knife

Semantic Field
culture-material
Part of Speech
Meaning Spanish
cuchillo
Meaning Portuguese
faca

Languages

Language Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Word Structure Word Structure Notes General Notes Source Created By
Cahuilla pasivat knife, sword inheritance *sipaC Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2011 799 compound, other complex big-arrowhead Seiler & Hioki Jane Hill
Cupeño wah-ken-vish stone knife unknown maybe related to the spear word and the club word? other complex Merriam 48:501 Jane Hill
Luiseño pikát stone knife inheritance *pikkaC Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2011 1266 other complex Elliott 1999 Jane Hill
Gabrielino pa:xo-t(H) stone knife semantic shift *paka Uto-Aztecan transcr Harrington Hill notes401, 581; Hill/Miller has this with paxa 'reed, arrow' words other complex Merriam 49:101 Jane Hill
Serrano kavorç knife unknown Serran only; perhaps from ka-32 'cut' other complex K. Hill Dict. Jane Hill
Kitanemuk kavo-č knife, or any iron or tools (but it's 'stone knife' in M unknown Serran only other omplex Anderton 1988 Jane Hill
Tübatulabal pikat knife inheritance *pikkaC Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2011 1266 other complex K. Hill Tb>Eng Jane Hill
Bankalachi Toloim se'-băt knife inheritance *sippaC Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2011 799 other complex Merriam 49:187 Jane Hill
Kawaiisu wihi-či knife inheritance *wikiC Northern Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2011 1267 other complex Zigmond et al. 1990 Jane Hill
Chemehuevi wihI knife inheritance *wikiC Northern Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2011 1267 simplex Harrington Chemehuevi Noun List (K. Hill 1969) Jane Hill
Southern Paiute wiitstsI knife inheritance *wikiC Northern Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2011 1267 other complex Sapir Jane Hill
Southern Ute wii-cI knife inheritance *wikiC Northern Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2011 1267 other complex Givon Jane Hill
Tümpisa Shoshone wihin knife inheritance *wikiC Northern Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2011 1267 simplex Dayley 1989 Jane Hill
Big Smokey Valley Shoshone wiin knife inheritance *wikiC Northern Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2011 1267 simplex Crapo 1976 Jane Hill
Comanche nahuu7, nahhoo7 knife, drawing knife unique compound R Jane Hill
Western Mono wIhi knife inheritance *wikiC Northern Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2011 1267 simplex Loether & Bethel 1993 Jane Hill
Northern Paiute wihi knife inheritance *wikiC Northern Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2011 1267 Liljeblad et al. 2012:667 Jane Hill
Southern Sierra Miwok hope- knife inheritance %hop Proto-Miwok Callaghan 1970 Bodega hopa 'to stab' 'from Proto-Miwok' (no form given) p. 25 simplex nt Broadbent 1964 Jane Hill
Central Sierra Miwok ku:či- knife loan Spanish WW %cuchillo simplex Freeland & Broadbent 1960 Jane Hill
Northern Sierra Miwok kuc:i- knife loan Spanish WW %cuchillo simplex Callaghan 1987 Jane Hill
Plains Miwok kuc:i knife, pocket knife loan Spanish WW %cuchillo simplex Callaghan 1984 Jane Hill
Lake Miwok kučíija knife loan Spanish WW %cuchillo simplex Callaghan 1965 Jane Hill
Maidu c'ámmi knife inheritance Proto-Maiduan Konkow c'a/mmit Ultan 1967:38 simplex Shipley 1963 Jane Hill
