Bankalachi Toloim

Family
Uto-Aztecan
Region
North America
ISO 639-3
tub
Location
35.33°, -117.16°
Notes
Features
Basic Vocabulary
Flora Fauna Vocabulary
Cultural Vocabulary
Ethnographic Information
Data Sources
none


Basic Vocabulary (185)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Etymology Notes Source Created By
above encima, arriba acima location pahng-ah “up” 217 inheritance Source: http://www.archive.org/stream/bancroft_chartmerriam_1556_49#page/n167/mode/2up, p. 167 ff, from Mrs. Louisa Francesco, June 9 and 10, 1932 of Upper Deer Creek, and Dan Williams of Poso Flat (Tule River Reservation) (Sep. 28 and 29, 1935, Oct. 13, Jane Hill
again de nuevo, otra vez de novo grammar missing Jane Hill
all todo todos other banik (K1907) unknown Jane Hill
and y e grammar missing Jane Hill
ankle tobillo tornozelo body missing Jane Hill
armpit axila, sobaco axila body missing Jane Hill
ash ceniza(s) cinzas environment tong'-ul 187 inheritance Jane Hill
at en, a em, a location missing Jane Hill
back espalda costas body aw'-nŏl 175, unknown Jane Hill
bad mal mal quality tŭs, tĭs 179 inheritance Jane Hill
belly barriga barriga body sap-pus' 175 inheritance Jane Hill
below abajo, debajo abaixo location um-hul'-luk “down” 217 inheritance Jane Hill
big grande grande quality mi'-ek 207, ek-kā'-wah 215 loan Jane Hill
bite morder morder body missing Jane Hill
black negro preto colour too'-goo-pul' 219 inheritance Jane Hill
blood sangre sangue body kwahl' 177 loan Jane Hill
blow soplar soprar body missing Jane Hill
boil/pimple espinilla, granos espinha, borbulha body missing Jane Hill
bone hueso osso body awn 175 inheritance Jane Hill
breast pecho, seno peito body peel (?) 175 inheritance Jane Hill
breathe respirar respirar body missing Jane Hill
burn quemar queimar environment missing Jane Hill
chew masticar, mascar mastigar body missing Jane Hill
child niño, niña criança human oo-te'-lah “children 4-12” inheritance Jane Hill
climb subir subir motion missing Jane Hill
cloud nube nuvem environment ke-lā' “cloudy” 209 loan Jane Hill
cold frío frio quality ŭt-se-ŭt' “cold weather” (teeth closed) 209 inheritance Jane Hill
come venir vir motion missing Jane Hill
cook cocinar cozinhar impact his'să “cooked, ripe” 199 loan Jane Hill
correct/true verdad, de veras verdade quality missing Jane Hill
count contar contar mental missing Jane Hill
cry llorar chorar mental missing Jane Hill
cut/hack cortar cortar impact missing Jane Hill
day día dia time tahl “sun” 209, “daytime” 211 inheritance Jane Hill
die/be dead morir morrer state mo-go-poon “died recently” inheritance Jane Hill
dig cavar cavar impact missing Jane Hill
dingo/wolf fauna missing Jane Hill
dirty sucio sujo quality missing Jane Hill
dream soñar sonhar mental missing Jane Hill
drink beber, tomar beber body ii-l (K1907) inheritance Jane Hill
dry seco seco quality wah'-gah-pun' 205 inheritance Jane Hill
dull/blunt sin filo, mocho, desafilado, embotado, romo maçante, desamolado, não afiado quality missing Jane Hill
dust polvo poeira environment missing Jane Hill
ear oreja orelha body nahng'-hang 173; nahingal (K1907) inheritance Jane Hill
earth/soil tierra terra environment soo-ula' hōt-rol 207; cùval (K 1907 “land, earth”) loan Jane Hill
eat comer comer body digil (K1907) unknown Jane Hill
egg huevo ovo fauna hŏn' 195 loan Jane Hill
eye ojo olho body poon'-che 173; buntcil (K1907) inheritance Jane Hill
faeces heces, mierda, excremento, estiércol fezes body sahl' 177 inheritance Jane Hill
fall caer cair motion missing Jane Hill
far lejos longe quality wah' 219 loan Jane Hill
fat/grease grasa gordura body wipt 177 inheritance Jane Hill
father padre, papá pai kinship ah'-nahn 171, inheritance Jane Hill
fear miedo medo mental tun'-gut, tun-yĕts unknown Jane Hill
feather pluma pena fauna hah'-pul “feathers” loan Jane Hill
fire fuego fogo environment koot' 187; gut (K1907) inheritance Jane Hill
fish xx xx fauna koo-yoo' inheritance Jane Hill
flow fluir fluir motion missing Jane Hill
flower flor flor environment missing Jane Hill
fly volar voar motion missing Jane Hill
fog niebla, neblina nevoeira, bruma, neblina environment pah-soo'-mit 207 unique Jane Hill
foot pie body in'-gahl “his foot”; tat'-tut “foot” 175 inheritance Jane Hill
fruit fruta fruta flora mah'-mil “strawberries” 197 unknown Jane Hill
good bueno bom quality too'-wah “good person” 179 loan Jane Hill
grow crecer crescer state missing Jane Hill
hair (of head) cabello cabelo body sōm-awl' 175 unique Jane Hill
hand mano mão body mahn 175 inheritance Jane Hill
3sg el/ella ele/ela grammar ĕh 223 kān 223 unknown Jane Hill
head cabeza cabeça body ko-on'; ; go-on (K1907) unknown Jane Hill
hear oír ouvir mental missing Jane Hill
heavy pesado pesado quality missing Jane Hill
hide esconder esconder motion missing Jane Hill
hit golpear, pegar bater impact missing Jane Hill
hold correr, asegurar, sostener segurar other missing Jane Hill
how? como como grammar missing Jane Hill
1sg yo eu grammar nŭ-ge' 223; nögi (K1907) inheritance Jane Hill
if si se grammar missing Jane Hill
in/inside dentro, adentro dentro location missing Jane Hill
intestines intestinos intestinos body sah-poos' 177 inheritance Jane Hill
itch hormiguear, sentir comezón coçar body missing Jane Hill
kill matar matar impact mūgut (K1907) inheritance Jane Hill
know/be knowledgeable saber, conecer saber, conhecer mental missing Jane Hill
lake lago lago environment missing Jane Hill
laugh reír rir mental missing Jane Hill
leaf hoja folha environment missing Jane Hill
left/left hand izquierdo esquerdo location/body missing Jane Hill
leg/foot pierna perna body in'-gin “whole leg” 175 inheritance Jane Hill
lie down acostarse, echarse deitar motion missing Jane Hill
lightning rayo, relámpago relampago environment wah'-lahm we'-ah 209 loan Jane Hill
live/be alive vivir viver, morar body oo'-lah-pul 177 unknown Jane Hill
liver hígado figado body missing Jane Hill
long largo comprido, longo quality oo-too'-do, hwaht' 215 loan Jane Hill
