Gabrielino

Family
Uto-Aztecan
Region
North America
ISO 639-3
ser
Location
0.00°, 0.00°
Notes
Features
Basic Vocabulary
Flora Fauna Vocabulary
Cultural Vocabulary
Grammatical Data
Ethnographic Information
Data Sources
none


Basic Vocabulary (185)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Etymology Notes Source Created By
above encima, arriba acima location hetko, hetek “arriba” unique Harrington Notes from KCH Jane Hill
again de nuevo, otra vez de novo grammar wa--a--ky /we7ekay/? unknown CHM/MC255 Jane Hill
all todo todos other 7owe: inheritance Jane Hill
and y e grammar hama7 (also means “also”) inheritance Jane Hill
ankle tobillo tornozelo body missing Jane Hill
armpit axila, sobaco axila body -kwa:r inheritance Jane Hill
ash ceniza(s) cinzas environment ko$i:y, ku$i:y inheritance Jane Hill
at en, a em, a location ahng-en-ah (nga) inheritance CHM/MC266 Jane Hill
back espalda costas body ah-tsahCH ( -cax ) inheritance CHM/MC241 Jane Hill
bad mal mal quality moha:y “malo”; pl. momo:hem unknown Jane Hill
belly barriga barriga body 7a-xo:non, 7a-xo:nen inheritance Jane Hill
below abajo, debajo abaixo location tongko, tongo:ko inheritance Jane Hill
big grande grande quality yo7oyt inheritance Jane Hill
bite morder morder body missing Jane Hill
black negro preto colour yupi: inheritance Jane Hill
blood sangre sangue body 7akain unknown Jane Hill
blow soplar soprar body pu:y; po:7ina- “sopla” inheritance Jane Hill
boil/pimple espinilla, granos espinha, borbulha body ah-chi-in “a sore” /achayn/ unknown CHM/MC Jane Hill
bone hueso osso body -7e:7en inheritance Jane Hill
breast pecho, seno peito body ah-peep/-cho /7a-pi-p-cho/ "female breasts" inheritance CHM/MC241 Jane Hill
breathe respirar respirar body missing Jane Hill
burn quemar queimar environment vere:k- unknown Jane Hill
chew masticar, mascar mastigar body pera: inheritance Jane Hill
child niño, niña criança human kweti:7 (boy? baby?) unknown Jane Hill
climb subir subir motion missing Jane Hill
cloud nube nuvem environment 7akwa:kin “nube, said when is to rain” unknown Jane Hill
cold frío frio quality $ovo7 inheritance Jane Hill
come venir vir motion -ki:, kima/-H145 inheritance UA Jane Hill
cook cocinar cozinhar impact missing Jane Hill
correct/true verdad, de veras verdade quality CHM hi/yah-hah/-re “right” (vs wrong) unknown Jane Hill
count contar contar mental missing Jane Hill
cry llorar chorar mental yu:pu; CHM yu--ah inheritance Jane Hill
cut/hack cortar cortar impact 7ara:ke- “rajar” inheritance Jane Hill
day día dia time ta:met, may be “sun”, inheritance Jane Hill
die/be dead morir morrer state myo:kmok “he died” inheritance Jane Hill
dig cavar cavar impact missing Jane Hill
dingo/wolf fauna wanaT “wolf” inheritance Jane Hill
dirty sucio sujo quality CHM ta--ho/-vit /teho/vit/ unknown Jane Hill
dream soñar sonhar mental ah-hoov/war-ra--ro-'t / ahu/vwarerot/ inheritance Jane Hill
drink beber, tomar beber body pa:7a- inheritance Jane Hill
dry seco seco quality aho:ken, ahokin inheritance Jane Hill
dull/blunt sin filo, mocho, desafilado, embotado, romo maçante, desamolado, não afiado quality yah-hi-ah-no-mah “has no edge”, ya xay 7a-noma unknown CHM/MC253 Jane Hill
dust polvo poeira environment ah-ko/-yah-kin unknown CHM/MC249 Jane Hill
ear oreja orelha body 7ananax inheritance Jane Hill
earth/soil tierra terra environment 7o:xor/ inheritance Jane Hill
eat comer comer body kwa7a- inheritance Jane Hill
egg huevo ovo fauna 7axa:xen (su blanquillo?); unknown Jane Hill
eye ojo olho body -co:co-n inheritance Jane Hill
faeces heces, mierda, excremento, estiércol fezes body 7awyo:7en “su cagada”; weyo:7er unknown Jane Hill
fall caer cair motion pori:no, puri:no (caer, of agua, girl) unknown Jane Hill
far lejos longe quality poa:n inheritance Jane Hill
fat/grease grasa gordura body wita: inheritance Jane Hill
father padre, papá pai kinship -na:k inheritance Jane Hill
fear miedo medo mental kwa7 yo:kroy “tengo miedo” inheritance Jane Hill
feather pluma pena fauna kah-kar/-ah-poo-ahn “quail its-feathers” inheritance CHM/MC267 Jane Hill
fire fuego fogo environment ca:vot "fuego, lumbre" unknown Jane Hill
fish xx xx fauna keu:r, kiyu:r, kekyu:ram (pl.) inheritance Jane Hill
flow fluir fluir motion missing Jane Hill
flower flor flor environment 7a$o:n, 7a$o:yn, 7a$wi:n, 7a$owi:n inheritance Jane Hill
fly volar voar motion e-sar-re e vahCHmok /isari7i vaxmok/ inheritance CHM/MC262 Jane Hill
fog niebla, neblina nevoeira, bruma, neblina environment koo-teet/ inheritance CHM/MC250 Jane Hill
foot pie body ne-ne:v inheritance Jane Hill
fruit fruta fruta flora 7apu:ci-n “its fruit, its seed” inheritance Jane Hill
good bueno bom quality teho:vko, teho:vet “a good one”, pl. teri:hvem inheritance Jane Hill
grow crecer crescer state missing Jane Hill
hair (of head) cabello cabelo body ne-cho-cho inheritance Ataylor/MC271 Jane Hill
hand mano mão body -ma:n inheritance Jane Hill
3sg el/ella ele/ela grammar po:7 inheritance Jane Hill
head cabeza cabeça body nepoa:n “my head”; unique Jane Hill
hear oír ouvir mental naxa:kwa inheritance Jane Hill
heavy pesado pesado quality poto:7 inheritance Jane Hill
hide esconder esconder motion missing Jane Hill
hit golpear, pegar bater impact missing Jane Hill
hold correr, asegurar, sostener segurar other ya:w- inheritance Jane Hill
how? como como grammar 7ava:xa “how is?”, unknown Jane Hill
1sg yo eu grammar no:- inheritance Jane Hill
if si se grammar ow/-te /awti/ unknown CHM/MC255 Jane Hill
in/inside dentro, adentro dentro location -$su:n-nga inheritance Jane Hill
intestines intestinos intestinos body 7a$i:n inheritance Jane Hill
itch hormiguear, sentir comezón coçar body missing Jane Hill
kill matar matar impact moka inheritance Jane Hill
know/be knowledgeable saber, conecer saber, conhecer mental hyo:na- inheritance Jane Hill
lake lago lago environment mo-mu^t (^ is breve over u) loan into protolanguage CHM/MC249 Jane Hill
laugh reír rir mental 7eye:yen inheritance Jane Hill
leaf hoja folha environment ah-nan/-nahCH inheritance CHM/MC269 Jane Hill
left/left hand izquierdo esquerdo location/body ah-kah-nung-ar-ro “left side” unknown CHM/MC253 Jane Hill
leg/foot pierna perna body nene:v “my foot, leg” inheritance Jane Hill
lie down acostarse, echarse deitar motion o-koh/, uk-ko inheritance CHM/MC259 Jane Hill
lightning rayo, relámpago relampago environment kwa:rkwarayemuk “es blitzt” loan into protolanguage Jane Hill
live/be alive vivir viver, morar body yaya:yt “alive ones” unknown Jane Hill
liver hígado figado body ah-sahr inheritance CHM/MC241 Jane Hill
long largo comprido, longo quality kaho: unknown Jane Hill
louse piollo, piojo piolho fauna -7a:r inheritance Jane Hill
lung pulmón pulmão body 7a$a:r; inheritance Jane Hill
man/male hombre homem human woroyt inheritance Jane Hill
meat/flesh carne carne fauna -tu:ken inheritance Jane Hill
moon luna lua environment moa:r inheritance Jane Hill
mother madre, mamá mãe kinship -yok inheritance Jane Hill
mouth boca boca body -to:nge-n inheritance Jane Hill
name nombre nome human mo-tuwa:nya-n “your name” inheritance Jane Hill
nape base del cuello, nuca nuca body -ku:ca-n inheritance Jane Hill
near/close cerca de perto quality momoa: inheritance Jane Hill
neck cuello pescoço body ne-pay-an inheritance Ataylor/MC271 Jane Hill
new nuevo novo quality 7emu:t inheritance Jane Hill
night noche noite time yaw- (yawke “at night”); yawket “la noche” inheritance Jane Hill
no/not no não grammar xay inheritance Jane Hill
nose nariz nariz body 7amo:pen “his nose inheritance Jane Hill
old viejo velho quality 7era:xpo7; pl. 7ere:rxam, 7ere:rakpo7am; unknown Jane Hill
one uno um number puku7 (?) unique Jane Hill
open/uncover abrir abrir other av/-ve-a^ (opposite of “shut”) unknown CHM/MC255 Jane Hill
other otro outro grammar sosovram inheritance Jane Hill
pain/painful/sick dolor, doloroso, enfermo dor, doloroso, doente body ca:yt (sg “enfermo”) unknown Jane Hill
person/human being persona pessoa human ta:xat (sg), tara:xat “people” inheritance Jane Hill
pound/beat machacar, golpear bater impact missing Jane Hill
rain lluvia chuva environment 7akwa:ken; unknown Jane Hill
red rojo vermelho colour kwaxo:xa7 loan into protolanguage Jane Hill
right/right hand derecha direita location/body ah-te/-ving-ar-ro “right side direction” inheritance CHM/MC253 Jane Hill
road/path camino caminho manufacture pet' /pet/ inheritance CHM/MC249 Jane Hill
root raíz raiz flora 7awi:win inheritance Jane Hill
rotten podrido podre quality missing Jane Hill
sand arena areia environment 7o:het inheritance Jane Hill
say decir dizer mental pa:ri- unknown Jane Hill
scratch rascar rasgar impact missing Jane Hill
see ver ver mental hu:tu- inheritance Jane Hill
sharp afilado, filudo, filoso afiado quality 7ata:m(b)rot (knife edge) inheritance Jane Hill
shoot tirar, disparar, balear atirar impact mohu inheritance Jane Hill
short corto curto quality kamu:hu7, kamu:ho7 unique Jane Hill
shoulder hombro ombro body -$o:k, -$o:kin inheritance Jane Hill
shy/ashamed tímido, vergonzoso timido, com vergonha mental 7ipu:ye- “tener verguenza” unknown Jane Hill
sit sentar(se) sentar state yaco:- inheritance Jane Hill
skin piel pele body 7axo:xoc “su cascara” inheritance Jane Hill
sky cielo céu environment toku:p-nga; tuku:par inheritance Jane Hill
sleep dormir dormir body ya:tar “sleepy”; yata:m-ko unknown Jane Hill
small pequeño pequeno quality cenu:ho7 inheritance Jane Hill
smoke humo fumaça environment 7acya:n unknown Jane Hill
sniff/smell olfatear, oler cheirar body missing Jane Hill
spit escupir cuspir body missing Jane Hill
split partir, dividir rachar, dividir, partir impact missing Jane Hill
squeeze estrujar, exprimir espremer impact missing Jane Hill
stab/pierce apuñalar, acuchillar apunhalar impact missing Jane Hill
stand estar de pié ficar em pé state wove:, wovi:- “levantar” unknown Jane Hill
star estrella estrela environment su:r, $u:r, $o$yot, sosyot “stars” inheritance Jane Hill
steal robar roubar other puki:cax “stole” inheritance Jane Hill
stick/wood palo pau, vara flora kuta:/kota: inheritance Jane Hill
stone piedra pedra environment tota inheritance Jane Hill
suck chupar chupar body wi:ko7 “chupar” unknown Jane Hill
sweat sudar suor, suar body CHM ah-tong inheritance Jane Hill
swell hincharse inchar body missing Jane Hill
swim nadar nadar motion ke-yu-'r-e-yar-rahCH /kiyu/r7e yara/x/ unknown CHM/MC262 Jane Hill
tail cola, rabo rabo body missing Jane Hill
that ese/esa esse grammar pema:7, pe7e: loan Jane Hill
3pl ellos/ellas eles/elas grammar 7em loan Jane Hill
thick grueso, gordo, espeso grosso quality po-re/-hah /pori/xa/ “thick by measure” unknown CHM/MC 252 Jane Hill
thin delgado fino quality yaro:re7 Jane Hill
think pensar pensar mental missing Jane Hill
this este/esta este grammar meya, mene:7 inheritance Jane Hill
2sg xx xx grammar 7a7 inheritance Jane Hill
three tres tres number pa:hi inheritance Jane Hill
throat garganta garganta body ang-on* inheritance CHM/MC240 Jane Hill
throw tirar, lanzar atirar, jogar impact wivax inheritance Jane Hill
thunder truenos trovão environment tawvar inheritance Jane Hill
tie up/fasten atar, amarrar amarrar impact missing Jane Hill
tongue lengua lingua body 7ano:ngi-n inheritance Jane Hill
tooth diente dente body -ta:men inheritance Jane Hill
turn girar, volter, torcer virar other missing Jane Hill
two dos dois number wehe inheritance Jane Hill
vomit vomitar vomitar body CHM yo-e/ /yoyi/? inheritance Jane Hill
walk caminar, andar andar motion nongi: inheritance Jane Hill
water agua agua environment pa:r inheritance Jane Hill
1pl.excl nosotros (exclusivo) nós (exclusivo) grammar missing Jane Hill
1pl.incl nosotros (inclusivo) nós (inclusivo) grammar 7iyo:mama unknown Jane Hill
wet mojado molhado quality pava:r inheritance Jane Hill
what? que, qué que grammar heta:; inheritance Jane Hill
when? cuando quando grammar hami:ngko- inheritance Jane Hill
where? donde onde grammar 7ami:nga, hami:nga inheritance Jane Hill
white blanco branco colour rawro:7 unknown Jane Hill
who? quien, quién quem grammar haki: inheritance Jane Hill
wife esposa esposa kinship -7a$o:ng inheritance Jane Hill
wind viento vento environment 7ahi:ke-n inheritance Jane Hill
wing ala asa body 7ama:$a-n “his wings”, 7ama:$arot “uno que tiene alas” inheritance Jane Hill
woman/female mujer mulher human toko:ra (obj. case form) inheritance Jane Hill
work trabajar trabalhar other xo7e:xo- unknown Jane Hill
yawn bostezar bocejar body ha:$o:7 unknown Jane Hill
yellow amarillo amarelo colour payu:wit unknown Jane Hill
2pl ustedes vocês grammar 7omoma (pl)- inheritance Jane Hill


Flora Fauna Vocabulary (130)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Linnean Name Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Range of Term Word Structure Word Structure Notes Classifier Classifier Notes Hypernym Source Association with Social Categories Ritual/Mythologically Significant Ritual Notes Food Source Food Notes Medicinal Medicinal Notes How Collected Who Collects How Prepared Psychotropic Psychotropic Notes Traded Trade Notes Distribution Habitat Dangerous Ethnobiology Notes Species Notes General Notes Created By
abalone flora-fauna Haliotis spp. 7a:po' ˈʔa:poʔ aulon unique no info underived no npn -hi:n classifier for worthwhile possessions Harrington 412 no info 2 shells used for ritual caches and in shell inlays on ritual wands 1 no info gathered (wild) all meat cooked, shells saved for containers, ornament 0 1 shells traded inland West coast of North America cold coastal waters no
ant (generic) hormiga formiga flora-fauna Formicidae missing missing missing 0 0 2 0 0 no
antelope flora-fauna Antilocapra americana tona:r toˈna:r berrendo (pronghorn) inheritance *tɨn(nV)- Northern Uto-Aztecan S52 (Stubbs 2009:45), the *tɨm(V)nV- possibility is worth considering. May be a loan into PNUA from Proto-Kiowa-Tanoan. same other complex toˈna:-r antelope-npn -ʔaʧ "pet" possessive classifier for animals Harrington 603, 078 no info 2 1 McC p. 116 no info hunted men roasted 0 0 hides often trade Western North America open areas no
badger flora-fauna Taxidea taxus huna:r huˈna:r tejon inheritance *hula- Uto-Aztecan S105 (Stubbs 2009:53) same other complex huˈna:-r badger-npn -ʔaʧ "pet" possessive classifier for animals Harrington 051 no info 2 1 McC p. 116 no info hunted men roasted 0 0 North America chaparral, woodland yes
bald eagle flora-fauna Haliaeetus leucocephalus pa:m'o$ ˈpa:mʔoş esa águila grande que tiene la cabeza blanca loan Cupan Cupeño pa7mush “bird sp., a water bird”, Cahuilla pamu7ish “bald eagle”, Luiseno ʹpa:mɁuʃ (not in Stubbs) (re Cup. form, Bald Eagle is a fishing bird). The non-correspondent final -$ in Gabrielino argues for a loan same underived no npn (if not a loan, word may have derivation with pa: “big”? -ʔaʧ “pet” possessive classifier for animals Harrington 66 no info 1 eagle ceremony, feathers in dance regalis 2 McC does not mention but is Chingichngish animal no info hunted men eaglets captured and raised for eagle ceremony, feathers kept for ceremonial regalia 0 1 eagle-feather regalia traded North America Prefers habitat with large areas of water; this is a fishing bird no
band-tail pigeon flora-fauna Patagioenas fasciata we-ahng'-ar” wiˈʔa:ŋar (?) Band-tailed pigeon inheritance *wi- ʔa:ŋa- Uto-Aztecan I can't find this otherwise attested, but looks like *long-wing or *pointed (sharp)-wing. same other complex wiˈʔa:ŋa-r pigeon-npn (root might be derived) -ʔaʧ “pet” possessive classifier for animals chi:ya http://www.archive.org/stream/bancroft_chartmerriam_1556_60#page/n415/mode/2up; p. 421 no info 0 Has ceremonial couplet in Lu., so probably in mourning ceremony in Gab. also 1 all birds eaten (McC 116) no info hunted men roasted 0 0 Americas Oak and pine forests, feeds on acorns no