Nisenan boso knife, spear, spearhead inheritance *bosó Proto-Maiduan Ultan 1964:362 simplex Uldall & Shipley 1966 Jane Hill
Yokuts Yawelmani no-kotch'-ă knife inheritance Proto-Yokutsan see 'obsidian' other complex k'ac' obsidian Merriam 44:185 Jane Hill
Yokuts Yawdanchi no-koch''-o knife inheritance Proto-Yokutsan kā-tā' Merriam 44:343 derived from 'obsidian' Merriam 44:185 Jane Hill
Yokuts Palewyami no-kuts'-so knife (any) inheritance Proto-Yokutsan see 'obsidian'; Yawelmani k'ac' 'obsidian', but chah'-sip 'obsidian knife' Merriam 44:481 (from UA with sip???) derived Berman 2002 Jane Hill
Washo tá7wi7 knife unknown simplex Washo Project Dictionary Jane Hill
Wintu k'elek'ele knife unknown reduplicated Schlichter 1981 Jane Hill
Yuki kuči knife loan Spanish also lil-mapin Elmendorf 1993:229 WW %cuchillo simplex Schlichter 1985 Jane Hill
Wappo kuči:ya knife loan Spanish WW %cuchillo simplex Elmendorf 1993 Jane Hill
Mutsun Tippe knife inheritance *Tip-a Proto-Costanoan Callaghan 2001:322 simplex Okrand 1977 Jane Hill
Esselen kum-mal knife unknown HenshawPinart has xelusep Heizer 1952:76 other complex ncs suffix -l Kroeber 1902 Jane Hill
Salinan A (T)cik< (T)cek in turner p 24 knife unknown Proto-Salinan other complex Mason 1918 Jane Hill
Salinan M tca:k knife unknown Proto-Salinan simplex Mason 1918 Jane Hill
Chumash Obispeno jatqa7minë, jamq'aminë el cuchillo, mi cuchillo (0107) unknown derived Harrington Jane Hill
Chumash Ineseno 7ïw knife inheritance *7iw Proto-Chumashan simplex from 'cut'? Klar 1977 Jane Hill
Chumash Barbareno 7ïwï knife inheritance *7iw Proto-Chumashan simplex Klar 1977 Jane Hill
Chumash Ventureno 7ïw (Mamet's 7ïwï p. 55) knife inheritance *7iw Proto-Chumashan simplex Klar 1977 Jane Hill
Iipay 'Aa kuchii knife loan Spanish CHM mo-roo WW %cuchillo simplex Couro & Hutcheson 1973 Jane Hill
Cocopa wi: metal, knife, rock, mountain inheritance Proto-Yuman Mo 7avii 'mountain' simplex Crawford 1989 Jane Hill
Mojave 7ahkwe knife unknown simplex Munro et al. 1992 Jane Hill
Yavapai čkYáti knife, ax inheritance Proto-Yuman Cocopa ch7ka:t 'axe"; also (7)kHwá'metal, iron, knife' 398, 403 simplex vb is čkYāti 'cut w/ knife' Shaterian 1983 Jane Hill
Kiliwa nay=c+ruuw knife, sword, clubs (in cards; Sp. Espadas) unknown compound ruuw wrap, bind up Mixco 1985 Jane Hill
Seri (Comcaac) eenim metal, iron, knife loan O'odham simplex Moser & Marlett 2005 Jane Hill
Kakua ʔĩbat-dubʔ ʔĩbat-dup [metal-cl.long.thin.pointed] unknown calque Nukak? Derived metal-cl.long.thin.pointed See Language page Katherine Bolaños
Nheengatu kicé; kicemiri (kise = knife, miri = small) kisé, kisemiri (kise = knife, miri = small) inheritance kise' part is inherited Phrase kise=knife; miri=small See Language page John Blaha, Lauren Franklin, PLE, Alyssa Wadley
Waorani bæ̃yetæ̃ unknown Spanish See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez, PLE
Hodï maye loan - WW %marije, prob. via Carib, e.g. Tiriyo maja Simplex See Language page Brittany Weinstein
Yanomami akuri, thõmɨna (EM72) akuɾi (shamanic), tʰõmɨna unknown; inheritance Proto-Yanomamo Alternate: sipaɾa si, akuɾi (shamanic) Simplex See Language page Kelsey Neely
Yanomam thõmɨna (EM72) tʰõmɨna knife (tooth of agouti) inheritance Proto-Yanomamo Simplex See Language page Kelsey Neely
Ninam thomu-na, thõmɨna (EM72) tʰomu-na, tʰõmɨna knife (tooth of agouti) inheritance Proto-Yanomamo Simplex See Language page Kelsey Neely
