clause yes Borgman 1990: 140 Kelsey Neely
Simple Clauses - Predication Relativizer is a verbal affix no Borgman 1990: 133 Kelsey Neely
Simple Clauses - Predication Morphological relativizer is homophonous with nominalizer The same morpheme marks a relative clause and is a nominalizer on verbs (and/or other word classes) no /i/ followed by pn or classifier relativizer is an anaphor: rel pn /i/ followed by the appropriate classifier pronoun (person/ number marker or noun classifier) Borgman 1990: 133 Kelsey Neely
Simple Clauses - Desiderative expressions Grammaticalized verbal desiderative Indicates that the subject desires to carry out the action denoted by the verb (distinct from verb 'want', but may be grammaticalized from it) yes suffix /po/ "desired fulfillment" Borgman 1990: 196 Kelsey Neely
Simple Clauses - Other Clause chaining Clauses can be grouped such that only one bears most of the verb morphology, and the others are marked as to whether they share a subject with this reference clause. yes he calls this "chaining" but I'm not sure that it fits the description in this template Borgman 1990: 102 Kelsey Neely
Simple Clauses - Other Morphologically marked switch-reference system There are special markers to indicate same vs. different subject when two clauses are combined no info Borgman 1990 Kelsey Neely
Simple Clauses - Other Morphologically marked distinction between simultaneous and sequential clauses Morphology (usually on verb) distinguishes between clauses denoting events that occur at the same time or in sequence no denoted with particles : /tehe/ 'while', /pali/ 'first', /ha/ 'after' Borgman 1990: 158-160 Kelsey Neely


Ethnographic Information
Current population (ethnicity) Current population (speakers) Former population estimate Subsistence preference Subsistence notes Density Sedentism Ecotome (riverine/interfluvial/coastal/desert/savannah/etc.) Social hierarchies Multilingualism (rare/occasional/common) Contact languages Marriage pattern Notes Source Created By
5000 large HG medium seasonal Interfluvial