bat murciélago morcego flora-fauna Chiroptera spp po-vah-kaht poˈva:kat (?) bat inheritance *pɨvakaC- Takic Kitanemuk pɨvakat; “Takic” should be taken with caution because consultant was the same for Kitanemuk and Gabrielino (Mrs. Rosenmyre). But correspondence looks good. same other complex poˈva:ka-t bat-non.possessed.noun (npn); root may be derived -ʔaʧ "pet" possessive classifier for animals at http://www.archive.org/stream/bancroft_chartmerriam_1556_60#page/n415/mode/2up; p. 417 no info 0 usually significant but no information 1 no info no info no info no info 0 0 Americas diverse habitats no
beaver flora-fauna Castor to-le-vah'-che toˈlivaʧi (?) beaver loan probably Yokuts which has something like *t'ovik ?? same underived toˈlivaʧi -- might have been toˈlivaʧi -y, -ʔaʧ "pet" possessive classifier for animals http://www.archive.org/stream/bancroft_chartmerriam_1556_60#page/n415/mode/2up; p. 417 no info 2 1 no info no info no info no info 0 0 North America streams, wetlands no
beetle flora-fauna Coleoptera spp tsoo-re'-ar 60-431 ʧuˈri:ʔar “ beetle unique narrower (probably focused on “stinkbug”) other complex ʧuˈri:ʔa-r beetle-npn (perhaps “hiccup-er) -ʔaʧ "pet" possessive classifier for animals no info 2 figures in creation account (Stinkbug/Pinacate Beetle) McC 155) 0 McC 121 no info gathered (wild) all larvae often eaten raw as found McC 121 0 0 Global Diverse habitats no
big round tule flora-fauna Schoenoplectus acutus se'-e siˈʔij Big round tule inheritance *siˈʔi:- Californian Cu. si'ish, Tubatulabal shi'īpül same other complex siˈʔi-j tule-npn http://www.archive.org/stream/bancroft_chartmerriam_1556_60#page/n415/mode/2up; p. 441 2 used in making images at burning; matting of this plant used for inner enclosure of the yovaar (Harrington 1978:136) 1 seeds, roots, green shoots no info gathered (wild but closely managed) all seeds parched, mixed with other seeds, some ground 0 0 California and southern US into Mexico wet areas throughout territory no
big skunk flora-fauna Mephitis mephitis po-ne'-vo poˈni:vor (?) Big skunk inheritance *po(C)ni Northern Uto-Aztecan Kitanemuk ponivachr; S1983 (Stubbs 2009:275); see discussion of possible UA etymology that I don't care for same other complex poˈni:vo-r big.skunk-npn -ʔaʧ "pet" possessive classifier for animals http://www.archive.org/stream/bancroft_chartmerriam_1556_60#page/n415/mode/2up; p. 417 no info 2 Couplet in Luiseno, so probably at Creator's mourning ceremony 2 McC p. 116 no info hunted men no info 0 0 skins perhaps traded North America Diverse habitats no
big wolf (gray wolf) flora-fauna Canis lupus e-sow't 72-77, 60-415 ʔiˈşawt (?) Wolf inheritance *ʔisa-wɨ- Northern Uto-Aztecan S552 (Stubbs 2009:112); this particular derivation for “Wolf” restricted to Takic same derived ʔiˈşa-w-t coyote/liar-augmentative-npn (may not be synchronic derivation since Gabrielino has 7i:tar for “coyote”) -ʔaʧ “pet possessive classifier for animals http://www.archive.org/stream/bancroft_chartmerriam_1556_60#page/n415/mode/2up; p. 415 no info 1 Chingichngish animal 2 Chingichngich animals not eaten (McC p. 117) no info hunted men for hide only 0 0 hides often trade Americas Diverse habitats yes
bighorn sheep flora-fauna Ovis canadensis pa:'at ˈpa:ʔat mountain sheep inheritance *paʔaC- Northern Uto-Aztecan S204 (Stubbs 2009:67); may be a Proto-Kiowa-tanoan loan into Proto NUA same other complex ˈpa:ʔa-t bighorn-npn -ʔaʧ "pet" possessive classifier for animals Harrington 080, 603 no info 2 1 McC p. 116 no info hunted men roasted 0 0 Western North America steep slopes, cliffs no
bird pajaro, ave passaro flora-fauna chē'-ū ˈʧi:ja (?) bird inheritance Takic S967; cf Sr chi7a “to pick up food from ground the way birds eat”, which may be from a bird word in /chi-/, widespread in California; But note Chumash tswiw, which could easily yield something like Merriam's form. Possibly an arealism. narrower (does not include water birds ($a:t), raptors, vultures, condors)) underived if I'm guessing right about transcription, word has no npn -ʔaʧ "pet" possessive classifier for animals http://www.archive.org/stream/bancroft_chartmerriam_1556_60#page/n415/mode/2up; p. 429 no info 0 see for specific birds 0 all birds eaten (McC 116) no info hunted all roasted 0 0 N/A N/A no
black ant flora-fauna Camponotus pennsylvanicus/Lasius niger yoxa:r joˈxa:r hormiga chiquita amarilla, hormiga picadora inheritance *yuka:- Takic S47 (Stubbs 2009:44), otherwise only in Serrano, possible loan? same other complex joˈxa:-r black.ant-npn (jo- is in root for “black”) -ʔaʧ "pet" possessive classifier for animals Harrington 400 no info 2 0 no info gathered (wild) women and children larvae often eaten raw as found McC 121 0 0 Americas diverse habitats (depends on species) no
black bear flora-fauna Ursus americanus pi'-yah'-ho'-naht ˈpa:yax ˈho:nat (?) (A Serrano-ized form) Black Bear loan Serrano or Kitanemuk for the hona:t part should be huna:r; Is this Kitanemuk interference? same phrase ˈpa:ya-x ˈhuna:-t ?-pres.tense bear-npn (why is this -t and not -r??) -ʔaʧ "pet" possessive classifier for animals http://www.archive.org/stream/bancroft_chartmerriam_1556_60#page/n415/mode/2up; p. 415 no info 1 in shamanism; and a Chingichngish animal (McC 146) 2 McC p. 116 no info hunted men mainly for skin, claws, but according to McC bear meat eaten 0 0 hides often trade North America chaparral, woodland yes
black-tail Jackrabbit flora-fauna Lepus californicus su'i:t suˈʔi:t liebre inheritance *suuʔit Uto-Aztecan S1713 (Stubbs 2009:243); I give Manaster-Ramer's reconstruction same other complex suˈʔi:-t jackrabbit-npn -ʔaʧ "pet" possessive classifier for animals Harrington 161, 453, 603 no info 2 1 McC p. 116 no info hunted men roasted, boiled, bones ground 0 0 rabbit-skin blankets traded North America flat open areas no
blackberry flora-fauna Rubus ursinus pikwa:r piˈkʷa:r mora, wild blackberry inheritance *pi(kwa-) Takic S182 (Stubbs 2009:64); broader (for all of these kinds of berries) other complex piˈkʷa:-r berry-npn -hi:n classifier for worthwhile possessions Harrington165, 548 no info 2 a Chingichngish plant (Harrington 1978:133); 1 no info gathered (wild but closely managed) women and children eaten fresh or ground and preserved 0 0 Western North America foothills, uplands no
blue grouse flora-fauna Dendrogapus? pohyo:t pohˈjo:t churrea (California grouse) unique Note Lu. song word poyúlvumal “type of small bird” (linked to cactus wren in couplet), but this is a large bird same other complex pohˈjo:-t grouse-npn ʔaʧ “pet” possessive classifier for animals chi:ya Harrington 604 no info 0 1 all birds eaten (McC 116) no info hunted men roasted 0 0 Map at http://www.allaboutbirds.org/guide/Sooty_Grouse/id suggests this species does not come as far south as Gabrielino. I don't know why it's in Merriam's list for California, mainly a Rocky Mountain bird scrublands, woodlands no
bobcat, lynx flora-fauna Lynx rufus tuku:t tuˈku:t gato montes inheritance *tuCkuC- Northern Uto-Aztecan S1306 (Stubbs 2009:200). This is a California Wanderwort; Great Basin forms giving NUA are surely loans. But loan may be early because Hopi has regular vocalism. WW %tuku same other complex tuˈku:-t wildcat-npn -ʔaʧ "pet" possessive classifier for animals Harrington 289 totem animal of Wildcat Moiety (McC p. 113) 1 2 not mentioned in any listsof what was eaten McC p. 116; no info hunted men mainly for hide 0 0 hides often trade North America Diverse habitats no
butterfly, moth mariposa borboleta flora-fauna Lepidoptera ah'-tab-bah, 72-79, 60-431 ˈʔa:tavaʔ butterfly inheritance *ˈʔa:tava Takic See Kitanemuk 'atavatava; perhaps a loan between the 2 languages; see note on “Bat” broader (includes moths and butterflies) underived no npn -ʔaʧ "pet" possessive classifier for animals http://www.archive.org/stream/bancroft_chartmerriam_1556_60#page/n415/mode/2up; p. 431 no info 2 0 McC 121 no info gathered (wild) all larvae often eaten raw as found McC 121 0 0 Global Diverse habitats no
California condor flora-fauna Gymnogyps californianus we'-soo-yŭ-roo-it ˈwiʔsoʔ joˈrojt California Condor loan Yokuts Yokuts *wit$' “condor” (Golla 1964:61; his symbol is glottalized and sub-dotted č); but note Hopi wisoko and widespread wi- forms in UA, perhaps from an even older loan; see discussion at Hill/Miller *wi-08 WW %wit same phrase ˈwiʔsoʔ joˈrojt vulture-big -ʔaʧ “pet possessive classifier for animals http://www.archive.org/stream/bancroft_chartmerriam_1556_60#page/n415/mode/2up; p. 421 no info 1 could substitute for eagle in ceremony 2 McC does not mention but is Chingichngish animal no info hunted men chicks raised like eaglets? Not discussed. 0 1 feathers used in regalia, traded U.S. Southwest Rocky scrubland, woodland (they like cliffs no
California jay flora-fauna Aphelocoma californica? tsi'-e ˈʧaʔij (?) California jay loan into protolanguage *chaʔi- Northern Uto-Aztecan unknown Kitanemuk cayca7y “blue jay”; S209, Central Numic, Tubatulabal, Takic, always “blue jay” (Stubbs 2009:68). Note similarity of Yokut, Chumash words. WW %chaj same other complex ˈʧaʔi-j Jay-npn -ʔaʧ "pet" possessive classifier for animals chi:ya http://www.archive.org/stream/bancroft_chartmerriam_1556_60#page/n415/mode/2up; p. 421 no info 2 1 all birds eaten (McC 116) no info hunted men roasted, mainly 0 0 throughout western North America (distributions from Wikipedia unless otherwise noted) scrublands, woodlands (Habitats from Wikipedia unless otherwise noted) no
California woodpecker flora-fauna Melanerpes formicivorus? pe-var” 72-77, 60-423 piˈva:r (?) California Woodpecker inheritance *piva- Takic Kitanemuk pivanach; see note with “Bat” same other complex piˈva:-r woodpecker-npn -ʔaʧ “pet possessive classifier for animals chi:ya http://www.archive.org/stream/bancroft_chartmerriam_1556_60#page/n415/mode/2up; p. 423 no info 2 1 all birds eaten (McC 116) no info hunted all roasted (also, this bird caches acorns and caches are eaten) 0 1 Southern Oregon, California, south to Colombia oak woodlands no
chia flora-fauna Salvia columbariae pa$i:y paˈşi:j chia inheritance *pasa/i Californian S1599 (Stubbs 2009:233). Only Numic is Tumpisa Shoshone, almost certainly a loan from Tubatulabal. This shows up in Chumash, Salinan, may be an old Californianism. WW %pasv same other complex paˈşi:-j chia-npn -hi:n classifier for worthwhile possessions Harrington 127 no info 1 1 most important seed source no info gathered (wild but closely managed) women parched, mixed with other seeds in pinole 0 0 California and Southwest Below 6000 feet in dry open areas, extensive stands in chaparral no
chipmunk flora-fauna Tamias spp. se-se'-kot 72-77, 60-419 siˈsi:kot Chipmunk inheritance *sika-(wV) Northern Uto-Aztecan S2094 (Stubbs 2009:288); may be very early loan into NUA; note similar Yokuts forms; but this form attests Proto-Takic $o$o (cf. Cahuilla sisi), combined with the sikawet word???) WW %sik broader (includes tree squirrels, apparently) other complex siˈsi:ko-t chipmunk-npn (root has redup) -ʔaʧ "pet" possessive classifier for animals http://www.archive.org/stream/bancroft_chartmerriam_1556_60#page/n415/mode/2up; p. 419 no info 2 chipmunk made the Creator's coffin (Harrington 1978) 1 McC p. 116 no info hunted men roasted, boiled, bones ground 0 0 North America woodlands no
cliff swallow flora-fauna Petrochelidon pyrrhonota e-vē'ng-ar 72-11, 60-423 ʔiˈvi:ŋar (?) Cliff swallow unique Note Chumash B ʔan'ipHey ??? same other complex ʔiˈvi:ŋa-r swallow-npn -ʔaʧ “pet possessive classifier for animals chi:ya http://www.archive.org/stream/bancroft_chartmerriam_1556_60#page/n415/mode/2up; p. 423 no info 2 1 all birds eaten (McC 116) no info hunted all roasted 0 0 Breed in North America Cliffs (and now in/on buildings) no
coot flora-fauna Fulica americana kwah-e-ar kwe-nar-saht 72-79, 60-427 mud eater duck kwaˈʔi:ʔar kwiˈna:r şa:t Coot unique *kwa, *kwira, *saya Uto-Aztecan, Uto-Aztecan, Northern Uto-Aztecan respectively A nonce formation same phrase kwaˈʔi:ʔar kwiˈna:r şa:t eater mud water.bird -ʔaʧ “pet possessive classifier for animals şa:t http://www.archive.org/stream/bancroft_chartmerriam_1556_60#page/n415/mode/2up; p. 427 no info 2 1 all birds eaten (McC 116) no info hunted men roasted 0 0 West coastal and southern North America to Central America wetlands and open water no
cottontail rabbit flora-fauna Sylvilagus audobonii to$o:xot, to$o:kot toˈşo:xot conejo inheritance *tosa-kammu Northern Uto-Aztecan S1709 (Stubbs 2009:242) compound -- white-jackrabbit; I doubt the kammu part same other complex toˈşo:xo-t cottontail-npn -ʔaʧ "pet" possessive classifier for animals Harrington 453, 603, 161 no info 2 Couplet in Luiseno, so probably at Creator's mourning ceremony 1 McC p. 116 no info hunted men roasted, boiled, bones ground 0 0 rabbit-skin blankets traded North America Diverse habitats no
cottonwood flora-fauna Populus spp. tuva:r tuˈva:r alamo unique same other complex tuˈva:-r cottonwood - npn Harrington 052, 124, 583 no info 2 Couplet in Luiseno, so probably at Creator's mourning ceremony; used in construction of yovaar (Harrington) 0 no info gathered (wild) all wood for fuel, other purposes; bark fiber for clothing 0 0 southern Canada south to northern Mexico moist areas no
coyote flora-fauna Canis latrans 7i:tar ˈʔi:tar coyote unique same other complex ˈʔi:ta-r coyote-npn -ʔaʧ “pet possessive classifier for animals Harrington 041, 400 totem animal of Coyote Moiety (McC p. 113) 1 skin could be used for Chingichngich figure (McC:28) 2 young coyotes eaten (McC p. 116) no info hunted men mainly for hide 0 0 hides often trade North and Central America Diverse habitats no
crow flora-fauna Corvus brachyrhynchos 7aka:wkoc ʔaˈka:wkoʧ crow unique Perhaps ultimately from onomatopoeia but a more complex construction. This is more like the Yuman /qaq/ forms than the UA *atta forms. same underived ʔaˈka:wkoʧ: ʧ is not a Gabrielino NPN. Harrington also has 7awkot “crow” , so it seems likely there is some derivation here. Crow words are often loaned or sound-imitative. ʔaʧ “pet” possessive classifier for animals chi:ya Harrington 541, 601 no info 2 beaks, claws in Chingichngich figure (McC p. 28); but Harrington's Boscana notes caution may have been raven, not crow. crow danced hilariously at Wuyot's funeral, so people forgot themselves and laughed (Harrington 1978;121) 1 all birds eaten (McC 116) no info hunted men roasted 0 0 if feathers were used in ceremonial regalia, they were traded Americas diverse habitats no
datura flora-fauna Datura wrightii ma:nit ˈma:nit toloache inheritance *mani- Takic may be a loan; S1639 (Stubbs 2009:235); Gabrielino a good candidate for source language within Takic WW %mani broader (includes the drink and the plant) other complex ˈma:ni-t datura-npn (appears in song without the -t) -hi:n classifier for worthwhile possessions Harrington 163 no info 1 boy's initiation, shamanism, funerary 1 dangerous 1 for psychosomatic illness indicated by paralysis gathered (wild) men pounded into paste with water in ritual mortar 1 0 U.S. Southwest, California, Mexico “sandy, gravelly, open areas below 4000 feet throughout Southern California” (Bean & Saubel 1972:60) yes
deer, mule flora-fauna Odocoileus hemionus $uka:t şuˈka:t deer inheritance *suCkaC- Uto-Aztecan S621 (Stubbs 2009:121) WW %sok narrower (mule deer only) other complex şuˈka:-t mule.deer-npn -ʔaʧ "pet" possessive classifier for animals Harrington 42, 630 no info 2 $u:$ar deer-hoof rattle; deer horns in Chingichngich figure 1 McC p. 116 no info hunted men roasted 0 0 hides often traded, hoof regalia traded Western North America Diverse habitats no
