Gupapuyngu

Family
Pama-Nyungan
Region
Australia
ISO 639-3
guf
Location
-12.72°, 135.88°
Notes
Features
Basic Vocabulary
Flora Fauna Vocabulary
Cultural Vocabulary
Grammatical Data
Ethnographic Information
Data Sources
none


Basic Vocabulary (186)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Etymology Notes Source Created By
1pl.excl nosotros (exclusivo) nós (exclusivo) grammar nganapurru inheritance Claire Bowern
1pl.incl nosotros (inclusivo) nós (inclusivo) grammar ŋalimurru semantic shift Claire Bowern
1sg yo eu grammar ŋarra inheritance Claire Bowern
2pl ustedes vocês grammar nhuma semantic shift Claire Bowern
2sg xx xx grammar nhe inheritance Claire Bowern
3pl ellos/ellas eles/elas grammar walal(a) inheritance Claire Bowern
3sg el/ella ele/ela grammar ŋayi inheritance Claire Bowern
above encima, arriba acima location garrwar inheritance Claire Bowern
again de nuevo, otra vez de novo grammar 2256 inheritance Claire Bowern
all todo todos other warrpam' inheritance Claire Bowern
and y e grammar 2092 inheritance Claire Bowern
ankle tobillo tornozelo body ḏulkun unknown Claire Bowern
armpit axila, sobaco axila body wuḏuy unknown Claire Bowern
ashamed xx xx mental mirrwiḻi inheritance Claire Bowern
ashes xx xx environment ḻirrgi(') unknown Claire Bowern
at en, a em, a location -ŋura inheritance Claire Bowern
back espalda costas body muta unknown Claire Bowern
bad mal mal quality biḏila unknown Claire Bowern
be alive xx xx body walŋa inheritance Claire Bowern
belly barriga barriga body wuwa' unknown Claire Bowern
below abajo, debajo abaixo location rol unknown Claire Bowern
big grande grande quality dhamburru inheritance Claire Bowern
bite morder morder body 2942 inheritance Claire Bowern
black negro preto colour gurrŋan(') inheritance Claire Bowern
blood sangre sangue body maŋgu(') inheritance Claire Bowern
blow soplar soprar body boy' inheritance Claire Bowern
blunt xx xx quality dhumuk Claire Bowern
bone hueso osso body 4964 inheritance Claire Bowern
boomerang xx xx manufacture gaḻigaḻi(') inheritance Claire Bowern
breast pecho, seno peito body ŋamini inheritance Claire Bowern
breathe respirar respirar body ŋar'yun inheritance Claire Bowern
burn quemar queimar environment buḻpuḻyun unknown Claire Bowern
chew masticar, mascar mastigar body [missing] missing Claire Bowern
child niño, niña criança human yothu inheritance Claire Bowern
climb subir subir motion giḻaŋdhun unknown Claire Bowern
cloud nube nuvem environment wutjun unknown Claire Bowern
cold frío frio quality 1969 unknown Claire Bowern
come venir vir motion buna unknown Claire Bowern
cook cocinar cozinhar impact 2054 unknown Claire Bowern
count contar contar mental bothurru loan Claire Bowern
cry llorar chorar mental ŋapŋapthun unknown Claire Bowern
cut xx xx impact mit inheritance Claire Bowern
die/be dead morir morrer state 1801 unknown Claire Bowern
dig cavar cavar impact ŋangi'yun unknown Claire Bowern
dingo/wolf fauna wärraŋ unknown Claire Bowern
dirty sucio sujo quality [missing] missing Claire Bowern
dream soñar sonhar mental bukaway unknown Claire Bowern
drink beber, tomar beber body 1875 missing Claire Bowern
dry seco seco quality mulka(') unknown Claire Bowern
dust polvo poeira environment [missing] missing Claire Bowern
ear oreja orelha body buthuru loan Claire Bowern
earth/soil tierra terra environment munatha(') inheritance Claire Bowern
eat comer comer body nyaḻuma unknown Claire Bowern
egg huevo ovo fauna mapu(') inheritance Claire Bowern
eye ojo olho body mi:l inheritance Claire Bowern
faeces heces, mierda, excremento, estiércol fezes body guḻa' unknown Claire Bowern
fall caer cair motion wirrdjawirrdja'yun unknown Claire Bowern
far lejos longe quality barrku inheritance Claire Bowern
fat/grease grasa gordura body djukurr(') inheritance Claire Bowern
father padre, papá pai kinship djawuḻpa inheritance Claire Bowern
fear miedo medo mental barrari unknown Claire Bowern
feather pluma pena fauna butju Claire Bowern
fire fuego fogo environment gurtha inheritance Claire Bowern
fish xx xx fauna guya inheritance Claire Bowern
flow fluir fluir motion [missing] missing Claire Bowern
flower flor flor environment wurrki inheritance Claire Bowern
fly volar voar motion wurruḻuḻ(') inheritance Claire Bowern
fog niebla, neblina nevoeira, bruma, neblina environment [missing] missing Claire Bowern
foot pie body baŋgina unknown Claire Bowern
fruit fruta fruta flora rrothi loan Claire Bowern
good bueno bom quality walutju unknown Claire Bowern
grow crecer crescer state gurarrkuma unknown Claire Bowern
hair (of head) cabello cabelo body marwat inheritance Claire Bowern
hand mano mão body ŋarambiya(') unknown Claire Bowern
head cabeza cabeça body rliya inheritance Claire Bowern
hear oír ouvir mental ŋäma inheritance Claire Bowern
heavy pesado pesado quality ŋonuŋ unknown Claire Bowern
hide esconder esconder motion 1482 unknown Claire Bowern
hit golpear, pegar bater impact ḏar' unknown Claire Bowern
hit (with hand) xx xx impact [missing] missing Claire Bowern
hold correr, asegurar, sostener segurar other [missing] missing Claire Bowern
how? como como grammar [missing] missing Claire Bowern
if si se grammar [missing] missing Claire Bowern
in/inside dentro, adentro dentro location 2015 loan Dhuwal Claire Bowern
intestines intestinos intestinos body biyapiya inheritance Claire Bowern
itch hormiguear, sentir comezón coçar body ḏamurruŋ' inheritance Claire Bowern
kill matar matar impact [missing] missing Claire Bowern
know/be knowledgeable saber, conecer saber, conhecer mental miṯan unknown Claire Bowern
lake lago lago environment 2027 missing Claire Bowern
laugh reír rir mental ŋamarama unknown Claire Bowern
leaf hoja folha environment [missing] missing Claire Bowern
left/left hand izquierdo esquerdo location/body [missing] missing Claire Bowern
leg/foot pierna perna body balwak unknown Claire Bowern
lie down acostarse, echarse deitar motion ḏuy unknown Claire Bowern
lightning rayo, relámpago relampago environment maykarraṉ(') loan direction unknown Claire Bowern
liver hígado figado body ngalthiri inheritance Claire Bowern
long largo comprido, longo quality lambirri unknown Claire Bowern
louse piollo, piojo piolho fauna djuku inheritance Claire Bowern
lung pulmón pulmão body burrgutj inheritance Claire Bowern
man/male hombre homem human 2254 Claire Bowern
meat/flesh carne carne fauna ŋanak inheritance Claire Bowern
moon luna lua environment walmuḏa unknown Claire Bowern
mother madre, mamá mãe kinship ngama7 inheritance Claire Bowern
mouth boca boca body djoliŋ unknown Claire Bowern
name nombre nome human yäku inheritance Claire Bowern
nape base del cuello, nuca nuca body dhungurrk unknown Claire Bowern
near/close cerca de perto quality galki inheritance Claire Bowern
neck cuello pescoço body mayaŋ(') inheritance Claire Bowern
new nuevo novo quality 1756 inheritance Claire Bowern
night noche noite time munha Claire Bowern
no/not no não grammar yaka unknown Claire Bowern
nose nariz nariz body 2839 inheritance Claire Bowern
old viejo velho quality norrutj Claire Bowern
one uno um number wanggañ inheritance Claire Bowern
open/uncover abrir abrir other [missing] missing Claire Bowern
other otro outro grammar wiripu Claire Bowern
