above

Semantic Field
location
Part of Speech
Meaning Spanish
encima, arriba
Meaning Portuguese
acima

Languages

Language Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Etymology Notes Source Created By General Notes
Bankalachi Toloim pahng-ah “up” 217 inheritance Source: http://www.archive.org/stream/bancroft_chartmerriam_1556_49#page/n167/mode/2up, p. 167 ff, from Mrs. Louisa Francesco, June 9 and 10, 1932 of Upper Deer Creek, and Dan Williams of Poso Flat (Tule River Reservation) (Sep. 28 and 29, 1935, Oct. 13, Jane Hill
Big Smokey Valley Shoshone pan, panai”, pa7ai inheritance Crapo 1976 Jane Hill
Cahuilla 7awsun unknown S&H 1979 Jane Hill
Central Sierra Miwok li/l:e-m:y7 inheritance Freeland & Broadbent 1960 Jane Hill
Chemehuevi -va7a-na "on top of" (loc) inheritance Press 1979 unless otherwise noted Jane Hill
Chumash Barbareno 7alapaj inheritance Wash 2001:82, 188 Jane Hill
Chumash Ineseno 7al-apaj “up, above, (in) the sky” inheritance A17 Jane Hill
Chumash Obispeno ti-L-hisa unknown Jane Hill
Chumash Ventureno 7alalpay “arriba” unknown JPH Jane Hill
Cocopa ma:, ma:k, ma:Ly, ma:m, ma:y inheritance Crawford 1989 Jane Hill
Comanche -pa7a "over, above, on" inheritance Jane Hill
Cupeño -ve'aw [vəɁaw] inheritance H&N* Jane Hill
Esselen ausai “over” unknown Shaul 1995, T&S 1981:121 Jane Hill
Gabrielino hetko, hetek “arriba” unique Harrington Notes from KCH Jane Hill
Iipay 'Aa 'emaay [Ɂəˈ maˑi] inheritance C&H, and see notes Jane Hill
Kawaiisu tugu-baaya- inheritance ZBM1991 Jane Hill
Kiliwa nat unknown Mixco 1996 Jane Hill
Kitanemuk tukuhpavea inheritance Anderton 1988 Jane Hill
Lake Miwok liile “high, on top” inheritance C1965 (unless noted otherwise) Jane Hill
Luiseño 7e/echi inheritance Elliott Jane Hill
Maidu 7epi/n inheritance Shipley 1963 Jane Hill
Mojave 7amay inheritance Munro et al. 1992 Jane Hill
Mutsun taprey 306; unknown Okrand 1977:306 Jane Hill
Nisenan hipin “up” inheritance Jane Hill
Northern Paiute pa7a- “high, above” inheritance Thornes 03:241 Jane Hill
Northern Sierra Miwok li”le-, lil:e- inheritance Callaghan 1987 Jane Hill
Plains Miwok newit:o- unknown Callaghan 1984 Jane Hill
Salinan A le:mo/7 (A), unknown Mason 1918; see Turner 1980 for “reconstituted” forms Jane Hill
Salinan M leM unknown Mason 1918:153 Jane Hill
Seri (Comcaac) cola See note below unknown DS2005 Jane Hill
Serrano -kupia:-7, inheritance KCH2001 Jane Hill
Southern Paiute pa7a-N “high, way up in air” (?) Note: The transcription is modified Sapir so “c” is “sh”, not ts. N means “nasalizing transition” inheritance Sapir 1931 Jane Hill
Southern Sierra Miwok li:leH-to- (nt) inheritance Broadbent 1964 Jane Hill
Southern Ute -gaava, -gwaava, -gyaava, -va7aag'A Caps are voiceless vowels inheritance Charney 1996 (all items from this source unless otherwise noted; see note below) Jane Hill
Tübatulabal paanga inheritance Hill 2009 Jane Hill
Tümpisa Shoshone pa7an inheritance Dayley 1989 Jane Hill
Wappo te/ymu “above, on top” loan Sawyer 1965 except where noted Jane Hill
Washo i/wi7 unknown Jacobsen 1964 Jane Hill
Western Mono tu/gupa, tugupataa/ inheritance Bethel et al 1993 Jane Hill
Wintu panti, inheritance P1985 Jane Hill
Yavapai cha/:(v)-k unknown Shaterian 1983 (unless otherwise noted) Jane Hill
Yokuts Palewyami tullaw “up” unique Gamble 1991 Jane Hill
Yokuts Yawdanchi ThipHin “top, up, on, sky” 237 H is aspiration inheritance K07:237, G64 Jane Hill
Yokuts Yowlumne Tipin inheritance K 1963(p. 213) Jane Hill
Yuki mi:T inheritance S&S 1984 Jane Hill
Yuma 7ama/yvi H2:148; 7ama/y H3:211 7 is glottal stop, / is acute accent on preceding vowel inheritance Halpern 1-6 in IJAL 1947, 48 Jane Hill
Cubeo pʉenoi; ʉ̃mʉi pɨenoi; ɨ̃mɨi unique See Language page Kelsey Neely; Tanja Baeuerlein
Dâw pox pɔx inheritance high' in Hup See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
Desano weca weka unique See Language page Ana Paula; Tanja Baeuerlein
Eñepa yapaya; yapayaʔkə (IDS) japaja; japajaʔkə (IDS) inheritance shared Yukpa See Language page Melody Ann Ross
Waorani æ̃-i-bæ unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez, PLE
Hup buycóʔ buj-cóʔ loan from Tukanoan See Language page Pattie Epps
Makushi yepoi; pairɨ (IDS) yepoi; pairɨ (IDS) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross
Nheengatu iwaté iwaté inheritance See Language page John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
Ninam heska (EM72) heska inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
Maihiki ɨmɨjai ja ɨmɨxai xa inheritance See Language page Daniel Valle
Pemon katua (A1981); iiteepoi (E1977) katua (A1981); itɛpɔi (E1977) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
Resígaro hiípó hiípó unique See Language page Ana Paula B.
