Kamayurá

Family
Tupian
Region
South America
ISO 639-3
kay
Location
-12.27°, -53.47°
Notes
Features
Basic Vocabulary
Flora Fauna Vocabulary
Cultural Vocabulary
Data Sources
Kamaiurá, Warỳ. 2012. Awetí e Tupí-Guaraní, Relações Genéticas e Contato Linguístico. Brasilía: Universidade De Brasília (MA thesis). Mello, Augusto. 2000. Reconstruções Lexicais E Cognatos. Estudo Histórico Da Família Lingüística Tupi-Guarani Aspectos Fonológicos E Lexicais. Florianópolis: Universidade Federal De Santa Catarina, doctoral dissertation. Seki, Lucy. 2000. Gramática Kamaiurá: Língua Tupi-Guarani do Alto Xingu. Campinas: Editora Unicamp.


Basic Vocabulary (191)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Etymology Notes Source Created By
above encima, arriba acima location wɨrip wɨrip unknown See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
and y e grammar See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
ash ceniza(s) cinzas environment tataopap (M2000) tataopap (M2000) inheritance See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
at en, a em, a location See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
back espalda costas body ˀape ˀape inheritance See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
bad mal mal quality missing See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
belly barriga barriga body ewek ewek inheritance See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
below abajo, debajo abaixo location missing See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
big grande grande quality tuwijap tuwijap inheritance See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
black negro preto colour pitsun pitsun inheritance See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
blood sangre sangue body tɨwɨ (K12) tɨwɨ (K12) inheritance See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
boil/pimple espinilla, granos espinha, borbulha body missing See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
bone hueso osso body kɑŋ kɑŋ inheritance See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
breast pecho, seno peito body kam (K12) kam (K12) inheritance See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
child niño, niña criança human pitaŋ (M2000) pitaŋ (M2000) inheritance See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
cloud nube nuvem environment ɨwɨtsiɑ ɨwɨtsiɑ inheritance See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
cold frío frio quality iroˀɨ-tsang (K12) iroˀɨ-tsang (K12) inheritance See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
correct/true verdad, de veras verdade quality ɑjetewɑt, ajete ɑjetewɑt, ajete inheritance See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
day día dia time 'at 'at inheritance See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
dirty sucio sujo quality ɨwpap (M2000) ɨwpap (M2000) inheritance See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
dingo/wolf fauna See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
dry seco seco quality pi-kaŋ (M2000) pi-kaŋ (M2000) inheritance See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
dull/blunt sin filo, mocho, desafilado, embotado, romo maçante, desamolado, não afiado quality See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
dust polvo poeira environment ɨwɨtsimot (M2000) ɨwɨtsimot (M2000) See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
ear oreja orelha body nami nami inheritance See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
earth/soil tierra terra environment ɨwɨ (M2000) ɨwɨ (M2000) inheritance See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
egg huevo ovo fauna upiˀa upiˀa inheritance See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
eye ojo olho body h-ea h-ea inheritance See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
far lejos longe quality amoete amoete inheritance See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
fat/grease grasa gordura body kap kap inheritance See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
father padre, papá pai kinship missing See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
feather pluma pena fauna missing See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
fire fuego fogo environment ɑtɑ ɑtɑ inheritance See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
flower flor flor environment potɨt potɨt inheritance See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
fog niebla, neblina nevoeira, bruma, neblina environment missing See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
fruit fruta fruta flora ˀɑ ˀɑ inheritance See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
good bueno bom quality katu (M2000) katu (M2000) inheritance See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
hair (of head) cabello cabelo body ˀap ˀap inheritance See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
hand mano mão body hwã hwã unique See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
3sg el/ella ele/ela grammar ɑˀe ɑˀe inheritance See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