person/human being persona pessoa human yolŋu inheritance Claire Bowern
pimple xx xx body mäpaṉ inheritance Claire Bowern
rain lluvia chuva environment waṉbana unknown Claire Bowern
red rojo vermelho colour ṉipiṉ Claire Bowern
right/right hand derecha direita location/body [missing] missing Claire Bowern
road/path camino caminho manufacture dhukarr inheritance Claire Bowern
roof xx xx manufacture [missing] missing Claire Bowern
root raíz raiz flora [missing] missing Claire Bowern
rotten podrido podre quality boḻuku unknown Claire Bowern
sand arena areia environment [missing] missing Claire Bowern
say decir dizer mental ŋayawurkthun inheritance Claire Bowern
scratch rascar rasgar impact wirrk inheritance Claire Bowern
see ver ver mental ḏirrgiyun unknown Claire Bowern
sharp afilado, filudo, filoso afiado quality raywal unknown Claire Bowern
shoot tirar, disparar, balear atirar impact biḻtjawunuma Claire Bowern
short corto curto quality dhumbuḻ' unknown Claire Bowern
shoulder hombro ombro body rlambarr inheritance Claire Bowern
sick xx xx body dhuŋumirr(i) unknown Claire Bowern
sit sentar(se) sentar state dhut unknown Claire Bowern
skin piel pele body minyaŋalaŋal unknown Claire Bowern
sky cielo céu environment djiwarr(') unknown Claire Bowern
sleep dormir dormir body yakurr inheritance Claire Bowern
small pequeño pequeno quality nyumikiny inheritance Claire Bowern
smell (tr/intr) xx xx body nhuman inheritance Claire Bowern
smoke humo fumaça environment ŋawulul(') inheritance Claire Bowern
spit escupir cuspir body dhuba'yun inheritance Claire Bowern
split partir, dividir rachar, dividir, partir impact balbaw'marama unknown Claire Bowern
squeeze estrujar, exprimir espremer impact ḏitjpunuma inheritance Claire Bowern
stab/pierce apuñalar, acuchillar apunhalar impact dhämalkuma unknown Claire Bowern
stand estar de pié ficar em pé state birr unknown Claire Bowern
star estrella estrela environment ganyu(') unknown Claire Bowern
steal robar roubar other [missing] missing Claire Bowern
stone piedra pedra environment waṯapa(') unknown Claire Bowern
suck chupar chupar body [missing] missing Claire Bowern
sun sol sol time walu inheritance Claire Bowern
sweat sudar suor, suar body wuburr' unknown Claire Bowern
swell hincharse inchar body [missing] missing Claire Bowern
swim nadar nadar motion watjkaḻyun unknown Claire Bowern
tail cola, rabo rabo body miraŋ unknown Claire Bowern
that ese/esa esse grammar ŋunhi inheritance Claire Bowern
thick grueso, gordo, espeso grosso quality ŋutu(') inheritance Claire Bowern
thin delgado fino quality bär' unknown Claire Bowern
think pensar pensar mental guyaŋirr(i) inheritance Claire Bowern
this este/esta este grammar dhuwala unknown Claire Bowern
three tres tres number ḻurrkun' inheritance Claire Bowern
throat garganta garganta body miwura unknown Claire Bowern
throw tirar, lanzar atirar, jogar impact ḏup unknown Claire Bowern
thunder truenos trovão environment bulkuŋu unknown Claire Bowern
tie up/fasten atar, amarrar amarrar impact ḏamarr'marama unknown Claire Bowern
tongue lengua lingua body matha inheritance Claire Bowern
tooth diente dente body gikina inheritance Claire Bowern
true xx xx quality rumbal semantic shift Claire Bowern
turn girar, volter, torcer virar other ŋanydjaḻa'yun unknown Claire Bowern
two dos dois number märrma' inheritance Claire Bowern
vomit vomitar vomitar body gaŋaru Claire Bowern
walk caminar, andar andar motion garama inheritance Claire Bowern
water agua agua environment wakutu(') unknown Claire Bowern
wet mojado molhado quality djurruk inheritance Claire Bowern
what? que, qué que grammar nhä inheritance Claire Bowern
when? cuando quando grammar nhätha inheritance Claire Bowern
where? donde onde grammar wanhala inheritance Claire Bowern
white blanco branco colour watharr inheritance Claire Bowern
who? quien, quién quem grammar wäri inheritance Claire Bowern
wife esposa esposa kinship galay inheritance Claire Bowern
wind viento vento environment bawuthu unknown Claire Bowern
wing ala asa body binbarr inheritance Claire Bowern
woman/female mujer mulher human waṯa Claire Bowern
work trabajar trabalhar other dhotju inheritance Claire Bowern
yawn bostezar bocejar body [missing] missing Claire Bowern
yellow amarillo amarelo colour buthalak inheritance Claire Bowern


Flora Fauna Vocabulary (139)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Linnean Name Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Range of Term Word Structure Word Structure Notes Classifier Classifier Notes Hypernym Source Association with Social Categories Ritual/Mythologically Significant Ritual Notes Food Source Food Notes Medicinal Medicinal Notes How Collected Who Collects How Prepared Psychotropic Psychotropic Notes Traded Trade Notes Distribution Habitat Dangerous Ethnobiology Notes Species Notes General Notes Created By
grasshopper flora-fauna Caelifera ḏetj dhety inheritance underived 2 1 0 0 0 no
agile wallaby, river wallaby flora-fauna Macropus agilis balkitj balkity loan direction unknown Burarra simplex 0 1 0 0 0 no
ant (generic) hormiga formiga flora-fauna Formicidae yarrŋga ga:lkal inheritance Central Yolngu reduplicated 0 0 0 0 0 no
Australian pelican flora-fauna Pelecanus conspicillatus buruŋgurr galumay inheritance Also has “burunggurr”, “Australian pelican” 0 0 0 0 0 no
Australian snubfin dolphin flora-fauna Orcaella heinsohnii wuyunuŋu(') wuyunuŋu(7) inheritance simplex 0 0 0 0 0 no
baler shell flora-fauna Melo amphora guṉŋarri guṉŋarri unknown simplex 0 0 0 0 0 no
bandicoot flora-fauna Peramelemorphia missing 0 0 0 0 0
barn owl flora-fauna Tyto alba dolpurrk (type of) dolpurrk (type of) Barn Owl unknown 0 0 0 0 0 no
barramundi flora-fauna Lates calcarifer watjarrkaḻi(') ratyuk unique simplex 1 1 0 0 0 no
bat murciélago morcego flora-fauna Chiroptera spp wiñiwiñi gurrnyinyi unique cognate with the YNhangu word for ‘yellow’? simplex 0 1 0 0 0 no
bindii, caltrop flora-fauna Tribulus terrestris missing missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
bird pajaro, ave passaro flora-fauna djikay(') dyikay(7) inheritance simplex 0 0 0 0 0 no
black-breasted buzzard flora-fauna Hamirostra melanosternon missing dhamala inheritance missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
black-faced cuckoo-shrike flora-fauna Coracina novaehollandiae bewiyik bewiyik inheritance simplex 0 0 0 0 0 no
black-headed python flora-fauna Aspidites melanocephalus bun'taŋu bun'taŋu unknown simplex 0 2 0 0 0 no
black-soil yam flora-fauna Ipomoea diamantinensis missing missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
bloodwood flora-fauna Eucalyptus (Corymbia) bleeseri mapuḏumun(') mapudhumun(7) tree; edible gum and fruit; inner bark is used in treating diarrhoea, pimples and sores] Wild Peach, Red CemeTree, Terminalia carpentaria; also T. ferdinandiana (?) unknown 0 1 1 0 0 no
blowfly maggots flora-fauna Diptera, Sarcophagidae mewirri(7) mewirri(7) unique 0 0 0 0 0 no
blue-tongue lizard flora-fauna Tiliqua species guŋaluŋ(') dhamilhiny inheritance simplex 0 1 0 0 0 no
blue-winged kookaburra flora-fauna Dacelo leachii garrukal(') garrukal inheritance simplex 0 0 0 0 0 no
bluebone flora-fauna Choerodon cyanodus didimu win’ku inheritance simplex 0 1 0 0 0 no