Sanumá hɨsɨka (EM72) hɨsɨka inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
Sikuani atjübüyo (3) atjɨ́bɨyo unknown See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, Rebecca Khorram, PLE
Tukano buʔî buʔ î unique loan w/ Hup - Tukano source? See Language page Ana Paula, Amanda Novak
Kotiria be on top of: pisa pisa inheritance See Language page D. Jagannathan, Tanja Bauerlein
Yanomam fesika fesika inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
Yanomami ɨsɨ ha(mɨ) ɨsɨ ha(mɨ) unique See Language page Kelsey Neely
Yukuna cha, richaya tʃa, ritʃaja unknown doubtful loan, direction unknown; Kakua ʧāʔ, Yagua ntʃa See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
Arabana arata doubtful loan Claire Bowern
Bardi galbu kalbu inheritance Claire Bowern
Bunuba rawurra Claire Bowern
Burarra [missing] missing Claire Bowern
Dhangu garrwar inheritance Claire Bowern
Dhuwal garrwar inheritance Claire Bowern
Dhuwala garrwar inheritance Claire Bowern
Diyari miri inheritance? Claire Bowern
DiyariREU mirimiri inheritance? Claire Bowern
Djambarrpuyngu 2195 inheritance Claire Bowern
Djapu garrwar inheritance Claire Bowern
Djinang ṉami unique Claire Bowern
Gajirrabeng gendeng loan Ngarinyin Claire Bowern
Gooniyandi laandi Claire Bowern
Gupapuyngu garrwar inheritance Claire Bowern
Gurindji kankula inheritance Claire Bowern
Jabirr-Jabirr galb kalb inheritance Claire Bowern
Jaru gan.gula inheritance Claire Bowern
Jawi kandee kandi inheritance Claire Bowern
Karajarri kantingka unknown Claire Bowern
Kija laarn loan Claire Bowern
Malyangapa [missing] missing Claire Bowern
Mangala kankarni inheritance Claire Bowern
Miriwung gandu- loan Ngarinyin Claire Bowern
Mithaka [missing] missing Claire Bowern
Mudburra dimbu Claire Bowern
Mudburra kankulu inheritance Claire Bowern
Ngamini kurumu inheritance Claire Bowern
Ngandi garrkala- inheritance Claire Bowern
Ngarluma gankara-nguru inheritance Claire Bowern
Ngumbarl kalboo baaloo goon <kalboo baaloo goon> inheritance Claire Bowern
Nhirrpi [missing] missing Claire Bowern
Nimanburru galb kalb inheritance Claire Bowern
Northern Mangarla kankarningu Claire Bowern
Northern Nyangumarta kanka inheritance Claire Bowern
Nyangumarta kankarni inheritance Claire Bowern
Nyikina kalbu kalbu inheritance Claire Bowern
Nyulnyul galb kalb inheritance Claire Bowern
Paakantyi [missing] missing Claire Bowern
Pirriya [missing] missing Claire Bowern
Pitta-Pitta yakirli ngalpa unique Claire Bowern
Rirratjingu garramat Claire Bowern
Ritharrngu garrwar loan Claire Bowern
Walmajarri kankarra inheritance Claire Bowern
Wangkayutyuru [missing] missing Claire Bowern
Warrwa y kaalbu inheritance Claire Bowern
Wubuy arrwar inheritance Claire Bowern
Yan-nhangu [missing] missing Claire Bowern
Yandruwandha "thalka, kanrra (top)" unique Claire Bowern
Yarluyandi kuru-mu inheritance Claire Bowern
Yawarrawarrka datja unique Claire Bowern
Yawuru kalbu kalbu inheritance Claire Bowern
Achagua áakai áakai unique See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
Piapoco chènuníise tʃènuníise See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
Warekena minaʃi, niwe minaʃi, niwe See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
Yavitero a'niye; hutaye aʔnije; hutaje See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
Wapishana dukʰu ii dukʰu ii unique See Language page Ana Paula B.