louse piollo, piojo piolho fauna missing Jane Hill
lung pulmón pulmão body iCH'-kin, mah'-so-hahn 177 unknown Jane Hill
man/male hombre homem human taht-wŏl/wāl 171, no'-no 225; dātwal (K1907) loan Jane Hill
meat/flesh carne carne fauna too-how'-wahl 195 inheritance Jane Hill
moon luna lua environment moo-yah' 209 inheritance Jane Hill
mother madre, mamá mãe kinship ah-pul', e-mŏn (ŭ-mŭn) 171 loan Jane Hill
mouth boca boca body taw'-kŏn 173; do-gont (K1907) unknown Jane Hill
name nombre nome human missing Jane Hill
nape base del cuello, nuca nuca body koo'-lah back of neck inheritance Jane Hill
near/close cerca de perto quality ahn'-chow 219 loan Jane Hill
neck cuello pescoço body missing Jane Hill
new nuevo novo quality hahts-am'-me 217 loan Jane Hill
night noche noite time too'-kăl 211; du-gal (K1907) inheritance Jane Hill
no/not no não grammar hi'-e 221; hais (K1907) inheritance Jane Hill
nose nariz nariz body sin-kits' 473; mupit (K1907) loan Jane Hill
old viejo velho quality mo'-hal-lo loan Jane Hill
one uno um number yē'CH (M); tseets (K1907) loan Jane Hill
open/uncover abrir abrir other ahk lan'-no 217 loan Jane Hill
other otro outro grammar missing Jane Hill
pain/painful/sick dolor, doloroso, enfermo dor, doloroso, doente body ŭ-nah-sā-yet ' 177, un-nu'-it 179 “sick” unknown Jane Hill
person/human being persona pessoa human anghanīl (K1907) inheritance Jane Hill
pound/beat machacar, golpear bater impact missing Jane Hill
rain lluvia chuva environment tahng'-il 209; dā>-ngil K1907 inheritance Jane Hill
red rojo vermelho colour mel-mel'-lă-pul 219 unique Jane Hill
right/right hand derecha direita location/body missing Jane Hill
road/path camino caminho manufacture pawt' 207; po>t (K1907) inheritance Jane Hill
root raíz raiz flora missing Jane Hill
rotten podrido podre quality tek'-nah 199 loan Jane Hill
sand arena areia environment sook'-si 207 loan Jane Hill
say decir dizer mental alā>wi (K1907 “speak”) inheritance Jane Hill
scratch rascar rasgar impact missing Jane Hill
see ver ver mental sil “look”, tah'-wŭ 227; tāwükü (K1907) inheritance Jane Hill
sharp afilado, filudo, filoso afiado quality soot'kan-nah “a point” 215, han-net “sharp” 217 unknown Jane Hill
shoot tirar, disparar, balear atirar impact missing Jane Hill
short corto curto quality ke'-tet 215 loan Jane Hill
shoulder hombro ombro body sŭ-kon inheritance Jane Hill
shy/ashamed tímido, vergonzoso timido, com vergonha mental missing Jane Hill
sit sentar(se) sentar state yandji (K1907) inheritance Jane Hill
skin piel pele body o-poon 175 inheritance Jane Hill
sky cielo céu environment sā-tus 209 unique Jane Hill
sleep dormir dormir body soo-loo'-maht “asleep” 177; djuluma (K1907) inheritance Jane Hill
small pequeño pequeno quality koo-choo'-bik 215 loan Jane Hill
smoke humo fumaça environment oo'-yet' 187 (suggests Yokuts “fire”) unknown Jane Hill
sniff/smell olfatear, oler cheirar body missing Jane Hill
spit escupir cuspir body missing Jane Hill
split partir, dividir rachar, dividir, partir impact missing Jane Hill
squeeze estrujar, exprimir espremer impact missing Jane Hill
stab/pierce apuñalar, acuchillar apunhalar impact missing Jane Hill
stand estar de pié ficar em pé state wo-lā'-ho 'standing up” 215 loan Jane Hill
star estrella estrela environment suul' 209 inheritance Jane Hill
steal robar roubar other missing Jane Hill
stick/wood palo pau, vara flora o-oot' “any stick” inheritance Jane Hill
stone piedra pedra environment tūnt' 207; dünt (K1907) inheritance Jane Hill
suck chupar chupar body missing Jane Hill
sweat sudar suor, suar body tas'-so-wăl (noun) 177 unknown Jane Hill
swell hincharse inchar body missing Jane Hill
swim nadar nadar motion missing Jane Hill
tail cola, rabo rabo body missing Jane Hill
that ese/esa esse grammar missing Jane Hill
3pl ellos/ellas eles/elas grammar missing Jane Hill
thick grueso, gordo, espeso grosso quality missing Jane Hill
thin delgado fino quality missing Jane Hill
think pensar pensar mental missing Jane Hill
this este/esta este grammar hah'-me-te (M); igi (K1907) inheritance Jane Hill
2sg xx xx grammar um-pe' 223, min 223; ümbi (K1907) inheritance Jane Hill
three tres tres number pi' (M); pāhi (K1907) inheritance Jane Hill
throat garganta garganta body missing Jane Hill
throw tirar, lanzar atirar, jogar impact missing Jane Hill
thunder truenos trovão environment nim'-yets 209 loan Jane Hill
tie up/fasten atar, amarrar amarrar impact missing Jane Hill
tongue lengua lingua body lal'-lang' 173; la-lant (K1907) inheritance Jane Hill
tooth diente dente body tam-man' 177 inheritance Jane Hill
turn girar, volter, torcer virar other missing Jane Hill
two dos dois number wah' (wŏh') 169; wo (K1907) inheritance Jane Hill
vomit vomitar vomitar body missing Jane Hill
walk caminar, andar andar motion dòyut (K1907) unknown Jane Hill
water agua agua environment pahl' 205; bal (K1907) inheritance Jane Hill
1pl.excl nosotros (exclusivo) nós (exclusivo) grammar missing Jane Hill
1pl.incl nosotros (inclusivo) nós (inclusivo) grammar mah'-kin (dual) 223 loan Jane Hill
wet mojado molhado quality hal-li'-ĕp-pul' 205 unknown Jane Hill
what? que, qué que grammar hahp'-tră “what is it?” 221 inheritance Jane Hill
when? cuando quando grammar missing Jane Hill
where? donde onde grammar he'-ō'k 221 loan Jane Hill
white blanco branco colour po'-so/soo-pul' 219 unknown Jane Hill
who? quien, quién quem grammar wah'-tuk taw-tah'-ken “Who is coming?” 223; ha-īnt (K1907) loan Jane Hill
wife esposa esposa kinship mo-ke'-nim “your wife”, so'-ye “wife” 171 inheritance Jane Hill
wind viento vento environment ŭCH koo-ahl' 209 inheritance Jane Hill
wing ala asa body missing Jane Hill
woman/female mujer mulher human ko'-im 171; goim (K1907) unknown Jane Hill
work trabajar trabalhar other missing Jane Hill
yawn bostezar bocejar body missing Jane Hill
yellow amarillo amarelo colour missing Jane Hill
2pl ustedes vocês grammar missing Jane Hill