brolga flora-fauna Grus rubicunda guḏurrku(') banami loan direction unknown Ngandi/Rembarrnga WW %kurdurrku simplex 1 0 0 0 0 no
brown goshawk flora-fauna Accipiter fasciatus dolpurrk (type of) dolpurrk (type of) Brown Goshawk unknown 0 0 0 0 0 no
brush-tailed possum flora-fauna Trichosurus vulpecula marrŋu marrŋu Northern Brush-Tail unknown simplex 0 1 0 0 0 no
bush cockroach flora-fauna (many species) boḏuk bodhuk beetle (generic); cockroach; black beetle sp.--with two red spots on its back unique 0 0 0 0 0 no
bush stone-curlew flora-fauna Burhinus grallarius gumiṉḏa guminhdha bird--curlew] Beach Thick-Knee, Burhinus neglectus loan direction unknown Burarra simplex 1 0 0 0 0 no
bush tobacco flora-fauna Lobelia quadrangularis missing missing missing 0 0 0 1 0 no
bush turkey, Australian bustard flora-fauna Ardeotis australis buwaṯa buwatha Plains Turkey, Australian Bustard, Ardeotis australis loan direction unknown Burarra 0 1 0 0 0 no
bush yam flora-fauna Vigna lanceolata var. lanceolata missing yukuwa(7) inheritance missing 0 1 2 0 1 no
butterfly, moth mariposa borboleta flora-fauna Lepidoptera missing missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
carpet snake flora-fauna Morelia spilota dum'thunamirr unique 0 1 0 0 0
caterpillar flora-fauna Lepidoptera dhapalany(') dhapal(7) inheritance simplex 0 0 0 0 0 no
catfish flora-fauna (many species) liyabandany ganŋal loan direction unknown Ngandi 0 1 0 0 0 no
centipede ciempiés centopéia flora-fauna Chilopoda, Myriapoda djaṯam djatam inheritance simplex 0 0 0 0 0 no
channel-billed cuckoo flora-fauna Scythops novaehollandiae missing missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
crested pigeon flora-fauna Ocyphaps lophotes missing missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
darter/cormorant flora-fauna Anhinga melanogaster, Phalacrocorax species wurraṉ wurranh Diver Duck, Darter; [Ext] White Man inheritance 0 1 0 0 0 no
death adder, five-minute snake flora-fauna Acanthophis praelongus bathigurririmirri bathigurririmirri snake] Death Adder unique 0 0 0 0 0 yes
dingo flora-fauna Canis familiaris dingo wärraŋ wa:rraŋ inheritance simplex 0 0 0 0 0 no
dog (camp, domestic) perro cachorro flora-fauna Canis familiaris wuŋgan wathu inheritance simplex 0 0 0 0 0 no
duck pato pato, marreco flora-fauna Anatidae muthali(') muthali(7) inheritance simplex 0 1 0 0 0 no
dugong flora-fauna Dugon dugong djunuŋguyaŋu dyunuŋguyaŋu inheritance “dyaŋu” shape, “dyunuŋgu” straight away 1 1 0 0 0 no
earthworm flora-fauna Annelida, Oligochaeta mewirri(') mewirri(7) inheritance simplex 0 0 0 0 0 no
emu flora-fauna Dromaius novaehollandiae wurrpaṉ dhupthup unique reduplicated 2 1 2 0 0 no
fish (generic) pez peixe flora-fauna guya birrpurra inheritance simplex 0 1 0 0 0 N/A
flower flora-fauna (NA) guwatiti guwatiti unique 0 0 0 0 0 no
blowfly/housefly mosca mosca flora-fauna Diptera wurruḻuḻ(') wurrulhulh(7) inheritance simplex 0 0 0 0 0 no
flying-fox (generic) flora-fauna (many species) winyiwinyi warrnyu inheritance simplex 0 0 0 0 0 no
freshwater crocodile flora-fauna Crocodylus johnstoni djorrgu djorrgu loan direction unknown simplex 0 0 0 0 0 no
freshwater mussel flora-fauna Velesunio wilsoni mämbal dhärrwit inheritance simplex 0 1 0 0 0 no
freshwater prawn flora-fauna Macrobrachium rosenbergii missing missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
frill-necked lizard flora-fauna Chlamydosaurus kingii baltjuda baltyuda unknown simplex 0 1 0 0 0 no
frog (generic) flora-fauna (many species) garkman garkman inheritance simplex 0 0 0 0 0 no
galah flora-fauna Eolophus roseicapilla missing 0 0 0 0 0
turtle (generic) flora-fauna (many species) miyapunu ganawuyma unknown simplex collective for all sea mammals 0 1 0 0 0 no
ghost gum flora-fauna Eucalyptus papuana (Corymbia bella) missing missing missing 2 0 1 0 0 no
goanna (generic) or sand goanna flora-fauna Varanus spp ḏilkam dhilkam lizard] Sand Goanna, Varanus sp. inheritance simplex 0 1 2 0 0 no
grass hierba, pasto capim, grama flora-fauna (NA) mulmu mulmu inheritance 0 0 0 0 0 no
grasshopper flora-fauna Orthoptera dhety inheritance simplex 0 0 0 0 0
great bowerbird flora-fauna Chlamydera nuchalis djurwirr djurwirr loan direction unknown WW %tyurwirr simplex 1 0 0 0 0 no
green ant flora-fauna Oecophylla smaragdina dhayi dhayi inheritance simplex galkal generic for all ants 0 2 2 0 0 no
green sea turtle flora-fauna Chelonia mydas dhalgaṯpu dhalgathpu inheritance simplex 1 1 0 0 0 no
green tree snake flora-fauna Dendrelaphis punctulata garanaŋga(') garanaŋga inheritance simplex 0 2 0 0 0 no
head/body lice flora-fauna Pediculus capitis, Pediculus humanus djuku dyuku louse, small head lice, flea(s) inheritance simplex 0 0 0 0 0 no
horse caballo cavalho flora-fauna Equus caballus wutjpaḻina dya:rraŋ inheritance simplex 0 0 0 0 0 no
hummingbird colibrí, picaflor (Peru) beija-flor flora-fauna Trochilidae wirrir7wirrir wirrir(7)wirrir inheritance might be loan into proto-language reduplicated 0 0 0 0 0 no
humpback whale flora-fauna Megaptera novaeangliae missing wuymirri unique missing 1 1 0 0 0 no
insect (generic) insecto insecto flora-fauna generic wuyuwuyu(') dhindhinŋaniŋ unique reduplicated Narrower [unidentified beetle] 0 0 0 0 0 no
jabiru flora-fauna Ephippiorhynchus asiaticus gandyi(7) inheritance 0 0 0 0 0
jungle-fowl (scrub-fowl) flora-fauna Megapodius freycinet missing missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
kangaroo (generic) flora-fauna Macropodidae weṯi(') wethi(7) inheritance 2 1 0 0 0 no
land snail flora-fauna Gastropoda meṉḏuŋ menhdhuŋ inheritance simplex 0 0 0 0 0 no
magpie goose flora-fauna Anseranas semipalmata gurrumba gurrumathtyi inheritance simplex 0 1 0 0 0 no
military dragon flora-fauna Ctenophorus isolepis, Diporiphora spp., Lophognathus spp. missing missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
mosquito mosquito, zancudo mosquito, carapana flora-fauna Anopheles spp, Isoptera gaṉamu ganhamu inheritance simplex 0 0 0 0 0 no
mud wasp, hornet flora-fauna (many species) missing missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
native bee flora-fauna (many species) missing missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
native cat flora-fauna Dasyurus barkuma(') barkuma(7) inheritance simplex 0 0 0 0 0 no
northern brown bandicoot flora-fauna Isoodon macrourus missing missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
northern kurrajong flora-fauna Brachychiton diversifolius missing missing missing 0 1 no? 0 0 no
nut tree flora-fauna Terminalia grandifolia missing missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
octopus flora-fauna Octopus australis mäṉḏa ma:nhdha inheritance simplex 0 0 0 0 0 no
pandanus palm flora-fauna Pandanus spiralis gunjalk gundyalk pandanus unique suffixed? 1 1 0 0 1 no
paperbark flora-fauna Melaleuca sericea, Melaleuca stenostachya dharaw(') barrukala(7) inheritance 0 0 1 0 0 no
peaceful dove flora-fauna Geopelia placida gurudut gurudut loan direction unknown WW %kurutuk simplex 0 0 0 0 0 no
pearlshell flora-fauna Pinctada spp missing missing missing 1 1 0 0 1 no
peewee flora-fauna Gryllina cyanoleuca ḏelili dhelili Peewee, Mudlark, Australian Magpie-Lark, Grallina cyanoleuca inheritance 0 0 0 0 0 no
