Morphological marking of inalienable possession

Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability
Where inalienable possession differs from alienable, the former takes a morphological marker (may include an associated free particle/pronoun)


Language Feature Status Grammatical Notes Source Created By Etymology Notes General Notes Phylogenetic Code
Cahuilla Jane Hill
Cupeño Jane Hill
Luiseño Jane Hill
Serrano Jane Hill
Kitanemuk Jane Hill
Kawaiisu Jane Hill
Timbisha Jane Hill
Western Mono Jane Hill
Chemehuevi Jane Hill
Southern Paiute Jane Hill
Southern Ute Jane Hill
Shoshone Jane Hill
Comanche Jane Hill
Idaho Shoshone Jane Hill
Northern Paiute Jane Hill
Gabrielino Jane Hill
Achagua yes unpossessed affix for inalienable nouns, alienable nouns can take a derivational affix to become inalienable Wilson & Levinsohn 1992: 20 Ana Paula Brandao, Aimee Lawrence
Resígaro no From the examples, it seems as though possession of an inalienable noun is indicated simply by the use of another preposed nominal. Allin, 1976: 169-175 Aimee Lawrence
Bare yes Unpossessed inalienable nouns have suffix, alienables are unmarked Aikhenvald, 1995: 13 Ana Paula Brandao, Aimee Lawrence
Piapoco no Galindo, 2002: 93-95, 343 Aimee Lawrence
Yukuna no Shauer & Shauer, 2000: 520 Ana Paula Brandao
Yavitero no Mosonyi, 1987: p. 38 Aimee Lawrence
Wapishana no Santos 2006:99 Ana Paula Brandao, Amanda Meeks
Wayuu no Mansen & Captain, 2000: p. 799 Aimee Lawrence
Tariana no Obligatorily possessed nouns cannot be used without a cross-referencing prefix, although this is the same set of cross-referencing prefixes that are used for optionally (alienably) possessed nouns. Aikhenvald, 2003: 127-128 Aimee Lawrence
Apurinã no Unpossessed inalienable nouns require the "unposession" marker -txi, but no marking necessary to occur in possessed form. Facundes, 2000: 152 Aimee Lawrence
Asheninka Apurucayali yes They both take morphological marking. A possessed (alienable) noun with no person prefix must have a non-possessive suffix . A possessed (inalianable) noun with a possessive suffix must have a person prefix. Payne 1981:4953 Amanda Meeks
Maipure yes same set of agreement prefixes on active verbs Zamponi 2003:24 Amanda Meeks
Yanesha' no Inalienabl and alienable possession are marked but they may differ in the strategy used Duff-Tripp 1997:33-4 Daniel Valle
Kinikinau yes Inalienable nouns show three different forms: non-possessed, possessed non-specific and possessed specific. Souza 2008:74 Daniel Valle
Baure yes Danielsen 2007: p118 Mitz Perez
Nanti no Inalienable nouns must always occur with a possessive prefix. Michael, 2008. p. 298 Aimee Lawrence
Paresi yes Brandão 2010:15 Daniel Valle
Palikur no Launey 2003 Daniel Smith
Yine no Matteson 1965 Daniel Smith
Añun no no difference, alianable may or may not be marked with same person prefixes Patte 1989:53 Daniel Smith
Bora no Seifart - 2005:64 Amanda Meeks
Makiritare no Hall 1988: 288-289 Melody Ann Ross
Makushi no "The possession suffix must occur on alienably posessed items…. The inalienably possessed item never, except in past possession, occurs with the posession suffix, but only with the possessor prefix." The possessor prefix is a pronominal form. Abbott 1991: 85 Melody Ann Ross
Eñepa yes inalianable possessed nouns take person prefixes and possessive suffixes Payne 2012:74-80 Daniel Smith
Pemon no info de Armellada 1999: 13 Daniel Smith
Guna no Smith texts Daniel Smith