Flora Fauna Vocabulary (130)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Linnean Name Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Range of Term Word Structure Word Structure Notes Classifier Classifier Notes Hypernym Source Association with Social Categories Ritual/Mythologically Significant Ritual Notes Food Source Food Notes Medicinal Medicinal Notes How Collected Who Collects How Prepared Psychotropic Psychotropic Notes Traded Trade Notes Distribution Habitat Dangerous Ethnobiology Notes Species Notes General Notes Created By
abalone flora-fauna Haliotis spp. missing missing missing 2 1 0 0 1 no
ant (generic) hormiga formiga flora-fauna Formicidae kā-nit ant loan Yokuts Proto-NimYokuts *k'e:nich (Golla 1964:60) same underived C. H. Merriam 60-465 0 0 2 0 0 no
antelope flora-fauna Antilocapra americana soi'-yōl Antelope (Antilocapra americana) loan Yokuts Chukchansi soi'-yōl; se'-yōl, Wikchamni soi-ut; Yowlumne soi'-al' soi'-ul' soi'-yul WW %sok same underived compare to “elk”; some derivation here C. H. Merriam 72-77, 60-451 2 1 0 0 0 no
badger flora-fauna Taxidea taxus tran'-neu Badger loan Yokuts Yowlumne tran'-neu, trah-ne-u; tră'-neu; Wikchamni tran-now', tran-ow; Gashowu tran-now, etc. same underived C. H. Merriam 72-77, 60-449 2 1 0 0 0 yes
bald eagle flora-fauna Haliaeetus leucocephalus o'-wik Bald Eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) loan Yokuts Yowlumne aw-wik; o'-wik; Wikchamni o-wik; Pawelyami o'-wik, so Proto-Yokutsan same underived C. H. Merriam 72-77, 60-453 1 2 0 0 1 no
band-tail pigeon flora-fauna Patagioenas fasciata so'-we Band-tail pigeon (Patagioenas fasciata) loan Yokuts Chukchansi so'-win, Yowlumne saw'-win', , Gashowu sho'-win. BUT -- note Tohono O'odham ho:hi “mourning dove” which suggests UA source, although quite a different bird. Sound-imitative and problematic. same underived C. H. Merriam 72-77, 60-455 0 1 0 0 0 no
bat murciélago morcego flora-fauna Chiroptera spp chim'-chim bat loan Yokuts Yowlumne tsim-tsim; chim'-chim (Merriam); Wikchamni chim'-chim' same underived obvious reduplication but in Yokuts C. H. Merriam 72-77, 60-449 0 1 0 0 0 no
beaver flora-fauna Castor missing missing missing 2 1 0 0 0 no
beetle flora-fauna Coleoptera spp tal-trool-wi Beetle loan Yokuts Chukchansi tel'-lah-lel'-loo-we; Tinlinne tal'-tol'-wi narrower (13-line June Bug is the name Merriam always gives) underived C. H. Merriam 72-813, 60-465 2 0 0 0 0 no
big round tule flora-fauna Schoenoplectus acutus pumuk tule (in pumuk ti'i “tule house” loan Yokuts Yowlumne bumuk unknown Gayton 1:51, with footnote that inf. speaks Yawelmani 2 1 2 0 0 no
big skunk flora-fauna Mephitis mephitis sŏCH Big Skunk (Mephitis mephitis) loan Yokuts Proto-NimYokuts *Thox (Golla 1964:65) same underived C. H. Merriam 72-77, 60-449 2 2 0 0 0 no
big wolf (gray wolf) flora-fauna Canis lupus yow'-le, yow-lit Big Wolf (yow-lit “male”) loan Yokuts Yowlumne yow'-lits (=chaser) unknown C. H. Merriam 72-77, 72-797, 60-449 1 2 0 0 0 yes
bighorn sheep flora-fauna Ovis canadensis le-wā'-sip Bighorn sheep loan Yokuts Yowlumne lew-ā'-sip; le-wā'-sip (ultimately from Chumash “seal”, in Tubatulabal for mythical water monster) WW %lewasip same underived C. H. Merriam 72-77, 60-451 2 1 0 0 0 no
bird pajaro, ave passaro flora-fauna wā'-ă-tsoi bird loan Yokuts Yowlumne wā'-et-sā; (Merriam) unknown underived C. H. Merriam 72-79, 60-461 0 0 0 0 0 no
black ant flora-fauna Camponotus pennsylvanicus/Lasius niger missing missing missing 2 0 0 0 0 no
black bear flora-fauna Ursus americanus oo'-nahl Black Bear (Ursus americanus) inheritance *hula- Proto-Uto-Aztecan S105 (Stubbs 2009:53) broader (probably can be used for all bears as in Tubatulabal) other complex -l is the non-possessed-noun suffix C. H. Merriam 72-797, 60-449 1 2 0 0 0 yes
black-tail Jackrabbit flora-fauna Lepus californicus taw-pul' Black-tail Jackrabbit semantic shift *tapuN- Proto-Uto-Aztecan S1707 (Stubbs 2009:242) (usually 'brush rabbit'; means “cottontail” in Tubatulabal) same underived C. H. Merriam 72-77 60-451 2 1 0 0 0 no
blackberry flora-fauna Rubus ursinus missing missing missing 2 1 2 0 0 no
blue grouse flora-fauna Dendrogapus? missing missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
bobcat, lynx flora-fauna Lynx rufus too'-nul Bobcat, Lynx (Lynx rufus) loan Yokuts Proto-NimYokuts *t'ungul (Golla 1964:66); this is a very widespread loan but clearly is in Proto-Yokutsan (check Nichols) WW %talom same underived C. H. Merriam 72-77, 60-449 1 2 0 0 0 no
butterfly, moth mariposa borboleta flora-fauna Lepidoptera wo-ki'-kits Butterfly loan Yokuts Yowlumne mo-ki-kits “moth” (Big Sphynx, variegated); Palewyami waw'-ki'-kitch “butterfly” same underived C. H. Merriam 72-79, 60-465 2 0 0 0 0 no
California condor flora-fauna Gymnogyps californianus weets' California Condor (Gymnogyps californianus) loan Yokuts Proto-NimYokuts *wiCH' (Golla 1964:61; CH is retro) WW %wit unknown C. H. Merriam 72-77, 60-453 1 2 0 0 1 no
California jay flora-fauna Aphelocoma californica? tri'-tri California Jay loan Yokuts Yowlumne ki'-ki; tri'-tri (Merriam); Gashowu tri-tri WW %chaj same underived obvious reduplication but in Yokuts C. H. Merriam 72-77, 60-455 2 1 0 0 0 no
California woodpecker flora-fauna Melanerpes formicivorus? pă-lă'-tuk California woodpecker loan Unknown arealism (see Troike n.d.); possible origin on coast, but origin obscure WW %palaka ~ %pana(k) same underived C. H. Merriam 72-77, 60-455 2 1 0 0 1 no
chia flora-fauna Salvia columbariae missing missing missing 1 1 1 0 0 no
chipmunk flora-fauna Tamias spp. che-wil'-le Chipmunk (Tamias spp.) loan Yokuts Wikchamni te-witch'-e; Yowlumne che-wil'-le (same as Callospermophilus) same underived C. H. Merriam 72-801, 60-451 2 1 0 0 0 no
cliff swallow flora-fauna Petrochelidon pyrrhonota tan'-nah-puk'-kēk Barn swallow loan Yokuts Yowlumne tan'-nah-kah-pitch', Chukchansi tan'-nah-pek'-kă-lis “barn swallow” same (problem with which swallow -- some semantic shift?) underived , although obviously complex in Yokuts C. H. Merriam 72-77, 60-457 2 1 0 0 0 no