Kotiria sίórί pʰί (stenz) sίórί pʰί (stenz) unique Derived sió+rí-~phí; be.sharp+NOM-CLS:bladelike See Language page Tanja Baeuerlein
Cubeo tãujive, tãuve tãuhivɛ, tãuvɛ unique tãu 'metal' Also: tãuvɛ Derived metal/glass + DIM + Classifier See Language page Tanja Baeuerlein; Alyssa Wadley
Tukano di'pĩhí diʔpĩhí inheritance shared Piratapuyo Likely inherited with loss of first syllable Simplex See Language page Ana Paula, Amanda Novak
Desano wíririmiji wíririmihi inheritance Proto-East Tukanoan Inherited complex form or calque Compound wíriri-mihi; cut-? See Language page Addison M; Tanja Baeuerlein
Maihiki quiudɨ ja kiudɨ xã knife, machete unknown Simplex See Language page Daniel Valle
Hup wan=tæ̃h (knife=small) wan=tæ̃h (knife=small) unique see 'machete' Phrase knife small See Language page Pattie Epps
Dâw wãàn pis wã̂n piʃ unique see 'machete' Phrase machete (wãn)-small (píʃ) See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
Sikuani kusiupa (21), kusiupae (1), kusuipa (21) (all three are Spanish borrowings) kusiupa loan - WW? %kɨtʃe (or Span cuchillo?) Spanish source; Arawak, e.g. Warekena kotsiyo WW See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, Brittany Weinstein
Macaguan kochípa kotʃípa loan - WW? %kɨtʃe (or Span cuchillo?) Spanish origin; Arawak, e.g. Warekena kotsiyo; found Macaguan kotʃípa, Sikuani, Candoshi, Camsa, Jivaroan, etc. WW %kotʃi Simplex See Language page Ana Paula B., Brittany Weinstein
Pemon tavara, maria (means small knife, pocket knife) (A1981); maraiia, tawara (E1980) tavaɾa, maɾia (A1981); ma'ria, 'tawara (E1980) inheritance; loan (into protolg?), direction unknown - WW Pemongan subgroup %marije Alternate: maɾia (small knife, pocket knife) See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza; Alyssa Wadley
Akawaio mariiba mariba loan (into protolg?), direction unknown - WW %marije Arawak: Wapishana, Baniwa, Tariana; Carib: Trio, Akawaio, Mapoyo, Yabarana, Pemon, Wai Wai, Waimiri-Atroari; Nadëb; possibly Ocaina WW %mariye See Language page Melody Ann Ross
Makushi tawará tawará unique Pemongan subgroup shared Pemon See Language page Melody Ann Ross; Alyssa Wadley
Eñepa parae parae unique See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin; Alyssa Wadley
Yukuna irajú iɾahú unique Tanimuca Simplex See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
Tariana maliyé malijé loan (into protolg?), direction unknown - WW %marije Probably Carib > Baniwa-Tariana subgroup. Arawak: Wapishana, Baniwa, Tariana; Carib: Trio, Akawaio, Mapoyo, Yabarana, Pemon, Wai Wai, Waimiri-Atroari; Nadëb; possibly Ocaina WW %mariye Simplex See Language page Ana Paula B.
Wapishana marii marii loan (into protolg?), direction unknown - WW %marije Probably Carib > Baniwa-Tariana (+ Wapishana?) subgroup. Arawak: Wapishana, Baniwa, Tariana; Carib: Trio, Akawaio, Mapoyo, Yabarana, Pemon, Wai Wai, Waimiri-Atroari; Nadëb; possibly Ocaina WW %mariye Simplex See Language page Ana Paula B.
Baniwa malíye maɺíje loan (into protolg?), direction unknown - WW %marije Probably Carib > Baniwa-Tariana subgroup. Arawak: Wapishana, Baniwa, Tariana; Carib: Trio, Akawaio, Mapoyo, Yabarana, Pemon, Wai Wai, Waimiri-Atroari; Nadëb; possibly Ocaina WW %mariye Simplex See Language page Ana Paula B.
Resígaro va?agajá? vaʔagad͡ʒáʔ unique see 'machete' Derived see 'machete' See Language page Ana Paula B.
