Tikuna

Family
Tikuna-Juri
Region
South America
ISO 639-3
tca
Location
-3.66°, -67.87°
Notes
Features
Basic Vocabulary
Flora Fauna Vocabulary
Cultural Vocabulary
Grammatical Data
Data Sources
de Alviano, Frei Fidelis. 1944. Gramática, Dicionário, Verbos e Frases e Vocabulario Prático da Língua dos Índios Ticunas. Revista do Instituto Geográfico da Bahía CLXXX. 3-194. Anderson, Doris. 1962. Conversational Ticuna. Yarinacocha Press, Yarinacocha. Anderson, Lambert. 1958. Vocabulario breve del idioma ticuna. Tradición 8. 53-68. Montes, María. 2000. Fonología de la lengua ticuna. In González de Pérez, María and Rodríguez de Montes, María Lenguas indígenas de Colombia:una visión descriptiva, pp.289-312. Instituto Caro y Cuervo, Santafé de Bogotá. Montes, María. 2004a. Lengua Ticuna: resultados de fonología y sintaxis. Forma y Función 17:34-44. María, Montes. 2004b. Morfosintaxis de la lengua tikuna (Amazonía colombiana). Ediciones Uniandes, Bogotá. Montes, María. 2005. Gramática y pragmática: algunos fenómenos de la lengua tikuna, Amazonía colombiana. UniversSOS. Revista de Lenguas Indígenas y Universos Culturales, 2:129-146, Valencia. Soares, Marília Faco. 1990. Marcacao de caso y atribucao de caso em tukuna. Cadernos de estudos linguisticos 18:79-114. Soares, Marília Faco. 1992. Ordem de palavra: primeiros passos para uma relacao entre som, forma e estrutura em tikuna. Amerindia 17, pp.89-119.


Basic Vocabulary (191)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Etymology Notes Source Created By
above encima, arriba acima location dauxü [3, 5] dauʔɨ unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
and y e grammar rɨ [5] ɾɯ See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
ash ceniza(s) cinzas environment ta3ni3ma3ca5 (A58) tanimaka loan Tupi-Guarani, prob. Nheengatu See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
at en, a em, a location {-gu [4], gucü [4, 3]} {-gu, gukɨ} See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
back espalda costas body káwé kaβɛ unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
bad mal mal quality tʃiʔekɯmã unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
belly barriga barriga body pɨtɨwɛ unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
below abajo, debajo abaixo location ñaxtü [5, 3] ɲaʔtɨ unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
big grande grande quality na2ta2 (A58) nata unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
black negro preto colour wẽxẽ [4, 4] wẽʔẽ unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
blood sangre sangue body nagü [3-5, 5] nagɨ unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
boil/pimple espinilla, granos espinha, borbulha body missing See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
bone hueso osso body na2xchi1na5xa3 (A58) naʔtʃinaʔa unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
breast pecho, seno peito body mixĩ [5, 1] miʔĩ unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
child niño, niña criança human buxũ [3, 2] buʔɨ̃ unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
cloud nube nuvem environment cai3-5xa5ne5xü8 (A58) kaiʔaneʔɨ unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
cold frío frio quality deɟu unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
correct/true verdad, de veras verdade quality missing See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
day día dia time ngunexũ [5, 3, 2] ŋuneʔɨ̃ unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
dirty sucio sujo quality eʔe eʔe unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
dingo/wolf fauna See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
dry seco seco quality na2 pa2 (A58) napa unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
dull/blunt sin filo, mocho, desafilado, embotado, romo maçante, desamolado, não afiado quality See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
dust polvo poeira environment a3te5xe4xü2 (A58) ateʔeʔɨ See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
ear oreja orelha body tʃinɨ unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
earth/soil tierra terra environment nhá-tô (Alv44) ñáʔto unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
egg huevo ovo fauna otacharaxũ [3, 1, 2, 2, 3] otatʃaɾaʔɨ̃ unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
eye ojo olho body naxetü (his eye) [2-3, 2, 5] naʔetɨ unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
far lejos longe quality na2ya2xü2 (A58) najaʔɨ unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
fat/grease grasa gordura body tʃiːɯ unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
father padre, papá pai kinship nãtɨ (?) unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
feather pluma pena fauna tʃiʔi unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
fire fuego fogo environment ü4xü3 (A58) ɨʔɨ unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
flower flor flor environment putɨɾa loan Nheengatu See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
fog niebla, neblina nevoeira, bruma, neblina environment che3re2na5 (A58) ʃerena See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
fruit fruta fruta flora o4xri5 (A58) oʔri unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
good bueno bom quality mex [3-5] meʔ unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
hair (of head) cabello cabelo body nayas (his hair) najas, ɟaɛ unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
hand mano mão body nachacüxü [2-3, 1, 2, 3] natʃakɨʔɨ unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
3sg el/ella ele/ela grammar ngimax (feminine) [5, 4] ŋimaʔ unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
head cabeza cabeça body naeru [2-3, 4, 2] naeɾu unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
heavy pesado pesado quality na2ya2 (A58) naja unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
how? como como grammar ñuxacü [3-5, 5, 5] ɲuʔakɨ unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
1sg yo eu grammar chamax [5, 4] tʃamaʔ unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
if si se grammar chi [2] tʃi See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
in/inside dentro, adentro dentro location neóko (Alv44) neóko unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
intestines intestinos intestinos body missing See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
lake lago lago environment na2xta2xa3 (A58) naʔtaʔa unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
leaf hoja folha environment atɨ unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
left/left hand izquierdo esquerdo location/body toʔβɛ unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
leg/foot pierna perna body perɛmã unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
lightning rayo, relámpago relampago environment na3-5xü3 (A58) naʔɨ unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
liver hígado figado body naca [3-5, 5] naka unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
long largo comprido, longo quality na2ma5 (A58) nama unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
louse piollo, piojo piolho fauna tʃi unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
man/male hombre homem human yatũ [3-5, 5] jatũ unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
meat/flesh carne carne fauna namachi [3-5, 5, 3] namatʃi doubtful loan Jivaroan See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
moon luna lua environment tau5we3ma5cü3 (A58) tauwemakɨ unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
mother madre, mamá mãe kinship mama mama loan Spanish, Quechua? See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
mouth boca boca body naxã [2-3, 5] naʔãʔ unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
name nombre nome human naega [2-3, 1, 4] naega unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
near/close cerca de perto quality ŋãikamã (adj.) ŋãikamã (adj.) unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
nape base del cuello, nuca nuca body See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
neck cuello pescoço body nãʔa nãʔa unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
new nuevo novo quality ŋɛʔwaka ŋɛʔwaka unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
night noche noite time chütaxũ [2, 5, 2] tʃɨtaʔɨ̃ unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
no/not no não grammar tama [2, 3] tama unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
nose nariz nariz body narãũ [2-3, 1, 5] naɾãɨ̃ doubtful loan, direction unknown Yagua See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
old viejo velho quality ɟakɯ (n.) ɟakɯ (n.) unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
one uno um number wüxi [2-3, 2] wɨʔi unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
other otro outro grammar [-to] (adv. root) [-to] (adv. root) unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
pain/painful/sick dolor, doloroso, enfermo dor, doloroso, doente body ni2-3da4we4 (A58) nidawe unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
person/human being persona pessoa human vuó-e (Alv44) wuó-e (Alv44) unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
rain lluvia chuva environment puːkɯ puːkɯ unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
red rojo vermelho colour daux [5] dauʔ unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
right/right hand derecha direita location/body tɯgɯnɛ tɯgɯnɛ unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
road/path camino caminho manufacture [-mã] (nominal root) [-mã] (nominal root) doubtful loan Tukanoan See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
root raíz raiz flora tʃumãʔa tʃumãʔa unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
rotten podrido podre quality ni2yi3xi3 (A58) nijiʔi unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
sand arena areia environment naxnũcũ [4, 5, 5] naʔnũkũ unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
sharp afilado, filudo, filoso afiado quality missing See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
short corto curto quality na-mô-úntchi (Alv44) naʔmoʔuntʃi unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
shoulder hombro ombro body na3-5a5tü5 (A58) naatɨ unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
shy/ashamed tímido, vergonzoso timido, com vergonha mental na-ane (Alv44) naʔane unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
skin piel pele body naxchaxmũ [2-3, 5, 3] naʔtʃaʔmɨ̃ unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
sky cielo céu environment na3-5a5ne5tü3we3 (A58) naanetɨwe unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
small pequeño pequeno quality íra (Alv44) íra unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
smoke humo fumaça environment emã emã unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
star estrella estrela environment e4xta3 (A58) eʔta unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
stick/wood palo pau, vara flora nái (Alv44) nái unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
stone piedra pedra environment nu3-5ta3 (A58) nuta unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
tail cola, rabo rabo body na2re1xü3 (A58) nareʔɨ unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
that ese/esa esse grammar guxema [3-5, 4, 2] guʔema unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
3pl ellos/ellas eles/elas grammar nũmagũ [3-5, 4, 2] nũmagũ unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
thick grueso, gordo, espeso grosso quality na2ta2me2na5xa5 (A58) natamenaʔa unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
thin delgado fino quality na2chi2xca5 (A58) natʃiʔka unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
this este/esta este grammar daa [3-5, 5], dama [4, 2] daa, dama unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
2sg xx xx grammar cumax [5, 4] kumaʔ unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
throat garganta garganta body na2xma4na2xa3 (A58) naʔmanaʔa unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
three tres tres number tomaxexpü [3, 1, 5, 5] tomaʔeʔpɨʔ unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
thunder truenos trovão environment nei-dórô (Alv44) neiʔdóro unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
bite morder morder body ŋõku ŋõku unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
blow soplar soprar body kwɛ kwɛ unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
breathe respirar respirar body tei-pá (Alv44) teiʔpá unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
burn quemar queimar environment gu gu unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
chew masticar, mascar mastigar body na2na3wa3-5 (A58) nanawa unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
climb subir subir motion ná-ina-guê (Alv44) náʔinaʔgɨ unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
come venir vir motion -u -u unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
cook cocinar cozinhar impact missing See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
count contar contar mental itixugü (we count them) [3, 3, 3, 5] itiʔugɨ unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
cry llorar chorar mental na2xa5xu3 (A58) naʔaʔu unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
cut/hack cortar cortar impact na2na3che4xe3 (A58) nanatʃeʔe unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