digger pine flora-fauna Pinus sabiniana wahCH-ot' 72-79, 60-433 ˈwe:xat digger pine inheritance *wokoN Uto-Aztecan Note Cu. ˈwiʧuxat “P. coulteri”; S1579a (Stubbs 2009:231) broader (includes tree and pine nuts) other complex ˈwe:xa-t pine-npn -hi:n classifier for worthwhile possessions http://www.archive.org/stream/bancroft_chartmerriam_1556_60#page/n415/mode/2up; p. 433 no info 2 1 pine nuts no info gathered (wild but closely managed) all cones roasted to pop out nuts 0 0 Southern California and Baja California Pinus coulteri is generally above 4000 feet no
dog (camp, domestic) perro cachorro flora-fauna Canis familiaris wo$i' woˈşiʔ perro inheritance *woCtsi Uto-Aztecan note O'odham gogs “dog” < wo-wosi; S 672 (Stubbs 2009:126) same underived no npn -ʔaʧ “pet possessive classifier for animals Harrington 425 no info 0 0 McC p. 116 no info N/A N/A N/A 0 0 Americas with humans no
dogbane flora-fauna Apocynum cannabinum missing missing missing 2 1 2 0 0 no
dove paloma pomba flora-fauna Zenaida macrocoura maka:ho' maˈka:hoʔ torcacita inheritance *makahVwi Uto-Aztecan S676 (Stubbs 2009:126); vowel /o/ perhaps from ahVwi>ahwi>awi>aw> o loss of -w- is regional. same underived no npn -ʔaʧ “pet” possessive classifier for animals chi:ya Harrington 033 no info 2 Has ceremonial couplet in Lu., so probably in mourning ceremony in Gab. also 1 all birds eaten (McC 116) no info hunted men roasted 0 0 Southern Canada to Mexico Prefers open areas, avoids dense forests no
duck pato pato, marreco flora-fauna Anatidae si7i:y siˈʔi:j duck unique same other complex siˈʔi:-j duck-npn (this may mean “tules” but probably not) -ʔaʧ “pet possessive classifier for animals $a:t “water bird” Harrington 604 no info 0 1 all birds eaten (McC 116) no info hunted men roasted 0 0 Americas wetlands and open water no
elder flora-fauna Sambucus hu:kat ˈhu:kat sauco inheritance *kuhu- Californian probably from hu-ku'V-t and in S179; kuhut also recorded; but note Cahuilla hunkat, perhaps a second set broader (for plant, flowers, fruit, etc.) other complex ˈhu:ka-t elderberry-npn -hi:n classifier for worthwhile possessions Harrington 162, 070 no info 2 1 flowers, berries 1 gathered (wild) all wood, berries, flowers all used, diverse preparations 0 0 North America below 4500 feet in moist areas no
elk flora-fauna Cervas elaphus pa$okat paˈşu:kat horse, ciervo inheritance *pa:-suka- Takic S788:139 “elk” WW %sok broader (includes horse) derived pa-ˈşu:ka-t big-deer-npn (surely synchronically noted) -ʔaʧ "pet" possessive classifier for animals Harrington 131. 573 no info 2 Couplet in Luiseno, so probably at Creator's mourning ceremony 1 McC p. 116 no info hunted men roasted 0 0 hides often trade Western North America uplands, not in deserts forest edges, forest no
fish (generic) pez peixe flora-fauna kiyu:r (keu:r @ 606) kiˈju:r fish inheritance *kɨcuC Uto-Aztecan S864 (Stubbs 2009;147) same other complex kiˈju:-r fish-npn -ʔaʧ “pet possessive classifier for animals Harrington 057, 596 no info 0 Couplet in Luiseno, so probably at Creator's mourning ceremony 1 no info hunted all diverse methods 0 0 ocean resources traded inland Americas water no
flea pulga pulga flora-fauna Siphonaptera motu:cey muˈtu:ʧej pulga loan Gabrielino loan direction unknown, see Tub. moo-tsoo' 60-499, Kitanemuk ʔatucit same other complex muˈtu:ʧe-j flea-npn (root may be derived) -ʔaʧ "pet" possessive classifier for animals Harrington 411 no info 2 0 no info N/A N/A N/A 0 0 Americas Diverse habitats no
flicker flora-fauna Colaptes sp. ke'-mar” kiˈma:r (?) Flicker inheritance *kima:- Takic Kitanemuk kimachR. See “bat” for cautionary note. same other complex Merriam gives ke-mahr' “zig-zag” McC 252; kiˈma:-r flicker-npn -ʔaʧ "pet" possessive classifier for animals chi:ya http://www.archive.org/stream/bancroft_chartmerriam_1556_60#page/n415/mode/2up; p. 421 no info 2 one of birds who cut hair in mourning for Wiyot; flicker feathers used in ritual (this is from Boscana; Kroeber says Boscana's material came largely from Gabrielino) 1 all birds eaten (McC 116) no info hunted men roasted 0 1 it is likely that feathers of this bird were traded Americas diverse habitats no
blowfly/housefly mosca mosca flora-fauna Diptera pi:cukwar ˈpi:ʧukʷar fly unique contains S893 and a widely-distributed first element in unique compound; contains contains Stubbs 1184 *pitti, also in “hummingbird” same other complex ˈpi:ʧukʷa-r fly-npn (etymologically, ˈpi:ʧu-kʷa-r ?-grub) -ʔaʧ "pet" possessive classifier for animals Harrington159, 541, 601 no info 0 0 larvae (McC 121) 0 gathered (wild) all often eaten raw as found (McC 121) 0 0 Global diverse (depends on species) no
foothills yucca flora-fauna Yucca whipplei ah-ko' 60-439 ʔaˈko:n (?) Foothills Yucca unique narrower (refers only to head or “cabbage” of the plant) other complex ʔa-ˈko:-n its-head-possessed (consultant gave 7a-wi:wi-n for Y. schidigera “its root”) -hi:n classifier for worthwhile possessions http://www.archive.org/stream/bancroft_chartmerriam_1556_60#page/n415/mode/2up; p. 439 no info 0 source of charcoal for tattooing (McCawley 1996:13) 1 Harrington said not used by Gab (McC131) no info gathered (wild) all no info 0 0 Southern California and Baja California chaparral and oak woodlands, 300-2500 m no
fox flora-fauna Vulpes, Urocyon e-row' ʔiˈra:w (?) “Desert fox, Vulpes macrotis group” unique same underived no npn -ʔaʧ “pet possessive classifier for animals http://www.archive.org/stream/bancroft_chartmerriam_1556_60#page/n415/mode/2up; p. 415 no info 2 Couplet in Luiseno, so probably at Creator's mourning ceremony 2 McC116 (Fages) no info hunted men skins used for quivers 0 0 hides often trade Americas Diverse habitats no
frog (generic) flora-fauna kwa'ro' ˈkʷaʔroʔ zapo inheritance *kwaʔro Uto-Aztecan S941 (Stubbs 2009:157) same underived no npn -ʔaʧ “pet possessive classifier for animals Harrington 116 no info 2 Frog is shaman who bewitches Wuyot (White 1963:141), or perhaps his wife 2 considered disgusting (McC p. 117) no info N/A N/A N/A 0 0 Americas wetlands, lakes, ponds, streams no
golden eagle flora-fauna Aquila chrysaetos 7a$awt ʔaˈşawt Golden eagle inheritance *ʔasa-wɨ-ta Californian S719 (Stubbs 2009:131); I think a Proto-Yuman form something like *?aspa, ?ashpa needs to be considered as a source here. same derived ʔaˈşa-w-t ? (pet?)-augmentative-npn -ʔaʧ “pet possessive classifier for animals Harrington 066 no info 1 eagle ceremony, feathers in dance regalia; eagle road connects heaven and earth 2 McC does not mention but is Chingichngish animal no info hunted men eaglets captured and raised for eagle ceremony, feathers kept for ceremonial regalia 0 1 feathers used in regalia, traded North America They like cliffs, tall trees for nesting no
gooseberry flora-fauna Ribes spp. ko-char' kuˈʧa:r (?) gooseberry loan Chumash Southern Chumash xutaʃ “pupil of eye, berry sp.” broader (for all of these kinds of berries) other complex kuˈʧa:-r currant-npn -hi:n classifier for worthwhile possessions http://www.archive.org/stream/bancroft_chartmerriam_1556_60#page/n415/mode/2up; p. 437 no info 2 1 no info gathered (wild but closely managed) women and children eaten fresh or ground and preserved 0 0 diverse species in California chaparral, woodland no
gopher snake, bull snake flora-fauna Pituophis catenifer yŭ-ē't tah-hoor 72-79 , 60-429 ˈjo:ʔit ˈta:hur “big snake” Gopher Snake inheritance *tahu- Northern Uto-Aztecan Kitanemuk tahuchr; S2015 (Stubbs 2009:280) same phrase ˈjo:ʔi-t ˈta:hu-r big-npn snake-npn -ʔaʧ “pet possessive classifier for animals ta:hur http://www.archive.org/stream/bancroft_chartmerriam_1556_60#page/n415/mode/2up; p. 429 no info 2 2 McC p. 116 no info hunted all no info 0 0 Southern Canada to Mexico Diverse habitats no
grass hierba, pasto capim, grama flora-fauna (NA) mama:har maˈma:har grass, zacate inheritance *maha- Northern Uto-Aztecan S1614 (Stubbs 2009:234), also S. Numic (I'm sure it's elsewhere in Numic etc.) broader; note poku' mama:har “una rama” Harrington 602, puku' ma:har “1 zacate plant” 164 other complex maˈma:ha-r grass-npn (root may have redup) -hi:n classifier for worthwhile possessions Harrington 602, 164 no info 0 0 for seeds no info gathered (wild but closely managed) women seeds parched, mixed with other seeds, some ground 0 0 Americas depends on species no
grasshopper flora-fauna Caelifera we'e:t weˈʔe:t chapule inheritance *woʔV- Uto-Aztecan S1034 (Stubbs 2009:167) same other complex weˈʔe:-t grasshopper-npn -ʔaʧ "pet" possessive classifier for animals Harrington 596 no info 2 1 no info gathered (wild) all roasted on stick in fire (McC 121) 0 0 Global diverse (depends on species) no
gray ground squirrel flora-fauna Sphermophilus sp. xo:ngit ˈxo:ŋit ardilla loan *koŋi- Serrano or Kitanemuk vowel is wrong, should have e: as in Luiseno. May just be Mrs. Rosenmyre slipping into the wrong language. same other complex ˈxo:ŋi-t ground.squirrel-npn -ʔaʧ "pet" possessive classifier for animals Harrington 543, 548, etc. no info 2 1 McC p. 116 no info hunted men roasted, boiled, bones ground 0 0 North America Diverse habitats no
gray tree squirrel flora-fauna Sciurus spp. se-se'-kot 72-77, 60-417 siˈsi:kot gray tree squirrel inheritance *sika-(wV) Northern Uto-Aztecan S2094 (Stubbs 2009:288); may be very early loan into NUA; note similar Yokuts forms WW %sik broader (includes chipmunks and tree squirrels) other complex siˈsi:ko-t squirrel-npn (root may have redu[ -ʔaʧ "pet" possessive classifier for animals http://www.archive.org/stream/bancroft_chartmerriam_1556_60#page/n415/mode/2up; p. 417 no info 2 Couplet in Luiseno, so probably at Creator's mourning ceremony 1 McC p. 116 no info hunted men roasted, boiled, bones ground 0 0 Western North America woodlands no
great horned owl flora-fauna Bubo virginianus mu:hut ˈmu:hut tecolote inheritance *muhuN Uto-Aztecan S1542 (Stubbs 2009:227), do NOT include Raramuri form with mo- same other complex ˈmu:hu-t owl-npn -ʔaʧ “pet” possessive classifier for animals chi:ya Harrington 018 no info 1 held in reverence, predicted death 2 never killed McC p. 117 no info N/A N/A N/A 0 1 Americas Diverse habitats (less common in extreme deserts) no
grizzly bear flora-fauna Ursus arctos horribilis hu:nar ˈhu:nar bear inheritance *huna-wɨ-ta Californian S132 (Stubbs 2009:59). Gabrielino has lost *-w- (regularly), hence the long vowel same other complex ˈhu:na-r bear-npn -ʔaʧ "pet" possessive classifier for animals Harrington 051, 041, 189 no info 1 in shamanism; and a Chingichngish animal (McC 146) 2 McC p. 116 no info hunted men mainly for skin, claws, but according to McC bear meat eaten 0 0 hides often trade Western North America chaparral, woodland yes
horned toad flora-fauna Phrynosomatidae char'-row'-ă-hoCH ʧaˈrawaxaʔ (?) Horned toad loan Cupan Note Cupan *ˈʧalaka; ultimate source obscure, not Yuman same underived no npn -ʔaʧ “pet possessive classifier for animals http://www.archive.org/stream/bancroft_chartmerriam_1556_60#page/n415/mode/2up; p. 429 no info 2 Horned Toad doctored Wuyot in Lu. story, probably in Gab. too 2 considered disgusting (McC p. 117) no info N/A N/A N/A 0 0 Western U.S. and Mexico hot, dry, sandy areas no
horse caballo cavalho flora-fauna Equus caballus ah-chah'-che ʔaˈʔaʧin also kava:yo' Harrington 528, inheritance *7aCti- Takic S39; technically not an inherited word for “horse”, but “horse” became prototypical domestic animal throughout Takic, so this is NOT a nonce formation but probably dates to 18th C broader (term just means “his domestic animal”) other complex ʔa-ˈʔaʧi-n its-pet-possessed -ʔaʧ "pet" possessive classifier for animals http://www.archive.org/stream/bancroft_chartmerriam_1556_60#page/n415/mode/2up; p. 419 no info 0 0 probably eaten in earliest period of exposure no info N/A N/A N/A 0 0 I assume a market in horses once they were there Global with humans no
hummingbird colibrí, picaflor (Peru) beija-flor flora-fauna Trochilidae pe'-nor 72-77, 60-425 ˈpi:nor (?) hummingbird inheritance *pitsi-/*pitti Uto-Aztecan S1184 (Stubbs 2009:185); Gab form from *piyi- from *pitsi, contradicting the Serrano evidence cited in Stubbs for *piti same other complex ˈpi:no-r hummingbird-npn -ʔaʧ “pet” possessive classifier for animals http://www.archive.org/stream/bancroft_chartmerriam_1556_60#page/n415/mode/2up; p. 425 no info 0 one of first people, child of Temayowut (White 1963:140) 0 all birds eaten (McC 116) no info hunted all roasted 0 0 Americas diverse habitats no
tobacco tabaco tabaco flora-fauna Nicotiana spp. pi:vat ˈpi:vat tobacco inheritance *pipaC- Uto-Aztecan S2290 (Stubbs 2009:310) narrower (plant only, does not include the prepared leaf which is $okin or pespivat other complex ˈpi:va-t tobacco-npn -hi:n classifier for worthwhile possessions Harrington 095, 182 no info 1 used in ritual and shamanism as intoxicant 1 plant parts often poisonous 1 vomiturge, for urinary infections, stomach pains, wounds (McC p. 102) gathered (wild, but closely managed) men ground with lime and water as chaw (pespi:vat), smoked,decoction with other herbs 1 0 Americas Diverse habitats no
insect (generic) insecto insecto flora-fauna generic missing missing missing 0 0 2 0 0 variable
junco flora-fauna Junco sppp o-cho-che-vā che-ū 72-77, 60-425 (winter bird) ʔoˈʧo:ʧeve ˈʧi:ja junco unique perhaps a nonce formation although all the languages have this bird as snow bird, winter bird same phrase ʔoˈʧo:-ʧ-eve ˈʧi:ja cold-? bird “winter bird” -ʔaʧ "pet" possessive classifier for animals chi:ya http://www.archive.org/stream/bancroft_chartmerriam_1556_60#page/n415/mode/2up; p. 425 no info 0 1 all birds eaten (McC 116) no info hunted all roasted 0 0 North America coniferous and mixed forests, often forage in flocks in winter no
juniper flora-fauna Juniperus californica wa:'at ˈwa:ʔat guata inheritance *waʔaC- Northern Uto-Aztecan S414 (Stubbs 2009:94) same other complex ˈwa:ʔa-t Juniper - NPN Harrington 030, 195, 597 no info 2 1 no info gathered (wild) all wood, berries probably used 0 0 North America abundant 3000-4500 feet no
louse flora-fauna order Phtiraptera -a:r -ˈʔa:r piojos inheritance *ʔatɨC- Uto-Aztecan S1357 (Stubbs 2009:205) narrower (almost certainly just “head louse”) other complex -ˈʔa:r requires possessive prefix -ʔaʧ "pet" possessive classifier for animals Harrington 015 no info 2 0 no info N/A N/A N/A 0 0 Global On people's hair no
mallard flora-fauna Anas platyrhynchos te-hoo-vits saht, 72-77, 60-427 or te-hŭ-vits saht 72-77 “pretty duck” tiˈho:vit şa:t mallard unique *saya nonce formation same phrase tiˈho:vit şa:t good/pretty water.bird (each with -t npn) -ʔaʧ “pet possessive classifier for animals $a:t “water bird” http://www.archive.org/stream/bancroft_chartmerriam_1556_60#page/n415/mode/2up; p. 427 no info 2 1 all birds eaten (McC 116) no info hunted men roasted 0 0 Global wetlands and open water no
manzanita flora-fauna Arctostaphylos spp. soo-boo'-cheCH şuˈvu:ʧiy (?) Manzanita unique same other complex şuˈvu:ʧi-y manzanita-npn http://www.archive.org/stream/bancroft_chartmerriam_1556_60#page/n415/mode/2up; p. 435 no info 2 seeds used in rattles (Harrington) 1 berries no info gathered (wild) women and children berries made into lemonade 0 0 Western North America chaparral, edges of woodlands no
milkweed, broad leaf flora-fauna Asclepias eriocarpa wi:vor ˈwi:vor milkweed; in Merriam, milkweed string semantic shift *wi(k)- Uto-Aztecan note Kitanemuk wivɨʧ “fiber-producing milkweed”, a perfect cognate; S1796 (Stubbs 2009:253) broader (includes plant and fiber) other complex ˈwi:vo-r milkweed-npn (root is probably derived from wi:) -hi:n classifier for worthwhile possessions Harrington 492 no info 2 1 chewing gum no info gathered (wild) women gum squeezed and cooked, plant soaked and fiber stripped 0 0 California and adjacent Nevada and Baja California dry barren areas 200-1900 m (Jepson Herbarium site) no
