Re<Noun>l (internally headed relative)

Word Order
e.g. 'the dog cat chased-NMZR got away' ('the cat that the dog chased got away')


Language Feature Status Grammatical Notes Source Created By Etymology Notes General Notes Phylogenetic Code
Cahuilla no Jane Hill
Cupeño no Jane Hill
Luiseño no Jane Hill
Serrano no Jane Hill
Kitanemuk no Jane Hill
Kawaiisu no Jane Hill
Timbisha Jane Hill
Western Mono no Jane Hill
Chemehuevi no Jane Hill
Southern Paiute no Jane Hill
Southern Ute no Jane Hill
Shoshone no Jane Hill
Comanche no Jane Hill
Idaho Shoshone no Jane Hill
Northern Paiute no Jane Hill
Gabrielino Jane Hill
Achagua no Wilson & Levinsohn 1992: 143 Ana Paula Brandao
Resígaro no Allin, 1976: 368 Aimee Lawrence
Bare unclear Aikhenvald, 1995: 47-48 Ana Paula Brandao
Piapoco no Galindo, 2002: 241-242 Aimee Lawrence
Yukuna no Shauer & Shauer, 1978: p. 28 Aimee Lawrence
Yavitero no Mosonyi, 1987: p. 94 Ana Paula Brandão, Aimee Lawrence
Wapishana no Santos, 2006: 247 Ana Paula Brandao, Amanda Meeks
Wayuu no Mansen & Captain, 2000: p. 799 Aimee Lawrence
Tariana no Aikhenvald, 2003: 479 Aimee Lawrence
Apurinã no Facundes, 2000: 572 Aimee Lawrence
Asheninka Apurucayali no Payne 1981:1011 Amanda Meeks
Maipure no Zamponi 2003:42,58 Daniel Smith
Yanesha' no Duff-Tripp 1997:206-17 Daniel Valle
Kinikinau no info Daniel Valle
Baure no info Danielsen 2007 Daniel Valle
Nanti no There are several types and several types of relative clauses. It looks like it is most common for relative clauses to appear postnominally, and there are some subtypes that can only appear postnominally. Internally-headed relative clauses occur, but it l Michael, 2008. p. 402-414 Aimee Lawrence
Paresi yes Brandão 2010:16 Daniel Valle
Palikur no info Launey 2003 Daniel Smith
Yine no info author does not address relative clauses Matteson 1965 Daniel Smith
Añun no info author does not discuss complex structures Patte 1989 Daniel Smith
Bora yes Seifart - 2005:69-73 Amanda Meeks
Makiritare no Hall 1988: 53 Melody Ann Ross
Makushi no Carson 1982: 168 Melody Ann Ross
Eñepa no Daniel Valle
Pemon yes de Armellada 1999: 175-94 Daniel Valle
Guna yes Smith texts Daniel Smith
Naso yes Quesada 2000 Daniel Smith
Ika yes This seems to be the most frequent strategy for relativization Frank 1990:99-100 Daniel Valle
Kogi no info Daniel Valle
Cabecar no info Daniel Valle
Guaymí yes Quesada 2008:173-5 Daniel Valle
Damana no info Daniel Valle
Sikuani no de Kondo (Vol.2) - 1985:4; Queixalós - 2000:2-26 Amanda Meeks
Macaguan no info Buenaventura - 1993 Amanda Meeks
Aguaruna no Overall 2007:253-61 Daniel Valle
Northern Emberá yes Mortensen 1999:127 Daniel Valle Catío
Waorani yes Orr et all. 1991:22 Daniel Valle But I am not completely sure about it. In the source it says thay a relative clause can appear without a "nuclear noun"
Ingá no info Daniel Valle
Matses no info Daniel Valle
Mapudungun no Zúñiga 2006, p. 249-51 Daniel Valle
Páez no info Daniel Valle
Quechua Ayacuchano no Soto 1976:152-4 Daniel Valle
Tikuna no info Daniel Valle
Urarina no Olawsky:320 Daniel Valle
Waunana no info Daniel Valle
Andoke no info Kelsey Neely
Puinave no info Mitz Perez, Daniel Valle
Central Aymara no info Shannon Dardis
Kakua no info not sure yet Bolaños fieldnotes Katherine Bolaños
Kaingang no info Silva 2011/Goncalves 2011 Daniel Smith
Minica Witoto no Minor and Minor 1982. p.95-96 Christopher Clack
Hup no Epps 2008 Pattie Epps
Nadëb/Roçado dialect no pseudorelative clauses as well Weir 1984:75 Katherine Bolaños
Dâw no Martins 2004 Katherine Bolaños
Desano no Miller 1999, p. 6 Amanda Novak
Cubeo yes Morse & Maxwell 1999, p. 151 Amanda Novak
Kotiria no Stenzel 2004 Amanda Novak
Makuna yes Smothermon & Smothermon 1993, p.41 Chris Clack The relative clause is a verb-noun embedded clause, which modifies the head noun of the noun phrase.