die/be dead morir morrer state nayu (he dies) [2, 4] naju, [-ɟu] (verbal root) unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
dig cavar cavar impact éncana-ái (Alv44) énkanaʔái unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
dream soñar sonhar mental ia-tá (Alv44) iaʔtá unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
drink beber, tomar beber body naxaxe (he drinks) [2, 5, 3] naʔaʔe unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
eat comer comer body nanango [2, 3, 5] nanaŋoʔ unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
fall caer cair motion inangu (he/they fall) [1, 2, 3-5] inaŋu unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
fear miedo medo mental na-mú (Alv44) naʔmú unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
flow fluir fluir motion bai bai unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
fly volar voar motion goe (birds ~) goe (birds ~) unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
grow crecer crescer state missing See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
hear oír ouvir mental [-inɨ] (verbal root) [-inɨ] (verbal root) unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
hide esconder esconder motion na2ya3cu5 (A58) najaku unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
hit golpear, pegar bater impact nidagü (he hit me) nidagɨ unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
hold correr, asegurar, sostener segurar other eninguí (Alv44) eninguí unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
kill matar matar impact nanadai (he kills) [2, 3, 5] nanadai, -mã (verbal root) unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
know/be knowledgeable saber, conecer saber, conhecer mental nü-5xü3 na2cua5 (A58) nɨxɨ nakua (A58) doubtful loan, direction unknown Iquito See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
laugh reír rir mental nacugü [2, 2-3, 2] nakugɨ unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
lie down acostarse, echarse deitar motion inakú (Alv44) inakú unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
live/be alive vivir viver, morar body na-mán-ûn (Alv44) naʔmánʔwun unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
open/uncover abrir abrir other na3ya5wa2xna2 (A58) najawaʔna unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
pound/beat machacar, golpear bater impact na2na3po2 (A58) nanapo See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
say decir dizer mental i4na2chi2 (A58) inatʃi unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
scratch rascar rasgar impact nangáo (Alv44) nangáo unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
see ver ver mental -dau -dau unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
shoot tirar, disparar, balear atirar impact nanacue (he/they shoot it) [2, 3, 5] nanakue unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
sit sentar(se) sentar state inarüto (he/they sit) [1, 2, 3, 4] inaɾɨto unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
sleep dormir dormir body na2pe2 (A58) nape unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
sniff/smell olfatear, oler cheirar body naʔpaʔáka (Alv44) naʔpaʔáka unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
spit escupir cuspir body netchakuái (Alv44) netʃakuái unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
split partir, dividir rachar, dividir, partir impact nare-pêu-tê (Alv44) nareʔpɨuʔtɨ unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
squeeze estrujar, exprimir espremer impact natchana-ô (Alv44) natʃanaʔo unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
stab/pierce apuñalar, acuchillar apunhalar impact missing See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
stand estar de pié ficar em pé state inachi [4, 5, 2] inatʃi unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
steal robar roubar other na2ngi5 (A58) naŋi doubtful loan Boran See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
suck chupar chupar body nü3-5xü; nü2tu5xu3 (A58) nɨʔɨ, nɨtuʔu unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
swell hincharse inchar body na2rü5cha3-5 (A58) narɨtʃa unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
swim nadar nadar motion ni2we3xe3 (A58) niweʔe unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
think pensar pensar mental na2gu4 na2rü3xi3nü3 (A58) nagu narɨʔinɨ unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
throw tirar, lanzar atirar, jogar impact nanaña (he/they throw it) [2, 3, 5] nanaɲa unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
tie up/fasten atar, amarrar amarrar impact na2ya3nai5 (A58) najanai unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
turn girar, volter, torcer virar other enangó-égo (Alv44) enaŋóʔégo unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
vomit vomitar vomitar body naxoxgü (he/they vomit) naʔoʔgɨ unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
walk caminar, andar andar motion -uʔ -uʔ unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
work trabajar trabalhar other napuracüe (he works) [2, 3, 3, 2] napuɾakɨe doubtful loan Spanish trabajar See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
yawn bostezar bocejar body kingaótchí (A58) kiŋaótʃí unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
tongue lengua lingua body conü [2, 3] konɨ unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
tooth diente dente body napüta [3-5, 5, 5] napɨta unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
two dos dois number taxre [4, 2] taʔɾe unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
water agua agua environment dexa [3-5, 1] deʔa unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
1pl.incl nosotros (inclusivo) nós (inclusivo) grammar yixemax [5, 4, 2] yixemax [5, 4, 2] unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
1pl.excl nosotros (exclusivo) nós (exclusivo) grammar tomax [3, 4] tomaʔ [3, 4] unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
wet mojado molhado quality iwaɟɛ iwaɟɛ unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
what? que, qué que grammar taxacü (interrogative) [5, 2, 2] taʔakɨ unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
when? cuando quando grammar nuxgu [5, 4] nuʔgu unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
where? donde onde grammar ŋiɛʔta ŋiɛʔta unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
white blanco branco colour comũx [1, 5] komɨ̃ʔ unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
who? quien, quién quem grammar texe (interrogative) [5, 1] teʔe unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
wife esposa esposa kinship naxma naʔmaʔ unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
wind viento vento environment buanɛʔkɯ buanɛʔkɯ unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
wing ala asa body patʃii patʃii unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
woman/female mujer mulher human ngexũ [3, 2] ŋeʔɨ̃ unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
yellow amarillo amarelo colour dexex [2, 2] deʔeʔ unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
2pl ustedes vocês grammar pemax [3, 4] pemaʔ unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
foot pie body nacutü [2-3, 4, 3] nakutɨ unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
again de nuevo, otra vez de novo grammar wena [1, 5] wena unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
all todo todos other guemã gemã unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
ankle tobillo tornozelo body missing See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
armpit axila, sobaco axila body missing See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
faeces heces, mierda, excremento, estiércol fezes body i4na2wo5xe5 (A58) inawoʔe unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
lung pulmón pulmão body ñuxmi [2-3, 1] ɲuʔmi unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
sweat sudar suor, suar body na-áia (Alv44) naʔáia unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
itch hormiguear, sentir comezón coçar body nich (it itches) [2-3, 2] nitʃ See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
bark corteza casca environment nãitʃamɨ unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
fingernail uña unha body itapua [3, 3, 3, 5] itapua unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
heart corazón coração body maxũne [2, 1, 5] maʔɨ̃ne unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
sun sol sol time üaxcü [3-5, 5, 3] ʔɯakɯ unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
mountain/hill montaña, colina, loma, cerro morro, serra environment [-pɯ] (nominal root) unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
green verde verde quality ɟau unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
hot caliente quente quality taiɟa unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE


Flora Fauna Vocabulary (133)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Linnean Name Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Range of Term Word Structure Word Structure Notes Classifier Classifier Notes Hypernym Source Association with Social Categories Ritual/Mythologically Significant Ritual Notes Food Source Food Notes Medicinal Medicinal Notes How Collected Who Collects How Prepared Psychotropic Psychotropic Notes Traded Trade Notes Distribution Habitat Dangerous Ethnobiology Notes Species Notes General Notes Created By
horse caballo cavalho flora-fauna Equus caballus See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
bat murciélago morcego flora-fauna Chiroptera spp. chü4ri1 (A58) tʃɨri loan, direction unknown Aymara tʃiɲi See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
bird pajaro, ave passaro flora-fauna weɾi weɾi doubtful loan Tupi-Guarani See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
curassow mitu, montete (Peru), paujil/panjuil (Peru), paujil de Salvin (Peru for Mitu salvini) mutum flora-fauna Crax sp., Nothocrax sp. ngó-ná (Alv44) ŋóʔná unique See Language page Amazonia Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
toucan tucán, pinsha (Peru) tucano flora-fauna Ramphastos sp. tá-ô (alv44) táʔo unique See Language page Widespread Amazonia Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
gray-winged trumpeter Grulla, Trompetero Ala Gris jacamim flora-fauna Psophia crepitans án-ûn (Alv44) ánʔun unique See Language page Northern Amazonia (N of Solimões), not in northern Colombia; Dark-winged trumpeter is found south of Solimões Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
guan pava, pucacunga (Peru), pava de Spix (Peru) jacu flora-fauna Penelope sp. bá-rê (Alv44) báʔrɨ loan - WW %mare See Language page Different types have different localized ranges Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
tinamou tinamu, perdiz, gallineta inambu, inhambu flora-fauna family Tinamidae missing See Language page Widespread Amazonia Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
hummingbird colibrí, picaflor (Peru) beija-flor flora-fauna family Trochilidae missing See Language page Widespread Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
kingfisher martín pescador, catalan (Peru) martim-pescador flora-fauna family Alcedinidae missing See Language page Widespread Amazonia Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
owl (large) búho, lechuza corujão flora-fauna order Strigiformes vuóro (Alv44) wuóro unique See Language page Widespread Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
macaw ara, guacamaya Arara flora-fauna family Psittacidae; Ara sp. tchiára (blue), engó-ue (red) (Alv44) tʃiára (blue), eŋóʔue (red) doubtful loan - WW %arara See Language page Widespread Amazonia Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
parrot loro real, loro (Sp. form is a loan from Carib) papagaio flora-fauna Amazona amazonica pauáru (Alv44) pawáru loan - WW %awaro, via Nheengatu? See Language page Widespread Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
dove paloma pomba flora-fauna family Columbidae mó-tucú (Alv44) moʔtuku loan - WW %motkuku See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
hawk halcón, gavilán gavião flora-fauna family Accipitridae dá-ûe (alv44) dáʔwe unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
vulture buitre, gallinazo, rinahui (Peru) urubu flora-fauna family Cathartidae ngurucu ŋuɾuku unique See Language page Widespread South America Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
duck pato pato, marreco flora-fauna Anatidae family yori (sp. of duck) joɾi unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
great egret Garza Blanca, Guyratî Garça-Branca-Grande flora-fauna Ardea alba chucu tʃuku unique See Language page Widespread South America Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
woodpecker pájaro carpintero, carpintero pica-pau flora-fauna family Picidae én-rú (Alv44) énʔrú unique See Language page Widespread Amazonia Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
dog (camp, domestic) perro cachorro flora-fauna Canis famililaris airu (Quechua loan)? aiɾu doubtful loan Quechua; cf. %auli See Language page Not native; widespread Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
dog (wild; bush dog) sachaperro, Perro de Monte, Zorro Vinagre, Guanfando; Zorro Ojizarco, Zorro Negro, Perro de Orejas Corta cachorro-do-mato flora-fauna Speothos venaticus; Atelocynus microtis See Language page Widespread Amazonia Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