milkweed, narrow leaf flora-fauna Asclepias fascicularis to-hah'-che-ar' 72-79, 60-439 “chewing gum” in McC p. 247, but this is from A. eriocarpa toˈxa:ʧiʔar (?) Narrow-leaf Milkweed unique note Kitanemuk kacic?? Also note Chumash /tok/ “narrow-leaved milkweed, red milkweed”?? Lu. tokmat “white milkweed” broader (may include both milkweeds and the chewing gum) derived toˈxa:-ʧiʔa-r ?-?-npn -hi:n classifier for worthwhile possessions http://www.archive.org/stream/bancroft_chartmerriam_1556_60#page/n415/mode/2up; p. 439 no info 0 1 no info gathered (wild) women soaked and fiber stripped 0 0 Inland California to Washington, Baja California dry areas, slopes, 50-2200 m (Jepson Herbarium) no
mission tule flora-fauna Juncus $wa:r şwa:r junco inheritance *sɨji- Takic S1735 (Stubbs 2009:246) same other complex şwa:-r Juncus-npn -hi:n nihi:n $war mi junco Harrington 019 (also nime:'en?? 019 Harrington 164 no info 2 appears in song: tavo:kma swa:ra “estoy poniendo el junco” Harrington 680 1 mainly for fiber no info gathered (wild but closely managed) women a basketry plant, mainly; scapes split, provide different colors 0 0 Americas moist areas no
mockingbird flora-fauna Mimus polyglottos tow't 72-11, 60-425 ta:wt (?) Mockingbird semantic shift *tawe- Uto-Aztecan S210b (Stubbs 2009:68) reconstructs as “hawk”, but may be related to *tapi “flicker”. Mockingbird a conspicuous bird. same other complex ta:w-t mockingbird-npn (may be ta:-w-t with wV augmentative?) -ʔaʧ “pet” possessive classifier for animals http://www.archive.org/stream/bancroft_chartmerriam_1556_60#page/n415/mode/2up; p. 425 no info 2 1 all birds eaten (McC 116) no info hunted all roasted 0 0 North America, Mexico diverse habitats (they like habitats with high places to perch, and don't like pine trees) no
mosquito mosquito, zancudo mosquito, carapana flora-fauna Anopheles spp, Isoptera arr” ʔaˈraʔra (a place name) ? or = louse? Mosquito unique perhaps same as “louse” same underived ʔaˈraʔra (no NPN, but may be same word as “louse”) -ʔaʧ "pet" possessive classifier for animals http://www.archive.org/stream/bancroft_chartmerriam_1556_60#page/n415/mode/2up; p. 431 no info 0 0 no info N/A N/A N/A 0 0 Global diverse (depends on species) no
moth mariposa nocturna, polilla mariposa flora-fauna Heterocera ah'-tab-bah, 72-79, 60-431 ˈʔa:tava moth inheritance *ˈʔa:tava Takic See Kitanemuk 'atavatava; perhaps a loan between the 2 languages broader (includes moths and butterflies) underived no npn -ʔaʧ "pet" possessive classifier for animals http://www.archive.org/stream/bancroft_chartmerriam_1556_60#page/n415/mode/2up; p. 431 no info 2 0 McC 121 no info gathered (wild) all larvae often eaten raw as found McC 121 0 0 Americas diverse (depends on species) no
mountain lion flora-fauna Puma concolor tuku:rut tuˈku:rot leon inheritance *tuCkuC-wɨ Californian S1306b (Stubbs 2009;200); -ro-t is the regular Gab. augmentative from *wɨ WW %tuku same derived tuˈku:-ro-t wildcat-big-npn -ʔaʧ "pet" possessive classifier for animals Harrington 287 no info 1 skin could be used for Chingichngich figure (McC:28); a Chingichngish animal (McC 146) 2 not mentioned in any lists McC p. 116; Chingichngich animals not eaten (McC117_ no info hunted men mainly for hide 0 0 hides often trade North America diverse habitats (prefers uplands) yes
mountain quail flora-fauna Oreortyx pictus kakawt kaˈkawt codorniz de la sierra inheritance *kakaC Uto-Aztecan S1702a (Stubbs 2009:241); 1702b is a different word, a Californianism. The augmentative formation is Californian. WW %kaka same derived kaˈka-w-t quail-augmentative-npn -ʔaʧ “pet” possessive classifier for animals chi:ya Harrington 032 no info 2 quail topknots for wands 1 all birds eaten (McC 116) no info hunted men roasted 0 0 US west of Rockies and Baja California Chaparral no
mussel flora-fauna Mytilus spp. a-chin-ka-hi ʔaʔaʧi-n kaxa:y (?) sea museles (sic) unique Note Mojave 'achiily 'olivella' no info phrase ʔa-ʔaʧi-n kaxa:y his-pet-possessed ?-npn (see xaxa:-mo-nga “Rancho de los Verdugos”) -- I think this is inland, in Glendale area, though -hi:n classifier for worthwhile possessions Taylor in McC 273 no info 2 1 no info gathered (wild) all meat cooked, shells saved for containers, ornament 0 1 traded inland for spoons West coast of North America cold coastal waters no
olivella (olive snail) flora-fauna Callianax biplicata 7awverot ˈʔawverot abalorios unique no info derived ˈʔawve-ro-t ?-big-npn -hi:n classifier for worthwhile possessions Harrington 094, 456 strings of these beads circulated among tomyaar “chiefs” 2 exchange, display is part of a number of ceremonies 2 seems like they'd be too small and inconvenient to eat no info gathered (wild) men beads made from various parts of shell, strung for shell money 0 1 among chiefs; may mostly have come in from Channel Islands Pacific Coast of North America, B.C. to Baja California sandy substrates intertidally and tidally and in bays no
pinyon jay flora-fauna Cyanocitta stelleri? hi'-ing' che-ū 60-421 ˈhajŋa ˈʧi:ja (?) Pinyon Jay loan Serrano or Kitanemuk ultimately Yokutsan but immediately Serran, cf. Kitanemuk hayha'y “crested jay”; Merriam has hi'-hi for Bankalachi (where all the other names are Yokuts); *kayve- in Cupeño, Cahuilla; Proto-NimYokuts *xay “Crested Jay” (Golla 1964:61); Southern Sierra WW %kaj same phrase ˈhaj-ŋa ˈʧi:ja edge-on bird -ʔaʧ "pet" possessive classifier for animals chi:ya http://www.archive.org/stream/bancroft_chartmerriam_1556_60#page/n415/mode/2up; p. 421 no info 2 considered deer's helper, warns of hunters (Harrington in Elliott) 1 all birds eaten (McC 116) no info hunted men roasted 0 0 Western North America Foothills where pinyon groves occur no
pinyon pine flora-fauna Pinus monophylla tova:'at toˈva:ʔat pinyon inheritance *tɨpat Northern Uto-Aztecan S1583 (Stubbs 2009:231). This is probably a loan into Proto-NUA from Proto-Kiowa-Tanoan (Hill 2008 broader (includes tree and nuts) other complex toˈva:ʔa-t pinyon-npn -hi:n classifier for worthwhile possessions Harrington 584, 413 no info 2 were once human 1 pine nuts no info gathered (wild but closely managed) all cones roasted to pop out nuts 0 1 Southwestern North America and Mexico In pinyon-juniper woodland, 3500-9000 feet (for P. monophylla), 2500-8000 feet (for P. quadrifolia). Rocky hills and slopes. no
pismo clam flora-fauna Tivella stultorum -ta:ri-n -ˈta:rin mi almeja (= vagina) unique Note S2387 Central Numic *ta'i “female genitalia”. The question here is, is this a dirty word for “clam”, or a euphemism for “vulva”? no info other complex -ˈta:r-in clam-possessed (requires a possessive prefix) no info 2 1 McC 122 no info gathered (wild) all meat cooked, shells saved for diverse uses 0 1 Tivella beads were money, but not clams in this area Pacific Coast sandy beaches in surf zone no
pocket gopher flora-fauna Thomomys mhwat mwa:t gopher inheritance *mɨjɨN- Northern Uto-Aztecan S1009 (Stubbs 2009:164) same other complex mwa:-t gopher-npn -ʔaʧ "pet" possessive classifier for animals http://www.archive.org/stream/bancroft_chartmerriam_1556_60#page/n415/mode/2up; p. 419 no info 2 helped Frog bewitch Wuyot (Harrington 1978:118) 1 McC p. 116 no info hunted men roasted, boiled, bones ground 0 0 North America Diverse habitats no
poison oak flora-fauna Toxicodendron diversilobum o-ar” maybe ya:r (Kit. yachr) ʔoa:r Poison Oak inheritance *ʔɨjaa- Californian S1506 (Stubbs 2009:224) Huasteca Nahuatl iyatl “tobacco”is ridiculous. Kitanemuk ʔɨycič should be in. First vowel is central, Gab. attests.. ya:r may be blend with Chumash yasis?? same other complex ʔoa:-r poison.oak-npn http://www.archive.org/stream/bancroft_chartmerriam_1556_60#page/n415/mode/2up; p. 437 no info (Los Angeles, ya:nga, is probably poison-oak-at) 2 2 no info N/A N/A N/A 0 0 Pacific coast Canada to Baja California Likes damp, shady areas, chaparral yes
rattlesnake flora-fauna Crotalus spp. $o:t şo:t vibora, Black Diamondback Rattler inheritance *sɨwɨn- Takic S2011a (Stubbs 2009:280); not Stubbs' reconstruction, but Kitanemuk, Serrano are conservative in retaining these nasals. narrower (seems to mean this particular species of rattlesnake, or have that as prototype) other complex şo:-t rattlesnake-npn -ʔaʧ “pet possessive classifier for animals Harrington 596 no info 1 Couplet in Luiseno, so probably at Creator's mourning ceremony 2 Reid said rattlesnake not eaten (McC 116) no info N/A N/A N/A 0 0 Southern Canada south Diverse habitats yes
red ant flora-fauna Solenopsis spp ahn'-naht' (red ant) ˈʔa:nat red ant inheritance *ʔalɨN- Uto-Aztecan S44 (Stubbs 2009:44) same other complex ˈʔa:na-t red.ant-npn -ʔaʧ "pet" possessive classifier for animals http://www.archive.org/stream/bancroft_chartmerriam_1556_60#page/n415/mode/2up; p. 431 no info 1 in ant ordeal 0 McC 121 1 swallowed for medicine (McC) gathered (wild) all larvae often eaten raw as found McC 121 0 0 Americas Diverse habitats no
red-shouldered blackbird flora-fauna Agelaius phoeniceus chakwyu' ʧaˈkʷjuʔ red-winged blackbird loan Yokuts Nim-Yokuts *č'ax (Golla 1964:60) WW %chak same underived no npn -ʔaʧ "pet" possessive classifier for animals chi:ya Harrington 160 no info 2 1 all birds eaten (McC 116) no info hunted all roasted 0 0 North and Central America Open grassy areas, prefers wetlands, but also found in dry upland meadows no
red-tailed hawk flora-fauna Buteo jamaicensis paki:sar paˈki:sar gavilan pollero inheritance *kisa Northern Uto-Aztecan S720 (Stubbs 2009:131) same derived pa-ˈki:sa-r big/water-hawk-npn (I am not sure this is synchronically productive in Gab) -ʔaʧ “pet possessive classifier for animals Harrington 147 no info 2 beaks, claws in Chingichngich figure (McC p. 28) 2 McC does not mention but is Chingichngish animal no info hunted men for feathers, for arrows and regalia 0 0 feathers used in regalia, traded Widespread in Americas Mixed forest and field no
roadrunner flora-fauna Geococcyx californianus poo'-he-awt puˈwiʔawt (?) Roadrunner inheritance *puhi/*puʔi/*puwi (all proposed) Uto-Aztecan I agree with Stubbs 2009:250 that Yecora Piman pu7i “roadrunner” fits here. S1776. In all Takic. WW %pu: same derived puˈwiʔ-a-w-t roadrunner-?-augmentative-npn (/a/ may be an ablaut vowel) ʔaʧ “pet” possessive classifier for animals chi:ya http://www.archive.org/stream/bancroft_chartmerriam_1556_60#page/n415/mode/2up; p. 421 no info 2 cut hair in mourning for Wiyot 1 all birds eaten (McC 116) no info hunted men roasted 0 0 Southwestern U.S. to Central America desert areas no
ruddy duck flora-fauna Oxyura jamaicensis ah-ā's-rōt-saht ʔaˈʔe:şarot şa:t Ruddy duck unique *osa “paint”, *saya Uto-Aztecan, Northern Uto-Aztecan nonce formation same phrase ʔaˈʔe:şarot şa:t painted duck (each with npn) -ʔaʧ “pet possessive classifier for animals $a:t “water bird” http://www.archive.org/stream/bancroft_chartmerriam_1556_60#page/n415/mode/2up; p. 427 no info 2 1 all birds eaten (McC 116) no info hunted men roasted 0 0 North America lakes and ponds, winter in coastal wetlands no
sage herb flora-fauna Artemisia californica huru:var huˈru:var romerillo inheritance *hulupa- Northern Uto-Aztecan Note Lu. hulvul “Artemisia californica”; S1597 (Stubbs 2009:233) same other complex huˈru:va-r romerillo-npn -hi:n classifier for worthwhile possessions Harrington 128 no info 2 may be given to boys and girls at initiation in ball with salt but that plant not identified for Gabrielino; Couplet: hulvul, qawiimal; a Chingichngish plant (Harrington 1978:133); 2 1 poultice for sores, swellings, tumors, rheumatic pains, eye medicine (McC 102) gathered (wild) women diverse methods 0 0 California, Baja California Chaparral and “dry foothills communities” no
salmon/steelhead flora-fauna Oncorhynchus mykiss missing missing missing 2 1 0 0 0 no
scaly lizard flora-fauna Pygopus lepidopodus? che-roo'-ko? 60-429 ʧiˈrukuʔ Scaly lizard loan Gabrielino Kitanemuk chiruku' “lizard, cachora (iguana)”; See discussion at S1332 (Stubbs 2009:202). See also note with “Bat” broader (for several kinds of lizards, but not all so-called in English) underived no npn -ʔaʧ “pet possessive classifier for animals http://www.archive.org/stream/bancroft_chartmerriam_1556_60#page/n415/mode/2up; p. 429 no info 2 2 considered disgusting (McC p. 117) no info N/A N/A N/A 0 0 Americas Diverse habitats no
small bird flora-fauna tse'-ū ˈtsi:ya small bird loan Chumash see “bird” no info underived may just be dialect variant of chi:ya, or may be phonaesthetic modification of consonant to make chi:ya smaller and cuter -ʔaʧ "pet" possessive classifier for animals chi:ya http://www.archive.org/stream/bancroft_chartmerriam_1556_60#page/n415/mode/2up; p. 429 no info 2 1978:122) 1 all birds eaten (McC 116) no info hunted all roasted 0 0 N/A N/A no
small brown lizard flora-fauna che-roo'-ko? ʧiˈrukuʔ Small brown lizard loan Gabrielino See discussion at S1332 (Stubbs 2009:202) broader (for several kinds of lizards, but not all so-called in English) underived no npn -ʔaʧ “pet possessive classifier for animals http://www.archive.org/stream/bancroft_chartmerriam_1556_60#page/n415/mode/2up; p. 429 no info 2 2 considered disgusting (McC p. 117) no info N/A N/A N/A 0 0 Western North America desert areas no
snake (generic) culebra, serpiente cobra flora-fauna ta:hur, ta:xor (281) ˈta:hur la culebra, gopher snake inheritance *tahu- Northern Uto-Aztecan S2015 (Stubbs 2009:280) narrower (does not include rattlesnakes) other complex ˈta:hu-r snake-npn -ʔaʧ “pet possessive classifier for animals Harrington 161 no info 0 1 McC p. 116 no info hunted all no info 0 0 Americas Diverse habitats no
soaproot flora-fauna Chlorogalum $u:har ˈşu:har amole, escobete loan Gabrielino Note Cupeno ˈsuxuxul (a Faye recording); loan from Proto-Nim-Yokuts (at least) *ThoxoTh Golla 1964:65 into Takic WW %svkv same other complex ˈşu:ha-r soaproot-npn -hi:n classifier for worthwhile possessions Harrington 541 no info 2 1 root could be eaten, mainly for little brushes for mortars no info gathered (wild) women fibers stripped for brushes, root chopped for soap 0 0 Southwest Oregon, California rock bluffs, grasslands, chaparral no
sour berry flora-fauna Rhus trilobata so-rah' şoˈra:t (?) Sour berry inheritance *sɨ(ta)- Californian Note Cahuilla selet, Kitanemuk hɨʧr, Tubatulabal shyl same other complex şoˈra:-t sour.berry-NPN (Merriam doesn't have npn but it's there in Cahuilla, I think he just didn't hear it) -hi:n classifier for worthwhile possessions http://www.archive.org/stream/bancroft_chartmerriam_1556_60#page/n415/mode/2up; p. 437 no info 2 1 berries considered not good to eat (in Merriam notes) no info gathered (wild but closely managed) women for basketry 0 0 Western North America chaparral to 3500 feet no
sparrow hawk flora-fauna Falco koo'-neets ˈku:niʧ (?) Sparrow hawk unique Could this be the NUA “turkey” word??? Stubbs 2358 (2008;316), *kuyu-...? same underived -ʧ is not an npn. Alexander Taylor gave this word for "bird" (in McC) -ʔaʧ “pet possessive classifier for animals http://www.archive.org/stream/bancroft_chartmerriam_1556_60#page/n415/mode/2up; p. 421 no info 2 beaks, claws in Chingichngich figure (McC p. 28) 2 McC does not mention but is Chingichngish animal no info hunted men for feathers, for arrows and regalia 0 0 feathers used in regalia, traded Americas diverse habitats no
spider araña aranha flora-fauna Arachnida, Araneae wer-rā-cheCH weˈre:ʧix “it goes round in a circle” Spider unique narrower (doesn't include black widow, surely ku:kat (cf. Kuka-mo-nga) phrase weˈre:ʧi-x go.around.in.circle-present.tense (?) -ʔaʧ "pet" possessive classifier for animals http://www.archive.org/stream/bancroft_chartmerriam_1556_60#page/n415/mode/2up; p. 431 no info 0 a Chingichngish animal (McC 146); some say lit fire of Wuyot's pyre (Harrington 1978) 0 Chingichngich animals not eaten (McC p. 117) no info N/A N/A N/A 0 0 Western North America diverse habitats, reclusive yes