Yir-Yoront ngart+yenn knife calque Local To KKaper (pa-) koy+yakéñ 'knife' (fish+cutter, with special reference to grass-culm sliver used to cut stingray liver, but extended to any knife); not clear which language originated. Also /nayp/ < English. Barry Alpher
Burarra an-gudyarrtya unique Claire Bowern
Yawuru jajad unique Claire Bowern
Jawi jimborrayirrye loan Malay Claire Bowern
Nimanburru jombarere, jomborere loan Malay Claire Bowern
Warrwa jumbararri loan Malay Claire Bowern
Mangala kuwipinti unique Claire Bowern
Dhuwal mandyawak doubtful loan Claire Bowern
Dhay’yi mandyawak doubtful loan Claire Bowern
Gumatj nayip loan English Claire Bowern
Ngarluma nhayipa (<Eŋlish.) loan English Claire Bowern
Yan-nhangu ŋambi inheritance also in Ritharngu as stone spear Claire Bowern
Ritharrngu ŋambi inheritance Claire Bowern
Gupapuyngu ŋambi inheritance Claire Bowern
Rembarrnga tapkan semantic shift Claire Bowern
Ngumbarl <tchindibal> unique Claire Bowern
Yulparija tyalinykarti unique Claire Bowern
Nyangumarta tyimputarri loan Malay Claire Bowern
Karajarri tyinputarri loan Malay Claire Bowern
Bardi tyoomparrarti loan Malay Claire Bowern
Nyikina tyumparrarra loan Malay Claire Bowern
Djinang yiki inheritance Claire Bowern
Dhangu yiki(') inheritance Claire Bowern
Walmajarri tyumpalatyarra loan direction unknown Patrick McConvell
Mudburra pinymala loan direction unknown tyalanya not in dict tyalanya not in dict Patrick McConvell
Jaru pinymala loan direction unknown also kiyirru stone implement, circumcision knife, age mate Patrick McConvell
Gurindji pinymala loan direction unknown Jingulu Patrick McConvell
Gooniyandi nayu unknown Patrick McConvell
Gajirrabeng tyimirnti loan direction unknown Wardaman WW %tyiminti Patrick McConvell
Djapu mandyawak doubtful loan Claire Bowern
Jingulu kiyirru unknown also pinymala Patrick McConvell
Kija parratykatyi inheritance <parraj 'cut' ; als kerrpithkatyi from kerrpity 'cut' complex Patrick McConvell
Miriwung katamang inheritance kat 'cut' {NOT English loan) SUFF complex Patrick McConvell
Wardaman tyimirnti unknown Patrick McConvell
Achagua wisúwiʃi wisúwiʃi unique cf. Piapoco See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
Piapoco wisùanási wisùanási See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
Warekena matseta, kutʃiyu (P/S loans) matseta, kutʃiju See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
Yavitero ku'c̷iyu (Spanish loan) ku'tsiju (Spanish loan) See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
Bare titéhe titéhe See Language page Ana Paula B.
Paresi ˈketse ˈketsɛ loan - WW %kɨtʃe See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
Baure hikoč hikotʃ doubtful loan - WW? %kɨtʃe (or Span cuchillo?) See Language page Anissa Capuccino
Waurá tʸehɨ̃-tãi ('machete-small') tʸehɨ̃-tãi ('machete-small') unique small machete' See Language page Joyce McCormick, PLE
Bora nɨɨtsʰḯkwa-(kwï) {machete-(small)} nɨɨtsʰɯ́kwa-(kwɯ) {machete-(small)} unique machete-small' See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
Muinane mééyuʔu mέέjuʔu See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
Apalai rato rato unique See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
Wayana malija malija loan (into protolg?), direction unknown - WW %marije See Language page PLE
Carijona chano (small knife) unique See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
Tiriyó maja maja loan (into protolg?), direction unknown - WW %marije See Language page Becky Walker
Makiritare kɨmɨʔkə (IDS); kümü'kö (KH) kɨmɨʔkə unique See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza; Alyssa Wadley
Mapoyo marya marya See Language page Melody Ann Ross
Wai Wai mariya marija loan (into protolg?), direction unknown - WW %marije See Language page Melody Ann Ross
Waimiri Atroari maja maja See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
Yukpa panaku (SM) panaku (SM) See Language page Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross
Northern Emberá néko néko See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, PLE
Cofán chhichhi´cco tʃhitʃhiʔkho phonemic transcriptions are ESTIMATIONS See Language page Daniel Valle
Candoshi-Shapra kuchiro kutʃiɾo loan - WW? %kɨtʃe (or Span cuchillo?) See Language page Daniel Valle
Taushiro jo´jua´ca xoʔxuaʔka See Language page Daniel Valle
Páez [kčilʸ] [kčilʸ] See Language page Daniel Valle