anteater oso hormiguero; tapia pelejo or pelejo chico for Cyclopes didactylus tamanduá flora-fauna Myrmecophaga tridactyla (giant anteater); Cyclopes didactylus (silky anteater) tchá-tê (Alv44) tʃáʔtɨ unique See Language page Widespread Amazonian lowlands Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
armadillo armadillo, carachupa (Peru), yangunturi (Peru for Giant armadillo) tatu flora-fauna family Dasypodidae; e.g. Priodontes maximus (Giant armadillo), Dasypus novemcinctus, Dasypus kappleri sho, sina (R95); in-ké (Alv44) ʃo, sina; inʔké doubtful loan see Jivaroan ʃuʃui See Language page Widespread in Amazonia Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
sloth pereza, pelejo (Peru), perezoso (Peru) macaco preguica flora-fauna Choloepus sp., Bradypus sp. pöwí (R95) pöwí (R95) See Language page Widespread Amazonia Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
alligator, black caiman babilla; cachirre jacaré flora-fauna Melanosuchus niger, Caiman schlerops; Paleosuchus sp. coya koja unique but cf. Tinigua 'iguana' See Language page Throughout Amazonia Port term reportedly borrowed from Tupi Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
electric eel anguila eléctrica poraquê flora-fauna Electrophorus electricus chõxni tʃõʔni unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
fish (generic) pez peixe flora-fauna tʃɔʔnɨ tʃɔʔnɨ unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
pacu fish palometa, garopita, garopa, curhuara (Peru) pacu flora-fauna Mylossoma sp. pacu [loan]; opaka (Alv44) paku [loan]; opaka (Alv44) See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
pirana piraña, caribe piranha flora-fauna subfamily Serrasalmidae utchúma (Alv44) utʃúma unknown cf. Arawak uma See Language page Widespread Amazonia Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
tigerfish taraira, guabina, huasaco (Peru) traíra flora-fauna Hoplias sp. dé (Alv44) See Language page Widespread Amazonia Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
mandi catfish maparate (used in Peru for some types of catfish, including Auchenipterus sp.), cunchi (used in Peru for some types of catfish), bagre (catfish) mandi flora-fauna Auchenipterus sp. mo-ni (Alv44) moni See Language page Widespread Amazonia Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
speckled catfish surubí, pintadillo surubim, sorubim flora-fauna Pseudoplatystoma sp. djô-tá (Alv44) dʒoʔtá See Language page Widespread Amazonia Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
toad sapo sapo flora-fauna order Anura có-rurú (Alv44) kóʔrurú See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
iguana iguana, garipiares (Colombia) camaleão flora-fauna Iguana sp. tchené-má (Alv44) tʃenéʔmá loan - WW %tʃamana See Language page iguana' is reportedly from Arawak iwana Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
small lizard lagartija calango flora-fauna order Squamata engairé (Alv44) eŋairé unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
stingray (generic) rayas látigo, raya arraia flora-fauna Potamotrygon sp. na-ûn (Alv44) naʔun unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
crab cangrejo caranguejo flora-fauna infraorder Brachyura ó-ve (Alv44) óʔwe unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
anaconda anaconda, boa, boa acuática grande sucuri flora-fauna genus Eunectes djói (Alv44) dʒói See Language page Widespread Amazonia Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
boa boa; mantona (red-tailed boa); boa de altura jiboia flora-fauna family Boidae, subf. Boinae tututchí (Alv44) tututʃí doubtful loan, direction unknown Bora tʰéétʰéxɨ See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
snake (generic) culebra, serpiente cobra flora-fauna ãxtape ãʔtape unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
snake (poisonous generic) or rattlesnake víbora (Peru), jergón (Peru), yarara jararaca flora-fauna Bothrops jararaca/atrox náue 'surucucu' (Alv44) náwe 'surucucu' See Language page Widespread South America Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
tortoise (red foot, yellow foot/giant) tortuga, morrocoy, motelo jabutí, tartaruga flora-fauna Yellow-footed: Geochelone denticulata; Red-footed: Geochelone carbonaria ngó-bê (Alv44) ŋóʔbɨ unique See Language page Widespread Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
Amazon dolphin bufeo, delfín, tonina (del Orinoco) boto cor-de-rosa flora-fauna Inia geoffrensis ó-matchá (Alv44); omã/sha (R95) omatʃa unique See Language page Downstream of major rapids and waterfalls Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
mushroom champiñón, hongo cogumelo flora-fauna (any edible generic) missing See Language page prioritize generic term that includes any edible species Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
black palm bacaba, mapora, pusui, patabá bacaba flora-fauna Oenocarpus bacaba bó-ruá (Alv44) bóʔruá See Language page Mature forests of Rio Negro and Upper Amazon may be confused in some entries with O. bataua Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
açai palm huasí (Peru), asahi, manaca (Ven), asaí, palmiche (Colombia) açaí flora-fauna Euterpe sp. guaíra anrê-ô (Alv44) guaíra anrɨʔo unique See Language page floodplains, swamp; esp. northern Amazonia Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
miriti palm moriche (Col, Ven), aguaje (Col, Peru), achual, miriti buriti flora-fauna Mauritia flexuosa té-ma (Alv44) teʔma unique See Language page Brazil, Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guyana, Peru, Venezuela; in and near swamps trunks contain sago-like starch Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
palm for roof thatch pui, irapay, hoja de irapay, caraná caraná flora-fauna Mauritiella armata OR Lepidocaryum tenue (irapay), Mauritius carana tchú-ná (Alv44) tʃúʔná See Language page Mauritia carana is limited principally to the Rio Negro and Upper Orinoco regions; dry catinga forests palm Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
paxiuba palm pona, huacrapona, cashapona, macanilla, pachiuba paxiuba flora-fauna Iriartea exorrhiza OR Iriartea deltoidea é-tá (Alv44) eʔta doubtful loan, direction unknown cf. Taushiro inta See Language page Widespread Amazonia palm Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
peach palm, pejibaye palm chontaduro (Col, Ecuador); pipire (Col); pijuayo (Peru), pijiguao (Ven); tembe (Bol) pupunha flora-fauna Bactris gasipaes in-tê (Alv44) inʔtɨ unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
seje palm ungurahui (Peru), palma de seje, milpesos, patabá patoá, patuá flora-fauna Jessenia bataua, aka Oenocarpus bataua missing See Language page mostly north of Equator; common in Amazonia may be confused with O. bacaba - compare entries Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
coca coca coca flora-fauna Erythroxylum coca missing See Language page secondary scrub vegetation. lower alt. of eastern Andes plant Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
cotton algodón algodão flora-fauna Gossypium (barbadense: long fibers; hirsutum: short fibers) tê-nái (Alv44) tɨʔnái unique See Language page secondary scrub vegetation plant; some sources may confound with kapok Ceiba pentandra (esp. if a single gloss for 'cotton' is given') Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
kapok ceiba, huimba, lupuna (Peru for Ceiba sp.) sumaumeira flora-fauna Ceiba pentandra See Language page northern South America and central America; common in disturbed areas tree Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
hot pepper ají, pimentón/pimiento rojo, pucunucho (Peru), charapilla (Peru) pimenta flora-fauna Capsicum sp., principally chinensis and frutescens me-é (Alv44) meʔé unique See Language page secondary scrub vegetation, indigenous garden plant Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
peanut maní (may be loan from Taino Arawak), cacahuete amendoim flora-fauna Arachis hypogaea muni (Spanish or other loan?) muni See Language page plant Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
pineapple piña abacaxi flora-fauna Ananas comosus chixnũ tʃiʔnũ loan, direction unknown - WW %tʃihõ See Language page plant Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
arrow cane, wildcane caña flecha, caña brava, caña isana cana para flechas, frecheira, Cana-do-rio flora-fauna Gynerium sagittatum See Language page tropical regions, especially river banks plant Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
banana, plantain banano, banana, cambur, bellaco, variedad de plátano banana flora-fauna Musa sp. iru; po-í (Alv44) iɾu; poʔí unknown See Language page Names for banana/plantain may be derived from bastard plantain by semantic shift. Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
beans frijoles, frejol, caraotas (negras, rojas, blancas) feijão flora-fauna Phaseolus spp. cu-maná (Alv44) kuʔmaná loan - WW %kumana See Language page plant Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
grass hierba, pasto capim, grama flora-fauna (generic) má-é (Alv44) máʔé unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
maize, corn mazorca, maiz milho flora-fauna Zea mays chawũ; tchá-que (Alv44) tʃawũ; tʃáʔke doubtful loan, direction unknown Jivaroan ʃaa See Language page widespread, esp. in river floodplains plant Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
tobacco tabaco tabaco flora-fauna Nicotiana tabacum pori poɾi unique See Language page plant Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
tree árbol arvore flora-fauna nãĩ [3, 5] nãĩ unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
achiote, anatto achiote urucum flora-fauna Bixa orellana é-tá, ô-tá (Alv44) éʔtá, oʔtá unique See Language page secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens shrub Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
inga guaba, guamo, guama, shimbillo (Peru) inga flora-fauna Inga spp. páma (Alv44) páma unique See Language page Secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens. North and South America (Brazil, Peru, Bolivia, Suriname, Colombia) Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
avocado palta, aguacate abacate flora-fauna Persea americana boruá, engo-i-ná (Alv44) boruá, eŋoʔiʔná See Language page secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens tree Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
bitterwood tortuga caspi, pretina (Peru for tree and tumpline); carahuasca (Peru) envira flora-fauna Duguetia sp. OR Fusaea longifolia OR Guatteria chrysopetala See Language page secondary forests, native to Brazil tree Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
brazil nut castaña castanha do para (B. excelsa); castanha de cutia (C. edulis) flora-fauna Bertholletia excelsa [cf. Couepia edulis 'castanha do cutia'] tôre-né, nho-ó (Alv44) toreʔne, ñoʔó See Language page 1) Couepia: restricted area within Brazil, Rio Purus basin and middle Solimões. 2) Bertholletia: elev: consistently about 200m; mature forests. Widely distributed from Peru, E. Colombia, Brazil to Nicaragua. tree Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
cashew anarcado, castaña de cajú, nuez de la India, marañon, cajú, merey (Venezuela) caju flora-fauna Anacardium occidentale / giganteum có-ê, engaoé (Alv44) coʔɨ, eŋgawé unique See Language page secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens tree; most sources will not distinguish between occidentale and other varieties Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
genipap jagua, majagua - Colombia, caruto, xagua - Venezuela, bigrande - Bolivia, huito, yaguayagua - Peru, ygualti - Nicaragua, maluco - Mexico genipapo, jenipapo flora-fauna Genipapa americana é (Alv44) é unique See Language page widespread lowland SA shrub Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
japurá oreja de murcielago japurá flora-fauna Erisma japura See Language page large tree Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
rubber tree (sorva) caucho, siringa, shiringa seringa, borracha flora-fauna Hevea sp. carügü, chiriga (Portuguese loan) kaɾɨgɨ, tʃiɾiga See Language page Widespread Amazonia tree Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
ucuqui yugo, caimitillo del monte (Peru) ucuqui flora-fauna Pouteria ucuqui See Language page native to NW Amazonia, found primarily in Vaupes and Caqueta regions other species of Pouteria exist and have much-used edible fruit; these can be subsituted where relevant Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
Amazon tree-grape uva de monte, uvilla (Peru), puruma, caime, caimarona (and variants; Col.) cucura flora-fauna Pourouma cecropiifolia chı̃xã tʃı̃ʔã unknown See Language page grows wild in Western Amazon basin; cultivated in Colombia since pre-Colombian times a tree; not a true grape Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
manioc (bitter or generic) yuca brava mandioca flora-fauna Manihot esculenta tüxe; mone-áka (Alv44) tɨʔe; moneʔáka unique (prob. primarily for sweet manioc); loan Tupi-Guarani manioca See Language page not generally cultivated in western (subAndean) Amazon. Arroyo-Kalin (2010) argues for a correlation with distribution of dark earths, mostly formed after 1AD, and the modeled-incised pottery tradition. Provides more starch and is more pest-resistant than the sweet variety, but requires much processing. Arroyo-Kalin (2010) proposes that bitter type was developed from sweet through post-ceremic agricultural intensification (motivated by high starch yield Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