pied butcherbird flora-fauna Cracticus nigrogularis wäkŋaniŋ wäkŋaniŋ unknown 0 0 0 0 0 no
pike eel flora-fauna Muraenesox arabicus missing missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
praying mantis, stick insects mantis religiosa louva-a-deus flora-fauna Mantodea missing missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
prickle bush flora-fauna Sclerolaena bicornis missing missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
quail (generic) flora-fauna Coturnix species, Turnix species missing missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
red river gum flora-fauna Eucalyptus camaldulensis missing missing missing 2 0 1 0 1 no
red-tailed black-cockatoo flora-fauna Calyptorhynchus banksi ŋaṯili ŋathili inheritance simplex 0 0 0 0 0 no
riflefish, archerfish flora-fauna Toxotes chatareus dhapara dhapara unknown 0 1 0 0 0 no
river mangrove flora-fauna Aegicera corniculatum missing missing missing 0 0 2 0 1 no
rock fig flora-fauna Ficus brachypoda missing missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
sacred kingfisher flora-fauna Todiramphus sancta missing missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
saltwater crocodile flora-fauna Crocodylus porosus birrkin-birrkin ba:ru inheritance reduplicated 2 2 0 0 0 yes
saltwater mussel flora-fauna Mytilidae missing missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
sawfish flora-fauna Pristis pectinata missing missing missing 1 0 0 0 0 yes
scorpion escorpión; alacran escorpião flora-fauna Arachnida, Scorpiones buthuŋu buthuŋu inheritance simplex 0 0 0 0 0 no
shark (generic) flora-fauna Selachimorpha bul'mandji bul'mandji Generic for all sharks inheritance 0 0 0 0 0 variable
shell (generic) flora-fauna ŋaraka lhudhulhudhu semantic shift reduplicated 0 1 0 0 1 no
short-beaked echidna flora-fauna Tachyglossus aculeatus djirrmaŋa(') djirrmaŋa inheritance both “djirr” and “mangu” seem to be possible affixes? derived 0 2 0 0 0 no
snake (generic) culebra, serpiente cobra flora-fauna missing missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 N/A
snappy gum flora-fauna Eucalyptus brevifolia missing missing missing 0 0 1 0 0 no
spider araña aranha flora-fauna Arachnida, Araneae garrwiḏi ga:rr7 inheritance simplex 0 0 0 0 0 no
spinifex flora-fauna Triodia species missing missing missing 0 0 2 0 0 no
spoonbills (yellow-billed spoonbill, black-billed spoonbill) flora-fauna Platalea flavipes, Platalea regia dhaminy dhaminy unknown 0 0 0 0 0 no
stingray (generic) rayas látigo, raya arraia flora-fauna Dasyatidae markala dhawatyiri unique 0 1 0 0 0 variable
stripe-faced dunnart flora-fauna Sminthopsis macroura missing missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
sugarbag wax flora-fauna missing missing missing 1 1 0 0 0 no
sulphur-crested cockatoo flora-fauna Cacatua galerita ḏangi badhikan inheritance simplex 0 0 0 0 0 no
swamp eel flora-fauna Ophisternon gutturale dhurray' dhurray' unknown simplex 0 1 0 0 0 no
swamp leech flora-fauna Annelida, Hirudinea djalniny djalniny Leech inheritance simplex 0 0 0 0 0 no
tawny frogmouth flora-fauna Podargus strigoides dhuḏuthuḏu dawutawu inheritance reduplicated 0 0 0 0 0 no
termite mounds, ant hills flora-fauna Isoptera djakuḻuḻu(') gunana inheritance simplex 0 0 0 0 0 no
termites, white-ants comején (Peru), termitas cupim flora-fauna (many species) gunaŋa(') ganagana inheritance simplex 0 0 0 0 0 no
ti-tree flora-fauna Melaleuca bracteata missing missing missing 0 0 1 0 0 no
tick garrapata carrapato flora-fauna Arachnida, Acarina missing missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
tiger shark flora-fauna Galeocerdo cuvier missing missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 yes
torresian crow flora-fauna Corvus orru wäk wäk inheritance simplex 0 0 0 0 0 no
tree árbol arvore flora-fauna (NA) gäyu dharpa inheritance simplex 0 0 0 0 0 no
waterlily flora-fauna Nymphaea macrosperma dhatam(') dhatam(7) inheritance simplex 0 1 2 0 0 no
wattle flora-fauna Acacia difficilis gaḻayin(') galhayin(7) tree] Deep Gold Wattle, Tortulosa Wattle, Acacia torulosa inheritance simplex 0 0 1 0 1 no
wedge-tailed eagle flora-fauna Aquila audax ḏamala dhamala bird--male/mature] White-Breasted Sea Eagle, Haliaeetus leucogaster; Wedge-tailed Eagle, Aquila audax; Black-breasted Buzzard, Hamirostra melanosternon inheritance simplex 1 0 0 0 0 no
willie wagtail flora-fauna Rhipidura leucophrys djirriwi-djirriwi djirribityirribi inheritance cf “djirrintyirrin” for honeyeater reduplicated 1 0 0 0 0 no
witchetty grub flora-fauna (many species) gämuruŋ ga:muruŋ inheritance simplex 0 1 2 0 0 no
woma flora-fauna Aspidites ramsayii missing missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
tree árbol arvore flora-fauna gäyu unknown Claire Bowern
ant (generic) hormiga formiga flora-fauna wuṯili unknown Claire Bowern
bird pajaro, ave passaro flora-fauna djikay(') inheritance Claire Bowern
blowfly/housefly mosca mosca flora-fauna [missing] missing Claire Bowern
dog (camp, domestic) perro cachorro flora-fauna 1757 unknown Claire Bowern
grass hierba, pasto capim, grama flora-fauna mulmu inheritance Claire Bowern
kangaroo (generic) flora-fauna weṯi(') inheritance Claire Bowern
snake (generic) culebra, serpiente cobra flora-fauna djäḻki(') unknown Claire Bowern
spider araña aranha flora-fauna garrwiḏi inheritance Claire Bowern


Cultural Vocabulary (111)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Word Structure Word Structure Notes General Notes Source Created By
afterworld, land of dead, Heaven tierra do los muertos terra dos mortos culture-mythology dhawal missing Claire Bowern
armband dress dyalhi inheritance Claire Bowern
awl subsistence tool missing Claire Bowern
axe/stone axe hacha (de piedra) machado (de pedra) subsistence tool dhakul(7) inheritance Claire Bowern
bag (string) culture-material bathi inheritance Claire Bowern
bait for fishing cebo, carnada para pescar, empate (Peru) isca subsistence tool yipaŋ unique Claire Bowern
basket (general) canasta, canasto, cesta cesto culture-material missing Claire Bowern
body feather decorations culture-mythology missing Claire Bowern
boomerang/throwing stick (generic) subsistence tool galhigalhi(7) inheritance Claire Bowern
boomerang (number 7) subsistence tool missing Claire Bowern
boomerang (small) subsistence tool missing Claire Bowern
bowl (coolamon) culture-material dhaniya(7) inheritance Claire Bowern
broom escoba vassoura culture-material missing Claire Bowern
canoe canoa canoa transport mityiyaŋ loan Makassar is this a loan from Makassar too? Claire Bowern
cicatrice culture-mythology bidhipi(7) inheritance Claire Bowern
clapsticks culture-mythology bilhma inheritance Claire Bowern
club (nulla-nulla) subsistence tool missing Claire Bowern
cook food food lhirrma7yun inheritance Claire Bowern
cook in earth oven food missing Claire Bowern
damper food missing Claire Bowern
dance (generic) culture-mythology girityirri REDO - noun not verb Claire Bowern
digging stick subsistence tool bätju(') inheritance Claire Bowern
dipper (small coolamon) subsistence tool missing Claire Bowern
dream sueño, soñar sonho, sonhar culture-mythology bukaway inheritance Claire Bowern
dreaming culture-mythology waŋarr inheritance Claire Bowern
