Case: symmetrical

Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions
All NPs marked if in appropriate syntactic relation; no distinction in marking based on semantics (type of entity)


Language Feature Status Grammatical Notes Source Created By Etymology Notes General Notes Phylogenetic Code
Cahuilla yes Jane Hill
Cupeño no Jane Hill
Luiseño yes Jane Hill
Serrano yes Jane Hill
Kitanemuk yes Jane Hill
Kawaiisu yes Jane Hill
Timbisha yes Jane Hill
Western Mono yes Jane Hill
Chemehuevi yes Jane Hill
Southern Paiute yes Jane Hill
Southern Ute yes Jane Hill
Shoshone yes Jane Hill
Comanche no Jane Hill
Idaho Shoshone yes Jane Hill
Northern Paiute no Jane Hill
Gabrielino yes Jane Hill
Achagua yes Wilson & Levinsohn 1992: 71 Ana Paula Brandao
Resígaro yes Allin gives lots of examples, there do not seem to be any restrictions. Allin, 1976: 238-279 Aimee Lawrence
Bare yes Aikhenvald, 1995: 15 Ana Paula Brandao
Piapoco yes Examples show case marking on a number of types of entities, including animate and inanimate. Galindo, 2002: 209-218 Aimee Lawrence
Yukuna yes No subset is mentioned, the examples include both case-marked animates and inanimates. Shauer & Shauer, p. 37-38 Aimee Lawrence
Yavitero no No case marking. Mosonyi, 1987: 52-55 Aimee Lawrence
Wapishana yes Santos, 2006: 215 Ana Paula Brandao, Amanda Meeks
Wayuu yes No indication that there are restrictions on the type of entity to which a case marker can attach. Many examples are of inanimates. Mansen & Captain, 2000: p. 800 Aimee Lawrence
Tariana yes Aikhenvald, 2003: 140-148 Aimee Lawrence
Apurinã yes Facundes notes that instrumental marking is limited to inanimates, while associative marking is limited to humans. Other case markers do not seem to be limited. Facundes, 2000: 385-390 Aimee Lawrence
Asheninka Apurucayali no Mostly inanimates, which are possible/plausible objects. Payne 1981:110111 Amanda Meeks
Maipure yes Zamponi 2003:21-35 Amanda Meeks
Yanesha' no Case does not occur in core arguments. Thus, this questions is not applicable to the Yanesha case Duff-Tripp 1997:36 Daniel Valle
Kinikinau no info Daniel Valle
Baure yes Danielsen 2007: p116, Figure 4.2 Mitz Perez
Nanti no There is only one case marker, which is a locative marker, so by default most of the marked nouns would be inanimates. It's unclear what happens with animates. Michael, 2008. p. 354-355 Aimee Lawrence
Paresi no info Rowan 1978, Rowan and Burgess 1979, Brandão 2010 Daniel Valle
Palikur yes Launey 2003 Daniel Smith
Yine yes Matteson 1965 Daniel Smith
Añun yes Patte 1989 Daniel Smith
Bora no Seifart - 2005:68 Amanda Meeks
Makiritare no Case marked by independent postpositions Hall 1988: 287-300 Melody Ann Ross
Makushi yes "[the agent marker] is not used with subjects of intransitive verbs"; only subjects of transitive verbs are marked (unmarked absolutive). Carson 1982: 79 Melody Ann Ross, Amanda Meeks
Eñepa yes Payne 2012:291 Daniel Smith
Pemon yes de Armellada 1999: 16-25, 54-5 Daniel Valle
Guna yes Smith texts Daniel Smith
Naso no Quesada 2000 Daniel Smith
Ika no Frank 1985:49 Daniel Valle
Kogi no info Daniel Valle
Cabecar no info Daniel Valle
Guaymí yes Quesada 2008:155-67 Daniel Valle
Damana yes Daniel Valle