manioc (sweet) yuca, caribe macaxeira flora-fauna Manihot esculenta tô-é (Alv44) toʔé unique See Language page Primary staple in western/subAndean Amazonia, less important elsewhere No processing required, but lower starch yield and pest resistance than bitter variety Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
potato papa batata flora-fauna Solanum tuberosum core koɾe See Language page secondary scrub vegetation compare entries for sweet potato Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
potato, sweet potato camote, batata dulce, batata, cumara batata-doce flora-fauna Ipomoea batatas core koɾe loan Kampan Arawak (*koriti?) See Language page plant Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
cará tuber, purple or white camote, sachapapa cará roxo, branco flora-fauna Dioscorea sp. missing See Language page secondary scrub vegetation; forest clearings plant Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
tannia, yautia huitina (Peru), ñame taioba branca flora-fauna Xanthosoma spp. e-irú (Alv44) eʔirú See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
bottle-gourd (vine) or calabash (tree) calabazo, calabaza; auyama (Dominican Republic and Venezuela), ayote (parts of Central America), zapallo (parts of South America), tutumo/totumo/totuma (Cresc tree), huingo (Peru for Crescentia cujete), tapara cabaça flora-fauna Crescentia cujete (round variety - tree); (Cucurbita) Lagenaria siceraria (bottle variety - vine) See Language page indigenous gardens plant; tree Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
squash calabaza, calabacines, auyamas, zapallos, huingo (Peru) abóbora flora-fauna Cucurbita sp. cha3pa2yu5 (A58) tʃapaju loan Quechua (via Spanish?) See Language page plant Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
cipó vine tamishi, bejuco, yare cipó flora-fauna Heteropsis spp. tôn-é (Alv44) tonʔe See Language page secondary forest, floodplain vine Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
fish poison, barbasco barbasco, matapez (Colombia) timbó flora-fauna Lonchocarpus spp. ô-ûn (Alv44) oʔun unique See Language page secondary forests and secondary srcrub vegetation shrub/tree Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
hallucinogenic vine, banisterium, ayahuasca ayahuasca, yage ayahuasca, caapi flora-fauna Banisteriopsis caapi missing See Language page semi-domesticated, native to Amazonian basin, esp. NW vine Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
hallucinogenic snuff vilca, cebil, yopo paricá, yopo flora-fauna Anadenanthera sp. or virola See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
insect (generic) insecto insecto flora-fauna generic See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
ant (generic) hormiga formiga flora-fauna Formicidae tatchóa (Alv44) tatʃóa See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
bullet ant, lesser giant hunter ant conga, hormiga yanabe (Colombia), isula (Peru), Hormiga Veinticuatro tocandira flora-fauna Paraponera clavata to-ê (Alv44) toʔɨ unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
leaf-cutter ant Colombia: zampopo, hormiga arriera; Venezuela: bachaco; Peru: curuhuinse saúva flora-fauna Atta sp. nái-ió (Alv44) náiʔió unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
honeybee abeja abelha flora-fauna Apis mellifera; Tetragonisca angustula; Trigona amazonensis béruré (Alv44) béruré unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
cockroach cucaracha barata-do-mato flora-fauna order Blattaria orawe oɾawe loan - WW %arawe, via Tupi-Guarani? See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
firefly, lightning bug lampírido, luciérnaga (Peru), añañahui (Peru), cocuyo (attributed Taino origin) vagalume flora-fauna fam: Elateridae, Fengodidae, Lampyridae missing See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
butterfly, moth mariposa borboleta flora-fauna order Lepidoptera dorí (Alv44) dorí unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
moth mariposa nocturna, polilla mariposa flora-fauna order Lepidoptera See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
angleworm lombriz minhoca flora-fauna order Opisthopora ura ura unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
centipede ciempiés centopéia flora-fauna class Chilopoda tchê-ma (Alv44) tʃɨʔma See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
scorpion escorpión; alacran escorpião flora-fauna order Scorpiones missing See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
cicada cigarra, chicharra cigarra flora-fauna super fam. Cicadoidea nanga-é-te (Alv44) naŋaʔéʔte unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
flea pulga pulga flora-fauna order Siphonaptera missing See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
blowfly/housefly mosca mosca flora-fauna Diptera murenũ muɾenũ unique cf. Tupi-Guarani See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
cricket saltón, grillo grilo flora-fauna family Gryllidae buʔdɯʔ buʔdɯʔ loan, direction unknown Andoke See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
edible palm-dwelling larva (palm weevil) suri, mojojoy larva, broca-do-coqueiro, aramandaiá flora-fauna Rhynchophorus sp. ngairé ('lagarta', Alv44) ŋairé unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
praying mantis, stick insects mantis religiosa louva-a-deus flora-fauna order Mantodea, family Mantidae See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
mosquito mosquito, zancudo mosquito, carapana flora-fauna Anopheles sp. unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
termites, white-ants comején (Peru), termitas cupim flora-fauna order Isoptera ómekê (Alv44) ómekɨ unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
tick garrapata carrapato flora-fauna superfam Ixodoidea ótchi-mán (Alv44) ótʃiʔmán doubtful loan Aymara atʃuqara See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
wasp avispa; specific type: ronzapa/ronsapa caba flora-fauna order Hymenoptera, sub: Apocrita ma-e (Alv44) maʔe unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
snail caracol, churo (Peru) caracol flora-fauna class Gastropoda nha-tégo-ni-ú (Alv44) ñaʔtégoʔniʔú unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
spider araña aranha flora-fauna Arachnidae, Araneae pawü pawɨ unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
jaguar yaguar, yaguareté, jaguar, otorongo (Peru), tigre (Peru) onca flora-fauna Panthera onca yowaruna, áih' (R95) jowaɾuna, áih' loan; unique Tupi-Guarani See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
manatee vaca marina, manatí peixe-boi flora-fauna Trichechus sp. airué (R95) airué (R95) See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
brown woolly monkey Mono Lanudo Común, Choro, Churucu, mono choro (Peru), mono lanudo cafe, barrigudo de Humboldt macaco barrigudo flora-fauna Lagothrix lagothricha ome (R95), mai/kú (R95) ome, mai/kú unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
howler monkey (red-handed) mono aullador, mono coto (Peru) guariba flora-fauna Alouatta belzebul [or other Alouatta sp.] ñëe (R95); cugue-é (Alv44) ñëe; kugeʔé unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
tufted capuchin monkey mono negro (Peru), Machín Negro, Maicero Cachón, mono maicero macaco prego flora-fauna Cebus apella taicure (R95) taikure unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
white-fronted capuchin Machín Blanco, mono blanco, Maicero Cariblanco, mono blanco (Peru) Caiarara flora-fauna Cebus albifrons tou (R95); nokari (Alv44) tou; nokari See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
white-fronted spider monkey Machin Blanco, Mono Araña de Vientre Amarillo, maquisapa (Peru), braceadora (Colombia) macaco aranha, coatá, quatá flora-fauna Ateles belzebuth/paniscus wã-tá (R95); coa-ta (Alv44) wãʔtá; koaʔta loan - WW %kowata See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
opossum zarigüeya, rabipelado, zorro, zorrillo mucura flora-fauna family Didelphidae öwá; ngó-ua (Alv44) öwá, ŋóʔua doubtful loan, direction unknown East Tukanoan See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
giant otter Lobo Grande de Río, nutria gigante, lutria ariranha flora-fauna Pteronura brasiliensis tchó-ratchí (Alv44) tʃóʔratʃí See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
neotropical otter (small) Nutria, Lobo de Agua, lobito de rio, perro de agua (Colombia) lontra flora-fauna Lontra longicaudis ma-iguá (Alv44) maʔiguá unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
collared peccary sajino, pecarí de collar, jabalf, Javelina, Saíno, Pecarí de Collar caititu, caetitu flora-fauna Pecari tajacu, Tayassu tajacu ngáuê (Alv44) ŋáwɨ unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
white-lipped peccary Chancho de Monte, Cariblanco, Huangana queixada flora-fauna Tayassu pecari nʉ̂h' (R95); ngô-e (Alv44) nʉh', ŋoʔe unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
porcupine puerco espín, erizo (Peru), casha cushillo (Peru) cuandu, porco-espinho flora-fauna family Erethizontidae missing See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
cotamundi, coatimundi Coatí, Tejón, Achuni, zorro guache quati flora-fauna genus Nasua missing See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
agouti (black agouti, black-rumped agouti) Guatusa Negra, Añuje, Agutí (black-rumped), picure, jochi colorado cutia flora-fauna Dasyprocta spp. shígu (R95) shígu (R95) unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
capybara Capibara, Carpincho, Ronsoco capivara flora-fauna Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris copiwara (R95) copiwara (R95) loan Tupi-Guarani See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
green acouchi Guatín, Punchana, curi, picurito rabudo, picurito rabilargo cutiara flora-fauna Myoprocta pratti pô-uí (Alv44) poʔwí See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
paca (lowland) Guanta, Paca, Majaz, majás (Peru), labba (Guyana) paca flora-fauna Cuniculus paca (Agouti paca is sometimes used as well although cuniculus is the correct term.) ngá (Alv44) ŋá unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
mouse, rat ratón camundongo, rata flora-fauna Mus musculus encá 'rat' (Alv44) enká 'rat' unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
squirrel ardilla, danta (Ven) serelepe, quatipuru, esquilo flora-fauna family Sciuridae missing See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
tapir sachavaca, danta anta flora-fauna Tapirus terrestris na-ák (Alv44) naʔák unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
deer venado veado, cariacu flora-fauna family Cervidae, esp. Odocoileus virginianus cowü kowɨ doubtful loan Arawak See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE


Cultural Vocabulary (97)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Word Structure Word Structure Notes General Notes Source Created By
basket (general) canasta, canasto, cesta cesto culture-material pakará 'cesto' (Alv44), vuótura 'atura' (Alv44) pakará 'cesto' (Alv44), wótura 'atura' (Alv44) loan - WW; loan - WW %panaku; %atura See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
basket, small canasta, canasto, cesta cesto pequeno, tampado culture-material See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
bead abalorio, mostacilla, cuenta, gota, puca; necklace=collar miçanga culture-material missing See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
bed cama cama culture-material natchá-penên (Alv44) natʃáʔpenɨn unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
hammock hamaca, chinchorro rede culture-material cüchawa; ná-pa (Alv44) kɨtʃawa; nápa doubtful loan, direction unknown; unique Zaparo kwatitʃa See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
bench, seat banco, silla, asiento banco culture-material na-maoé (Alv44) naʔmawé unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
canoe canoa canoa transport nawexũ naweʔɨ̃ unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
drum (large signal) tambor, manguaré, maguaré (Colombia) tambor culture missing Used to be used by Tukanoan peoples (and others?), sound carried for long distances See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
drum tambor tambor culture-mythology tô-tô (Alv44) toto loan - WW %toto (onomatopoeic?) See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
shaman, healer chamán, brujo xaman, pajé, feiticeiro culture-mythology dju-ú-ta (Alv44); ngi1-3xe5ta5xü5 (A58) dʒuʔúʔta; ŋiʔetaʔɨ unique In RN region, there is typically one person per village (if that) who is a full-fledged 'shaman'. He is very much a specialist and has considerable power to cure, as well as power to curse. He is respected and feared. Shamans are thought to turn themselv See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
healer curandero benzador, curandeiro, kumu (Tukano) culture-mythology dju-ú-ta (Alv44); ngi1-3xe5ta5xü5 (A58) dʒuʔúʔta; ŋiʔetaʔɨ Refers to a lower-level healer; in RN region, most older men in a village have this capacity, and command a repertoire of healing spells. Power is primarily for good, whereas the true shaman is capable of malignant acts as well. See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
broom escoba vassoura culture-material taxwechigu taʔwetʃigu unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