drone pipe culture-mythology yidhaki inheritance Claire Bowern
fire drill subsistence tool dharrawadhay inheritance Claire Bowern
fire-saw other dharrawadhay inheritance Claire Bowern
fireplace hogar lareira other missing Claire Bowern
firewood leña lenha other dha:dhi(y) unique Claire Bowern
fish poison barbasco, matapez (Colombia) timbó subsistence tool yinhdhithi unique Claire Bowern
fish (with fish-poison) pescar con barbasco, barbasquear pescar com timbó; tinguijar food missing Claire Bowern
fish (with line) anzuelear, pescar con linea pescar (com linha) food ra:kum(a) inheritance Claire Bowern
fish (with spear) food binydyarr7yun unique Claire Bowern
fishing line cordel/cuerda p/ pescar, sedal, tanze linha de pesca subsistence tool yarratha inheritance Claire Bowern
fishtrap (permanent) subsistence tool missing Claire Bowern
fishtrap (woven) subsistence tool missing Claire Bowern
flour (European) food missing Claire Bowern
flour (bush) food missing Claire Bowern
game animal caza, animal de caza caça, animal de caça food warrakan inheritance Claire Bowern
ghost (of dead person)/evil spirit espíritu malo, espíritu maligno, fantasma, demonio espirito culture-mythology mokuy inheritance Claire Bowern
glue subsistence tool man7ku inheritance Claire Bowern
grave tumba, sepultura, sepulcro sepultura, sepulcro, cova culture-mythology wurramu loan Makassar Claire Bowern
grog food ŋa:nityi loan Makassar Claire Bowern
hair belt dress mathanh loan Claire Bowern
headband dress mitypurrkulha unique Claire Bowern
healer curandero benzador, curandeiro, kumu (Tukano) culture-mythology marrŋgity inheritance Claire Bowern
honey miel mel food weka(7) unique Claire Bowern
house (European) other bala7 loan Makassar WW %bala Claire Bowern
hunt cazar caçar food ŋaŋ7ŋaŋdhun inheritance Claire Bowern
initiation (circumcision) culture-mythology dhak inheritance Claire Bowern
initiation (subincision) culture-mythology missing Claire Bowern
knife cuchillo faca culture-material ŋambi inheritance Claire Bowern
loincloth taparrabos, guayuco, pampanilla tanga, tapa-sexo dress na:ga inheritance Claire Bowern
love song culture-mythology missing Claire Bowern
mangrove raft transport dyutu inheritance Claire Bowern
message stick culture-mythology missing Claire Bowern
mortar mortero pilão subsistence tool missing Claire Bowern
nosepeg other missing Claire Bowern
paddle/oar remo remo transport gadhubalha unique Claire Bowern
ochre culture-mythology buthalak inheritance Claire Bowern
paint body, body paint pintura corporal pintura corporal culture-mythology missing Claire Bowern
pestle pilón, mano de mortero, mazo, moledor mão de pilão subsistence tool missing Claire Bowern
pipe for tobacco pipa cachimbo other missing Claire Bowern
public song cycle culture-mythology missing Claire Bowern
red paint culture-mythology miku(7) inheritance Claire Bowern
resin resina, brea, copal resina, brea, breu subsistence tool missing Claire Bowern
salt sal sal food dye7la inheritance Claire Bowern
shelter (native) other bunhbu inheritance Claire Bowern
song (generic) canción, canto canção culture-mythology missing Claire Bowern
song (for entertainment) culture-mythology missing Claire Bowern
spear lanza lança subsistence tool lama unique Claire Bowern
spear (fighting) subsistence tool missing Claire Bowern
spear (fishing) subsistence tool makurr inheritance Claire Bowern
spearthrower subsistence tool maŋal unique Claire Bowern
speartip subsistence tool missing Claire Bowern
string (from hair) culture-material missing Claire Bowern
string (from vine) culture-material balku inheritance Claire Bowern
sugar acculturation munatha(7) semantic shift Claire Bowern
tea food ŋurrŋgity semantic shift Claire Bowern
tobacco (European) narcotics galurru(7) unique Claire Bowern
tobacco (native) narcotics missing Claire Bowern
spirit child culture-mythology missing Claire Bowern
wax cera cera other missing Claire Bowern
white paint culture-mythology gaparn inheritance Claire Bowern
windbreak other missing Claire Bowern
yandy (n) culture-material missing Claire Bowern
school escuela escola acculturation wukirri semantic shift Claire Bowern
net subsistence tool ma:thamatha unique Claire Bowern
bottle botella garrafa acculturation buthulhu(7) loan English WW bottle Claire Bowern
paper papel papel acculturation boyaŋ unique Claire Bowern
corpse food mu:kuy inheritance Claire Bowern
chicken gallina galinha acculturation dyilhawurr semantic shift Claire Bowern
tree coffin culture-mythology dhimbuka(7) inheritance Claire Bowern
clothing ropa roupa culture-mythology mardhakal semantic shift Claire Bowern
skirt falda, saya, fustan, pollera saia culture-material batigut loan with semantic shift English WW petticoat Claire Bowern
shoes zapatos sapatos dress dyapathu loan Makassar WW %dhapathung Claire Bowern
medicine narcotics ba:7pali semantic shift Claire Bowern
earth oven food dyambalh inheritance Claire Bowern
policeman polícia policía acculturation missing Claire Bowern
cat gato gato acculturation missing Claire Bowern
gun arma, escopeta espingarda, fusil acculturation dyilityilikaŋ doubtful loan Claire Bowern
hat sombero chapéu dress dyoŋgu(7) inheritance Claire Bowern
rope/string mecate, cuerda, soga corda culture guwal Claire Bowern
bottom grinding stone manufacture [missing] missing Claire Bowern
digging stick subsistence tool waliya unknown Claire Bowern
winnow aventar, tirar (sementes) joeirar manufacture [missing] missing Claire Bowern
top grinding stone metate, mano; piedra de moler metate, mano manufacture [missing] missing Claire Bowern
spearthrower subsistence tool biḏitj unknown Claire Bowern
spear lanza lança subsistence tool matjaka unknown Claire Bowern
house other dhulmarr unknown Claire Bowern


Grammatical Data (295)
Category Grammatical Feature Grammatical Feature: Notes Feature Status Phonemicized Form Orthographic Form Grammatical Notes Source Created By Etymology Notes General Notes Phylogenetic Code
Phonology - Segmental Pre-/post-nasalized stops Analysis posits that the stop is the most relevant underlying phoneme. Comment in notes on whether the nasal contour is understood as a phonetic (allophonic) effect, or is phonologically contrastive.
Phonology - Segmental Glottalized/ejective consonants Phonemic contrast [NOT counting glottal stop/fricative]
Phonology - Segmental Palatalized stops Phonemic contrast
Phonology - Segmental Phonemic vowel length Does the language have long and short vowels?
Phonology - Segmental Phonemic glottalization/laryngealization of vowels
Phonology - Segmental Complex onsets Onset consists of more than one consonant phoneme
Phonology - Segmental No codas *(C)VC [no also equals highly constrained]
Phonology - Segmental Word-final coda required Do all syllables end in a consonant?
Phonology - Suprasegmental Contrastive tones Note how many contrastive tones no 0
Phonology - Suprasegmental Contrastive stress Does stress occur on different syllables with meaning difference?
Phonology - Suprasegmental Nasalization property of morpheme or syllable In contrast to nasalization as a property of segments
Phonology - Suprasegmental Nasal spreading across some morpheme boundaries Do some affixes or other morphemes take the nasal/oral properties of the root they attach to?