spotted skunk flora-fauna Spilogale gracilis che-noo'-e po-ne'-vo 72-77, 60-417 (che-noo'-e = “small”) ʧiˈnu:y poˈni:vor spotted skunk unique a nonce formation, see “Big Skunk” for head word, which is NUA same phrase ʧiˈnu:-y poˈni:vo-r small-npn skunk-npn -ʔaʧ "pet" possessive classifier for animals http://www.archive.org/stream/bancroft_chartmerriam_1556_60#page/n415/mode/2up; p. 417 no info 2 2 McC p. 116 no info hunted men no info 0 0 Western U.S. Diverse habitats no
toad sapo sapo flora-fauna Bufonidae kwa'ro' ˈkʷaʔroʔ zapo inheritance *kwaʔro Uto-Aztecan S941 (Stubbs 2009:157) same underived no npn -ʔaʧ “pet possessive classifier for animals Harrington 116 no info 2 Bullfrog is last child of Wuyot, and bewitched him. Couplet: waxaawut, kaarawut “bullfrog, earthworm 2 considered disgusting (McC p. 117) no info N/A N/A N/A 0 0 Americas Diverse habitats no
tree árbol arvore flora-fauna (NA) kuta kuˈta tree, palo inheritance *kut(ta) Uto-Aztecan S2345 (Stubbs 2009:315) broader (includes tree, wood other complex kuˈ-ta tree-npn Harrington 463 no info 0 kutumut, central pole, derived from this word; “Any [kuta] can be designated th Tcangitcngic as one of his messengers for producing death” Harrington 1978:133) 0 no info N/A N/A N/A 0 0 items manufactured of wood are traded, like wands Americas diverse habitats, depending on species no
tree yucca flora-fauna Yucca schidegera hunu:vut huˈnu:vut for making fiber for tying the fences inheritance *hɨnuva- Cupan plus Gabriellino S2548 (Stubbs 2009:340) same other complex huˈnu:vu-t yucca-npn -hi:n classifier for worthwhile possessions Harrington 484 no info 2 1 Harrington said not used by Gab (McC131) no info gathered (wild but closely managed) all soaked and fiber stripped 0 0 Mojave and Sonoran Deserts (and obviously nearby Coast Ranges in dry areas) rocky slopes, creosote flats, 300-1200m (rarely up to 2500m) no
turkey buzzard flora-fauna Cathartes aura wi'$o' ˈwiʔşoʔ aura loan Yokuts see Condor. It occurs to me that the problematic Hopi “vulture” word could have a Yokutsan source ultimately. WW %wit same underived no npn -ʔaʧ “pet possessive classifier for animals Harrington 069, 413, 596 no info 2 eggs source of shamanic power (McC p. 97 2 McC does not mention but is Chingichngish animal no info gathered (wild) men for eggs only, apparently 0 0 Americas Diverse habitats no
turtle (generic) flora-fauna Testudines pah'-ar” 72-79, 60-429 ˈpa:ʔa:r (?) turtle inheritance *pa:-*ʔayaC Uto-Aztecan S2359 (Stubbs 2009:316) same derived ˈpa:-ʔa:-r water-turtle-npn (is this synchronically productive?) -ʔaʧ “pet possessive classifier for animals http://www.archive.org/stream/bancroft_chartmerriam_1556_60#page/n415/mode/2up; p. 429 no info 2 couplet in Luiseno, so probably at Creator's mourning ceremony; shells used for rattles 2 McC p. 116 1 broth for aging (of a mud turtle) hunted all shells saved for rattles 0 1 Western North America Diverse habitats no
valley live oak flora-fauna Quercus agrifolia wi:y wi:y bellota inheritance *wi'aN- Northern Uto-Aztecan S1507b (Stubbs 2009:224); one of diverse derivations on this base for “oak” broader (includes tree and acorns) other complex wi:-y live.oak-npn -hi:n classifier for worthwhile possessions Harrington 559 no info 2 were once human 1 acorns 1 oak bark as general all-purpose antiseptic wash (McC p. 102) gathered (wild but closely managed) all acorns ground, flour leached, made into mush, soup, bread 0 1 California west of Sierra Nevada from Mendocino County to Baja California; only coastal live oak Concentrated in valleys and on lower hills below 3000 feet no
valley oak flora-fauna Quercus lobata kwa:r kʷa:r bellota = tree inheritance *kwini/*kwiyi- Northern Uto-Aztecan S1507a (Stubbs 2009:224). This is probably a loan into PNUA from Proto-Kiowa-Tanoan broader (includes tree and acorns) other complex kʷa:-r black.oak-npn -hi:n classifier for worthwhile possessions Harrington 125 no info 2 were once human 1 acorns 1 oak bark as general all-purpose antiseptic wash (McC p. 102) gathered (wild but closely managed) all acorns ground, flour leached, made into mush, soup, bread 0 1 Southwest Oregon and California except in deserts Found in high hills up to 8,000 feet, especially on slopes facing away from the desert no
valley quail flora-fauna Callipepla californica kaka:r kaˈka:r codorniz inheritance *kakaC- Uto-Aztecan S1702a (Stubbs 2009:241); 1702b is a different word, a Californianism. WW %kaka same other complex kaˈka:-r quail-npn (root is sound-imitative) -ʔaʧ “pet” possessive classifier for animals chi:ya Harrington 605 no info 2 quail topknots for wands; cut hair in mourning for Creator 1 all birds eaten (McC 116) no info hunted men roasted 0 0 Far west North America to British Columbia open woodlands, chaparral no
Washington clam flora-fauna Saxidomus nuttalli missing missing missing 2 1 0 0 1 no
Western Canada goose flora-fauna Branta canadensis wu:xam “ansaras” source of bone for whistle Harrington 021 ˈwu:xam ansaras unique same other complex ˈwu:xa-m goose-plural (npn often dropped in plurals) -ʔaʧ “pet possessive classifier for animals $a:t “water bird” Harrington 021 no info 0 bones used for whistles 1 all birds eaten (McC 116) no info hunted men roasted 0 0 North America wetlands, open fields no
whale flora-fauna Eschrichtius robustus kyot kjot whale inheritance *kɨcuC-wɨt Cupan plus Gabriellino note Cupeno qeyuwet “whale”, good cognate no info phrase ˈpa:-ŋa xa:-r water-in rat-npn -ʔaʧ “pet possessive classifier for animals Munro 1988 cited in Anderton 1988:355 no info 2 rock art representations in caves; Whale may be the “Big Fish” that brought tosawt “sacred stones” from island to mainland (Harrington 1978:146) 1 no info gathered (wild) all bones of beached whales used for house construction; vertebrae as stools 0 1 whale vertebra stools found well inland Pacific coast; migratory route is Alaska-Gulf of California deep water (although California Grays may swim fairly close to shore) no
white pelican flora-fauna Pelicanus erythrorhynchos ah'ng-ŭ-root-saht' ˈʔa:ŋarot şa:t ? White pelican unique *ʔaŋa- , *saya(C) Uto-Aztecan, Northern Uto-Aztecan S220, S217 respectively (Stubbs 2009:69). But note that *ʔaŋa- is also a good UA word for “wing” (although not hitherto attested in Takic; it is in Tubatulabal as per Merriam notes). So this is probably “wing-big” . Probably a nonce formation but on UA same phrase ˈʔa:ŋa-ro-t şa:-t ?-big-nominalizer water.bird-npn; might be: ˈʔana:ŋe xarot şa:t “still would.be water.bird”??? Or could 7a:nga be the UA “wing” word??? -ʔaʧ “pet” possessive classifier for animals şa:t “water bird” http://www.archive.org/stream/bancroft_chartmerriam_1556_60#page/n415/mode/2up; p. 425 no info 0 2 all birds eaten (McC 116) no info hunted men roasted 0 0 North America breed inland and are on coasts in winter (White Pelicans) no
wild grapevine flora-fauna Vitis californica pah-vah's kā-veet 72-79, 60-441 paˈva:ş ˈke:vit (?) Wild grapevine inheritance *paaʔas Uto-Aztecan S189 (Stubbs 2009:65) Yaqui is quite good; Is kevit the same as Lu. makwit? unknown 2 Couplet in Luiseno, so probably at Creator's mourning ceremony 1 2 0 0 Southwest Oregon and California common along streams and in canyon bottoms below 4000 feet no
wild oats flora-fauna Avena (introduction) ă-vā'-har ʔaˈve:har Wild oats loan Spanish WW %avena same other complex ʔaˈve:ha-r oats-npn (unusual addition of an npn to Spanish loan) -hi:n classifier for worthwhile possessions http://www.archive.org/stream/bancroft_chartmerriam_1556_60#page/n415/mode/2up; p. 441 no info 2 1 for seeds 2 gathered (wild but closely managed) women seeds parched, mixed with other seeds, some ground 0 0 Americas Common up to about 3500 feet; abundant since at least 1835 no
wild rose flora-fauna Rosa californica ochu:r ʔuˈʧu:r wild rose, rosa de castilla inheritance *ʔusa-la Takic Not in Stubbs; note Luiseño 7ush-la, Cahuilla ʔúšal, Cupeno 7u$al; Kitanemuk ʔucuč same other complex ʔuˈʧu:-r rose-npn -hi:n classifier for worthwhile possessions Harrington 529 no info 0 couplet in Lu., a Chingichngish plant (Harrington 1978:133); 1 1 as gentle purgative for babies (McC p. 102) gathered (wild) women and children fruits raw or ground and stored, flowers for tea, wood for bows/arrows 0 0 Oregon, California, northern Baja California moist areas, cienegas, along streams no
wild sunflower flora-fauna Helianthus (and other genera) pahCH'-har ˈpa:ʔaxar Sunflower inheritance *(pa)ʔaʔka Uto-Aztecan Kitanemuk pa'apkachr; S2191 (Stubbs 2009:299) same derived ˈpa:-ʔaxa-r big/water - sunflower - npn (derivation may not be synchronic) -hi:n classifier for worthwhile possessions http://www.archive.org/stream/bancroft_chartmerriam_1556_60#page/n415/mode/2up; p. 441 no info 0 1 seeds eaten (Merriam) no info gathered (wild) women seeds parched (later considered good only for chicken feed) 0 0 North America Diverse habitats no
willow flora-fauna Salix spp. $axa:t şaˈxa:t saus inheritance *sakat Uto-Aztecan also as $axa:t at 123 and at 547 in $a$a(:)xat; S1023 (Stubbs 2009:166) same other complex şaˈxa:-t npn Harrington 164 no info 2 used in construction of the yovaar (Harrington 1978:136) 2 no info gathered (wild) women fiber plant, basketry, wood 0 0 Southwestern US and Mexico Along streams and in wet places below 2000 feet no
wood rat, round-tail flora-fauna Neotoma spp. xa:r xa:r rata inheritance *kawa- Northern Uto-Aztecan Kitanemuk kachr; S1423 (Stubbs 2009:242) same other complex xa:-r rat-npn -ʔaʧ "pet" possessive classifier for animals Harrington 502 no info 2 1 McC p. 116 no info hunted men roasted, boiled, bones ground 0 0 Western U.S., northern Mexico Diverse habitats no
worm, hairy caterpillar flora-fauna Arctiidae (many species) ah-ker-ran-mah-mah-her-rah ʔaˈxaren maˈma:hŋa (?) worm,hairy caterpillar unique A nonce formation no info phrase ʔa-ˈxare-n maˈma:h-ŋa its-life-possessed grass-in (??) -ʔaʧ "pet" possessive classifier for animals http://www.archive.org/stream/bancroft_chartmerriam_1556_60#page/n415/mode/2up; p. 431 no info 2 2 McC 121 no info gathered (wild) all often eaten raw as found (McC 121) 0 0 Americas diverse (depends on species) no
worm, smooth caterpillar flora-fauna Trichoplusia ni (?) cabbage looper ko'a:r kuˈʔa:r gusano inheritance *kuʔa- Takic S893 (Stubbs 2009:152), broader (includes lots of different grubs, maggots, worms, caterpillars) other complex kuˈʔa:-r grub-npn -ʔaʧ "pet" possessive classifier for animals Harrington 024 no info 2 2 McC 121 no info gathered (wild) all often eaten raw as found (McC 121) 0 0 Americas diverse (depends on species) no
yellow jacket flora-fauna Vespula spp., Dolichovespula spp. hah'ng-ar' ˈha:ŋar Yellow jacket inheritance *saŋa- Takic S160 (Stubbs 2009:62) same other complex ˈha:ŋa-r yellow.jacket-npn -ʔaʧ "pet" possessive classifier for animals http://www.archive.org/stream/bancroft_chartmerriam_1556_60#page/n415/mode/2up; p. 431 no info 2 0 larvae (McC 121) no info gathered (wild) all often eaten raw as found (McC 121) 0 0 Americas diverse (depends on species) no
yellowbird flora-fauna Dendroica petechia pah'-har-ring-r che-u (=sunflower bird) pa:xariŋar ˈʧi:ja (?) Astragalinus semantic shift *paaxingi-sh Cupan plus Gabriellino Cupan *paaxingi-sh “red-winged blackbird”; I don't want to reconstruct Merriam's extra syllable. “Sunflower” probably a false etymology. If true should be pa7akaringish chi:ya and he should have heard the /k/ same phrase paˈʔa:xa:-r ʔa-ˈhi:-n ˈʧi:ja sunflower-npn its-possession-possessed (pd) bird (looks like “sunflower's bird”, but that should be paˈʔa:xa:r ʔa-ˈʔaʧe-n ˈʧi:ja, so maybe my guess here is wrong ʔaʧ “pet” possessive classifier for animals http://www.archive.org/stream/bancroft_chartmerriam_1556_60#page/n415/mode/2up; p. 425 no info 0 1 all birds eaten (McC 116) no info hunted all roasted 0 0 North America; the relevant subspecies is west of Sierras and in deserts and Baja California in winter open country no
yerba santa flora-fauna Eriodictyon californicum hŭ-hĕr'-hetch-ō>t 72-79, 60-437 (medicine) haˈheheʧʔot (?) Yerba Santa unique same other complex haˈheheʧʔo-t has npn; root must be derived somehow but I can't find source -hi:n classifier for worthwhile possessions http://www.archive.org/stream/bancroft_chartmerriam_1556_60#page/n415/mode/2up; p. 437 no info 2 Couplet in Luiseno, so probably at Creator's mourning ceremony 1 1 gathered (wild) women teas, etc 0 0 Oregon, California Diverse habitats no
ant (generic) hormiga formiga flora-fauna ahn-naht “red ant” inheritance CHM/MC268 Jane Hill
bird pajaro, ave passaro flora-fauna che--/u- /chi7yu/ ?? inheritance CHM/MC267 Jane Hill
blowfly/housefly mosca mosca flora-fauna pi:cukwar loan Jane Hill
dog (camp, domestic) perro cachorro flora-fauna wo$i7 (sg), wowo:$e7 inheritance Jane Hill
grass hierba, pasto capim, grama flora-fauna mama:har inheritance Jane Hill
deer venado veado, cariacu flora-fauna $ukat inheritance Jane Hill
snake (generic) culebra, serpiente cobra flora-fauna $o:t “snake”; $o:wot “rattlesnake”; inheritance Jane Hill
spider araña aranha flora-fauna wer-ra--cheCH /werechix/ unique CHM/MC268 Jane Hill


Cultural Vocabulary (115)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Word Structure Word Structure Notes General Notes Source Created By
acorn mush food we"CH wi:y H 126 acorn mush inheritance *wiw Takic Stubbs 2011,1557 other complex Merriam 49:109 Jane Hill
ball game food pe-ah-kā-e game of lacrosse unique other complex Merriam (McCawley 1996) Jane Hill
afterworld, land of dead, Heaven tierra do los muertos terra dos mortos culture-mythology to-koop-nah-ar'-ro $i:$ovet infierno H 520 final abode, place above unique this is from sky word other complex Jane Hill
feather headband dress pa-vahm'-ut headdress of feathers inheritance *payu, *papayu Takic Stubbs 2011 1268a Lu, Ca, add Gab other complex Merriam (McCawley 1996) Jane Hill
arrow flecha flecha subsistence tool hu:r arrow inheritance *huca Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 63 other complex Hill Harrington Notes Jane Hill
arrow straightener other o-roo-sar arrow stone for polishing unique perhaps not straightener? Maybe for arrowheads? other complex Merriam 49:101 Jane Hill
bait for fishing cebo, carnada para pescar, empate (Peru) isca subsistence tool missing missing Jane Hill
school escuela escola acculturation missing missing Jane Hill
stone bowl culture-material missing missing Jane Hill
basket (general) canasta, canasto, cesta cesto culture-material ko-me'-me komi:me' (H) basket (general term), basket shaped like a bandeja (H570) inheritance *komi Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 99b "pot, back of tortoise, back" simplex Merriam 49:105 Jane Hill
basket, small canasta, canasto, cesta cesto pequeno, tampado culture-material too-moo-hah tomu:xa' H 570 sub-globular choke-mouth bowl unique simplex Merriam 49:105 Jane Hill
basketry hat culture-material ah-mah'-kah basketry hat worn by women unique simplex Merriam 49:97 Jane Hill
bead abalorio, mostacilla, cuenta, gota, puca; necklace=collar miçanga culture-material to-koo-par beads inheritance *tukuC-pa Northern Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2011 2032b, related to (a) "sky"; also tomo:$axar kind of beads H 456 other complex Merriam 49:97 Jane Hill
ochre culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