Sikuani yes Queixalós 2000:78 Daniel Smith
Macaguan no info same suffix attached to noun and its possessive pronoun (depending on the noun's class) Buenaventura - 1993:50 Amanda Meeks
Aguaruna yes Overall 2007:21-30 Daniel Valle
Northern Emberá yes Mortensen 1999:47-57 Daniel Valle Catío
Waorani no Orr et all. 1991:22 Daniel Valle Non-human object usually do not take the corresponding object-marking postposition
Ingá no Levinson 1978:7 Daniel Valle
Matses yes Fleck:280 Daniel Valle
Mapudungun yes Zúñiga 2006, p. 194-7 Daniel Valle
Páez no info Daniel Valle
Quechua Ayacuchano yes Parker 1965:26-7, Perroud 1973:16-20 Daniel Valle
Tikuna no Faco Soares 1993:92-93 Daniel Valle
Urarina yes Olawsky:224-44 Daniel Valle
Waunana no info Mejía 2000:88-89 Daniel Valle
Andoke yes Landaburu 1979: 155-169 Kelsey Neely assumed from lack of information otherwise
Puinave yes Giron 2008: p194-208 Mitz Perez, Daniel Valle
Central Aymara yes Huayhua Pari 2001: 263 Shannon Dardis Both instruments and animates can use the same case suffixes, such as mpi
Kakua no innanimates optionally marked when occuring with animate. Obligatorily marked when with innanimate Bolaños fieldnotes Katherine Bolaños
Kaingang no info Silva 2011/Goncalves 2011 Daniel Smith
Minica Witoto yes Minor and Minor 1982. p. 31 Christopher Clack
Hup no Epps 2008 Pattie Epps
Nadëb/Roçado dialect no info when the subject of transitive verb is displaced, it is marked with DAT (Weir 1984:275-6) Weir 1984 Katherine Bolaños
Dâw no Martins 2004 Katherine Bolaños
Desano yes Miller 1999, p. 57 Chris Clack The specific object marker -re occurs at the end of the noun phrase and marks specific, referential partients of transitive verbs, experienceers, and spatial-temporal expressions to establish a new frame and give further references to that frame.
Cubeo no Morse & Maxwell 1999, p. 111 Amanda Novak
Kotiria yes Stenzel 2004, p. 171 Amanda Novak
Makuna yes Smothermon & Smothermon 1993, p.33 Chris Clack
Koreguaje yes Cook & Criswell 1993, p.47 Chris Clack
Barasano yes Jones & Jones 1991, p.65-72 Chris Clack
Tanimuca no Strom 1992, p.59-61 Chris Clack
Siona yes Although animate/inanimate NPs can be treated differently, they both can be marked. Wheeler - 1987:124-130 Amanda Meeks
Tukano yes Ramirez 1997 Kelsey Neely based on examples
Yanomami yes except absolutive, which is not marked Ramirez 1994: 195-198, 179-180 Kelsey Neely
Ninam yes Goodwin-Gomez, p.76-80 Kelsey Neely
Sanumá no Borgman 1990, p. 119-126 Kelsey Neely no discussion of this, and from data in other languages, I'm assuming not
Surui yes Van der Meer (?):2 Daniel Smith no info on oblique cases
Karitiana yes However, the marking of case may be absent in certain morphological contexts. Everett 2006:304-8 Daniel Valle
Nheengatu yes Cruz 2011 Daniel Smith
Paraguayan Guaraní no Krivoshein and Acosta 2001:130-1 Daniel Valle
Aché no info Daniel Valle
Kokama yes Vallejos 2010:279-304 Daniel Smith
Nyangumarta yes done 1
Jingulu no done 0
Wambaya no done 0
Bunuba yes done 1
Walmajarri yes Done-Claire 1
Nyulnyul no done? 0
Warrwa no done 0
Worrorra no info done X
Garrwa yes 4-6 done 1
Gooniyandi no done 0
Warlpiri no info done 0
Bardi yes done-Claire 1
Yugambeh Y?