Phonology - Suprasegmental Vowel harmony
Morphology - General Verbal fusion (2+ categories marked by portmanteau morphemes on verb) Verb combines two or more categories (tense, aspect, mood, person, number, etc.) in portmanteau morphemes{ [ignore proclitics unless they are fused with values other than person/number]
Morphology - General Inflection manifested by replacement of segmental or suprasegmental phonemes Stem change, tone
Morphology - General Verbal synthesis (1+ inflectional categories marked by verbal affixes) Morphological complexity in verbs - multiple inflectional affixes in a single verb word
Morphology - General Prefixing/suffixing inflectional morph: strongly prefixing There are many more prefixes than suffixes
Morphology - General Prefixing/suffixing inflectional morph: strongly suffixing There are many more suffixes than prefixes
Morphology - General Prefixing/suffixing inflectional morph: roughly equal or one weakly preferred The numbers of suffixes and prefixes are not notably different
Morphology - General Reduplication: full The full morpheme is reduplicated
Morphology - General Reduplication: partial Only part of the morpheme is reduplicated
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Productive NN compounding Noun compounds created from two noun phrases are common and systematically produced
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Productive VV serialization (without compounding) Verb roots can be combined in a single predicate without markers of subordination (distinct from subordinating construction) or distinct inflection
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Productive VV compounding Serial verb constructions involve chaining of roots together in one morphophonological word
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Verb-adjunct (aka light verb) constructions There is a set of semantically weak verbs used in complex verbal constructions, e.g. 'take a nap'
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Auxiliary verb(s) There are verbs that accompany main verbs of clauses and take grammatical marking not expressed by main verbs
Morphology - Incorporation Incorporation of nouns into verbs is a productive intransitivizing process Verb contains nominal segment
Morphology - Incorporation Productive incorporation of other elements (adjectives, locatives, etc.) into verbs Like noun incorporation, but incorporated elements are not nouns
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Noun classes/genders Nouns are organized into sets with distinct morphological treatment; usually affects all nouns and involves agreement within the NP
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Number of noun classes/genders Note the (approximate) total number of noun classes/genders
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Noun classifiers (distinct from noun classes/genders) Nouns are organized into sets, but only a limited set of nouns may be implicated, with no or limited agreement marking. If only numeral classifiers exist, indicate yes but explain.
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Sex is a relevant category in noun class(ification) system for animates Masculine, feminine, neuter
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Sex is a relevant category in noun class(ification) system for inanimates
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Animacy (w/o reference to sex) is a relevant category in the noun class(ification) system Animate/inanimate, human/non-human
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Sex/gender distinction only in 3rd person pronouns add in notes section whether gender is present in other PNs or not in any PNs; consider with reference to pronouns and person marking only
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Shape is a relevant category in the noun class(ification) system for animates
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Shape is a relevant category in the noun class(ification) system for inanimates
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification "Repeater" classifiers Where no distinct classifier exists, a copy of the noun itself may function in the morphosyntactic classifier "slot"
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Numeral classifiers (specific to numerals) Special classifier forms that occur only with numerals
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Classifiers used as derivational suffixes to derive nouns Verb + classifier = 'thing for doing V, thing that does V, etc.'
Nominal Categories - Number Singular number may be marked on the noun Often occurs in a small subset of nouns if a single entity is referred to, e.g. insects that normally occur in groups
Nominal Categories - Number Plural affix on noun
Nominal Categories - Number Plural marked by stem change or tone on noun
Nominal Categories - Number Plural marked by reduplication of noun
Nominal Categories - Number Plural word/clitic
Nominal Categories - Number Plural marked on human or animate nouns only
Nominal Categories - Number Pronominal plural: stem + nominal plural affix Pronouns use a nominal plural affix not specific to pronouns
Nominal Categories - Number Unique associative plural marker e.g. 'John and his associates', 'John and them'
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Definite or specific articles Definite = particular referent known to both speaker and addressee; specific = particular referent known to speaker only
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Marker of definiteness distinct from demonstratives Focus on articles/markers whose primary function is to mark definiteness
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Indefinite or non-specific article or marker
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Inclusive/exclusive: in free pronominals Inclusive =us + you, exclusive = us but not you
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Inclusive/exclusive: in verbal inflection (bound)
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Distance contrasts in demonstratives (number) Note the number of distances in the demonstrative system
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Other contrasts in demonstratives (visibility, elevation, etc.)
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Gender in 3sg pronouns
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Gender in 3pl pronouns
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Gender in 1st and/or 2nd person pronouns
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Formal/informal distinction in pronouns Polite pronominal variants or differential avoidance of pronouns
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Reflexive pronouns e.g. English 'himself', Spanish 'se'; distinct form(s) from basic (non-reflexive) pronominals; distinct from reflexive verbal affix
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Adpositions mark core NPs Prepositions or postpositions mark subjects, objects, beneficiaries/recipients
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: number of cases Note the number of grammatical relations that may be morphologically marked on the noun
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: only non-core arguments morphologically marked Subjects, objects, beneficiaries/recipients NOT marked, but other grammatical relations are
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: symmetrical All NPs marked if in appropriate syntactic relation; no distinction in marking based on semantics (type of entity)
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: asymmetrical Semantically defined subset of NPs marked for case, e.g. animates
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: suffix or postpositional clitic
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: prefix or prepositional clitic
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: infix or inpositional clitic
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: stem change
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: tone no 0
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: comitative = instrumental Same marking for 'with a person' and 'with an instrument'
Nominal Categories - Numerals Base-2 At least some part of the system involves base-2
Nominal Categories - Numerals Base-5 At least some part of the system involves base-5
Nominal Categories - Numerals Base-10 At least some part of the system involves base-10
Nominal Categories - Numerals Other base (specify) 4, 20, etc.
Nominal Categories - Numerals Etymological transparency in any numerals under 5 e.g. two = 'eye-quantity'
Nominal Categories - Numerals Numerals do not go above 5 'Many' or some other non-exact term used
Nominal Categories - Numerals Numerals do not go above 10 'Many' or some other non-exact term used
Nominal Categories - Other nominal Tense or aspect inflection on non-verbal predicates i.e. nominal or adjectival
Nominal Categories - Other nominal Person inflection on non-verbal predicates i.e. nominal or adjectival
Nominal Syntax - Possession Pronominal possessive affixes: prefix on N alienable/inalienable?
Nominal Syntax - Possession Pronominal possessive affixes: suffix on N alienable/inalienable?
Nominal Syntax - Possession Head/dependent marking in possessive NP: dependent e.g. 'the boy-'s dog'
Nominal Syntax - Possession Head/dependent marking in possessive NP: head e.g. 'the boy his-dog'
Nominal Syntax - Possession Possessive classifiers There are special classifiers that occur with possessed entities
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Morphological marking of inalienable possession Where inalienable possession differs from alienable, the former takes a morphological marker (may include an associated free particle/pronoun)
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Morphological marking of alienable possession Where inalienable possession differs from alienable, the latter takes a morphological marker (may include an associated free particle/pronoun)
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Default marker for inalienably possessed nouns if unpossessed An inalienable noun that is in an unpossessed state must have a derivational affix or associated form
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Inalienable possession of kin terms 'my-father' but *father
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Inalienable possession of body parts (human/animal) 'my-leg' but *leg
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Generic human nouns are obligatorily bound/possessed Human nouns must co-occur with another noun (e.g. Hup-man, NonIndian-woman, but *man)
Nominal Syntax - Adjectives Underived adjectives There are underived adjectives which do not have counterparts in other word classes
Nominal Syntax - Adjectives Gender inflection on adjectives within the NP There is gender agreement/concord (animate/inanimate or masc/fem, etc.) within the NP, e.g. la casa blanca, el perro blanco
Nominal Syntax - Derivation Productive nominalizing morphology: action/state (arrive/arrival) There is a morpheme which derives an event from a verb
Nominal Syntax - Derivation Productive nominalizing morphology: agentive (sing/singer) There is a morpheme which derives an agent or subject from a verb
Nominal Syntax - Derivation Productive nominalizing morphology: object (sing/song) There is a morpheme which derives a patient or object from a verb
Nominal Syntax - Derivation Productive verbalizing morphology There is a morpheme which derives a verb from a noun or adjective
Nominal Syntax - Other NP coordination and comitative phrases marked differently 'John and Mary went to market' is marked differently from 'John went to market with Mary'
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Dedicated past marker(s) Past tense is regularly morphologically marked on the verb or elsewhere
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Multiple past tenses, distinguishing distance from time of reference e.g. distant vs. recent past
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Multiple future tenses, distinguishing distance from time of reference e.g. imminent vs. distant future
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Dedicated future or non-past marker(s)
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Tense-aspect affixes: prefix
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Tense-aspect affixes: suffix
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Tense-aspect affixes: tone or ablaut
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Tense-aspect suppletion
Verbal Categories - Mood Dedicated imperative morpheme or verb form There is a special morpheme (or morphemes, or a bare verb root where inflection is normally expected) used to signal imperative (command) mood
Verbal Categories - Mood Polite imperative morpheme There is a distinct morpheme for polite imperative constructions (specify if it has other functions in the language)
Verbal Categories - Mood Difference between negation in imperative (prohibitive) and declarative clauses There are different strategies for marking negation in imperative and declarative clauses
Verbal Categories - Mood Dedicated hortative morpheme or verb form (1pl or 3rd person imperative) as opposed to imperative; the person in control of desired state of affairs is not the addressee; ex: 'Let's sing' / 'Let him sing'
Verbal Categories - Mood Situational possibility: affix on verb Inflectional marking of capacity to do something
Verbal Categories - Mood Situational possibility: verbal construction
Verbal Categories - Mood Situational possibility: other marking
Verbal Categories - Mood Epistemic possibility: affix on verb Modal expressing hypothesis
Verbal Categories - Mood Epistemic possibility: verbal construction
Verbal Categories - Mood Epistemic possibility: other marking
Verbal Categories - Mood Marking of expected/unexpected action or result There is inflectional marking of expected/unexpected
Verbal Categories - Mood Verbal frustrative Modal expressing frustration ("in vain")
Verbal Categories - Mood Verbal habitual Modal expressing habituality
Verbal Categories - Mood Apprehensive construction There is a single morpheme or verb form to mean '(be careful lest) X happens'
Verbal Categories - Mood Reality status marking on verbs There are dedicated morpheme(s) for realis/irrealis 'actualized/unactualized events'
Verbal Categories - Mood Affect markers (positive/negative) Note whether these inflectional markers are positive or negative
Verbal Categories - Directionals Directional elements affixed to the verb There are grammaticalized elements indicating movement away, toward, there and back, etc.