head cabeza cabeça body akaŋ akaŋ inheritance See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
heavy pesado pesado quality powɨj powɨj inheritance See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
how? como como grammar mawite mawite inheritance See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
1sg yo eu grammar ije ije inheritance See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
if si se grammar See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
in/inside dentro, adentro dentro location pupe pupe inheritance See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
intestines intestinos intestinos body ɨepo ɨepo inheritance See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
lake lago lago environment ɨupɑp ɨupɑp inheritance See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
leaf hoja folha environment kaˀa, op kaˀa, op inheritance; inheritance See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
left/left hand izquierdo esquerdo location/body missing See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
leg/foot pierna perna body etɨmɑkɑŋ etɨmɑkɑŋ inheritance See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
lightning rayo, relámpago relampago environment missing See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
liver hígado figado body pere pere unknown See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
long largo comprido, longo quality huku huku inheritance See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
louse piollo, piojo piolho fauna kɨp (K12) kɨp (K12) inheritance See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
man/male hombre homem human akwama ˀe akwamaˀe inheritance See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
meat/flesh carne carne fauna h-aˀo (M2000) h-aˀo (M2000) inheritance See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
moon luna lua environment jɑɨ jɑɨ inheritance See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
mother madre, mamá mãe kinship missing See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
mouth boca boca body juru juru inheritance See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
name nombre nome human et et inheritance See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
near/close cerca de perto quality ɨpɨp ɨpɨp inheritance See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
nape base del cuello, nuca nuca body ɑtuɑ ɑtuɑ See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
neck cuello pescoço body ˀajut ˀajut inheritance See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
new nuevo novo quality pɨau pɨau inheritance See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
night noche noite time ɨpɨtun ɨpɨtun inheritance See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
no/not no não grammar missing See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
nose nariz nariz body tsĩ (M2000) tsĩ (M2000) inheritance See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
old viejo velho quality iwet (M2000) iwet (M2000) unique See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
one uno um number mojepete mojepete inheritance See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
other otro outro grammar amo amo inheritance See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
pain/painful/sick dolor, doloroso, enfermo dor, doloroso, doente body missing See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
person/human being persona pessoa human awa awa inheritance See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
rain lluvia chuva environment aman aman inheritance See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
red rojo vermelho colour ipirang ipirang inheritance See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
right/right hand derecha direita location/body missing See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
road/path camino caminho manufacture ape, tape ape, tape inheritance See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
root raíz raiz flora ɨwɑpo, apo ɨwɑpo, apo inheritance See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
rotten podrido podre quality itsatsak, itsar~em (M2000) itsatsak, itsar~em (M2000) unknown See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
sand arena areia environment ˀɨtsiŋ ˀɨtsiŋ inheritance See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
sharp afilado, filudo, filoso afiado quality ajme ajme inheritance See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
short corto curto quality iˀaɨk (K12) iˀaɨk (K12) inheritance See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
shoulder hombro ombro body jeˀatsiˀɨp (K12) jeˀatsiˀɨp (K12) inheritance See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
shy/ashamed tímido, vergonzoso timido, com vergonha mental missing See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
skin piel pele body pit (K12) pit (K12) inheritance See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
sky cielo céu environment ɨwɑkɑ ɨwɑkɑ inheritance See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
small pequeño pequeno quality taˀɨpĩatsã taˀɨpĩatsã inheritance See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