Tikuna cüxchi kɨʔtʃi loan - WW %kɨtʃe See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
Urarina anofwa anofwa unique See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
Camsa kuchillitém (Sp.) kutʃiʎitem See Language page Daniel Valle
Andoke fǝ́ʌ́-sé (scrape-NMZ) ɸǝ́ʌ́-sé (scrape-NMZ) unique See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
Pumé koanã-reã See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
Puinave wiu-yu-tɨi wiu-yu-tɨi unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
Ashuar kuchí kuʧi See Language page Daniel Valle
Huambisa kuchii (Spanish loan) kutʃi: See Language page Daniel Valle
Aguaruna cuchí (Spanish loan) kutʃí loan Spanish cuchillo See Language page Daniel Valle
Matses chështempi tʃɨʃtempi unique see 'machete' See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
Chácobo manɨ manɨ doubtful loan - WW %marije; cf. Shell 1975 on occurrence in other Panoan lgs See Language page Joyce McCormick
Yagua casetuñu kãsetuñu loan - WW?; unknown %kɨtʃe (or Span cuchillo?) See Language page Daniel Valle
Southern Pastaza Quechua cuchillu (Spanish loan) kutʃiʎu See Language page Daniel Valle
Ingá kuchillu (Spanish loan) kutʃiʎu (Spanish loan) See Language page Daniel Valle
Quechua Ayacuchano kuchillu (Spanish loan) kutʃiʎu See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
Piaroa na'wo'da' naɁwoɁdaɁ unknown See Language page Amanda Novak, Becky Walker
Sáliva willaide wiʤaide unknown See Language page Becky Walker
Barasano kṍbẽ́-hãĩ-ãkã kṍbẽ́-hãĩ-ãkã See Language page Addison Martinez, Tanja Baeuerlein
Carapana casaa; ji-sé-rí-ka-pãĩ (H&R) kasaa; ji-sé-rí-ka-pãĩ (H&R) See Language page Amanda Novak, Tanja Baeuerlein
Makuna wajara jãi waxaɾa xãi unique See Language page Amanda Novak, Tanja Baeuerlein
Yuruti wi-'de-ria-pĩ-gã wi-'de-ria-pĩ-gã See Language page Ana Paula; Tanja Baeuerlein
Waikhana diʔ'ipʰĩgã diʔ'ipʰĩgã See Language page Ana Paula; Tanja Baeuerlein
Siriano wiirimágĩgã wiiɾimágĩgã See Language page Ana Paula B.
Tanimuca wiʔ'ru pã'ĩã wiʔ'ru pã'ĩã inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
Tatuyo ji'hé-'ri-ka-'pã'ĩ ji'hé-'ri-ka-'pã'ĩ See Language page
Tuyuka wide-'ri-pĩ wide-ʔri-pĩ See Language page D. Jagannathan, Ana Paula B.
Waimaja wídɛ́řikʰaᵽĩ̀ wídɛ́rikʰaɸĩ̀ See Language page Kelsey Neely
Koreguaje va'ti baʔti inheritance See Language page Daniel Valle
Siona hua'ti waʔti inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
Secoya a'ri hua'ti, hua'ti aʔri waʔti, waʔti See Language page Amanda Novak
Karitiana tãnh tãɲ unknown See Language page Daniel Valle
Kokama quɨchi kɨtʃi inheritance See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
Wayampi kɨsɛ; [maliya] (Wayana 'malija') kɨsɛ; [malija] (Wayana 'malija') inheritance; loan - WW %marije See Language page PLE
Sirionó tikise tikise inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
Kamayurá kɨeˀi kɨeˀi inheritance See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
Ocaina murááboya mɯrááboja doubtful loan - WW %marije See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
Nɨpode Witoto čoβéɗïrï tʃoβέɗɯrɯ See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
Minica Witoto ǰo.étïrï dʒo.έtɯrɯ See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
Murui Witoto ǰo.etïraï dʒo.ɛtɯraɯ inheritance/Witoto See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
Sanumá boa (large cutting tool, esp. for meat), thomɨnakɨ(EM72) boa, tʰomɨnakɨ semantic shift (axe?); inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
Iquito paniíhu+ paniíwɨ unique See Language page Cynthia Hansen
Záparo sapuka sapuka See Language page Becky Walker
Wari kit (Sousa2009) kit (Sousa2009) See Language page PLE
Ese Ejja/Huarayo e-hewi-xi e-hewi-xi See Language page Joyce McCormick
Cavineña kočiro-kaka; kočiro ebari (Former is "small knife", latter is "large knife"; from Spanish "cuchillo") kočiro-kaka; kočiro ebari loan Spanish cuchillo See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
Kwazá koreja, korejatxuhũi, wesi, winite koreja, korejatxuhũi, wesi, winite See Language page Joyce McCormick
Movima kači-ra katʃi-ra See Language page Anissa Capuccino, Becky Walker
Trumai taxu taxu unique cf. Waura tʸehɨ̃ See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
Kaingang kyfè, rògro kɨΦɛ; rɔŋro See Language page PLE
Djeoromitxi hakutä hakutǝ See Language page PLE