Koreguaje no Cook & Criswell 1993, p.41 Chris Clack
Barasano no Jones & Jones 1991, p.149 Chris Clack
Tanimuca yes Clauses may be subordinated as internally headed relative clauses, object complements, or adverbial clauses. Strom 1992, p.151 Chris Clack
Siona no info Wheeler 1987 Daniel Smith
Tukano no Ramirez 1997: 279-285 Kelsey Neely most common order; from examples
Yanomami no info Ramirez 1994 Kelsey Neely
Ninam no info Goodwin-Gomez Kelsey Neely
Sanumá no Borgman 1990: 129 Kelsey Neely
Surui no info Daniel Valle
Karitiana no Everett 2006:383-4 Daniel Valle
Nheengatu yes Cruz 2011:510 Daniel Smith
Paraguayan Guaraní no Krivoshein and Acosta 2001:152-3 Daniel Valle
Aché no info Daniel Valle
Kokama no Vallejos 2010:584 Daniel Smith
Nyangumarta no done 0
Jingulu no done 0
Wambaya no done 0
Bunuba no done 0
Walmajarri no info Done-Claire x
Nyulnyul no info done? x
Warrwa no info done x
Worrorra no info done X
Garrwa no info done X
Gooniyandi no info done x
Warlpiri no info done 0
Bardi no done-Claire 0
Yugambeh Y?
Yorta Yorta no info done x
Yir Yoront Done-Dan
Yindjibarndi no 183-184 done-Dan 0
Yidiny no done-Catherine 0
Yanyuwa n/a Done-Austin 0
Yandruwandha no info Done-Dan x
Yan-nhangu not yet
Yalarnnga no info Done-Dan x
Woiwurrung no info done-Amalia x
Wirangu No info done x
Wemba-Wemba no info done-Amalia x
Warumungu No 58 done-Amalia 0
Wangkumara no info done X
Uradhi No 378-82 Y 0
Paakantyi no info Y-Hannah X
Pitta-Pitta No 216 Done-Amalia 0
Pintupi no info done-Hannah x
Nyungar no info done x
Nhanta no Done-Hannah 0
Ngiyambaa yes 296-300 Done-Emily 1
Ngayawang No info done-Amalia x
Muruwari no info Done-Dan x
Mayi-Yapi No 72-73 done 0
Martuthunira no 241-243 done 0
Marrgany No 336 Done-Amalia 0
Kuuk Thaayorre No 533 Done-Amalia 0
Kuku Yalanji no info 181 Done-Jessica x
Kugu-Nganhcara No 389 done-Amalia 0
Kaurna No 13 done-Amalia 0
Kalkatungu no 100-1 Done-Dan 0
Jaru no 168-9 Done-Amalia 0
Guugu-Yimidhirr No info Done-Amalia x
Gureng Gureng no info Done-Amalia x
Gumbaynggirr no 366 done-Amalia 0
Gugu-Badhun no info done-Jessica x
Yuwaalaraay No 113 0
Dyirbal yes 99 done-Amalia 1
Duungidjawu no 104 done 0
Djinang No 207 Done-Amalia 0
Djabugay done
Diyari no 188-189 done-Hannah 0
Dharawal no info done-Hannah w Dhurga) x
Darkinyung no info done x
Bularnu n/a Done-Austin 0
Biri no 61 done-Jessica 0
Bidjara-Gungabula no info done-Jessica x
Batyala no info Done-Amalia x
Arabana no 266 Done-Dan 0
Alyawarr no? 135-6 done 0
Nyikina no done-Claire 0
Yawuru Y-Claire
Yulparija no info Done-Amalia x
Wathawurrung no info done x
Mathi-Mathi no info done-Amalia x
Hunter River and Lake Macquarie no info done-Amalia x
Thanggati no 69-70 done 0
Katthang no info done-Amalia x
Panyjima yes 198 done 1
Ngarinyeri No 32 done-Amalia 0
Kurrama no info done-Dan x
Yingkarta no Done-Claire 0
Githabul No 47 Done-Amalia 0
Gunya No 336 Done-Amalia 0
Kunjen No 56 Done- 0
WesternTorres yes? FO 133 done 1
Wakaya no done 0
Yindjilindji no info done x
Bandjalang No 123 Done-Amalia 0
Ngaatjatjara No 114 done 0
Arrernte No 268 0
Kokatha no info x
Karajarri No 396 Done-Amalia 0
Pitjantjatjara No G 154 0
Ritharrngu No 111 Done-Amalia 0
Warrgamay No 72 Done-Amalia 0
Warluwarra n/a Done-Amalia 0
Warnman no info Done-Amalia x
Djapu no info x
Bilinarra no info done x
Wiradjuri no info done x
Aghu-Tharnggala No 73 Y2 0
Narungga No info done x
Tharrkari No 53 0
Wajarri No 114 0
Warungu no info X
Adnyamathanha Y2
Yagua no Payne and Payne 1990 Daniel Smith
Baniwa no Ramirez 2001 Patience Epps