smoke humo fumaça environment tatasing (K12) tatasing (K12) inheritance See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
star estrella estrela environment jaɨtata-ˀi (M2000) jaɨtata-ˀi (M2000) inheritance See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
stick/wood palo pau, vara flora missing See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
stone piedra pedra environment ita ita inheritance See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
tail cola, rabo rabo body uwaj uwaj inheritance See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
that ese/esa esse grammar okoj okoj inheritance See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
3pl ellos/ellas eles/elas grammar missing See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
thick grueso, gordo, espeso grosso quality iˀɨwau (M2000) iˀɨwau (M2000) unknown See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
thin delgado fino quality iˀɨwaˀi (M2000) iˀɨwaˀi (M2000) unique See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
this este/esta este grammar koʔ koʔ inheritance See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
2sg xx xx grammar ene ene inheritance See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
throat garganta garganta body missing See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
three tres tres number moapɨt (M2000) moapɨt (M2000) inheritance See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
thunder truenos trovão environment tupã (K12) tupã (K12) inheritance See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
bite morder morder body uˀu uˀu inheritance See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
blow soplar soprar body missing See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
breathe respirar respirar body missing See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
burn quemar queimar environment ɑpy ɑpy unique See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
chew masticar, mascar mastigar body missing See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
climb subir subir motion omajwu (M2000) omajwu (M2000) unique See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
come venir vir motion jo, jot, ut jo, jot, ut inheritance See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
cook cocinar cozinhar impact missing See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
count contar contar mental missing See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
cry llorar chorar mental jɑeˀo jɑeˀo inheritance See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
cut/hack cortar cortar impact a'ɨp, kɨtsi a'ɨp, kɨtsi unknown; inheritance See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
die/be dead morir morrer state mɑnõ mɑnõ inheritance See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
dig cavar cavar impact o-joˀok (M2000) o-joˀok (M2000) inheritance See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
dream soñar sonhar mental missing See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
drink beber, tomar beber body ɨˀu (M2000) ɨˀu (M2000) inheritance See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
eat comer comer body kɑru/ ˀu kɑru/ ˀu inheritance See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
fall caer cair motion ˀat ˀat inheritance See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
fear miedo medo mental missing See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
flow fluir fluir motion missing See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
fly volar voar motion missing See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
grow crecer crescer state missing See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
hear oír ouvir mental ˀanup ˀanup inheritance See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
hide esconder esconder motion jemim jemim inheritance See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
hit golpear, pegar bater impact nupã; petek nupã; petek inheritance; inheritance See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
hold correr, asegurar, sostener segurar other pɨhɨk pɨhɨk inheritance See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
kill matar matar impact jukɑ jukɑ inheritance See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
know/be knowledgeable saber, conecer saber, conhecer mental kwahap kwahap inheritance See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
laugh reír rir mental huka huka inheritance See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
lie down acostarse, echarse deitar motion aw aw inheritance See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
live/be alive vivir viver, morar body missing See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
open/uncover abrir abrir other missing See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
pound/beat machacar, golpear bater impact nupã nupã See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
say decir dizer mental ˀe ˀe inheritance See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