bow arco arco subsistence tool pi-tro-ar, H. paytxot 'arco en general' common bow inheritance *pakoti Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 277 other complex Merriam 49:101 Jane Hill
canoe canoa canoa transport ti7aat sewn-plank canoe inheritance Meroz 2011 has Gab-Cup ti7aa- 'to stack', seems good; should be added to Stubbs 2011:1745a other complex Jane Hill
carrying net subsistence tool how'-oo-kut carrying net unique other complex Merriam 49:103 Jane Hill
bottle botella garrafa acculturation missing missing Jane Hill
paper papel papel acculturation ā's-tsoot paper unique other complex Merriam (McCawley 1996) Jane Hill
chief/leader jefe, cacique chefe culture-mythology tomya:r chief unique other complex Hill Harrington notes Jane Hill
club garrote, cachiporra clava, porrete subsistence tool missing missing Jane Hill
loincloth taparrabos, guayuco, pampanilla tanga, tapa-sexo dress ah-tah' -par-ră-ba loincloth inheritance Takic same as Serrano phrase Merriam 49:95 Jane Hill
cook food food maynok kwa7i:vet make food unique phrase Hill Harrington notes Jane Hill
corpse food ah-mŭ'-yah amoya7 'difunto' H corpse unique other complex Merriam (McCawley 1996) Jane Hill
dance (generic) culture-mythology yah-kā-ēCH ya:key H564 a dance inheritance *yawai Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 635a other complex Merriam 49:113 Jane Hill
deity/powerful spirit/culture figure dios(es), deidad divinidade, figura mítica culture-mythology te-huv-soo-nar, hetekrungaiy 'el dios' (H"315)) (that which is above); $aho:vet H 061 God, good spirit inheritance *tu7apa Northern Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2011 2570 maybe other complex Merriam 49:113 Jane Hill
digging stick subsistence tool ah-nahCH digging stick inheritance *naka-ta Californian (Takic plus Tubatulabal) other complex Merriam 49:103 Jane Hill
dipper subsistence tool wahng'-ar dipper inheritance *wanga- Takic also in Kitanemuk other complex Merriam 49:103 Jane Hill
dream sueño, soñar sonho, sonhar culture-mythology hoo-hoo-war-ră-wēCH dream unique other complex, reduplicated Merriam 49:113 Jane Hill
drone pipe culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
drum tambor tambor culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
chicken gallina galinha acculturation missing missing Jane Hill
earring other too-e-kāCH ear pendant of small shells unique other complex Merriam 49:97 Jane Hill
ghost (of dead person)/evil spirit espíritu malo, espíritu maligno, fantasma, demonio espirito culture-mythology she-soo Devil or bad spirit loan unknown should be added to list of substratal vocab in Gab. simplex Merriam 49:113 Jane Hill
fire drill subsistence tool to-tah-chah'-vō't fire drill unique contains cha 'fire' derived, other complex stone fire Merriam 49:101 Jane Hill
fire-tender culture-mythology ta:xkwa7 a kind of religious officer inheritance *ta-*ku Uto-Aztecan Hill 1985 simplex Hill Harrington notes Jane Hill
fireplace hogar lareira other ho'-mā-chō't fireplace unique other complex Merriam (McCawley 1996) Jane Hill
firewood leña lenha other kuta: leña, trees inheritance *kutawi Northern Uto-Azteca Stubbs 2011 2409a other complex Hill Harrington notes 546 Jane Hill
fish (with fish-poison) pescar con barbasco, barbasquear pescar com timbó; tinguijar food missing missing Jane Hill
fish (with line) anzuelear, pescar con linea pescar (com linha) food missing missing Jane Hill
fish poison barbasco, matapez (Colombia) timbó subsistence tool missing missing Jane Hill
fishing line cordel/cuerda p/ pescar, sedal, tanze linha de pesca subsistence tool missing missing Jane Hill
fish hook subsistence tool missing missing Jane Hill
acorn bread food pēCH-kā-e cakes of mush hardened in water, acorn bread unique other complex Merriam 49:109 Jane Hill
wheat food missing missing Jane Hill
flute flauta, quena (Peru) flauta culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
gambling sticks other missing missing Jane Hill
game animal caza, animal de caza caça, animal de caça food missing missing Jane Hill
ghost (of dead person)/evil spirit espíritu malo, espíritu maligno, fantasma, demonio espirito culture-mythology ah-ni't ghost unique other complex Merriam 49:113 Jane Hill
glue subsistence tool hoo-oot glue for arrow points and other purposes from limbs of high bushes unique other complex Merriam 49:103 Jane Hill
grave tumba, sepultura, sepulcro sepultura, sepulcro, cova culture-mythology nah-heCH'; nah-hah'-met-sut grave in ground unique other complex Merriam (McCawley 1996) Jane Hill
alcohol food missing missing Jane Hill
Datura wrightii narcotics ma:nit el toloache inheritance *manit Takic this is surely the source language WW %mani other complex Hill Harrington notes Jane Hill
shaman, healer chamán, brujo xaman, pajé, feiticeiro culture-mythology ahu:voroyt doctor, hechicero unique other complex Hill Harrington Jane Hill
honey miel mel food awe:' (H) honey unique Hill Harrington notes transcr 307, 550 sugar, dulce other complex Merriam 49:111 Jane Hill
house other ki:y house inheritance *ki: Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2011 1214 other complex Hill Harrington notes Jane Hill
hunt cazar caçar food missing missing Jane Hill
initiate boy culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
initiate girl culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
knife cuchillo faca culture-material pa:xo-t(H) stone knife semantic shift *paka Uto-Aztecan transcr Harrington Hill notes401, 581; Hill/Miller has this with paxa 'reed, arrow' words other complex Merriam 49:101 Jane Hill
mat culture-material sā-he' tule mat unknown could this be related to Comanche 'boat' and N. Paiute 'tule raft'??? other complex Merriam 49:99 Jane Hill
mortar mortero pilão subsistence tool tō-kwe-is to:kwi$ el mortero H 250, 530 portable stone mortar inheritance *ty-kwis Takic also in Kitanemuk other complex Merriam 49:101 Jane Hill
necklace other ah-hoo-noCH xu:nxo'ar beads worn as necklace H 455 necklace of shells inheritance *koLoka Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2011 1505 WW %xene other complex Merriam 49:97 Jane Hill
needle/awl subsistence tool e-vē't needle, awl inheritance *7opi Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2011 92 other complex Merriam 49:103 Jane Hill
paddle/oar remo remo transport koo-tah' paddle semantic shift *kuta Uto-Aztecan this is just 'stick' other complex Merriam 49:103 Jane Hill
pestle pilón, mano de mortero, mazo, moledor mão de pilão subsistence tool ah-pah'-ho pestle inheritance *paha Northern Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2011 1085 simplex Merriam 49:101 Jane Hill
pinole food pee'r-kāCH (M), a:xe (H 511) pinole, mohi: (H511) mush of wild oats inheritance *7aki Northern Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2011 782; I think is early loan from Chumashan other complex Merriam 49:109 Jane Hill
pipe for tobacco pipa cachimbo other wee'k-chot to$a:wt stone pipe H 593, 'the real high name of pipe' straight pipe inheritance *wik- Takic also in Serrano other complex Merriam 49:103 Jane Hill
pitch food ah-sah'-nah $a:nat 'brea' H 548) pine resin or pitch inheritance *salaC Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2011 1634 other complex Merriam 49:103 Jane Hill
pot olla, pote panela, vasilha subsistence tool kwe-nahr' earthenware vessel, pot for cooking; H says is 'lodo' and ku:me is 'traste' (ku:kme 'trastes") inheritance *kwiLa Uto-Aztecan Hill 2012 other complex Merriam 49:101 Jane Hill
quiver subsistence tool ap-pŭCH quiver unique other complex Merriam 49:101 Jane Hill
rattle matraca, maraca marico, chocalho culture-mythology ah-pah'-an rattle of mtn. sheep bladder with stones inside inheritance presumably contains pa7at 'mountain sheep'?? other complex Merriam 49:113 Jane Hill
red paint culture-mythology oyi:' (H); ne'e:sen kwaxo:xa' red paint, mi pintura colorada (H:260) unknown is this same as Kawaiisu 7om-by?? simplex Merriam 49:97, Hill Harrington notes 253 Jane Hill
salt sal sal food ongo:r (H) salt inheritance *omCa Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2011 1865 other complex Hill Harrington notes Jane Hill
seed beater subsistence tool ho-kov'-chōt seed paddle unique other complex Merriam 49:105 Jane Hill
clothing ropa roupa culture-mythology moha:von tu ropa (fresada) inheritance *ha-pyt Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2011 244 other complex Hill Harrington notes Jane Hill
sinew-backed bow subsistence tool chah-kah'-mar war bow, sinew on back (what about H. ku:cap 'arco (poss)' (H 189) unique other complex Merriam 49:101 Jane Hill
skirt falda, saya, fustan, pollera saia culture-material ah-now-wah skirt (formerly worn by women) inheritance *nawi Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2011 485 other complex Merriam 49:95 Jane Hill
snare subsistence tool ho-ah-chō't snare inheritance *hy7aC Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2011 2406 other complex Merriam 49:101 Jane Hill
song (generic) canción, canto canção culture-mythology ci'e:'ey (H) song inheritance *ca Takic Stubbs 2011 1987 I don't like set, only Gab and Serran, might be a loan, correspondences not pretty derived, other complex Hill Harrington notes Jane Hill
spear lanza lança subsistence tool ah-nahCH spear for fish inheritance *naka-ta Californian (Takic plus Tubatulabal) other complex Merriam 49:101 Jane Hill
stirring stick food wā-ah'-ho stirring stick for stirring stones in basket inheritance *weahu/o Takic also Kitanemuk simplex Merriam 49:103 Jane Hill
rope/string mecate, cuerda, soga corda culture we-vor wi:vor 'milkweed' H492 thread, cord, rope inheritance *wika Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2011 1843; this odd development shared with Kitanemuk other complex Merriam 49:103 Jane Hill
bag, sack culture-material missing missing Jane Hill
string of shell money other awverot (H) wampum (long string of it), abalorios (H 456) unique also ho-pe-hah, of small shells, worth more than big other complex Merriam 49:97 Jane Hill
sugarcane/sugar azúcar, caña de azúcar açucar (de cana) acculturation 7awe:7 sugar, azucar, es dulce unique other complex Hill Harrington notes Jane Hill
sweathouse other se-hi-ēCH sweat house inheritance *soka Takic Stubbs 2011 525 other complex Merriam 49:99 Jane Hill
tell history culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
cremate culture-mythology too-e- vere:k?? H 670 cremate unknown looks like Lu. Chuyi, Ca. chut simplex root Merriam 49:145 Jane Hill
tobacco (native) narcotics pi:vat; $u:key (H572,3) tobacco inheritance *pipaC Uto-Aztecan Yok-Utian Stubbs 2011 2348; $u:key is Utian origin Wanderwoerter WW %sokon other complex Hill Harrington Notes Jane Hill
tule boat transport tah-rīng-hah tara:ynxa' (H 572 'horqueta') boat (bundle of tules) unique simplex Merriam 49:103 Jane Hill
white paint culture-mythology to-vēCH to:viy 'white clay' H 453) white paint inheritance *typiC Takic Stubbs 2011 758 other complex Merriam 49:97 Jane Hill
winnowing basket culture-material no-vor (ano:von 'su batea' H no page) novo:r 570 circular winnower, flat, coiled inheritance *nyhaC Northern Uto-Azteca Stubbs 2011 120 what is -vor? other complex Merriam 49:105 Jane Hill
wood tray subsistence tool koo-tah-mi'-ēCH circular tray or shallow bowl of wood for serving food unique other complex Merriam 49:103 Jane Hill
shoes zapatos sapatos dress āh-nā-nāv-sahCH shoes, moccasins worn by men in winter inheritance *napo Northern Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2011 938 other complex, reduplicated Merriam (McCawley 1996) Jane Hill
medicine narcotics ah-no-vēn mediine inheritance *nyhaC Northern Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2011 120 other complex Merriam 49:111 Jane Hill
cradleboard culture-material tahr-rah'-hoor baby basket unique other complex Merriam 49:105 Jane Hill
policeman polícia policía acculturation missing missing Jane Hill
soldier soldado soldado acculturation missing missing Jane Hill
corn food maiz maize (same as in Spanish) loan Spanish WW %maiz simplex Alexander Taylor in McCawley 1996 Jane Hill
beans food missing missing Jane Hill
cat gato gato acculturation to-koot cat semantic shift *tukkuC Northern Uto-Aztecan other complex Merriam (McCawley 1996) Jane Hill
gun arma, escopeta espingarda, fusil acculturation missing missing Jane Hill
hat sombero chapéu dress missing missing Jane Hill
clapper acculturation missing missing Jane Hill
thatch/roof crisneja palha, caraná culture-material missing Jane Hill
rope/string mecate, cuerda, soga corda culture we/-vor /wivo-r/JHH inheritance CHM/MC245 Jane Hill
bottom grinding stone manufacture tokwis “mortero” unknown Jane Hill
digging stick subsistence tool ah-nahCH /7a-nax/ (also “spear for fish”) inheritance CHM/MC245 Jane Hill
winnow aventar, tirar (sementes) joeirar manufacture missing Jane Hill
top grinding stone metate, mano; piedra de moler metate, mano manufacture ah-pah-ho “pestle of stone” loan direction unknown CHM/MC245 Jane Hill
boomerang/throwing stick (generic) subsistence tool wa:kat unknown Jane Hill
spearthrower subsistence tool -ku:cap "bow" unknown Jane Hill
spear lanza lança subsistence tool -hu: "arrow", hu:r inheritance Jane Hill
house other 7a-ki:-n inheritance Jane Hill


Grammatical Data (226)
Category Grammatical Feature Grammatical Feature: Notes Feature Status Phonemicized Form Orthographic Form Grammatical Notes Source Created By Etymology Notes General Notes Phylogenetic Code
Phonology - Segmental Pre-/post-nasalized stops Analysis posits that the stop is the most relevant underlying phoneme. Comment in notes on whether the nasal contour is understood as a phonetic (allophonic) effect, or is phonologically contrastive. Jane Hill
Phonology - Segmental Glottalized/ejective consonants Phonemic contrast [NOT counting glottal stop/fricative] no Jane Hill
Phonology - Segmental Palatalized stops Phonemic contrast Jane Hill
Phonology - Segmental Phonemic vowel length Does the language have long and short vowels? Jane Hill
Phonology - Segmental Phonemic glottalization/laryngealization of vowels Jane Hill
Phonology - Segmental Complex onsets Onset consists of more than one consonant phoneme Jane Hill
Phonology - Segmental No codas *(C)VC [no also equals highly constrained] Jane Hill
Phonology - Segmental Word-final coda required Do all syllables end in a consonant? Jane Hill
Phonology - Suprasegmental Contrastive tones Note how many contrastive tones 0 Jane Hill
Phonology - Suprasegmental Contrastive stress Does stress occur on different syllables with meaning difference? Jane Hill
Phonology - Suprasegmental Nasalization property of morpheme or syllable In contrast to nasalization as a property of segments Jane Hill
Phonology - Suprasegmental Nasal spreading across some morpheme boundaries Do some affixes or other morphemes take the nasal/oral properties of the root they attach to? Jane Hill
Phonology - Suprasegmental Vowel harmony Jane Hill
Morphology - General Verbal fusion (2+ categories marked by portmanteau morphemes on verb) Verb combines two or more categories (tense, aspect, mood, person, number, etc.) in portmanteau morphemes{ [ignore proclitics unless they are fused with values other than person/number] Jane Hill
Morphology - General Inflection manifested by replacement of segmental or suprasegmental phonemes Stem change, tone no Jane Hill
Morphology - General Verbal synthesis (1+ inflectional categories marked by verbal affixes) Morphological complexity in verbs - multiple inflectional affixes in a single verb word yes Jane Hill
Morphology - General Prefixing/suffixing inflectional morph: strongly prefixing There are many more prefixes than suffixes no Jane Hill