Naso no Quesada 2000 Daniel Smith
Ika no Frank 1985:55-7 Daniel Valle
Kogi no info Daniel Valle
Cabecar no info Daniel Valle
Guaymí no info Daniel Valle
Damana no Daniel Valle
Sikuani no No apparent distinction. de Kondo (Vol.1,2) - 1985; Queixalós - 2000 Amanda Meeks
Macaguan no info Buenaventura 1993 Daniel Smith
Aguaruna no info Overall 2007:261-2 Daniel Valle more likely no
Northern Emberá no Aguirre 1999:79-80 Daniel Valle Chamí
Waorani no info Daniel Valle
Ingá yes This is a nominal suffix which is used for inalienable possession Levinson 1976b:54 Daniel Valle
Matses no info Daniel Valle
Mapudungun no info most likely not Zúñiga 2006, p. 87-102 Daniel Valle
Páez no info Daniel Valle
Quechua Ayacuchano no Parker 1965:32-46 Daniel Valle
Tikuna yes Montes 2005:133 Daniel Valle
Urarina no It seems that the "traditional" language had such a distinction but it is being lost at the time Olawsky:331-41 Daniel Valle
Waunana yes In Loewen (1954:82) it is said that kinship and body-part terms take the "indefinite personal possessor" /-mãʃ/ when they appear without a definite possessor. This suggests that the answr to this question is yes. However, Mejia (2000:90) suggests a no an Loewen 1954:82 Daniel Valle
Andoke yes takes person pns Landaburu 1979: 132-133 Kelsey Neely
Puinave no Marking of alienable/inalienable nouns is marked with the samse set of prefixes Giron 2008: 206 Mitz Perez, Daniel Valle
Central Aymara no info Shannon Dardis
Kakua yes Bolaños fieldnotes Katherine Bolaños
Kaingang no info Goncalves 2011:12 Daniel Smith
Minica Witoto yes Minor and Minor 1982. p.42, 90 Christopher Clack
Hup no Epps 2008 Pattie Epps
Nadëb/Roçado dialect no Weir 1984 Katherine Bolaños
Dâw no little info apparently there is no inalienable/alienable difference Martins 2004 Katherine Bolaños
Desano no Miller 1999, p. 49 Amanda Novak
Cubeo no Morse & Maxwell 1999, p. 91 Amanda Novak
Kotiria no Stenzel 2004, p. 197 Amanda Novak
Makuna no Smothermon & Smothermon 1993, p.40-41 Chris Clack
Koreguaje no Cook & Criswell 1993, p.45 Chris Clack no info/not expected
Barasano no Jones & Jones 1991, p.61 Chris Clack
Tanimuca no Strom 1992, p.66-67 Chris Clack
Siona no There is no difference in the marking of possession between alienable/inalienable nouns. Wheeler - 1987:121-125 Amanda Meeks
Tukano yes examples are all with pronominal possessors, marked with "referential" (to, of, toward, etc) suffix -re; this strategy can presumably also be used with some alienable relationships, but Ramirez only says that it is used as a marker of possession "especial Ramirez 1997: 227-228 Kelsey Neely
Yanomami no no marking in existential sentences w/o verb (Pr-Pd), but inalienably possessed is incorporated in sentences involving a verb Ramirez 1994: 184-192 Kelsey Neely
Ninam yes different markers used for inalienable Goodwin-Gomez, p.52-56 Kelsey Neely
Sanumá no info Borgman 1990: p.126-128 Kelsey Neely
Surui no info Daniel Valle
Karitiana no Everett 2006:296, 303-4 Daniel Valle
Nheengatu yes inalienable possession must have possessive prefix Cruz 2011:156 Daniel Smith
Paraguayan Guaraní no Ayala 1996:85-7 Daniel Valle
Aché no info Daniel Valle
Kokama no info Vallejos 2010:274-276 Daniel Smith
Nyangumarta no done 0
Jingulu no done 0
Wambaya no done 0
Bunuba no done 0
Walmajarri no Done-Claire 0
Nyulnyul yes done? 1
Warrwa yes done 1
Worrorra yes ms13.1 done 1
Garrwa no 25 done 0
Gooniyandi yes done 1
Warlpiri no info done 0
Bardi yes done-Claire 1
Yugambeh Y?