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized visual Indicates information has been witnessed visually - indicate only if an overt marker
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized nonvisual Indicates information has been sensed firsthand but not visually (usually heard; also smelled, tasted, felt)
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized inferential Indicates information has not been experienced firsthand, but inferred from some kind of evidence - indicate only if an overt marker.
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized reportive Indicates speaker is not responsible for veracity of statement, merely reporting; 'allegedly'
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized quotative Indicate presence of adjacent representation of repeated discourse
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Other evidential Any other evidential values not represented above
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Evidentiality: verb affix or clitic
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Evidentiality: part of tense system Includes portmanteau morphs
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Evidentiality: separate particle
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Evidentiality: modal morpheme
Verbal Categories - Verbal number Verbal number suppletion
Verbal Categories - Other Social interaction markers Note the type of interaction
Word Order No fixed basic constituent order
Word Order VS in intransitive clauses Verb precedes subject
Word Order VS in transitive clauses
Word Order VO in transitive clauses Verb precedes object
Word Order OS in transitive clauses Object precedes subject
Word Order Preposition-Noun
Word Order Noun-Postposition or case suffix
Word Order Gen-Noun Possessive phrase composed of a free possessor and its possessum has possessor first (e.g. John's book)
Word Order Noun-Gen Possessive phrase composed of a free possessor and its possessum has possessum first (e.g. 'book of John')
Word Order Adj-Noun Adjective precedes the noun
Word Order Noun-Adj Adjective follows the noun
Word Order Dem-Noun
Word Order Noun-Dem
Word Order Num-Noun
Word Order Noun-Num
Word Order Noun-Rel Relative clause follows noun that it modifies
Word Order Rel-Noun Relative clause precedes noun that it modifies
Word Order Re<Noun>l (internally headed relative) e.g. 'the dog cat chased-NMZR got away' ('the cat that the dog chased got away')
Word Order Relative clause is correlative or adjoined e.g. 'what is running, the dog chased that cat'
Word Order Question word is clause initial 'what', 'who', etc. come first in interrogative clause
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: nominative-accusative w/ marked accusative Objects of transitive clauses ('P') have a unique marker, while subjects of transitive ('A') and intransitive ('S') clauses are unmarked or share a different marker from that occurring on objects
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: nominative-accusative w/ marked nominative Subjects of transitive and intransitive clauses share a marker, while objects of transitives are unmarked
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: ergative-absolutive Subjects of intransitive clauses and objects of transitives share a unique marker, while subjects of transitive clauses are unmarked or have a different marker
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: tripartite Intransitive subjects, transitive subjects, and transitive objects all receive distinct case markers
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: active-inactive Subjects of intransitive clauses are treated two different ways: like subjects of transitives if they are more agent-like (e.g. he jumped), and like objects of transitives if they are more patient-like (e.g. he fell asleep)
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: marked accusative
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: marked nominative
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: ergative-absolutive yes, no, mixed, other
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: tripartite
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: active-inactive
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: nominative-accusative Same as above, for pronominal affixes/clitics on verbs
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: ergative-absolutive yes, no, mixed, other
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: active-inactive
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: hierarchical Marking of A and P depends on their relative ranking on a hierarchy (usually 1>2>3 or 2>1>3)
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: split More than one of the above systems is represented in person marking, depending on e.g. person (e.g. 1/2 vs. 3), tense-aspect value, main vs. subordinate clause type, etc.
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: pronouns in subject position Pronominal subjects are free pronouns that occur in the same position as full NP subjects
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: prefixes on verb Pronominal subjects are marked as verbal prefixes (free pronouns may be another option)
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: suffixes on verb Pronominal subjects are marked as verbal suffixes (free pronouns may be another option)
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: clitics on variable host Pronominal subjects are clitics that can attach to verbs, nominal constituents, etc.
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: pronouns in non-subject position Pronominal subjects are free pronouns but do not normally occur in the position expected for full NP subjects
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Person marking on intransitive verbs Intransitive verbs take person-marking clitics/affixes
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Person marking (of agents) on transitive verbs Transitive verbs take subject (A) markers
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Person-marking (of objects) on transitive verbs Transitive verbs take object (P) markers
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking 3rd person zero in verbal person marking: subjects 3rd person subjects are not overtly marked within the verbal person-marking system
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking 3rd person zero in verbal person marking: objects 3rd person objects are not overtly marked within the verbal person-marking system
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Number can be marked separately from person on the verb Verbal person marking exists, but number is (or can) be marked separately
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Possessive affixes/clitics on nouns are same as verbal person markers Where nouns take possessive affixes, these are the same as the person-marking affixes
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Gender distinguished in verbal person markers For any person, verbal person markers exhibit different forms depending on the gender (masc/fem, animate/inanimate, etc.) of the referent
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice Ditransitive constructions: indirect object In ditransitives (e.g. 'John gives a book to Bill'), the theme (book) is treated in the same way as are objects of transitives, while the recipient/beneficiary (Bill) is treated differently
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice Ditransitive constructions: double object In ditransitives (e.g. 'John gives Bill a book'), both the theme (book) and the recipient/beneficiary (Bill) is treated in the same way as are objects of transitives
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice Ditransitive constructions: secondary object In ditransitives, the recipient/beneficiary is treated in the same way as are objects of transitives, while the theme (book) is treated differently
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Reciprocal: dedicated morpheme Verb becomes reciprocal through use of reciprocal morpheme associated with the verb (may be attached to the verb root). This morpheme is only used to mean reciprocal.
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Reflexive: dedicated morpheme Verb becomes reflexive through use of reflexive morpheme associated with the verb (may be attached to the verb root). This morpheme is used only to mean reflexive.
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Reciprocal/reflexive: same morpheme Verb becomes reciprocal or reflexive through use of a morpheme that means either reciprocal or reflexive which attaches to the root of the verb
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Passive Passive voice usually involves a change to the verb, while the object of the active voice verb is promoted to subject in the passive voice, and the former subject is deleted/demoted
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Antipassive Like passive, but deletes or demotes the object of a transitive verb; usually found in ergative languages
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Other intransitivizing morphology There is/are some other mechanism(s) for reducing valency
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Applicative: benefactive Applicative adds a beneficiary/maleficiary object argument to the verb
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Applicative: other Applicative adds some other object argument to the verb
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: prefix Causative is morphological and is attached before the root of the verb
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: suffix Causative is morphological and is attached after the root of the verb
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative marked by circumfix, stem change, or tone Morphological causative other than simple prefix/suffix
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: serial verb or analytical construction Causative construction that involves periphrasis or serialization
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: dedicated 'make do by proxy' Indicates that the causer does not directly cause the action of the verb to be realized, but does so by inducing someone else to carry out the action, e.g. 'John had the house painted.'