coot flora-fauna Fulica americana hoi-yo'-le Coot (Fulica) loan Yokuts Tinlinne Yokuts hoi-yol'-lis same underived C. H. Merriam 72-79, 60-461 2 1 0 0 0 no
cottontail rabbit flora-fauna Sylvilagus audobonii che'-yu Cottontain rabbit, Sylvilagus audobonii loan Yokuts Proto-NimYokuts *CHhiw (Golla 1964:61) (CH is retro ch); same underived C. H. Merriam 72-77, 60-451 2 1 0 0 0 no
cottonwood flora-fauna Populus spp. lap-pah Cottonwood (Populus sp.) loan Yokuts Wikchamni/Yawdanchi dah-pah; Yowlumne lah'-pah (so Proto-NimYokuts) WW %pat ~ %lapat same underived may be derived syncrhonically from “leaf”, PNY *t'ap- C. H. Merriam 72-79, 60-467 2 0 2 0 0 no
coyote flora-fauna Canis latrans ki-he'-yu Coyote (ki'yu “male”) loan Yokuts Proto-NimYokuts *khay'iw (Golla 1964:61) WW %kaju same underived C. H. Merriam 72-77, 72-797, 60-449 1 2 0 0 0 no
crow flora-fauna Corvus brachyrhynchos al'-wut Crow (Corvus brachyrhynchos) loan Yokuts Yawdanchi ad'-dŏ-wut'; Yowlumne al'-lă-woot'r so showing cognacy in NimYokuts; this loan also in Takic WW %alwut same underived C. H. Merriam 72-77, 60-455 2 1 0 0 0 no
datura flora-fauna Datura wrightii tah-ni Datura (Indian whiskey) loan Yokuts Yawdanchi/Wikchamni tahng'-i' ; Palewyami tañai/'its (Gayton 1941 (1):47 (so Proto-Yokutsan) WW %tanai same underived C. H. Merriam 72-823, 60-475 1 1 1 1 0 yes
deer, mule flora-fauna Odocoileus hemionus hol' Deer, mule (Odocoileius hemionus loan Yokuts Proto-NimYokuts *xoy (Golla 1964:61) same underived C. H. Merriam 72-77, 60-451 2 1 0 0 0 no
digger pine flora-fauna Pinus sabiniana missing missing missing 2 1 2 0 0 no
dog (camp, domestic) perro cachorro flora-fauna Canis familiaris poo-oos', poos Dog loan Yokuts Yowlumne poo'-oos “wild dogs found in holes in bank” (?Atrocyon?) (Merriam), Proto-NimYokuts *pu'us (Golla 1964:61) same underived C. H. Merriam 72-77, 60-451, 453 0 0 0 0 0 no
dogbane flora-fauna Apocynum cannabinum missing missing missing 2 1 2 0 0 no
dove paloma pomba flora-fauna Zenaida macrocoura oop'-lă-le Dove (Zenaida macrocoura) loan Yokuts Proto-NimYokuts *'uphlal(l)i' (Golla 1964:61) same underived C. H. Merriam 72-77, 60-455 2 1 0 0 0 no
duck pato pato, marreco flora-fauna Anatidae hi'-nah mallard, “all ducks” loan Yokuts Yowlumne hi'-e-nah “all ducks”, same underived C. H. Merriam, 72-809, 72-77; 60-459 0 1 0 0 0 no
elder flora-fauna Sambucus wi'seta elderwood loan Yokuts unknown Gayton 1:52 2 1 1 0 0 no
elk flora-fauna Cervas elaphus soi'-yōl Elk (Cervas elaphus) loan Yokuts Proto-NimYokuts *sohkoy (Golla 1964:61) WW %sok same underived compare to “antelope” C. H. Merriam 72-77, 60-451 2 1 0 0 0 no
fish (generic) pez peixe flora-fauna lo'-pit Fish loan Yokuts Proto-NimYokuts *lopiTh (Golla 1964:62) WW %lvp same underived C. H. Merriam 72-79, 60-463 0 1 0 0 0 no
flea pulga pulga flora-fauna Siphonaptera pah'-tal, pah-kil' Flea loan Yokuts Proto-NimYokuts *p'a:k'il (Golla 1964:62) same underived C. H. Merriam 72-815, 60-465, 72-815 2 0 0 0 0 no
flicker flora-fauna Colaptes sp. che-wis'-sah Flicker loan Yokuts Proto NimYokuts *T'iwisa' (Golla 1964) same underived C. H. Merriam 72-77, 60-455 2 1 0 0 1 no
blowfly/housefly mosca mosca flora-fauna Diptera mo'-ni fly loan Yokuts Yowlumne mo-noi; Tinlinne mo'-ni same underived C. H. Merriam 72-79, 60-465 0 0 0 0 0 no
foothills yucca flora-fauna Yucca whipplei missing missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
fox flora-fauna Vulpes, Urocyon ow'-chă Fox loan Yokuts Proto-NimYokuts *7aw'chha7 (Golla 1964:62) WW %kaw same underived C. H. Merriam 72-77, 60-449 2 2 0 0 0 no
frog (generic) flora-fauna oo'-koo-koo Frog loan Yokuts Yowlumne o-gŏ-ko; ho-gŏ-ko “toad”, Palewyami oo-koo'-ko “frog” (so Proto-Yokutsan) same underived presumably onomatopoeic in Yokuts C. H. Merriam 72-79, 60-463 2 2 0 0 0 no
golden eagle flora-fauna Aquila chrysaetos tro'-kil Golden Eagle (Aquila chrysaetos) loan Yokuts Wikchamni tro-hid'; tro-hwid'; to-whid'; Tinlinne troCHil'; Yowlumne troCH-il; same underived C. H. Merriam 72-77, 60-453 1 2 0 0 1 no
gooseberry flora-fauna Ribes spp. missing missing missing 2 1 1 0 0 no
gopher snake, bull snake flora-fauna Pituophis catenifer ko-trŏ'-nitch Gopher or bull snake loan Yokuts Wikchamni hawt'-trŭ-mut; ho'-trung-ut; Yowlumne kaw-trah'-nitch same underived C. H. Merriam 72-79, 60-463 2 2 0 0 0 no
grass hierba, pasto capim, grama flora-fauna (NA) yah'-wit Grass (any) loan Yokuts Yowlumne yah'-wil “grass, any”; Wikchamni/Yawdanchi yah'-wut; same underived C. H. Merriam 72-79, 60-473 0 0 0 0 0 no
grasshopper flora-fauna Caelifera chahl'-to-wil Cricket loan Yokuts Chukchansi chah'-noos'; chi'-noo-as, tah-nă-wus “grasshopper”; Wikchamni chah-nā'-kut; chan-ā-kus “grasshopper” same underived C. H. Merriam 72-813, 60-465 2 1 0 0 0 no
gray ground squirrel flora-fauna Sphermophilus sp. po/-hot Gray ground squirrel (Spermophilus sp. (in pencil at 60-451: weasel?) loan Yokuts Yowlumne po'-hal; po'-hol; po-hahl; Wikchamni po-hōd'; bo'-had; po'-had; bo-hot (cognate so PNY) same underived C. H. Merriam, 72-77; 60-451 2 1 0 0 0 no
gray tree squirrel flora-fauna Sciurus spp. yun'-haw Gray tree squirrel (Sciurus spp.) loan Yokuts Yowlumne yun'-hah; yun'-ho; same underived C. H. Merriam 72-77, 60-455 2 1 0 0 0 no
great horned owl flora-fauna Bubo virginianus hoo-too'-lah Great Horned Owl (Bubo virginianus) loan Yokuts Proto NimYokuts *hutulu (Golla 1964:64) WW %(hu)tukul same underived C. H. Merriam 72-77, 60-453 1 2 2 0 1 no
grizzly bear flora-fauna Ursus arctos horribilis mol-loi or naw'-ŏ Grizzly, Bear (nŏ-ŏ ) loan Yokuts Proto-NimYokuts *ngoh7o7 WW %mol same underived C. H. Merriam 72-77, 72-797, 60-449 1 2 0 0 0 yes
horned toad flora-fauna Phrynosomatidae chis-pah'-pŏ Horned toad loan Yokuts Yowlumne cheet'-pah'-po, Palewyami chēch-pah'-bo (so Proto-Yokutsan) same underived C. H. Merriam 72-79, 60-463 2 2 2 0 0 no
horse caballo cavalho flora-fauna Equus caballus kah-bi'-ah Horse loan Spanish Spanish caballo WW %caballo same underived C. H. Merriam 60-453 0 0 0 0 0 no