scratch rascar rasgar impact torok (M2000) torok (M2000) inheritance See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
see ver ver mental etsak etsak inheritance See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
shoot tirar, disparar, balear atirar impact api api inheritance See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
sit sentar(se) sentar state ɑpɨk/ in ɑpɨk/ in inheritance See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
sleep dormir dormir body ket ket inheritance See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
sniff/smell olfatear, oler cheirar body etun etun inheritance See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
spit escupir cuspir body jewun jewun inheritance See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
split partir, dividir rachar, dividir, partir impact joˀok, pɨtupɨtuka joˀok, pɨtupɨtuka inheritance See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
squeeze estrujar, exprimir espremer impact missing See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
stab/pierce apuñalar, acuchillar apunhalar impact missing See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
stand estar de pié ficar em pé state missing See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
steal robar roubar other missing See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
suck chupar chupar body missing See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
swell hincharse inchar body wuwut (M2000) wuwut (M2000) unique See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
swim nadar nadar motion ˀɨtap ˀɨtap inheritance See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
think pensar pensar mental missing See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
throw tirar, lanzar atirar, jogar impact momot (M2000) momot (M2000) inheritance See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
tie up/fasten atar, amarrar amarrar impact missing See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
turn girar, volter, torcer virar other jerowak, mojerep jerowak, mojerep inheritance See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
vomit vomitar vomitar body missing See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
walk caminar, andar andar motion ˀata ˀata inheritance See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
work trabajar trabalhar other porawɨkɨ porawɨkɨ inheritance See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
yawn bostezar bocejar body missing See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
tongue lengua lingua body nekõ (K12) nekõ (K12) inheritance See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
tooth diente dente body je ratɨup je ratɨup unique See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
two dos dois number mokõj mokõj inheritance See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
water agua agua environment ˀɨ ˀɨ inheritance See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
1pl.incl nosotros (inclusivo) nós (inclusivo) grammar jene jene inheritance See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
1pl.excl nosotros (exclusivo) nós (exclusivo) grammar ore ore inheritance See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
wet mojado molhado quality ˀakɨm ˀakɨm inheritance See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
what? que, qué que grammar maˀanuat maˀanuat inheritance See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
when? cuando quando grammar maramuẽ maramuẽ inheritance See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
where? donde onde grammar uma/umam uma/umam inheritance See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
white blanco branco colour tsiŋ̟̟̟ tsiŋ̟̟̟ inheritance See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
who? quien, quién quem grammar awa awa inheritance See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
wife esposa esposa kinship emireko emireko inheritance See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
wind viento vento environment iwɨtu (M2000) iwɨtu (M2000) inheritance See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
wing ala asa body pepo (K12) pepo (K12) inheritance See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
woman/female mujer mulher human kujɑ̃ kujɑ̃ inheritance See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
yellow amarillo amarelo colour jup jup inheritance See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
2pl ustedes vocês grammar pehê pehê inheritance See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
foot pie body pɨ (K12) pɨ (K12) inheritance See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
again de nuevo, otra vez de novo grammar missing See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
all todo todos other wetep wetep unique See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
ankle tobillo tornozelo body missing See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
armpit axila, sobaco axila body missing See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