Morphology - General Prefixing/suffixing inflectional morph: strongly suffixing There are many more suffixes than prefixes no Jane Hill
Morphology - General Prefixing/suffixing inflectional morph: roughly equal or one weakly preferred The numbers of suffixes and prefixes are not notably different yes Jane Hill
Morphology - General Reduplication: full The full morpheme is reduplicated yes Jane Hill
Morphology - General Reduplication: partial Only part of the morpheme is reduplicated yes Jane Hill
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Productive NN compounding Noun compounds created from two noun phrases are common and systematically produced Jane Hill
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Productive VV serialization (without compounding) Verb roots can be combined in a single predicate without markers of subordination (distinct from subordinating construction) or distinct inflection Jane Hill
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Productive VV compounding Serial verb constructions involve chaining of roots together in one morphophonological word Jane Hill
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Verb-adjunct (aka light verb) constructions There is a set of semantically weak verbs used in complex verbal constructions, e.g. 'take a nap' Jane Hill
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Auxiliary verb(s) There are verbs that accompany main verbs of clauses and take grammatical marking not expressed by main verbs Jane Hill
Morphology - Incorporation Incorporation of nouns into verbs is a productive intransitivizing process Verb contains nominal segment Jane Hill
Morphology - Incorporation Productive incorporation of other elements (adjectives, locatives, etc.) into verbs Like noun incorporation, but incorporated elements are not nouns Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Noun classes/genders Nouns are organized into sets with distinct morphological treatment; usually affects all nouns and involves agreement within the NP no Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Number of noun classes/genders Note the (approximate) total number of noun classes/genders 0 Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Noun classifiers (distinct from noun classes/genders) Nouns are organized into sets, but only a limited set of nouns may be implicated, with no or limited agreement marking. If only numeral classifiers exist, indicate yes but explain. Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Sex is a relevant category in noun class(ification) system for animates Masculine, feminine, neuter Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Sex is a relevant category in noun class(ification) system for inanimates Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Animacy (w/o reference to sex) is a relevant category in the noun class(ification) system Animate/inanimate, human/non-human Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Sex/gender distinction only in 3rd person pronouns add in notes section whether gender is present in other PNs or not in any PNs; consider with reference to pronouns and person marking only Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Shape is a relevant category in the noun class(ification) system for animates Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Shape is a relevant category in the noun class(ification) system for inanimates Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification "Repeater" classifiers Where no distinct classifier exists, a copy of the noun itself may function in the morphosyntactic classifier "slot" Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Numeral classifiers (specific to numerals) Special classifier forms that occur only with numerals no Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Classifiers used as derivational suffixes to derive nouns Verb + classifier = 'thing for doing V, thing that does V, etc.' Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Number Singular number may be marked on the noun Often occurs in a small subset of nouns if a single entity is referred to, e.g. insects that normally occur in groups Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Number Plural affix on noun Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Number Plural marked by stem change or tone on noun Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Number Plural marked by reduplication of noun Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Number Plural word/clitic Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Number Plural marked on human or animate nouns only no Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Number Pronominal plural: stem + nominal plural affix Pronouns use a nominal plural affix not specific to pronouns yes Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Number Unique associative plural marker e.g. 'John and his associates', 'John and them' Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Definite or specific articles Definite = particular referent known to both speaker and addressee; specific = particular referent known to speaker only yes Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Marker of definiteness distinct from demonstratives Focus on articles/markers whose primary function is to mark definiteness no Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Indefinite or non-specific article or marker no Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Inclusive/exclusive: in free pronominals Inclusive =us + you, exclusive = us but not you no Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Inclusive/exclusive: in verbal inflection (bound) no Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Distance contrasts in demonstratives (number) Note the number of distances in the demonstrative system 2 Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Other contrasts in demonstratives (visibility, elevation, etc.) Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Gender in 3sg pronouns no Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Gender in 3pl pronouns no Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Gender in 1st and/or 2nd person pronouns no Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Formal/informal distinction in pronouns Polite pronominal variants or differential avoidance of pronouns no Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Reflexive pronouns e.g. English 'himself', Spanish 'se'; distinct form(s) from basic (non-reflexive) pronominals; distinct from reflexive verbal affix Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Adpositions mark core NPs Prepositions or postpositions mark subjects, objects, beneficiaries/recipients Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: number of cases Note the number of grammatical relations that may be morphologically marked on the noun 5 Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: only non-core arguments morphologically marked Subjects, objects, beneficiaries/recipients NOT marked, but other grammatical relations are Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: symmetrical All NPs marked if in appropriate syntactic relation; no distinction in marking based on semantics (type of entity) yes Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: asymmetrical Semantically defined subset of NPs marked for case, e.g. animates no Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: suffix or postpositional clitic yes Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: prefix or prepositional clitic Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: infix or inpositional clitic Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: stem change Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: tone Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: comitative = instrumental Same marking for 'with a person' and 'with an instrument' no Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Numerals Base-2 At least some part of the system involves base-2 no Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Numerals Base-5 At least some part of the system involves base-5 no Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Numerals Base-10 At least some part of the system involves base-10 yes Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Numerals Other base (specify) 4, 20, etc. no Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Numerals Etymological transparency in any numerals under 5 e.g. two = 'eye-quantity' Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Numerals Numerals do not go above 5 'Many' or some other non-exact term used no Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Numerals Numerals do not go above 10 'Many' or some other non-exact term used no Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Other nominal Tense or aspect inflection on non-verbal predicates i.e. nominal or adjectival Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Other nominal Person inflection on non-verbal predicates i.e. nominal or adjectival Jane Hill
Nominal Syntax - Possession Pronominal possessive affixes: prefix on N alienable/inalienable? yes Jane Hill
Nominal Syntax - Possession Pronominal possessive affixes: suffix on N alienable/inalienable? no Jane Hill
Nominal Syntax - Possession Head/dependent marking in possessive NP: dependent e.g. 'the boy-'s dog' no Jane Hill
Nominal Syntax - Possession Head/dependent marking in possessive NP: head e.g. 'the boy his-dog' yes Jane Hill
Nominal Syntax - Possession Possessive classifiers There are special classifiers that occur with possessed entities Jane Hill
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Morphological marking of inalienable possession Where inalienable possession differs from alienable, the former takes a morphological marker (may include an associated free particle/pronoun) Jane Hill
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Morphological marking of alienable possession Where inalienable possession differs from alienable, the latter takes a morphological marker (may include an associated free particle/pronoun) Jane Hill
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Default marker for inalienably possessed nouns if unpossessed An inalienable noun that is in an unpossessed state must have a derivational affix or associated form Jane Hill
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Inalienable possession of kin terms 'my-father' but *father Jane Hill
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Inalienable possession of body parts (human/animal) 'my-leg' but *leg Jane Hill
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Generic human nouns are obligatorily bound/possessed Human nouns must co-occur with another noun (e.g. Hup-man, NonIndian-woman, but *man) Jane Hill
Nominal Syntax - Adjectives Underived adjectives There are underived adjectives which do not have counterparts in other word classes Jane Hill
Nominal Syntax - Adjectives Gender inflection on adjectives within the NP There is gender agreement/concord (animate/inanimate or masc/fem, etc.) within the NP, e.g. la casa blanca, el perro blanco Jane Hill
Nominal Syntax - Derivation Productive nominalizing morphology: action/state (arrive/arrival) There is a morpheme which derives an event from a verb Jane Hill
Nominal Syntax - Derivation Productive nominalizing morphology: agentive (sing/singer) There is a morpheme which derives an agent or subject from a verb Jane Hill
Nominal Syntax - Derivation Productive nominalizing morphology: object (sing/song) There is a morpheme which derives a patient or object from a verb Jane Hill
Nominal Syntax - Derivation Productive verbalizing morphology There is a morpheme which derives a verb from a noun or adjective Jane Hill
Nominal Syntax - Other NP coordination and comitative phrases marked differently 'John and Mary went to market' is marked differently from 'John went to market with Mary' no Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Dedicated past marker(s) Past tense is regularly morphologically marked on the verb or elsewhere Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Multiple past tenses, distinguishing distance from time of reference e.g. distant vs. recent past no Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Multiple future tenses, distinguishing distance from time of reference e.g. imminent vs. distant future Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Dedicated future or non-past marker(s) yes Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Tense-aspect affixes: prefix no Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Tense-aspect affixes: suffix yes Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Tense-aspect affixes: tone or ablaut no Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Tense-aspect suppletion no Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Mood Dedicated imperative morpheme or verb form There is a special morpheme (or morphemes, or a bare verb root where inflection is normally expected) used to signal imperative (command) mood yes Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Mood Polite imperative morpheme There is a distinct morpheme for polite imperative constructions (specify if it has other functions in the language) Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Mood Difference between negation in imperative (prohibitive) and declarative clauses There are different strategies for marking negation in imperative and declarative clauses yes Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Mood Dedicated hortative morpheme or verb form (1pl or 3rd person imperative) as opposed to imperative; the person in control of desired state of affairs is not the addressee; ex: 'Let's sing' / 'Let him sing' Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Mood Situational possibility: affix on verb Inflectional marking of capacity to do something Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Mood Situational possibility: verbal construction Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Mood Situational possibility: other marking yes Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Mood Epistemic possibility: affix on verb Modal expressing hypothesis Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Mood Epistemic possibility: verbal construction Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Mood Epistemic possibility: other marking yes Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Mood Marking of expected/unexpected action or result There is inflectional marking of expected/unexpected Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Mood Verbal frustrative Modal expressing frustration ("in vain") Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Mood Verbal habitual Modal expressing habituality Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Mood Apprehensive construction There is a single morpheme or verb form to mean '(be careful lest) X happens' Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Mood Reality status marking on verbs There are dedicated morpheme(s) for realis/irrealis 'actualized/unactualized events' Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Mood Affect markers (positive/negative) Note whether these inflectional markers are positive or negative Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Directionals Directional elements affixed to the verb There are grammaticalized elements indicating movement away, toward, there and back, etc. Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized visual Indicates information has been witnessed visually - indicate only if an overt marker Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized nonvisual Indicates information has been sensed firsthand but not visually (usually heard; also smelled, tasted, felt) Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized inferential Indicates information has not been experienced firsthand, but inferred from some kind of evidence - indicate only if an overt marker. Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized reportive Indicates speaker is not responsible for veracity of statement, merely reporting; 'allegedly' Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized quotative Indicate presence of adjacent representation of repeated discourse Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Other evidential Any other evidential values not represented above Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Evidentiality: verb affix or clitic no Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Evidentiality: part of tense system Includes portmanteau morphs no Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Evidentiality: separate particle yes Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Evidentiality: modal morpheme no Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Verbal number Verbal number suppletion yes Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Other Social interaction markers Note the type of interaction Jane Hill