hummingbird colibrí, picaflor (Peru) beija-flor flora-fauna Trochilidae pā-mum'-koots Hummingbird loan Yokuts Yowlumne pā-mum'-koots, Wikchamni băr-mum-che (Merriam); Palewyami pā'-mum-kutch, so Proto-Yokutsan same underived clearly has morphological complexity in Yokuts, but unanalyzable. C. H. Merriam 72-77, 60-459 0 0 0 0 0 no
tobacco tabaco tabaco flora-fauna Nicotiana spp. so-kunt' Indian tobacco (Nicotiana spp) loan Yokutsan (arealism) Tubatulabal has same loan, which is from ultimately Yok-Utian form, so should be counted as loan one level up at least WW %sokon same underived C. H. Merriam 72-79, 60-473 1 1 1 1 0 yes
insect (generic) insecto insecto flora-fauna generic missing missing missing 0 0 2 0 0 variable
junco flora-fauna Junco sppp too'-me-on Junco (female) unique same underived C. H. Merriam 72-807, 60-457 0 1 0 0 0 no
juniper flora-fauna Juniperus californica missing missing missing 2 1 1 0 0 no
louse flora-fauna order Phtiraptera missing missing missing 2 0 0 0 0 no
mallard flora-fauna Anas platyrhynchos hi'-nah mallard, “all ducks” loan Yokuts Yowlumne hi'-e-nah “all ducks” broader (all ducks) underived C. H. Merriam, 72-809, 72-77; 60-459 2 1 0 0 0 no
manzanita flora-fauna Arctostaphylos spp. ap'-troo Manzanita (Arctostaphylos spp.) loan Yokuts Yowlumne ahp-troo; Wikchamni/Yawdanchi ap-troo'; Chukchansi ap'-soo; Proto-NimYokuts *7aphThuw (Golla 1964:63) same underived C. H. Merriam 72-79, 60-467 2 1 1 0 0 no
milkweed, broad leaf flora-fauna Asclepias eriocarpa sam'-tal Milkweed, broad leaf loan Yokuts Tinlinne Yokuts sam'-tahl same underived C. H. Merriam 72-79, 60-473 2 1 1 0 0 no
milkweed, narrow leaf flora-fauna Asclepias fascicularis chik'-kā-ye Milkweed (narrow leaf) loan Yokuts Yowlumne chik-ke “milkweed sp. (given for broad leaf as one of 2 forms); Chukchansi chek'-kah same underived C. H. Merriam 72-79, 60-473 0 1 1 0 0 no
mission tule flora-fauna Juncus missing missing missing 2 1 2 0 0 no
mockingbird flora-fauna Mimus polyglottos missing missing missing 2 1 0 0 0 no
mosquito mosquito, zancudo mosquito, carapana flora-fauna Anopheles spp, Isoptera kah'-soop mosquito loan Yokuts Gashowu kah-sō>p; Chukchansi kah-soop'; etc. same underived Merriam 60-465 0 0 0 0 0 no
moth mariposa nocturna, polilla mariposa flora-fauna Heterocera missing missing missing 2 0 0 0 0 no
mountain lion flora-fauna Puma concolor we-hā'-chit Mountain lion, also jaguar loan Yokuts Proto-NimYokuts **wehe:sith (Golla 1964:63) same underived C. H. Merriam 72-77, 60-449 1 2 0 0 0 yes
mountain quail flora-fauna Oreortyx pictus tror'-nŏ Mountain quail (Oreortyx pictus) loan Yokuts Tinlinne Yokuts trop'-naw; Yowlumne trōp'-nă; trōp'-no same unknown C. H. Merriam 72-77, 60-455 2 1 0 0 0 no
mussel flora-fauna Mytilus spp. missing missing missing 2 1 0 0 1 no
olivella (olive snail) flora-fauna Callianax biplicata missing missing missing 2 2 0 0 1 no
pinyon jay flora-fauna Cyanocitta stelleri? missing missing missing 2 1 0 0 0 no
pinyon pine flora-fauna Pinus monophylla missing missing missing 2 1 2 0 1 no
pismo clam flora-fauna Tivella stultorum missing missing missing 2 1 0 0 1 no
pocket gopher flora-fauna Thomomys hahs'-ke-wet Pocket gopher (Thomomys) loan Yokuts Yowlumne hos'-ke'-wits; hos'-ke'-we unknown C. H. Merriam 72-77, 60-451 2 1 0 0 0 no
poison oak flora-fauna Toxicodendron diversilobum che'-wik Poison Oak (Toxicodendron diversilobum) unique unknown C. H. Merriam 72-79, 60-471 2 2 2 0 0 yes
rattlesnake flora-fauna Crotalus spp. sim-mont, su'-maht Rattlesnake (Crotalus spp.) inheritance *samɨnɨ Proto-Uto-Aztecan . AT LAST. A UTO-AZTECAN WORD (same as Tubatulabal) same other complex -t is the non-possessed-noun suffix C. H. Merriam 72-79, 60-463 1 2 0 0 0 yes
red ant flora-fauna Solenopsis spp kā-nit red ant loan Yokuts Proto-NimYokuts *k'e:nich (Golla 1964:60) broader (all ants) underived C. H. Merriam 72-79 1 0 1 0 0 no
red-shouldered blackbird flora-fauna Agelaius phoeniceus cho-lŏk'-nah Red-shouldered blackbird unique same no info note the -nah and compare with 10 below C. H. Merriam 60-455 2 1 0 0 0 no
red-tailed hawk flora-fauna Buteo jamaicensis ě'-tě' Redtailed hawk (Buteo jamaicensis) unique probably a loan, but not Yokuts same underived C. H. Merriam 72-77, 60-453 2 2 0 0 0 no
roadrunner flora-fauna Geococcyx californianus oo'-e-oo'-e Road runner (Geococcyx californianus) loan Yokuts Proto-NimYokuts *ʔoyʔoy (Golla 1964); UA roadrunners say puypuy WW %uji same underived obvious reduplication but in Yokuts C. H. Merriam 72-77, 60-455 2 1 0 0 0 no
ruddy duck flora-fauna Oxyura jamaicensis missing missing missing 2 1 0 0 0 no
sage herb flora-fauna Artemisia californica tsam'-mal Sage herb, Artemisia ludoviciana loan Yokuts Yowlumne tsam'-mal; same underived C. H. Merriam 72-79, 72-781, 60-471 2 2 1 0 0 no
salmon/steelhead flora-fauna Oncorhynchus mykiss missing missing missing 2 1 0 0 0 no
scaly lizard flora-fauna Pygopus lepidopodus? hol'-poi, hol'-poi'-ĕ “bigger” Scaly lizard (Sceloporus) loan Yokuts Yowlumne hol-poi'-ye, hol-poi'-yah (all lizards) unknown C. H. Merriam 72-79, 60-463 2 2 0 0 0 no
small bird flora-fauna missing missing missing 2 1 0 0 0 no
small brown lizard flora-fauna tut-rat'-tit Small brown lizard (Uta) doubtful loan Yokuts almost certainly Yokuts but Merriam didn't get Uta for any dialects in my bases; Kroeber didn't collect, not in Golla same underived C. H. Merriam 72-811, 60-463 2 2 0 0 0 no
snake (generic) culebra, serpiente cobra flora-fauna nah'-tis snake (any) loan Yokuts Yowlumne not'-tit; nŏt'-titCH “rattlesnake”; Chukchansi nah'-sis “rattlesnake, any snake”; Proto-NimYokuts *naThiTh “rattlesnake” (Golla 1964:64) same underived C. H. Merriam 60-463 0 1 0 0 0 no
soaproot flora-fauna Chlorogalum traw'-hawt Soaproot loan Yokuts Yowlumne traw'-hawt'; Wikchamni chaw-kawt'; trōCH'-ut; Proto-Nim-Yokuts *ThoxoTh Golla 1964:65 WW %svkv same underived C. H. Merriam 72-79, 60-473 2 1 1 0 0 no
sour berry flora-fauna Rhus trilobata missing missing missing 2 1 1 0 0 no