Yorta Yorta no 57 done 0
Yir Yoront Done-Dan
Yindjibarndi no 143-147 done-Dan 0
Yidiny yes done-Catherine 1
Yanyuwa yes 4 Done-Austin 1
Yandruwandha no 79-80, 118-9 Done-Dan 0
Yan-nhangu not yet
Yalarnnga no? 58 Done-Dan 0
Woiwurrung no info done-Amalia x
Wirangu No 51 done 0
Wemba-Wemba yes H 34 done-Amalia 1
Warumungu yes 55 done-Amalia 1
Wangkumara no 51 done 0
Uradhi No 378 Y 0
Paakantyi no Y-Hannah 0
Pitta-Pitta No 197 Done-Amalia 0
Pintupi no done-Hannah 0
Nyungar no info done x
Nhanta no 65, 77 Done-Hannah 0
Ngiyambaa no 231 Done-Emily 0
Ngayawang No info done-Amalia x
Muruwari no info Done-Dan x
Mayi-Yapi No 45, 48 done 0
Martuthunira no 91 done 0
Marrgany No 308 Done-Amalia 0
Kuuk Thaayorre Yes 325 Done-Amalia 1
Kuku Yalanji yes 51 Done-Jessica 1
Kugu-Nganhcara No 428 done-Amalia 0
Kaurna No info done-Amalia x
Kalkatungu no info Done-Dan x
Jaru no 194-6 Done-Amalia 0
Guugu-Yimidhirr yes 57 Done-Amalia 1
Gureng Gureng no info Done-Amalia x
Gumbaynggirr yes 261 done-Amalia 1
Gugu-Badhun no done-Jessica 0
Yuwaalaraay No 49 0
Dyirbal No 61 done-Amalia 0
Duungidjawu no 98-99 done 0
Djinang No 199 Done-Amalia 0
Djabugay done
Diyari no 138-139; 140 done-Hannah 0
Dharawal no info done-Hannah w Dhurga) x
Darkinyung no 30-31 done 0
Bularnu no 38 Done-Austin 0
Biri no 55 done-Jessica 0
Bidjara-Gungabula no info done-Jessica x
Batyala no info Done-Amalia x
Arabana no 95 Done-Dan 0
Alyawarr no 118-9 done 0
Nyikina no done-Claire 0
Yawuru Y-Claire
Yulparija No 29 Done-Amalia 0
Wathawurrung no info done x
Mathi-Mathi yes 82 done-Amalia 1
Hunter River and Lake Macquarie no 33 done-Amalia 0
Thanggati no 20-21, 86-87 done 0
Katthang yes 66 done-Amalia 1
Panyjima no 195-196 done 0
Ngarinyeri yes 35 done-Amalia 1
Kurrama no 37; cf 35, 2.29 done-Dan 0
Yingkarta no Done-Claire 0
Githabul N/A 34 Done-Amalia 0
Gunya No 308 Done-Amalia 0
Kunjen yes 38-39 Done- 1
WesternTorres yes? FO 127 done 1
Wakaya no info done x
Yindjilindji no 506 done 0
Bandjalang No 70 Done-Amalia 0
Ngaatjatjara No 41 done 0
Arrernte Yes 150 1
Kokatha No 55 0
Karajarri No 309 Done-Amalia 0
Pitjantjatjara No Y 14 0
Ritharrngu No 24 Done-Amalia 0
Warrgamay No 76 Done-Amalia 0
Warluwarra no 898 Done-Amalia 0
Warnman No 23 Done-Amalia 0
Djapu no 122-7 0
Bilinarra no 4.7.2 done 0
Wiradjuri no info done x
Aghu-Tharnggala No 59 Y2 0
Narungga No 65 done 0
Tharrkari No 26 0
Wajarri No 48 0
Warungu no 644 0
Adnyamathanha Y2
Yagua no Payne and Payne 1990:348 Daniel Smith
Baniwa no Ramirez 2001 Patience Epps