Paresi heno heno inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
Baure a'ni-ye a'ni-je inheritance See Language page Anissa Capuccino
Waurá enu; -penu enu; -penu inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick
Bora caáme (T98) kʰaáme inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
Muinane cáamo (W97) káamo See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
Akawaio iideeboi, diieeboi i'debɔɪ, 'diebɔɪ inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin
Apalai epoe epoe inheritance See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
Wayana kawë kawǝ inheritance shared Makiritare See Language page PLE
Tiriyó epoe epoe inheritance See Language page Becky Walker
Makiritare kawə̄ (IDS) kawə̄ (IDS) inheritance shared Wayana See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
Wai Wai eΦoyi; kahsɨ en-ko eΦoyi; kahsɨ en-ko inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross
Waimiri Atroari tyhnaka tɨnaka See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
Yukpa otanasa´yapo, e´payo, epayi, yona, yopaí, yopaye, kitkayuna See Language page Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross
Kalapalo ugupo ugupo unknown See Language page Joyce McCormick
Northern Emberá nrɨ̃́ nrɨ̃́ See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, PLE
Candoshi-Shapra iváaziriita iwáasiɾiita unique See Language page Daniel Valle
Taushiro {-cane} kanɨ See Language page Daniel Valle
Páez cácuete kakuete See Language page Daniel Valle
Tikuna dauxü [3, 5] dauʔɨ unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
Urarina ʨoae tʃoae unique See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
Camsa tsxuan-óka, tsbanán-oka tsxuan-óka, tsbanán-oka See Language page Daniel Valle, Anissa Capuchino
Andoke -dai, '-sí -dai, '-sí unique See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
Pumé See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
Puinave sənə- sənə- unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
Ashuar yakí jakĩ See Language page Daniel Valle
Huambisa paatatek pa:tatɨk See Language page Daniel Valle
Aguaruna awántak, tuntupén awantak, tuntupɨn unique See Language page Daniel Valle
Matses abuc abuk unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
Chácobo mana; kača (mana also means "high") mana; kača (mana also means "high") inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick
Yagua ncha ("encima de"); vata- (adv) ntʃa; vata- doubtful loan Yucuna tʃa, Kakua tʃãʔ See Language page Daniel Valle
Southern Pastaza Quechua awa awa See Language page Daniel Valle
Ingá awama awama See Language page Daniel Valle
Napo Lowland Quichua ahua awa See Language page Daniel Valle
Quechua Ayacuchano hanan (CP94) hanan See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
Piaroa wE'mena' (K76) wæʔmenaʔ unknown See Language page Amanda Novak, Becky Walker
Sáliva otoona otoːna unknown See Language page Becky Walker
Barasano See Language page D. Jagannathan, Tanja Baeuerlein
Carapana bia(pᵾ) bia(pɨ) See Language page Amanda Novak, Tanja Baeuerlein
Makuna jesa-re 'to be above sth' xesa-ɾe inheritance See Language page Amanda Novak, D. Jagannathan, Tanja Bauerlein
Yuruti See Language page Ana Paula; Tanja Baeuerlein
Waikhana See Language page Ana Paula; Tanja Baeuerlein
Siriano See Language page Ana Paula, Kelsey Neely
Tanimuca pẽ'bã rõ'õ 'pi pẽ'bã rõ'õ 'pi unknown See Language page Kelsey Neely
Tatuyo See Language page Emily Buell, Paulina Franco
Koreguaje sẽ'sevʉ sẽʔsebʉ inheritance? See Language page Daniel Valle
Siona ëmëje'en ɨmɨheʔen inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
Secoya mëiñe mɨ̃ĩ̃ñɛ̃ See Language page Amanda N
Kokama arɨwa arɨwa loan Spanish See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
Wayampi alu alu unknown See Language page PLE
Sirionó ibate ibate inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
Kamayurá wɨrip wɨrip unknown See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
Ocaina am̈ijón, aam̈i; bum̈oon, bum̈oónh am:ijó, aam:i; bɯm:õõ, bɯm:õṍʔ unknown See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
Murui Witoto a a (B83) unknown See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
Iquito isácuma, iícumaji isákuma, iíkumahi unknown See Language page Cynthia Hansen
Záparo wakamiryaha wakamiɾjaha See Language page Becky Walker
Wari quimaxi' (lit. chest; E&K97) kimaʃiʔ (lit. chest; E&K97) See Language page PLE
Ese Ejja/Huarayo bia-kwa; eya-wasi-xe; biaxe (Girard 1971); e-hama-koʔoho (Girard 1971) bia-kwa; eya-wasi-xe; biaxe; e-hama-koʔoho See Language page Joyce McCormick
Cavineña e-baro-kʷe e-baro-kʷe unknown See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
Central Aymara patana amta; araχa; alaya See Language page PLE
Kwazá ũcwa- ũcwa- See Language page Joyce McCormick
Movima ariwa ariwa See Language page Anissa Capuccino, Becky Walker
Kaingang kri kri; kɨɲmə̃ See Language page PLE
Djeoromitxi benĩ benĩ See Language page PLE