sparrow hawk flora-fauna Falco e'-titch, e-tits Sparrow hawk (Falco) unique but morphology looks Yokutsan with the -ch/ts suffix same derived Looks like diminutive of “Red-tailed hawk” (with a probable Yokuts stem and a UA suffix!) C. H. Merriam 72-77, 60-453 2 2 0 0 0 no
spider araña aranha flora-fauna Arachnida, Araneae kah-lo'-ke-ti' Spider loan Yokuts Yowlumne ko-to-gil-loi; ko-lo-kil'-wi; Wikchamni kot'-tro'-ke-troi (whitish kind); same (maybe a specific spider, hard to tell) underived looks complex in Yokuts C. H. Merriam 72-79, 60-465 0 0 2 0 0 variable
spotted skunk flora-fauna Spilogale gracilis e-chā-o Little spotted skunk (Spilogale gracilis) loan Yokuts Yowlumne tse-sā-ooo; che'-chăo, se'-choo; Wikchamni chā-tsoo; chow'-chew; cho-chew same underived C. H. Merriam 72-77, 60-449 2 2 0 0 0 no
toad sapo sapo flora-fauna Bufonidae koi-yet'-wuk Toad loan Yokuts Yowlumne koi-ot'-waht; ki-ot'-waht “frog”, Wikchamni kah-doi'-itch; go-doit' (with regular corresp. so Proto-NimYokuts) same underived C. H. Merriam 72-79, 60-463 2 2 0 0 0 no
tree árbol arvore flora-fauna (NA) we'-chet tree loan Yokuts Yawdanchi we-che'-taht; Palewyami we-che'-taht same underived C. H. Merriam 72-79, 60-475 0 0 2 0 0 no
tree yucca flora-fauna Yucca schidegera missing missing missing 2 1 0 0 0 no
turkey buzzard flora-fauna Cathartes aura ko-tā'-yah Turkey buzzard loan Yokuts Yowlumne ko-trā'-ah, Chukchansi kah'-too-yah; Proto-NimYokuts *k'o7- (Golla 1964:61) same underived C. H. Merriam 72-77, 60-453 2 2 0 0 0 no
turtle (generic) flora-fauna Testudines trah'-tah Turtle loan Yokuts Yowlumne traw-tah; Tinlinne tal'-to-loi; Palewyami trŏ'-tah (so Proto-Yokutsan) same underived C. H. Merriam 72-79, 60-463 2 2 0 0 1 no
valley live oak flora-fauna Quercus agrifolia missing missing missing 2 1 2 0 1 no
valley oak flora-fauna Quercus lobata kin'-nim Valley oak (Quercus lobata) loan Yokutsan Yowlumne kin'-nim; Wikchamni kah-me'-ahch; gum'-itch; kum-itch; Tinlinne kā-nim same underived C. H. Merriam 72-79, 60-467 2 1 2 0 1 no
valley quail flora-fauna Callipepla californica hoom-nool Valley quail (Callipepla californica) loan Yokuts Proto-NimYokuts *humn-ul (Golla 1964:64) WW %hum same underived C. H. Merriam 72-77, 60-455 2 1 0 0 0 no
Washington clam flora-fauna Saxidomus nuttalli missing missing missing 2 1 0 0 1 no
Western Canada goose flora-fauna Branta canadensis missing missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
whale flora-fauna Eschrichtius robustus missing missing missing 2 1 2 0 1 no
white pelican flora-fauna Pelicanus erythrorhynchos missing missing missing 0 2 0 0 0 no
wild grapevine flora-fauna Vitis californica so-no'-tip, so-naw'-tip Wild grapevine (Vitis californica) loan Yokuts Yawdanchi so-no'-tis ; Wikchamni shun-no'-tip; sah-nah'-tip; Tinlinne san-no'-tip; Yowlumne saw-naw'-tip; sun-naw'-tip WW %sonot same underived C. H. Merriam 60-475, 72-823 2 1 2 0 0 no
wild oats flora-fauna Avena (introduction) ah-wā'-nah Wild oats (Avena) loan Spanish Spanish avena WW %avena same underived C. H. Merriam 72-823, 60-473 2 1 2 0 0 no
wild rose flora-fauna Rosa californica missing missing missing 0 1 2 0 0 no
wild sunflower flora-fauna Helianthus (and other genera) missing missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
willow flora-fauna Salix spp. sal-lam? Willow (Salix spp) loan Yokuts Proto-NimYokuts *salam (Golla 1964:66) same underived C. H. Merriam 60-467 (in pencil) 2 2 1 0 0 no
wood rat, round-tail flora-fauna Neotoma spp. hit'-chit Wood rat, round-tail (Neotoma spp.) loan Yokuts Yowlumne hit'-sits (wood.carrier); hit-chit' same underived C. H. Merriam 72-77, 60-451 2 1 0 0 0 no
worm, hairy caterpillar flora-fauna Arctiidae (many species) missing missing missing 2 2 0 0 0 no
worm, smooth caterpillar flora-fauna Trichoplusia ni (?) cabbage looper missing missing missing 2 2 0 0 0 no
yellow jacket flora-fauna Vespula spp., Dolichovespula spp. pah-o'-ně Yellow jacket, Vespula spp., Dolichoves spp. loan Yokuts Wikchamni pah-o-ni'; pah'-o-ne; Yowlumne pah-o'-ni; Chukchansi bow'-ni; pow'-ni same underived C. H. Merriam 72-79, 60-465 2 0 0 0 0 no
yellowbird flora-fauna Dendroica petechia poo-too-'e-nah Yellowbird (Astragalinus) loan Yokuts Tinlinne Yokuts poo-too'-in same underived note the -nah, compare with 8 above C. H. Merriam 72-77, 60-457 0 1 0 0 0 no
yerba santa flora-fauna Eriodictyon californicum missing missing missing 2 1 1 0 0 no
ant (generic) hormiga formiga flora-fauna missing Jane Hill
bird pajaro, ave passaro flora-fauna missing Jane Hill
blowfly/housefly mosca mosca flora-fauna missing Jane Hill
dog (camp, domestic) perro cachorro flora-fauna poo-kung nŭ-ŭ “my dog” 225; min' poos' your dog 225; bungul (K1907) inheritance Jane Hill
grass hierba, pasto capim, grama flora-fauna missing Jane Hill
deer venado veado, cariacu flora-fauna missing Jane Hill
snake (generic) culebra, serpiente cobra flora-fauna missing Jane Hill
spider araña aranha flora-fauna missing Jane Hill


Cultural Vocabulary (115)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Word Structure Word Structure Notes General Notes Source Created By
acorn mush food tā'-pin acorn mush loan Yokuts simplex Merriam 49:195 Jane Hill
ball game food ol'-lŏll-hik'-kish game of ball loan Yokuts loan blend derived Merriam 49:203 Jane Hill
afterworld, land of dead, Heaven tierra do los muertos terra dos mortos culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
feather headband dress took' headdress of feathers loan Yokuts note that this goes from Yokuts into both Bankalachi and Central Chumash simplex Merriam 49:183 Jane Hill
arrow flecha flecha subsistence tool pah'-hool stone-pointed arrow inheritance *huca Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 63 with pa- "big" other complex Merriam 49:187 Jane Hill
arrow straightener other missing missing Jane Hill
bait for fishing cebo, carnada para pescar, empate (Peru) isca subsistence tool missing missing Jane Hill