faeces heces, mierda, excremento, estiércol fezes body je repotsi je repotsi inheritance See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
lung pulmón pulmão body missing See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
sweat sudar suor, suar body missing See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
itch hormiguear, sentir comezón coçar body w-eˀɨj (M2000) w-eˀɨj (M2000) See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
bark corteza casca environment missing See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
fingernail uña unha body hʷape (M2000) hʷape (M2000) inheritance See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
heart corazón coração body hekowa (M2000) hekowa (M2000) unique See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
sun sol sol time kʷat (M2000) kʷat (M2000) unknown See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
mountain/hill montaña, colina, loma, cerro morro, serra environment iˀatɨt (M2000) iˀatɨt (M2000) inheritance See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
green verde verde quality tsowɨ (M2000) tsowɨ (M2000) inheritance See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
hot caliente quente quality akup (K12) akup (K12) inheritance See Language page Rebekah L. Evans


Flora Fauna Vocabulary (135)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Linnean Name Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Range of Term Word Structure Word Structure Notes Classifier Classifier Notes Hypernym Source Association with Social Categories Ritual/Mythologically Significant Ritual Notes Food Source Food Notes Medicinal Medicinal Notes How Collected Who Collects How Prepared Psychotropic Psychotropic Notes Traded Trade Notes Distribution Habitat Dangerous Ethnobiology Notes Species Notes General Notes Created By
horse caballo cavalho flora-fauna Equus caballus See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
horse caballo cavalho flora-fauna See Language page
horse caballo cavalho flora-fauna See Language page
bat murciélago morcego flora-fauna Chiroptera spp. missing See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
bird pajaro, ave passaro flora-fauna wyra wɨra inheritance See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
curassow mitu, montete (Peru), paujil/panjuil (Peru), paujil de Salvin (Peru for Mitu salvini) mutum flora-fauna Crax sp., Nothocrax sp. mɨtũ mɨtũ inheritance See Language page Amazonia Rebekah L. Evans
toucan tucán, pinsha (Peru) tucano flora-fauna Ramphastos sp. tukan tukan inheritance See Language page Widespread Amazonia Rebekah L. Evans
gray-winged trumpeter Grulla, Trompetero Ala Gris jacamim flora-fauna Psophia crepitans missing See Language page Northern Amazonia (N of Solimões), not in northern Colombia; Dark-winged trumpeter is found south of Solimões Rebekah L. Evans
guan pava, pucacunga (Peru), pava de Spix (Peru) jacu flora-fauna Penelope sp. jakuaem jakuaem inheritance See Language page Different types have different localized ranges Rebekah L. Evans
tinamou tinamu, perdiz, gallineta inambu, inhambu flora-fauna family Tinamidae missing See Language page Widespread Amazonia Rebekah L. Evans
hummingbird colibrí, picaflor (Peru) beija-flor flora-fauna family Trochilidae missing See Language page Widespread Rebekah L. Evans
kingfisher martín pescador, catalan (Peru) martim-pescador flora-fauna family Alcedinidae missing See Language page Widespread Amazonia Rebekah L. Evans
owl (large) búho, lechuza corujão flora-fauna order Strigiformes missing See Language page Widespread Rebekah L. Evans
macaw ara, guacamaya Arara flora-fauna family Psittacidae; Ara sp. missing See Language page Widespread Amazonia Rebekah L. Evans
parrot loro real, loro (Sp. form is a loan from Carib) papagaio flora-fauna Amazona amazonica missing See Language page Widespread Rebekah L. Evans
dove paloma pomba flora-fauna family Columbidae missing See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
hawk halcón, gavilán gavião flora-fauna family Accipitridae wɨrapɨ wɨrapɨ unique See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
vulture buitre, gallinazo, rinahui (Peru) urubu flora-fauna family Cathartidae ɨrɨwu ɨrɨwu inheritance See Language page Widespread South America Rebekah L. Evans
duck pato pato, marreco flora-fauna Anatidae family tsiwet (M2000) tsiwet (M2000) unique See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
great egret Garza Blanca, Guyratî Garça-Branca-Grande flora-fauna Ardea alba wɨratsing (K12) wɨratsing (K12) unique See Language page Widespread South America Rebekah L. Evans
woodpecker pájaro carpintero, carpintero pica-pau flora-fauna family Picidae missing See Language page Widespread Amazonia Rebekah L. Evans
dog (camp, domestic) perro cachorro flora-fauna Canis famililaris wararuwijap wararuwijap doubtful loan TG jawara + ? See Language page Not native; widespread Rebekah L. Evans
dog (wild; bush dog) sachaperro, Perro de Monte, Zorro Vinagre, Guanfando; Zorro Ojizarco, Zorro Negro, Perro de Orejas Corta cachorro-do-mato flora-fauna Speothos venaticus; Atelocynus microtis See Language page Widespread Amazonia Rebekah L. Evans