clothing ropa roupa culture-mythology naxpü naʔpɨ unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
fence, palisade cerco cerca other na-pôgue (Alv44) naʔpoge unique may be related to defense/warfare? See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
firewood leña lenha other ê-ê (Alv44) ɨʔɨ unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
Curupira (spirit type) Curupira, Madremonte Curupira culture-mythology malignant forest spirit, covered with long hair, feet turned backward; in Upper Rio Negro region See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
ghost (of dead person)/evil spirit espíritu malo, espíritu maligno, fantasma, demonio espirito culture-mythology tchoina-báiguê (Alv44) tʃoinaʔbáige unknown See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
deity/powerful spirit/culture figure dios(es), deidad divinidade, figura mítica culture-mythology tu3pa3na5 (A58) tupana loan Tupi-Guarani In RN region, frequently translates as 'Bone-Son', 'One on the bone', etc. See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
flute flauta, quena (Peru) flauta culture-mythology iiauéro (Alv44); que2-5na5 (A58) ijawéro; kena (loan Quechua) unknown; loan Quechua multiple types? japurutu, deer-bone, etc. See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
panpipe carrizo, zampoñas, flautas de pan, rondadora caniço, flauta de pã culture-mythology pouá-pauéro (Alv44) powaʔpawero See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
hollow log/trough for beer-making canoa para chicha cocho de caxiri narcotics See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
ritual song cycle (kapiwaya) kapiwaya capiwaya culture-mythology See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
knife cuchillo faca culture-material cüxchi kɨʔtʃi loan - WW %kɨtʃe See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
machete machete facão culture-material ta-hará (Alv44) taʔhará unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
axe/stone axe hacha (de piedra) machado (de pedra) subsistence tool ioéma (Alv44) joéma unique especially for clearing fields See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
arrow flecha flecha subsistence tool déne (Alv44) déne unique hunting, warfare See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
spear lanza lança subsistence tool tana-má-en (Alv44) tanaʔmáʔen unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
bow arco arco subsistence tool würa wɨɾa unique arco See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
paddle/oar remo remo transport nái-mí (Alv44) náiʔmí unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
plate plato prato culture-material porato (Alv44) porato loan Spanish See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
pot olla, pote panela, vasilha subsistence tool tó-ûn, boé-taré (Alv44) toʔun, boéʔtaré unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
basin/bowl tazón, plato hondo, taza tijela culture-material tchavetchí (Alv44) tʃawetʃí unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
griddle for cooking flatbread tiesto (Colombia), budare (Venezuela), tortera (Peru) forno para beiju subsistence tool missing agriculture? See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
rattle matraca, maraca marico, chocalho culture-mythology missing See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
resin resina, brea, copal resina, brea, breu subsistence tool ó-iĩé (Alv44) óʔiĩé unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
wax cera cera other missing See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
honey miel mel food beɾuɾe beɾuɾe unique only gathered in wild throughout Amazonia? See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
stone for lighting fires piedra para hacer fuego pedra para acender fogo culture-material See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
rope/string mecate, cuerda, soga corda culture nãpanã nãpanã unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
tattoo tatuaje, tatu tatuagem culture-mythology See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
thatch/roof crisneja palha, caraná culture-material tchú-ná (Alv44) tʃúʔná unknown See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
yurupari, jurupari (or any flutes forbidden to women) yurupari jurupari culture-mythology ngo-ó (??) (Alv44) ŋoʔó a ritual complex in various parts of Amazonia involving sacred flutes/trumpets, forbidden to women. See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
fetish, charm fetiche, encanto, filtro de amor, pusanga feitiço, puçanga culture-mythology See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
feather headdress plumaje, corona de plumas enfeite/capacete de penas culture-mythology ngó-ukerá (Alv44) ŋóʔukerá See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
paint body, body paint pintura corporal pintura corporal culture-mythology See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
afterworld, land of dead, Heaven tierra do los muertos terra dos mortos culture-mythology See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
school escuela escola acculturation poperapatá (Alv44) poperapatá See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
bottle botella garrafa acculturation garápá (Alv44) garápá See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
paper papel papel acculturation pópera (Alv44) pópera loan Span/Port 'papel' See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
dream sueño, soñar sonho, sonhar culture-mythology ia-tá (Alv44) jaʔtá See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
chicken gallina galinha acculturation o-tá (Alv44) oʔtá doubtful loan - WW Nordenskiold considers derivative of %atawalpa See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
grave tumba, sepultura, sepulcro sepultura, sepulcro, cova culture-mythology náma-ûn (Alv44) námaʔun See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
pipe for tobacco pipa cachimbo other naí-pe (Alv44) naíʔpe See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
sugarcane/sugar azúcar, caña de azúcar açucar (de cana) acculturation de-né ('cane') (Alv44) deʔné See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
skirt falda, saya, fustan, pollera saia culture-material saia (Alv44) saia loan Port/Span saia See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
shoes zapatos sapatos dress See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
policeman polícia policía acculturation See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
soldier soldado soldado acculturation tchúrára (Alv44) tʃúrára loan - WW %surara See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
cat gato gato acculturation pitchána (Alv44) pitʃána loan - WW %pisana See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
gun arma, escopeta espingarda, fusil acculturation mukáua (Alv44) mukáwa loan - WW %mokawa See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
hat sombero chapéu dress napaté (Alv44) napaté unknown See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
chief/leader jefe, cacique chefe culture-mythology aéngakê (Alv44) aéŋakɨ unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
club garrote, cachiporra clava, porrete subsistence tool See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
loincloth taparrabos, guayuco, pampanilla tanga, tapa-sexo dress tê-pêi (Alv44) tɨʔpɨi See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
fireplace hogar lareira other See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
fishing line cordel/cuerda p/ pescar, sedal, tanze linha de pesca subsistence tool See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
salt sal sal food yu3cü3ra5 jukɨra loan - WW %jukira See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
song (generic) canción, canto canção culture-mythology vi-iaé (Alv44) wiʔjaé doubtful loan Candoshi wajaasi See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
blowgun cerbatana, pucuna (Peru) zarabatana subsistence tool ĩxẽ ĩʔẽ unique currently limited to certain groups (favoring h-g orientation, e.g. Nadahup) within RN region See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
dart (blowgun) dardo, birote (Peru), bala (Peru) dardo, seta subsistence tool otchágo (Alv44) otʃágo hunting and warfare See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
fan abanico abanador, abano subsistence tool missing esp. for fanning a cooking fire See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
fish (with line) anzuelear, pescar con linea pescar (com linha) food na-póa 'pescar' (Alv44) naʔpóa 'to fish' See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
fish (with fish-poison) pescar con barbasco, barbasquear pescar com timbó; tinguijar food missing See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
hunt cazar caçar food naiafené (Alv44) najafené See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
game animal caza, animal de caza caça, animal de caça food engo-ó 'animal' (Alv44) eŋoʔó unique Interesting correlation to 'fish' in Tukanoan languages See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
gourd (dipper/bowl) cucharón, pate (Peru), totomo, totuma, totumo cuia subsistence tool engáue (Alv44); ya3ma3ru2 (A58) eŋgáwe; jamaru unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
grater rallador, rallo ralador, ralo subsistence tool ívitchi (Alv44) íwitʃi loan Tupi-Guarani esp. for grating manioc, but can be used for other things as well See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
grid of sticks for smoking meat or placing objects (shelf) barbacoa jirau subsistence tool missing See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
mortar mortero pilão subsistence tool missing See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
pestle pilón, mano de mortero, mazo, moledor mão de pilão subsistence tool See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
fermented drink masato, chicha caxiri, chicha culture chaxũ tʃaʔɨ̃ unique prioritizes manioc beer where distinction is made See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
flour/meal from manioc fariña, mañoco (Venezuela); harina farinha food uí (Alv44) loan - WW %uʔwi agriculture See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
flat bread, cassava bread pan de yuca, casabe/cazabe beiju food missing usually manioc; agriculture, but also can be made from certain wild seeds/fruits See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
starch (tapioca, other) almidón goma de tapioca food tepáca (Alv44) tepáka loan Tupi-Guarani See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
tapioca drink, mingau cahuana, caguana mingau food mingáo (Alv44) miŋáo loan Tupi-Guarani (or Port?) agriculture See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
tipiti (manioc squeezer) tipiti, matafrio, sebucán, exprimador, prensa para yuca tipiti food tipiti tipiti loan Tupi-Guarani word of Tupi origin; agriculture: specifically for squeezing poison out of manioc See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
tripod for washing manioc trípode tripé subsistence tool tá-amá táʔamá agriculture See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
venom for darts, poison veneno curare subsistence tool goré, marúm (Alv44) goré, marúm unique hunting, currently is falling out of use in Vaupés region, associated primarily with h-g groups (but this may be recent?) See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
woven strainer/sieve colador tejido, cedazo (Peru), cernedor (Peru) peneira, cumatá subsistence tool cué-tchín (Alv44) kuéʔtʃín unique agriculture? commonly used for sifting dry manioc flour See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
bait for fishing cebo, carnada para pescar, empate (Peru) isca subsistence tool pau-abê (Alv44) pauʔabɨ can refer to worms; more generic See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
fishtrap trampa de peces, trampa matapi, cacuri subsistence tool See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
bottom grinding stone manufacture if different word from top grinding stone See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
digging stick subsistence tool See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
top grinding stone metate, mano; piedra de moler metate, mano manufacture use word for top grinding stone if different from bottom stone See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
boomerang/throwing stick (generic) subsistence tool See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
spearthrower subsistence tool See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
house other napata napata unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE


Grammatical Data (226)
Category Grammatical Feature Grammatical Feature: Notes Feature Status Phonemicized Form Orthographic Form Grammatical Notes Source Created By Etymology Notes General Notes Phylogenetic Code
Phonology - Segmental Pre-/post-nasalized stops Analysis posits that the stop is the most relevant underlying phoneme. Comment in notes on whether the nasal contour is understood as a phonetic (allophonic) effect, or is phonologically contrastive. yes There is prenasalization. However, the voiced obstruents become nasal before a nasal vowel Montes 2000:292 Daniel Valle