school escuela escola acculturation missing missing Jane Hill
stone bowl culture-material missing missing Jane Hill
basket (general) canasta, canasto, cesta cesto culture-material et-tā'-wahn large cooking bowl, coiled loan Yokuts simplex Merriam 49:191 Jane Hill
basket, small canasta, canasto, cesta cesto pequeno, tampado culture-material koo-loot small mush or soup bowl loan Yokuts other complex Merriam 49:191 Jane Hill
basketry hat culture-material koo-loot hat worn by women loan Yokuts but at 191 CHM's note is "not here"; and note Yawelmani wo-koo'-mut other complex Merriam 49:183 Jane Hill
bead abalorio, mostacilla, cuenta, gota, puca; necklace=collar miçanga culture-material lil'-nah beads loan Yokuts simplex Merriam 49:183 Jane Hill
ochre culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
bow arco arco subsistence tool ah'-le bow inheritance *aCta Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2011 275 other complex Merriam 49:187 Jane Hill
canoe canoa canoa transport missing missing Jane Hill
carrying net subsistence tool missing missing Jane Hill
bottle botella garrafa acculturation e-what, e-wut water bottle (large) unique PUA *7i: 'drink' plus INST, probably other complex Merriam 49:191 Jane Hill
paper papel papel acculturation missing missing Jane Hill
chief/leader jefe, cacique chefe culture-mythology te-me'-wel chief unique other complex Merriam 49:203 Jane Hill
club garrote, cachiporra clava, porrete subsistence tool wē'Kset, wo'-set small k above s; wo-set at 191 club unknown other complex Merriam 49:187,191 Jane Hill
loincloth taparrabos, guayuco, pampanilla tanga, tapa-sexo dress nah-ween loin cloth inheritance *nawi Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2011 385; Merriam gives as "breechclout" 48:495; I suspect this is woman's apron other complex Merriam 49:183 Jane Hill
cook food food missing missing Jane Hill
corpse food tow-tah a dead person inheritance *tywi- Takic Stubbs 1799 other complex Merriam 49:199 Jane Hill
dance (generic) culture-mythology mo-loo-ŏt dance inheritance *muLawi Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 637 other complex Merriam 49:201 Jane Hill
deity/powerful spirit/culture figure dios(es), deidad divinidade, figura mítica culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
digging stick subsistence tool nah-haht-tseel digging stick inheritance *naka-ta Californian (Takic plus Tubatulabal) also ah'-se derived, other complex Merriam 49:189 Jane Hill
dipper subsistence tool missing missing Jane Hill
dream sueño, soñar sonho, sonhar culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
drone pipe culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
drum tambor tambor culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
chicken gallina galinha acculturation missing missing Jane Hill
earring other missing missing Jane Hill
ghost (of dead person)/evil spirit espíritu malo, espíritu maligno, fantasma, demonio espirito culture-mythology ah-bo-oo-nat devil or bad spirit unique Same as Tub but these are really same lg other complex Merriam 49:201 Jane Hill
fire drill subsistence tool at-tă wi'-eCH fire drill unique Same as Tub but these are really same lg phrase Merriam 49:189 Jane Hill
fire-tender culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
fireplace hogar lareira other po-isht' fireplace unique Same as Tub but really same lg other complex Merriam 49:185 Jane Hill
firewood leña lenha other ko'-too gut firewood inheritance *kut-ta Northern Uto-Azteca Stubbs 2011 2408 other complex Merriam 49:185 Jane Hill
fish (with fish-poison) pescar con barbasco, barbasquear pescar com timbó; tinguijar food missing missing Jane Hill
fish (with line) anzuelear, pescar con linea pescar (com linha) food missing missing Jane Hill
fish poison barbasco, matapez (Colombia) timbó subsistence tool missing missing Jane Hill
fishing line cordel/cuerda p/ pescar, sedal, tanze linha de pesca subsistence tool missing missing Jane Hill
fish hook subsistence tool missing missing Jane Hill
acorn bread food pah'-aht cakes of mush hardened in water, acorn bread unique other complex Merriam 49:197 Jane Hill
wheat food missing missing Jane Hill
flute flauta, quena (Peru) flauta culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
gambling sticks other al-loo-wus the counters in guessing game of sticks unique derived Merriam 49:205 Jane Hill
game animal caza, animal de caza caça, animal de caça food missing missing Jane Hill
ghost (of dead person)/evil spirit espíritu malo, espíritu maligno, fantasma, demonio espirito culture-mythology tow-tah a dead person inheritance *tywi- Takic Stubbs 1799 other complex Merriam 49:199 Jane Hill
glue subsistence tool missing missing Jane Hill
grave tumba, sepultura, sepulcro sepultura, sepulcro, cova culture-mythology tow-wet'te cemetery inheritance *tywi- Takic Stubbs 2011 1799 wo-haht' (burying? 'grave' at 201) other complex Merriam 49:199 Jane Hill
alcohol food missing missing Jane Hill
Datura wrightii narcotics tă'-ni datura (the plant) loan Yokuts WW %tanai simplex Merriam 49:197 Jane Hill
shaman, healer chamán, brujo xaman, pajé, feiticeiro culture-mythology at-să-wal' doctor or shaman unique same as Tub; maybe related to Numic tso7a 'spirit, ghost' other complex Merriam 49:203 Jane Hill
honey miel mel food missing missing Jane Hill
house other hahng-ēl house of brush inheritance *kaNLi Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2011 1213 other complex Merriam 49:185 Jane Hill
hunt cazar caçar food missing missing Jane Hill
initiate boy culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
initiate girl culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
knife cuchillo faca culture-material se'-băt knife inheritance *sippaC Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2011 799 other complex Merriam 49:187 Jane Hill
mat culture-material kol-tin-ne, paht tule mat, mat of reeds or tules inheritance *paka Uto-Aztecan Hill/Miller pa-31 other complex Merriam 49:187, 191 Jane Hill