Yorta Yorta yes 79 done 1
Yir Yoront Done-Dan
Yindjibarndi yes 46, 54 done-Dan 1
Yidiny yes done-Catherine 1
Yanyuwa yes 13 Done-Austin 1
Yandruwandha yes 75-105 Done-Dan 1
Yan-nhangu not yet
Yalarnnga yes 14-17 Done-Dan 1
Woiwurrung no info done-Amalia x
Wirangu yes 46 done 1
Wemba-Wemba yes H 28-30 done-Amalia 1
Warumungu yes 18 done-Amalia 1
Wangkumara yes done 1
Uradhi No 335 Y 0
Paakantyi yes Y-Hannah 1
Pitta-Pitta yes 196 Done-Amalia 1
Pintupi yes 50 done-Hannah 1
Nyungar no info done x
Nhanta yes 46 Done-Hannah 1
Ngiyambaa yes 81 Done-Emily 1
Ngayawang yes 6 done-Amalia 1
Muruwari yes 53 Done-Dan 1
Mayi-Yapi yes 51 done 1
Martuthunira no 66 done 0
Marrgany yes 302 Done-Amalia 1
Kuuk Thaayorre Yes 148 Done-Amalia 1
Kuku Yalanji yes 50 Done-Jessica 1
Kugu-Nganhcara yes 389 done-Amalia 1
Kaurna yes 5 done-Amalia 1
Kalkatungu yes 27-38 Done-Dan 1
Jaru no 55 Done-Amalia 0
Guugu-Yimidhirr yes 47 Done-Amalia 1
Gureng Gureng no info Done-Amalia x
Gumbaynggirr yes 254, 264-5 done-Amalia 1
Gugu-Badhun yes done-Jessica 1
Yuwaalaraay Yes 38 1
Dyirbal yes 42 done-Amalia 1
Duungidjawu yes 25 done 1
Djinang Yes 27 Done-Amalia 1
Djabugay done
Diyari yes done-Hannah 1
Dharawal yes done-Hannah w Dhurga) 1
Darkinyung yes 16 done 1
Bularnu yes Done-Austin 1
Biri yes 14 done-Jessica 1
Bidjara-Gungabula yes done-Jessica 1
Batyala no info 5 Done-Amalia x
Arabana no 60-61 Done-Dan 0
Alyawarr yes 69-70 done 1
Nyikina yes done-Claire 1
Yawuru Y-Claire
Yulparija Yes 20 Done-Amalia 1
Wathawurrung yes 72-73 done 1
Mathi-Mathi yes 76 done-Amalia 1
Hunter River and Lake Macquarie yes 26 done-Amalia 1
Thanggati yes 11-12 done 1
Katthang yes 30 done-Amalia 1
Panyjima yes 136-137 done 1
Ngarinyeri yes 18 done-Amalia 1
Kurrama yes 23-62 done-Dan 1
Yingkarta yes Done-Claire 1
Githabul yes 9 Done-Amalia 1
Gunya yes 302 Done-Amalia 1
Kunjen yes 29 Done- 1
WesternTorres no K85b 63 done 0
Wakaya yes done 1
Yindjilindji yes done 1
Bandjalang No 54 Done-Amalia 0
Ngaatjatjara yes 48 done 1
Arrernte Yes 126 1
Kokatha Yes 52 1
Karajarri Yes 113 Done-Amalia 1
Pitjantjatjara Yes Y 16 1
Ritharrngu Yes 33 Done-Amalia 1
Warrgamay Yes 28 Done-Amalia 1
Warluwarra no 881 Done-Amalia 0
Warnman Yes 14 Done-Amalia 1
Djapu no 33 0
Bilinarra yes 4.1, 5.1.1, 5.2.1 done 1
Wiradjuri no info done x
Aghu-Tharnggala Yes 51 Y2 1
Narungga Yes 64 done 1
Tharrkari No 24-5 0
Wajarri Yes 39 1
Warungu yes? 169 1
Adnyamathanha Y2
Yagua yes Payne and Payne 1990 Daniel Smith
Baniwa yes Ramirez 2001 Patience Epps