Phonology - Segmental Glottalized/ejective consonants Phonemic contrast [NOT counting glottal stop/fricative] no Montes 2000:291 Daniel Valle
Phonology - Segmental Palatalized stops Phonemic contrast no there is a palatal stop though Montes 2000:291 Daniel Valle
Phonology - Segmental Phonemic vowel length Does the language have long and short vowels? no Montes 2000:291 Daniel Valle
Phonology - Segmental Phonemic glottalization/laryngealization of vowels no Montes 2000:291 Daniel Valle
Phonology - Segmental Complex onsets Onset consists of more than one consonant phoneme no Montes 2000:295 Daniel Valle
Phonology - Segmental No codas *(C)VC [no also equals highly constrained] yes Codas are not allowed Montes 2000:295 Daniel Valle
Phonology - Segmental Word-final coda required Do all syllables end in a consonant? no Montes 2000:295 Daniel Valle
Phonology - Suprasegmental Contrastive tones Note how many contrastive tones 5 Montes (2005:130) notes that Tikuna has three contrastive tones Montes 2000:296 Daniel Valle
Phonology - Suprasegmental Contrastive stress Does stress occur on different syllables with meaning difference? no info Daniel Valle
Phonology - Suprasegmental Nasalization property of morpheme or syllable In contrast to nasalization as a property of segments yes But this is restricted to certain dialects Montes 2005:131 Daniel Valle
Phonology - Suprasegmental Nasal spreading across some morpheme boundaries Do some affixes or other morphemes take the nasal/oral properties of the root they attach to? no info Daniel Valle
Phonology - Suprasegmental Vowel harmony no Montes 2000:291-95 Daniel Valle
Morphology - General Verbal fusion (2+ categories marked by portmanteau morphemes on verb) Verb combines two or more categories (tense, aspect, mood, person, number, etc.) in portmanteau morphemes{ [ignore proclitics unless they are fused with values other than person/number] no info More likely not Daniel Valle
Morphology - General Inflection manifested by replacement of segmental or suprasegmental phonemes Stem change, tone yes Based on examples, for instance, in page 164 demonstratives are distinguished by suprasegments Montes 2004 Daniel Valle
Morphology - General Verbal synthesis (1+ inflectional categories marked by verbal affixes) Morphological complexity in verbs - multiple inflectional affixes in a single verb word yes Montes 2004b:45-54, 101-120 Daniel Valle
Morphology - General Prefixing/suffixing inflectional morph: strongly prefixing There are many more prefixes than suffixes no Montes 2005:133 Daniel Valle
Morphology - General Prefixing/suffixing inflectional morph: strongly suffixing There are many more suffixes than prefixes yes Montes 2005:133 Daniel Valle
Morphology - General Prefixing/suffixing inflectional morph: roughly equal or one weakly preferred The numbers of suffixes and prefixes are not notably different no Montes 2005:133 Daniel Valle
Morphology - General Reduplication: full The full morpheme is reduplicated no info More likely not Daniel Valle
Morphology - General Reduplication: partial Only part of the morpheme is reduplicated no info More likely not Daniel Valle
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Productive NN compounding Noun compounds created from two noun phrases are common and systematically produced no Montes 2004b:45-54, 121-152 Daniel Valle
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Productive VV serialization (without compounding) Verb roots can be combined in a single predicate without markers of subordination (distinct from subordinating construction) or distinct inflection no Montes 2004b:80-86, 101-120 Daniel Valle
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Productive VV compounding Serial verb constructions involve chaining of roots together in one morphophonological word no Montes 2004b:80-86, 101-120 Daniel Valle
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Verb-adjunct (aka light verb) constructions There is a set of semantically weak verbs used in complex verbal constructions, e.g. 'take a nap' no info Daniel Valle
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Auxiliary verb(s) There are verbs that accompany main verbs of clauses and take grammatical marking not expressed by main verbs no info Daniel Valle
Morphology - Incorporation Incorporation of nouns into verbs is a productive intransitivizing process Verb contains nominal segment yes Montes 2005:135 Daniel Valle
Morphology - Incorporation Productive incorporation of other elements (adjectives, locatives, etc.) into verbs Like noun incorporation, but incorporated elements are not nouns no Montes 2004b:45-54, 101-120 Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Noun classes/genders Nouns are organized into sets with distinct morphological treatment; usually affects all nouns and involves agreement within the NP yes Montes 2004b:61 Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Number of noun classes/genders Note the (approximate) total number of noun classes/genders 4 It seems that gender (feminine and masculine) and alienable and inalienable nouns are distinguished Montes 2004b:55-79, 121-152 Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Noun classifiers (distinct from noun classes/genders) Nouns are organized into sets, but only a limited set of nouns may be implicated, with no or limited agreement marking. If only numeral classifiers exist, indicate yes but explain. yes Montes 2005:133 Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Sex is a relevant category in noun class(ification) system for animates Masculine, feminine, neuter yes Feminine and masculine are distinguished where the feminine is the unmarked term Montes 2005:137 Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Sex is a relevant category in noun class(ification) system for inanimates no info more likely yes Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Animacy (w/o reference to sex) is a relevant category in the noun class(ification) system Animate/inanimate, human/non-human no Montes 2005:137 Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Sex/gender distinction only in 3rd person pronouns add in notes section whether gender is present in other PNs or not in any PNs; consider with reference to pronouns and person marking only no Gender is also distinguished in nouns Montes 2004b:61 Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Shape is a relevant category in the noun class(ification) system for animates no info Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Shape is a relevant category in the noun class(ification) system for inanimates yes Montes 2005:140 Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification "Repeater" classifiers Where no distinct classifier exists, a copy of the noun itself may function in the morphosyntactic classifier "slot" no info Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Numeral classifiers (specific to numerals) Special classifier forms that occur only with numerals no info more likely not Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Classifiers used as derivational suffixes to derive nouns Verb + classifier = 'thing for doing V, thing that does V, etc.' yes Classifiers are nouns which can be joined with other to derive other nouns. It is not clear if this happens with verbs and classifiers. Montes 2004b:55-79, 121-152 Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Number Singular number may be marked on the noun Often occurs in a small subset of nouns if a single entity is referred to, e.g. insects that normally occur in groups no Montes 2004b:60 Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Number Plural affix on noun yes /-gɨ/ based on the examples Faco Soares 1993:103 Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Number Plural marked by stem change or tone on noun no Montes 2004b:60 Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Number Plural marked by reduplication of noun no Montes 2004b:60 Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Number Plural word/clitic no Montes 2004b:60 Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Number Plural marked on human or animate nouns only yes It seems that for plants and animals different collective suffixes are used Montes 2004b:60 Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Number Pronominal plural: stem + nominal plural affix Pronouns use a nominal plural affix not specific to pronouns no Montes 2004b:88-89 Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Number Unique associative plural marker e.g. 'John and his associates', 'John and them' no info Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Definite or specific articles Definite = particular referent known to both speaker and addressee; specific = particular referent known to speaker only no info Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Marker of definiteness distinct from demonstratives Focus on articles/markers whose primary function is to mark definiteness no Montes 2004b:45-100 Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Indefinite or non-specific article or marker no info Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Inclusive/exclusive: in free pronominals Inclusive =us + you, exclusive = us but not you no Montes 2004b:45-100 Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Inclusive/exclusive: in verbal inflection (bound) yes But this just happens in one dialect which seems to be an archaic one. It seems that it is most common not to have this distincion in verbal marking. Montes 2004b:101-120 Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Distance contrasts in demonstratives (number) Note the number of distances in the demonstrative system 4 Montes 2004b:74 Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Other contrasts in demonstratives (visibility, elevation, etc.) yes Animacy and "caducy" (not longer having that property (?) ) are distinguished in demonstratives Montes 2004:164 Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Gender in 3sg pronouns yes Montes 2004b:88-89 Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Gender in 3pl pronouns no Montes 2004b:88-89 Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Gender in 1st and/or 2nd person pronouns no Montes 2004b:88-89 Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Formal/informal distinction in pronouns Polite pronominal variants or differential avoidance of pronouns no Montes 2004b:88-89 Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Reflexive pronouns e.g. English 'himself', Spanish 'se'; distinct form(s) from basic (non-reflexive) pronominals; distinct from reflexive verbal affix yes These are formed out of a pronoun plus a reflexive suffix /-gɨ/ on the pronoun Montes 2004b:54 Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Adpositions mark core NPs Prepositions or postpositions mark subjects, objects, beneficiaries/recipients yes Montes 2004b:51-53 Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: number of cases Note the number of grammatical relations that may be morphologically marked on the noun 7 nominative, accusative, locative, genitive and benefactive…it is not clear if there are other cases such as sociative and final which are listed in Montes (2004b:90) Montes 2004b:51-53, 71, 90 Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: only non-core arguments morphologically marked Subjects, objects, beneficiaries/recipients NOT marked, but other grammatical relations are no Montes 2004b:51-53 Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: symmetrical All NPs marked if in appropriate syntactic relation; no distinction in marking based on semantics (type of entity) no Faco Soares 1993:92-93 Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: asymmetrical Semantically defined subset of NPs marked for case, e.g. animates yes Only the animate object NPs can receive the accusative case (which is marked by the "dative" case) Faco Soares 1993:92-93 Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: suffix or postpositional clitic yes Faco Soares 1993:92-93 Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: prefix or prepositional clitic no Faco Soares 1993:92-93; Montes 2004b:55-79, 121-150 Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: infix or inpositional clitic no Faco Soares 1993:92-93; Montes 2004b:55-79, 121-150 Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: stem change no Faco Soares 1993:92-93; Montes 2004b:55-79, 121-150 Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: tone no Faco Soares 1993:92-93; Montes 2004b:55-79, 121-150 Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: comitative = instrumental Same marking for 'with a person' and 'with an instrument' no info Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Numerals Base-2 At least some part of the system involves base-2 no info Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Numerals Base-5 At least some part of the system involves base-5 no info Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Numerals Base-10 At least some part of the system involves base-10 no info Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Numerals Other base (specify) 4, 20, etc. no info Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Numerals Etymological transparency in any numerals under 5 e.g. two = 'eye-quantity' no info Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Numerals Numerals do not go above 5 'Many' or some other non-exact term used no info Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Numerals Numerals do not go above 10 'Many' or some other non-exact term used no info Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Other nominal Tense or aspect inflection on non-verbal predicates i.e. nominal or adjectival no Montes 2004b:80 Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Other nominal Person inflection on non-verbal predicates i.e. nominal or adjectival yes Names of places may have prefixed person markers as verbs do Montes 2004b:80 Daniel Valle