mortar mortero pilão subsistence tool po-ho-wahl' portable stone mortar inheritance *paha Northern Uto-Aztecan Yokuts UA is pa -- is this Yokutsan loan? I don't think so. WW %polwa other complex Merriam 49:189 Jane Hill
necklace other o'-yot' necklace (general term) unique other complex Merriam 49:183 Jane Hill
needle/awl subsistence tool nung'-et-tal bone awl used in basketry unique also in Tb other complex Merriam 49:189 Jane Hill
paddle/oar remo remo transport missing missing Jane Hill
pestle pilón, mano de mortero, mazo, moledor mão de pilão subsistence tool po-ho'-wel pestle inheritance *paha Northern Uto-Aztecan Yokuts Stubbs 2011 1085 WW %polwa other complex Merriam 49:189 Jane Hill
pinole food missing missing Jane Hill
pipe for tobacco pipa cachimbo other o'-kut pipe inheritance *wikV Takic also in Gab, Serran other complex Merriam 49:189 Jane Hill
pitch food tran'-nil resin or pitch unique other complex Merriam 49:189 Jane Hill
pot olla, pote panela, vasilha subsistence tool missing missing Jane Hill
quiver subsistence tool tawn' quiver unique probably Yokutsan loan simplex Merriam 49:187 Jane Hill
rattle matraca, maraca marico, chocalho culture-mythology san'-net rattle (of 1, 2 or 3 cocoons) loan Yokuts see W. Mono saniizi for possible other loan or just maybe cognate?? simplex Merriam 49:201 Jane Hill
red paint culture-mythology waht-se-gun red paint unknown maybe the 'red' word from Kitanemuk and ultimately Yuman? See Tub 'lightning' in basic vocab with washak?? derived this is franly a guess. Too long for canonical root Merriam 49:185 Jane Hill
salt sal sal food ung-ahl salt inheritance *omCa Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2011 1865 other complex Merriam 49:199 Jane Hill
seed beater subsistence tool poo-is poo-ist' is 'coarse scoop-shape tray of open work' seed paddle unique other complex Merriam 49:191 Jane Hill
clothing ropa roupa culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
sinew-backed bow subsistence tool missing missing Jane Hill
skirt falda, saya, fustan, pollera saia culture-material missing missing Jane Hill
snare subsistence tool mah-nahl trap (general term) other complex Merriam 49:187 Jane Hill
song (generic) canción, canto canção culture-mythology i-yan-nat', e'-lik song inheritance *aya Northern Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2011 1492; also in Tub; e-lā-tit singer other complex 7e'-lik is Yokuts loan, Yawelamni *7ilik (Newman 27) Merriam 49:201 Jane Hill
spear lanza lança subsistence tool moost' spear for fish unknown also in Tub, maybe from 'shoot' other complex Merriam 49:187 Jane Hill
stirring stick food missing missing Jane Hill
rope/string mecate, cuerda, soga corda culture yu'-wil cord or rope inheritance *wik- Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2011 1843 other complex Merriam 49:191 Jane Hill
bag, sack culture-material oo-sool bag or sack unique other complex Merriam 49:187 Jane Hill
string of shell money other missing missing Jane Hill
sugarcane/sugar azúcar, caña de azúcar açucar (de cana) acculturation missing missing Jane Hill
sweathouse other mōs' sweathouse (big) loan Yokuts WW %mosh simplex Merriam 49:185 Jane Hill
tell history culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
cremate culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
tobacco (native) narcotics so'-kunt' Indian tobacco loan Yokuts WW %sokon other complex Merriam 49:197 Jane Hill
tule boat transport missing missing Jane Hill
white paint culture-mythology so'-lul white paint unique tsuyūl 'white rock or lime' in K.Hill Tub. Dict. other complex Merriam 49:185 Jane Hill
winnowing basket culture-material wah-laht' circular winnower loan unknown same as Tub. 'seed beater'; see Maidu walétky 'winnowing basket', but should be through intermediate lg., maybe Sierra Miwok other complex Merriam 49:191 Jane Hill
wood tray subsistence tool missing missing Jane Hill
shoes zapatos sapatos dress missing missing Jane Hill
medicine narcotics toi-yo, te-bo-isht medicine unknown maybe puha 'power'?? other complex Merriam 49:199 Jane Hill
cradleboard culture-material on'-chō-el baby basket unique other complex Merriam 49:191 Jane Hill
policeman polícia policía acculturation missing missing Jane Hill
soldier soldado soldado acculturation missing missing Jane Hill
corn food missing missing Jane Hill
beans food missing missing Jane Hill
cat gato gato acculturation missing missing Jane Hill
gun arma, escopeta espingarda, fusil acculturation missing missing Jane Hill
hat sombero chapéu dress missing missing Jane Hill
clapper acculturation missing missing Jane Hill
rope/string mecate, cuerda, soga corda culture yu'-wil 191 inheritance Jane Hill
thatch/roof crisneja palha, caraná culture-material she-nil “arbor, brush roof-canopy” 187 unknown Jane Hill
bottom grinding stone manufacture pah'-haht' bedrock mortar; po-ho-wahl' portable mortar 189 loan direction unknown Jane Hill
digging stick subsistence tool nah-haht-teel' 189 inheritance Jane Hill
winnow aventar, tirar (sementes) joeirar manufacture missing Jane Hill
top grinding stone metate, mano; piedra de moler metate, mano manufacture ph-ho'-wel pestle of stone 189 loan direction unknown Jane Hill
boomerang/throwing stick (generic) subsistence tool missing Jane Hill
spearthrower subsistence tool ah'-le “bow” 187; ālit (K1907) inheritance Jane Hill
spear lanza lança subsistence tool pah'-hool arrow, stone pointed; also me-hi'-ye; moost' “spear for fish” 187; te'-us “arrow” 225; bahul (K1907) inheritance Jane Hill
house other hahng-ēl' (of brush); gìil (K1907) inheritance Jane Hill


Ethnographic Information
Current population (ethnicity) Current population (speakers) Former population estimate Subsistence preference Subsistence notes Density Sedentism Ecotome (riverine/interfluvial/coastal/desert/savannah/etc.) Social hierarchies Multilingualism (rare/occasional/common) Contact languages Marriage pattern Notes Source Created By
small HG medium seasonal no