Word Order No fixed basic constituent order Jane Hill
Word Order VS in intransitive clauses Verb precedes subject Jane Hill
Word Order VS in transitive clauses Jane Hill
Word Order VO in transitive clauses Verb precedes object Jane Hill
Word Order OS in transitive clauses Object precedes subject Jane Hill
Word Order Preposition-Noun no Jane Hill
Word Order Noun-Postposition or case suffix yes Jane Hill
Word Order Gen-Noun Possessive phrase composed of a free possessor and its possessum has possessor first (e.g. John's book) Jane Hill
Word Order Noun-Gen Possessive phrase composed of a free possessor and its possessum has possessum first (e.g. 'book of John') Jane Hill
Word Order Adj-Noun Adjective precedes the noun Jane Hill
Word Order Noun-Adj Adjective follows the noun Jane Hill
Word Order Dem-Noun yes Jane Hill
Word Order Noun-Dem no Jane Hill
Word Order Num-Noun yes Jane Hill
Word Order Noun-Num no Jane Hill
Word Order Noun-Rel Relative clause follows noun that it modifies Jane Hill
Word Order Rel-Noun Relative clause precedes noun that it modifies Jane Hill
Word Order Re<Noun>l (internally headed relative) e.g. 'the dog cat chased-NMZR got away' ('the cat that the dog chased got away') Jane Hill
Word Order Relative clause is correlative or adjoined e.g. 'what is running, the dog chased that cat' Jane Hill
Word Order Question word is clause initial 'what', 'who', etc. come first in interrogative clause yes Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: nominative-accusative w/ marked accusative Objects of transitive clauses ('P') have a unique marker, while subjects of transitive ('A') and intransitive ('S') clauses are unmarked or share a different marker from that occurring on objects yes Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: nominative-accusative w/ marked nominative Subjects of transitive and intransitive clauses share a marker, while objects of transitives are unmarked no Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: ergative-absolutive Subjects of intransitive clauses and objects of transitives share a unique marker, while subjects of transitive clauses are unmarked or have a different marker no Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: tripartite Intransitive subjects, transitive subjects, and transitive objects all receive distinct case markers no Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: active-inactive Subjects of intransitive clauses are treated two different ways: like subjects of transitives if they are more agent-like (e.g. he jumped), and like objects of transitives if they are more patient-like (e.g. he fell asleep) no Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: marked accusative yes Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: marked nominative no Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: ergative-absolutive yes, no, mixed, other no Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: tripartite no Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: active-inactive no Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: nominative-accusative Same as above, for pronominal affixes/clitics on verbs no Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: ergative-absolutive yes, no, mixed, other no Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: active-inactive no Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: hierarchical Marking of A and P depends on their relative ranking on a hierarchy (usually 1>2>3 or 2>1>3) no Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: split More than one of the above systems is represented in person marking, depending on e.g. person (e.g. 1/2 vs. 3), tense-aspect value, main vs. subordinate clause type, etc. no Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: pronouns in subject position Pronominal subjects are free pronouns that occur in the same position as full NP subjects yes Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: prefixes on verb Pronominal subjects are marked as verbal prefixes (free pronouns may be another option) no Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: suffixes on verb Pronominal subjects are marked as verbal suffixes (free pronouns may be another option) no Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: clitics on variable host Pronominal subjects are clitics that can attach to verbs, nominal constituents, etc. no Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: pronouns in non-subject position Pronominal subjects are free pronouns but do not normally occur in the position expected for full NP subjects no Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Person marking on intransitive verbs Intransitive verbs take person-marking clitics/affixes no Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Person marking (of agents) on transitive verbs Transitive verbs take subject (A) markers no Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Person-marking (of objects) on transitive verbs Transitive verbs take object (P) markers no Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking 3rd person zero in verbal person marking: subjects 3rd person subjects are not overtly marked within the verbal person-marking system yes Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking 3rd person zero in verbal person marking: objects 3rd person objects are not overtly marked within the verbal person-marking system yes Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Number can be marked separately from person on the verb Verbal person marking exists, but number is (or can) be marked separately no Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Possessive affixes/clitics on nouns are same as verbal person markers Where nouns take possessive affixes, these are the same as the person-marking affixes no Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Gender distinguished in verbal person markers For any person, verbal person markers exhibit different forms depending on the gender (masc/fem, animate/inanimate, etc.) of the referent no Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice Ditransitive constructions: indirect object In ditransitives (e.g. 'John gives a book to Bill'), the theme (book) is treated in the same way as are objects of transitives, while the recipient/beneficiary (Bill) is treated differently Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice Ditransitive constructions: double object In ditransitives (e.g. 'John gives Bill a book'), both the theme (book) and the recipient/beneficiary (Bill) is treated in the same way as are objects of transitives yes Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice Ditransitive constructions: secondary object In ditransitives, the recipient/beneficiary is treated in the same way as are objects of transitives, while the theme (book) is treated differently Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Reciprocal: dedicated morpheme Verb becomes reciprocal through use of reciprocal morpheme associated with the verb (may be attached to the verb root). This morpheme is only used to mean reciprocal. no Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Reflexive: dedicated morpheme Verb becomes reflexive through use of reflexive morpheme associated with the verb (may be attached to the verb root). This morpheme is used only to mean reflexive. no Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Reciprocal/reflexive: same morpheme Verb becomes reciprocal or reflexive through use of a morpheme that means either reciprocal or reflexive which attaches to the root of the verb yes Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Passive Passive voice usually involves a change to the verb, while the object of the active voice verb is promoted to subject in the passive voice, and the former subject is deleted/demoted Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Antipassive Like passive, but deletes or demotes the object of a transitive verb; usually found in ergative languages Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Other intransitivizing morphology There is/are some other mechanism(s) for reducing valency Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Applicative: benefactive Applicative adds a beneficiary/maleficiary object argument to the verb Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Applicative: other Applicative adds some other object argument to the verb Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: prefix Causative is morphological and is attached before the root of the verb Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: suffix Causative is morphological and is attached after the root of the verb Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative marked by circumfix, stem change, or tone Morphological causative other than simple prefix/suffix Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: serial verb or analytical construction Causative construction that involves periphrasis or serialization Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: dedicated 'make do by proxy' Indicates that the causer does not directly cause the action of the verb to be realized, but does so by inducing someone else to carry out the action, e.g. 'John had the house painted.' Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: dedicated sociative Indicates that causer participates in event Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Other transitivizing morphology (adds valence) There is/are some other mechanism(s) for increasing valency Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Negation Clausal negator is a preposed element Clausal negator is a preposed element Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Negation Clausal negator is a postposed element Clausal negator is a postposed element Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Negation Negatives: affix Negatives: affix Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Negation Negatives: particle Negatives: particle yes Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Negation Negatives: auxiliary verb Negatives: auxiliary verb Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Negation Negatives: double Standard (non-emphatic) negation typically requires two morphemes, e.g. French 'ne V pas' Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Negation Distinct negative form for 'NP does not exist' Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Negation Distinct negative expression 'I don't know' Lexical expression or highly idiomatic phrase Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Polar questions: interrogative particle Yes/no questions distinguished from declaratives by interrogative particle yes Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Polar questions: verb morphology Yes/no questions distinguished from declaratives by interrogative verb morphology no Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Polar questions: word order Yes/no questions distinguished from declaratives by word order (esp. subject-verb inversion) no Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Polar questions: intonation only Yes/no questions distinguished from declaratives by intonation only no Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Content questions: word order differs from declaratives Content questions distinguished from declaratives by word order (esp. subject-verb inversion) as well as by presence of Q-word (who, what, etc.) Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Predication Predicate adjectives: verbal Adjectives act like verbs in predicative position Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Predication Predicate adjectives: nominal Adjectives act like nouns in predicative position Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Predication Zero copula for predicate nominals is possible Predicate nominals may occur without a copula (i.e. grammatical in some circumstances, if not all) yes Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Predication Headless relative clauses Compare Eng 'the one that fell' (but in Eng 'one' could be considered a head) Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Predication Headless relative clauses are the dominant or only form of relative clause Relative clauses that form a constituent with a head noun (in a single noun phrase) are rare or nonexistent; some descriptions may refer to adjoined or correlative clauses. Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Predication Relative clause may occur with a noun classifier/class marker It may be unclear whether the classifier is the nominal head of the construction or is an agreement marker on the relative clause Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Predication Relativizer is a verbal affix Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Predication Morphological relativizer is homophonous with nominalizer The same morpheme marks a relative clause and is a nominalizer on verbs (and/or other word classes) Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Desiderative expressions Grammaticalized verbal desiderative Indicates that the subject desires to carry out the action denoted by the verb (distinct from verb 'want', but may be grammaticalized from it) Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Other Clause chaining Clauses can be grouped such that only one bears most of the verb morphology, and the others are marked as to whether they share a subject with this reference clause. Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Other Morphologically marked switch-reference system There are special markers to indicate same vs. different subject when two clauses are combined Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Other Morphologically marked distinction between simultaneous and sequential clauses Morphology (usually on verb) distinguishes between clauses denoting events that occur at the same time or in sequence Jane Hill


Ethnographic Information
Current population (ethnicity) Current population (speakers) Former population estimate Subsistence preference Subsistence notes Density Sedentism Ecotome (riverine/interfluvial/coastal/desert/savannah/etc.) Social hierarchies Multilingualism (rare/occasional/common) Contact languages Marriage pattern Notes Source Created By
large HG dense sedentary no