Nominal Syntax - Possession Pronominal possessive affixes: prefix on N alienable/inalienable? no Montes 2004b:88-89 Daniel Valle
Nominal Syntax - Possession Pronominal possessive affixes: suffix on N alienable/inalienable? no Genitive phrases are formed out of a person pronoun+genitive (possessor) noun (possessed) Montes 2004b:88-89 Daniel Valle
Nominal Syntax - Possession Head/dependent marking in possessive NP: dependent e.g. 'the boy-'s dog' yes Montes 2004b:88-89 Daniel Valle
Nominal Syntax - Possession Head/dependent marking in possessive NP: head e.g. 'the boy his-dog' no Montes 2004b:88-89 Daniel Valle
Nominal Syntax - Possession Possessive classifiers There are special classifiers that occur with possessed entities no Montes 2004b:57-60 Daniel Valle
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Morphological marking of inalienable possession Where inalienable possession differs from alienable, the former takes a morphological marker (may include an associated free particle/pronoun) yes Montes 2005:133 Daniel Valle
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Morphological marking of alienable possession Where inalienable possession differs from alienable, the latter takes a morphological marker (may include an associated free particle/pronoun) no Montes 2005:133 Daniel Valle
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Default marker for inalienably possessed nouns if unpossessed An inalienable noun that is in an unpossessed state must have a derivational affix or associated form yes They need a possessive prefix to be mentioned Montes 2005:133 Daniel Valle
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Inalienable possession of kin terms 'my-father' but *father yes Montes 2005:133 Daniel Valle
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Inalienable possession of body parts (human/animal) 'my-leg' but *leg yes Montes 2005:133 Daniel Valle
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Generic human nouns are obligatorily bound/possessed Human nouns must co-occur with another noun (e.g. Hup-man, NonIndian-woman, but *man) no Montes 2005:133 Daniel Valle
Nominal Syntax - Adjectives Underived adjectives There are underived adjectives which do not have counterparts in other word classes no However, Faco Soares (1990:86-87) shows that uderived adjectives exist Montes 2004:162 Daniel Valle
Nominal Syntax - Adjectives Gender inflection on adjectives within the NP There is gender agreement/concord (animate/inanimate or masc/fem, etc.) within the NP, e.g. la casa blanca, el perro blanco no Montes 2004b:55-80 Daniel Valle
Nominal Syntax - Derivation Productive nominalizing morphology: action/state (arrive/arrival) There is a morpheme which derives an event from a verb yes /-kɨ/ Montes 2004b:82 Daniel Valle
Nominal Syntax - Derivation Productive nominalizing morphology: agentive (sing/singer) There is a morpheme which derives an agent or subject from a verb no info Daniel Valle
Nominal Syntax - Derivation Productive nominalizing morphology: object (sing/song) There is a morpheme which derives a patient or object from a verb no info Daniel Valle
Nominal Syntax - Derivation Productive verbalizing morphology There is a morpheme which derives a verb from a noun or adjective yes /-é/ Montes 2004b:80 Daniel Valle
Nominal Syntax - Other NP coordination and comitative phrases marked differently 'John and Mary went to market' is marked differently from 'John went to market with Mary' no info Daniel Valle
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Dedicated past marker(s) Past tense is regularly morphologically marked on the verb or elsewhere no info Daniel Valle
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Multiple past tenses, distinguishing distance from time of reference e.g. distant vs. recent past no info Daniel Valle
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Multiple future tenses, distinguishing distance from time of reference e.g. imminent vs. distant future no info Daniel Valle
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Dedicated future or non-past marker(s) no info Daniel Valle
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Tense-aspect affixes: prefix no info more likely not Daniel Valle
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Tense-aspect affixes: suffix no info more likely yes Daniel Valle
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Tense-aspect affixes: tone or ablaut no info more likely not Daniel Valle
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Tense-aspect suppletion no info more likely not Daniel Valle
Verbal Categories - Mood Dedicated imperative morpheme or verb form There is a special morpheme (or morphemes, or a bare verb root where inflection is normally expected) used to signal imperative (command) mood no Based on the examples Montes 2004b:155 Daniel Valle
Verbal Categories - Mood Polite imperative morpheme There is a distinct morpheme for polite imperative constructions (specify if it has other functions in the language) no info more likely not Daniel Valle
Verbal Categories - Mood Difference between negation in imperative (prohibitive) and declarative clauses There are different strategies for marking negation in imperative and declarative clauses no info Daniel Valle
Verbal Categories - Mood Dedicated hortative morpheme or verb form (1pl or 3rd person imperative) as opposed to imperative; the person in control of desired state of affairs is not the addressee; ex: 'Let's sing' / 'Let him sing' no Montes 2004b:80-87, 101-120 Daniel Valle
Verbal Categories - Mood Situational possibility: affix on verb Inflectional marking of capacity to do something no info Daniel Valle
Verbal Categories - Mood Situational possibility: verbal construction no info Daniel Valle
Verbal Categories - Mood Situational possibility: other marking no info Daniel Valle
Verbal Categories - Mood Epistemic possibility: affix on verb Modal expressing hypothesis yes /beè-/, /meè-/ Daniel Valle
Verbal Categories - Mood Epistemic possibility: verbal construction no info Daniel Valle
Verbal Categories - Mood Epistemic possibility: other marking no info Daniel Valle
Verbal Categories - Mood Marking of expected/unexpected action or result There is inflectional marking of expected/unexpected no info Daniel Valle
Verbal Categories - Mood Verbal frustrative Modal expressing frustration ("in vain") no info Daniel Valle
Verbal Categories - Mood Verbal habitual Modal expressing habituality yes /-éʧè/ Montes 2004b:83 Daniel Valle
Verbal Categories - Mood Apprehensive construction There is a single morpheme or verb form to mean '(be careful lest) X happens' no info Daniel Valle
Verbal Categories - Mood Reality status marking on verbs There are dedicated morpheme(s) for realis/irrealis 'actualized/unactualized events' no info Daniel Valle
Verbal Categories - Mood Affect markers (positive/negative) Note whether these inflectional markers are positive or negative no info Daniel Valle
Verbal Categories - Directionals Directional elements affixed to the verb There are grammaticalized elements indicating movement away, toward, there and back, etc. yes Montes 2004:166 Daniel Valle
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized visual Indicates information has been witnessed visually - indicate only if an overt marker no info Daniel Valle
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized nonvisual Indicates information has been sensed firsthand but not visually (usually heard; also smelled, tasted, felt) no info Daniel Valle
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized inferential Indicates information has not been experienced firsthand, but inferred from some kind of evidence - indicate only if an overt marker. no info Daniel Valle
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized reportive Indicates speaker is not responsible for veracity of statement, merely reporting; 'allegedly' no info Daniel Valle
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized quotative Indicate presence of adjacent representation of repeated discourse no info Daniel Valle
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Other evidential Any other evidential values not represented above no info Daniel Valle
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Evidentiality: verb affix or clitic no info Daniel Valle
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Evidentiality: part of tense system Includes portmanteau morphs no info Daniel Valle
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Evidentiality: separate particle no info Daniel Valle
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Evidentiality: modal morpheme no info Daniel Valle
Verbal Categories - Verbal number Verbal number suppletion no info Daniel Valle
Verbal Categories - Other Social interaction markers Note the type of interaction no info Daniel Valle
Word Order No fixed basic constituent order no info Daniel Valle
Word Order VS in intransitive clauses Verb precedes subject no Based on examples Montes 2004b:80-87,101-120 Daniel Valle
Word Order VS in transitive clauses yes In the order OVS Soares Faco 1993:96 Daniel Valle
Word Order VO in transitive clauses Verb precedes object yes Soares Faco 1993:94 Daniel Valle
Word Order OS in transitive clauses Object precedes subject yes Soares Faco 1993:97 Daniel Valle
Word Order Preposition-Noun no Montes 2004, 2005 Daniel Valle
Word Order Noun-Postposition or case suffix yes Montes 2005:134 Daniel Valle
Word Order Gen-Noun Possessive phrase composed of a free possessor and its possessum has possessor first (e.g. John's book) yes Faco Soares 1990:86; 1992:109 Daniel Valle
Word Order Noun-Gen Possessive phrase composed of a free possessor and its possessum has possessum first (e.g. 'book of John') yes It is only possible when a topic particle occurs in the sentence Faco Soares 1990:86; 1992:109 Daniel Valle
Word Order Adj-Noun Adjective precedes the noun no info Daniel Valle
Word Order Noun-Adj Adjective follows the noun no info Daniel Valle
Word Order Dem-Noun yes Montes 2004:73 Daniel Valle
Word Order Noun-Dem no Montes 2004:73 Daniel Valle
Word Order Num-Noun yes Faco Soares 1992:108-109 Daniel Valle
Word Order Noun-Num no Montes 2004b:76 Daniel Valle
Word Order Noun-Rel Relative clause follows noun that it modifies yes Faco Soares 1992:108 Daniel Valle
Word Order Rel-Noun Relative clause precedes noun that it modifies no info Daniel Valle
Word Order Re<Noun>l (internally headed relative) e.g. 'the dog cat chased-NMZR got away' ('the cat that the dog chased got away') no info Daniel Valle
Word Order Relative clause is correlative or adjoined e.g. 'what is running, the dog chased that cat' no info Daniel Valle
Word Order Question word is clause initial 'what', 'who', etc. come first in interrogative clause no Question word can appear both clause initial or non-clause initial Montes 2004b:153 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: nominative-accusative w/ marked accusative Objects of transitive clauses ('P') have a unique marker, while subjects of transitive ('A') and intransitive ('S') clauses are unmarked or share a different marker from that occurring on objects yes The animate objects may take the dative case marker Faco Soares 1993:92-93 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: nominative-accusative w/ marked nominative Subjects of transitive and intransitive clauses share a marker, while objects of transitives are unmarked no Faco Soares 1993:92-93 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: ergative-absolutive Subjects of intransitive clauses and objects of transitives share a unique marker, while subjects of transitive clauses are unmarked or have a different marker no Faco Soares 1993:92-93; Montes 2004b:55-152 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: tripartite Intransitive subjects, transitive subjects, and transitive objects all receive distinct case markers no Faco Soares 1993:92-93; Montes 2004b:55-152 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: active-inactive Subjects of intransitive clauses are treated two different ways: like subjects of transitives if they are more agent-like (e.g. he jumped), and like objects of transitives if they are more patient-like (e.g. he fell asleep) no Faco Soares 1993:92-93; Montes 2004b:55-152 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: marked accusative yes Montes 2005:133-141 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: marked nominative no Montes 2005:133-141 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: ergative-absolutive yes, no, mixed, other no Montes 2005:133-141 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: tripartite no Montes 2005:133-141 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: active-inactive no Montes 2005:133-141 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: nominative-accusative Same as above, for pronominal affixes/clitics on verbs yes Faco Soares 1993:93 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: ergative-absolutive yes, no, mixed, other no Faco Soares 1993:93; Montes 2004:129-45; Montes 2004:165-166 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: active-inactive no Faco Soares 1993:93; Montes 2004:129-45; Montes 2004:165-166 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: hierarchical Marking of A and P depends on their relative ranking on a hierarchy (usually 1>2>3 or 2>1>3) no Faco Soares 1993:93; Montes 2004:129-45; Montes 2004:165-166 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: split More than one of the above systems is represented in person marking, depending on e.g. person (e.g. 1/2 vs. 3), tense-aspect value, main vs. subordinate clause type, etc. no Faco Soares 1993:93; Montes 2004:129-45; Montes 2004:165-166 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: pronouns in subject position Pronominal subjects are free pronouns that occur in the same position as full NP subjects yes Montes 2005:135 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: prefixes on verb Pronominal subjects are marked as verbal prefixes (free pronouns may be another option) yes Montes 2005:133-135 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: suffixes on verb Pronominal subjects are marked as verbal suffixes (free pronouns may be another option) no Montes 2005:133-135 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: clitics on variable host Pronominal subjects are clitics that can attach to verbs, nominal constituents, etc. no Montes 2005:133-135 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: pronouns in non-subject position Pronominal subjects are free pronouns but do not normally occur in the position expected for full NP subjects no Montes 2005:133-135 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Person marking on intransitive verbs Intransitive verbs take person-marking clitics/affixes yes Montes 2005:133-135 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Person marking (of agents) on transitive verbs Transitive verbs take subject (A) markers yes Montes 2005:133-135 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Person-marking (of objects) on transitive verbs Transitive verbs take object (P) markers yes But this is restricted to sentences in which the full object NP occurs after the verb. Further, the object marker does not agree in person or number with the full object NP; it just says that the verb has an object Montes 2004b:84-85 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking 3rd person zero in verbal person marking: subjects 3rd person subjects are not overtly marked within the verbal person-marking system no 3rd person subjects are cross-referenced in the verb Montes 2004b:122-123 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking 3rd person zero in verbal person marking: objects 3rd person objects are not overtly marked within the verbal person-marking system yes The most frequent strategy is to not cross-reference the object in the verb. But this is possible when the constituent order is SVO. Montes 2004b:122-123 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Number can be marked separately from person on the verb Verbal person marking exists, but number is (or can) be marked separately no Based on examples. However, it is possible to have the nominal pluralizer suffix attached to the verb in addition to the plural person marker on the verb (Montes 2004b:95) Montes 2005 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Possessive affixes/clitics on nouns are same as verbal person markers Where nouns take possessive affixes, these are the same as the person-marking affixes yes Some of them are not completely identical but very similar Montes 2004:166-167 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Gender distinguished in verbal person markers For any person, verbal person markers exhibit different forms depending on the gender (masc/fem, animate/inanimate, etc.) of the referent no However, gender is distinguished in third person singular verbal person marker Montes 2004b:122 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice Ditransitive constructions: indirect object In ditransitives (e.g. 'John gives a book to Bill'), the theme (book) is treated in the same way as are objects of transitives, while the recipient/beneficiary (Bill) is treated differently yes Indirect objects take a "benefactive" marker in contrast to direct objects which take accusative marker and indirect objects are not cross-referenced on the verb as verbs do. Montes 2004b:105 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice Ditransitive constructions: double object In ditransitives (e.g. 'John gives Bill a book'), both the theme (book) and the recipient/beneficiary (Bill) is treated in the same way as are objects of transitives no Montes 2004b:105 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice Ditransitive constructions: secondary object In ditransitives, the recipient/beneficiary is treated in the same way as are objects of transitives, while the theme (book) is treated differently no Montes 2004b:105 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Reciprocal: dedicated morpheme Verb becomes reciprocal through use of reciprocal morpheme associated with the verb (may be attached to the verb root). This morpheme is only used to mean reciprocal. no info Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Reflexive: dedicated morpheme Verb becomes reflexive through use of reflexive morpheme associated with the verb (may be attached to the verb root). This morpheme is used only to mean reflexive. no Montes 2004b:88, 101-120 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Reciprocal/reflexive: same morpheme Verb becomes reciprocal or reflexive through use of a morpheme that means either reciprocal or reflexive which attaches to the root of the verb no info Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Passive Passive voice usually involves a change to the verb, while the object of the active voice verb is promoted to subject in the passive voice, and the former subject is deleted/demoted no info Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Antipassive Like passive, but deletes or demotes the object of a transitive verb; usually found in ergative languages no info Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Other intransitivizing morphology There is/are some other mechanism(s) for reducing valency no info Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Applicative: benefactive Applicative adds a beneficiary/maleficiary object argument to the verb no info Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Applicative: other Applicative adds some other object argument to the verb no info Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: prefix Causative is morphological and is attached before the root of the verb no info Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: suffix Causative is morphological and is attached after the root of the verb no info Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative marked by circumfix, stem change, or tone Morphological causative other than simple prefix/suffix no info Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: serial verb or analytical construction Causative construction that involves periphrasis or serialization no info Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: dedicated 'make do by proxy' Indicates that the causer does not directly cause the action of the verb to be realized, but does so by inducing someone else to carry out the action, e.g. 'John had the house painted.' no info Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: dedicated sociative Indicates that causer participates in event no info Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Other transitivizing morphology (adds valence) There is/are some other mechanism(s) for increasing valency yes /-ẽẽ/ (last vowel has a high tone) It adds an argument for both transitive and intransitive verbs Montes 2004b:126 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Negation Clausal negator is a preposed element Clausal negator is a preposed element no Montes 2004b:75, 93 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Negation Clausal negator is a postposed element Clausal negator is a postposed element yes Montes 2004b:75 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Negation Negatives: affix Negatives: affix yes /-taù/ Verbal suffix. Based on examples Montes 2004b:75 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Negation Negatives: particle Negatives: particle yes /tàmà/ Montes 2004b:93 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Negation Negatives: auxiliary verb Negatives: auxiliary verb no Montes 2004b:75, 93 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Negation Negatives: double Standard (non-emphatic) negation typically requires two morphemes, e.g. French 'ne V pas' no Montes 2004b:75, 93 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Negation Distinct negative form for 'NP does not exist' no info Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Negation Distinct negative expression 'I don't know' Lexical expression or highly idiomatic phrase no info Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Polar questions: interrogative particle Yes/no questions distinguished from declaratives by interrogative particle yes Montes 2004b:154 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Polar questions: verb morphology Yes/no questions distinguished from declaratives by interrogative verb morphology no Montes 2004b:154 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Polar questions: word order Yes/no questions distinguished from declaratives by word order (esp. subject-verb inversion) no Montes 2004b:154 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Polar questions: intonation only Yes/no questions distinguished from declaratives by intonation only no Montes 2004b:154 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Content questions: word order differs from declaratives Content questions distinguished from declaratives by word order (esp. subject-verb inversion) as well as by presence of Q-word (who, what, etc.) no Montes 2004b:101-120 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Predication Predicate adjectives: verbal Adjectives act like verbs in predicative position no Montes 2004b:78 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Predication Predicate adjectives: nominal Adjectives act like nouns in predicative position yes Montes 2004b:78 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Predication Zero copula for predicate nominals is possible Predicate nominals may occur without a copula (i.e. grammatical in some circumstances, if not all) no Zero copula is allowed for locative phrases as in "I am in X". However, based on the examples of Montes (2004b:78) it seems possible to have predicate nominals with zero copula Montes 2004:167 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Predication Headless relative clauses Compare Eng 'the one that fell' (but in Eng 'one' could be considered a head) no info Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Predication Headless relative clauses are the dominant or only form of relative clause Relative clauses that form a constituent with a head noun (in a single noun phrase) are rare or nonexistent; some descriptions may refer to adjoined or correlative clauses. no info Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Predication Relative clause may occur with a noun classifier/class marker It may be unclear whether the classifier is the nominal head of the construction or is an agreement marker on the relative clause no info Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Predication Relativizer is a verbal affix yes Faco Soares 1990:103 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Predication Morphological relativizer is homophonous with nominalizer The same morpheme marks a relative clause and is a nominalizer on verbs (and/or other word classes) yes Faco Soares 1990:103 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Desiderative expressions Grammaticalized verbal desiderative Indicates that the subject desires to carry out the action denoted by the verb (distinct from verb 'want', but may be grammaticalized from it) yes /-tʃaɨ/ (notice that the last vowel is nasalized) This verbal suffix seems to be of recent grammaticalization since it can appear by itself and it also means "desire". Montes 2004b:50-51 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Other Clause chaining Clauses can be grouped such that only one bears most of the verb morphology, and the others are marked as to whether they share a subject with this reference clause. no info Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Other Morphologically marked switch-reference system There are special markers to indicate same vs. different subject when two clauses are combined no Montes 2004b:161 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Other Morphologically marked distinction between simultaneous and sequential clauses Morphology (usually on verb) distinguishes between clauses denoting events that occur at the same time or in sequence no info Daniel Valle