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: dedicated sociative Indicates that causer participates in event
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Other transitivizing morphology (adds valence) There is/are some other mechanism(s) for increasing valency
Simple Clauses - Negation Clausal negator is a preposed element Clausal negator is a preposed element
Simple Clauses - Negation Clausal negator is a postposed element Clausal negator is a postposed element
Simple Clauses - Negation Negatives: affix Negatives: affix
Simple Clauses - Negation Negatives: particle Negatives: particle
Simple Clauses - Negation Negatives: auxiliary verb Negatives: auxiliary verb
Simple Clauses - Negation Negatives: double Standard (non-emphatic) negation typically requires two morphemes, e.g. French 'ne V pas'
Simple Clauses - Negation Distinct negative form for 'NP does not exist'
Simple Clauses - Negation Distinct negative expression 'I don't know' Lexical expression or highly idiomatic phrase
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Polar questions: interrogative particle Yes/no questions distinguished from declaratives by interrogative particle
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Polar questions: verb morphology Yes/no questions distinguished from declaratives by interrogative verb morphology
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Polar questions: word order Yes/no questions distinguished from declaratives by word order (esp. subject-verb inversion)
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Polar questions: intonation only Yes/no questions distinguished from declaratives by intonation only
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Content questions: word order differs from declaratives Content questions distinguished from declaratives by word order (esp. subject-verb inversion) as well as by presence of Q-word (who, what, etc.)
Simple Clauses - Predication Predicate adjectives: verbal Adjectives act like verbs in predicative position
Simple Clauses - Predication Predicate adjectives: nominal Adjectives act like nouns in predicative position
Simple Clauses - Predication Zero copula for predicate nominals is possible Predicate nominals may occur without a copula (i.e. grammatical in some circumstances, if not all)
Simple Clauses - Predication Headless relative clauses Compare Eng 'the one that fell' (but in Eng 'one' could be considered a head)
Simple Clauses - Predication Headless relative clauses are the dominant or only form of relative clause Relative clauses that form a constituent with a head noun (in a single noun phrase) are rare or nonexistent; some descriptions may refer to adjoined or correlative clauses.
Simple Clauses - Predication Relative clause may occur with a noun classifier/class marker It may be unclear whether the classifier is the nominal head of the construction or is an agreement marker on the relative clause
Simple Clauses - Predication Relativizer is a verbal affix
Simple Clauses - Predication Morphological relativizer is homophonous with nominalizer The same morpheme marks a relative clause and is a nominalizer on verbs (and/or other word classes)
Simple Clauses - Desiderative expressions Grammaticalized verbal desiderative Indicates that the subject desires to carry out the action denoted by the verb (distinct from verb 'want', but may be grammaticalized from it)
Simple Clauses - Other Clause chaining Clauses can be grouped such that only one bears most of the verb morphology, and the others are marked as to whether they share a subject with this reference clause.
Simple Clauses - Other Morphologically marked switch-reference system There are special markers to indicate same vs. different subject when two clauses are combined
Simple Clauses - Other Morphologically marked distinction between simultaneous and sequential clauses Morphology (usually on verb) distinguishes between clauses denoting events that occur at the same time or in sequence
Morphology - General Does verb root reduplication have an iterative function?
Morphology - General Does noun root reduplication have a plural/pluractional function?
Morphology - General Does adjective root reduplication mean ‘real’ X?
Morphology - General Does verb root reduplication have a distributive function?
Morphology - General Does verb root reduplication have a pluractional function?
Morphology - General Does noun root reduplication have an iterative function?
Morphology - General Does adjective root reduplication mean ‘fake’ X?
Morphology - General Does adjective root reduplication mean ‘very’ X?
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Does the language have ergative and instrumental syncretism?
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Does the language have a distinct genitive case?
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Is the locative related to the ergative with vowel change?
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Is case marked on just one word in an NP? yes 1
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Is case marked on all (non-pronominal) words in an NP? yes 1
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Are any subordinate verbs (or whole clauses) marked with case to indicate their function?
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Does ergative mark discourse functions of focus/unexpectedness?
Nominal Categories - Derivation Is there a evidence for derivational morphology being distinct from inflectional on nouns? yes to any of HG 95-97 entails yes to this; yep; this is more general but not just about derivation (would also include proprietive, for example, not necessarily derivation that changes word class)
Nominal Categories - Number Does the language have a minimal/augment system?
Nominal Categories - Number Does the language have a unit augment system?
Nominal Categories - Number Does the language mark dual on nouns?
Nominal Categories - Number Does the language mark plural on nouns?
Nominal Categories - Number Does the language have group/collective nominal suffixes?
Nominal Categories - Number Does the language have suppletive plural verbs?
Nominal Categories - Number Does the language have suppletive plural adjectives?
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Does the language have bound pronouns? yes to any of HG 173-175 entails yes to this; not necessarily? - CB
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Are the bound pronouns distinct from the free pronouns?
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Does the language mark moiety distinctions in pronouns?
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Does the language mark generational distinctions in pronouns?
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Are 'who' and 'what' distinct words?
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Is there an inclusive/exclusive distinction in the dual?
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Is there an inclusive/exclusive distinction in the plural?
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Is there a gender distinction in third person dual pronouns?
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Are there clitic pronouns?
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Are there object clitic pronouns?
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Are there distinct possessive and IO pronouns?
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories When there are both object and subject clitic pronouns, does the object pronoun follow the subject one?
Simple Clauses - Discourse Is there a focus position? include the position in the ‘form’ notes
Simple Clauses - Discourse Is there a topic position? include the position in the ‘form’ notes
Simple Clauses - Negation Is verbal negation a separate word? related to, and maybe equivalent to, HG 206-207 (not equivalent if verbal negation is being treated separately from clausal negation)
Simple Clauses - Negation Does the negative marker precede the verb? related to, and maybe equivalent to, HG 203 (not equivalent if verbal negation is being treated separately from clausal negation)
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Are there second position clausal clitics?
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Is tense marked on pronouns? no 0
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Are there predicative clitics (e.g. Darkinyung grammar p35)
Simple Clauses - Tense Does the language have tense/mood/etc particles (free words)?
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Is reflexive/reciprocal marked on the verb? =yes to any of HG 188-190; not necessarily; e.g. YN has a reflexive marker but it doesn’t go on the verb.
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Does reflexive/reciprocal change the conjugation class?
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Is there a reflexive/reciprocal particle?
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Is the passive typically used only with adversative semantics?
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Is there an inchoative suffix?
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Is there a distinct present tense verbal suffix?
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Is there a continuous aspect suffix?
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Is there a punctual aspect suffix?
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Can tense and aspect cooccur?
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Is tense marked on nouns?
Verbal Categories - Mood Do positive commands take the same morphology as negative commands?
Verbal Categories - Mood Is a negative command formed from a nominalised verb (eg. "no talking!")?
Verbal Categories - Other Is the verb ‘say’ the same as the verb ‘do’?
Verbal Categories - Other Does the language have body part compound verbs?
Verbal Categories - Other Are there verbal agreement clitics?
Verbal Categories - Other Is there a verb 'be'?
Verbal Categories - Other Are there verb conjugation classes?
Verbal Categories - Other Is there a conjugation for uninflecting verbs?
Verbal Categories - Other Is there a grammatical category of associated motion?
Verbal Categories - Other Does the language have kinship verbs? That is, are the words which designate kinship relations such as ‘mother’ and ‘father’ verbs in the language?
Verbal Categories - VerbalNumber Does the language have suppletive plural nouns?
Word Order Are there discontinuous NP constituents?
Word Order Is word order fixed in noun phrases?
Word Order Is word order fixed in verb phrases?
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: second position clitics Pronominal subjects are clitics that can attach to verbs, nominal constituents, etc.
Phonology - Segmental Prestopped segments list which segments in the ‘form’ column no 0


Ethnographic Information
Current population (ethnicity) Current population (speakers) Former population estimate Subsistence preference Subsistence notes Density Sedentism Ecotome (riverine/interfluvial/coastal/desert/savannah/etc.) Social hierarchies Multilingualism (rare/occasional/common) Contact languages Marriage pattern Notes Source Created By
large HG dense mobile yes