anteater oso hormiguero; tapia pelejo or pelejo chico for Cyclopes didactylus tamanduá flora-fauna Myrmecophaga tridactyla (giant anteater); Cyclopes didactylus (silky anteater) tamanuã (K12) tamanuã (K12) inheritance See Language page Widespread Amazonian lowlands Rebekah L. Evans
armadillo armadillo, carachupa (Peru), yangunturi (Peru for Giant armadillo) tatu flora-fauna family Dasypodidae; e.g. Priodontes maximus (Giant armadillo), Dasypus novemcinctus, Dasypus kappleri tatu tatu inheritance See Language page Widespread in Amazonia Rebekah L. Evans
sloth pereza, pelejo (Peru), perezoso (Peru) macaco preguica flora-fauna Choloepus sp., Bradypus sp. missing See Language page Widespread Amazonia Rebekah L. Evans
alligator, black caiman babilla; cachirre jacaré flora-fauna Melanosuchus niger, Caiman schlerops; Paleosuchus sp. jakare jakare inheritance See Language page Throughout Amazonia Port term reportedly borrowed from Tupi Rebekah L. Evans
electric eel anguila eléctrica poraquê flora-fauna Electrophorus electricus missing See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
fish (generic) pez peixe flora-fauna ipira ipira inheritance See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
pacu fish palometa, garopita, garopa, curhuara (Peru) pacu flora-fauna Mylossoma sp. missing See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
pirana piraña, caribe piranha flora-fauna subfamily Serrasalmidae ipirãj ipirãj inheritance See Language page Widespread Amazonia Rebekah L. Evans
tigerfish taraira, guabina, huasaco (Peru) traíra flora-fauna Hoplias sp. missing See Language page Widespread Amazonia Rebekah L. Evans
mandi catfish maparate (used in Peru for some types of catfish, including Auchenipterus sp.), cunchi (used in Peru for some types of catfish), bagre (catfish) mandi flora-fauna Auchenipterus sp. missing See Language page Widespread Amazonia Rebekah L. Evans
speckled catfish surubí, pintadillo surubim, sorubim flora-fauna Pseudoplatystoma sp. uruwi (K12) uruwi (K12) See Language page Widespread Amazonia Rebekah L. Evans
toad sapo sapo flora-fauna order Anura arutsam, kururu arutsam, kururu See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
iguana iguana, garipiares (Colombia) camaleão flora-fauna Iguana sp. missing See Language page iguana' is reportedly from Arawak iwana Rebekah L. Evans
small lizard lagartija calango flora-fauna order Squamata teju, teju-parap teju, teju-parap inheritance See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
stingray (generic) rayas látigo, raya arraia flora-fauna Potamotrygon sp. jawewɨt jawewɨt inheritance See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
crab cangrejo caranguejo flora-fauna infraorder Brachyura wararuˀa wararuˀa inheritance similar forms in Parintintin and Tapirare (Mello 2000) See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
anaconda anaconda, boa, boa acuática grande sucuri flora-fauna genus Eunectes mojũ mojũ See Language page Widespread Amazonia Rebekah L. Evans
boa boa; mantona (red-tailed boa); boa de altura jiboia flora-fauna family Boidae, subf. Boinae missing See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
snake (generic) culebra, serpiente cobra flora-fauna mõj (M2000) mõj (M2000) inheritance See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
snake (poisonous generic) or rattlesnake víbora (Peru), jergón (Peru), yarara jararaca flora-fauna Bothrops jararaca/atrox jararak (K12) jararak (K12) See Language page Widespread South America Rebekah L. Evans
tortoise (red foot, yellow foot/giant) tortuga, morrocoy, motelo jabutí, tartaruga flora-fauna Yellow-footed: Geochelone denticulata; Red-footed: Geochelone carbonaria jawatsi-pɨta (K12) jawatsi-pɨta (K12) inheritance See Language page Widespread Rebekah L. Evans
Amazon dolphin bufeo, delfín, tonina (del Orinoco) boto cor-de-rosa flora-fauna Inia geoffrensis missing See Language page Downstream of major rapids and waterfalls Rebekah L. Evans
mushroom champiñón, hongo cogumelo flora-fauna (any edible generic) missing See Language page prioritize generic term that includes any edible species Rebekah L. Evans
black palm bacaba, mapora, pusui, patabá bacaba flora-fauna Oenocarpus bacaba missing See Language page Mature forests of Rio Negro and Upper Amazon may be confused in some entries with O. bataua Rebekah L. Evans
açai palm huasí (Peru), asahi, manaca (Ven), asaí, palmiche (Colombia) açaí flora-fauna Euterpe sp. missing See Language page floodplains, swamp; esp. northern Amazonia Rebekah L. Evans
miriti palm moriche (Col, Ven), aguaje (Col, Peru), achual, miriti buriti flora-fauna Mauritia flexuosa myrytsi'yp mɨrɨtsiʔɨp inheritance See Language page Brazil, Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guyana, Peru, Venezuela; in and near swamps trunks contain sago-like starch Rebekah L. Evans
palm for roof thatch pui, irapay, hoja de irapay, caraná caraná flora-fauna Mauritiella armata OR Lepidocaryum tenue (irapay), Mauritius carana missing See Language page Mauritia carana is limited principally to the Rio Negro and Upper Orinoco regions; dry catinga forests palm Rebekah L. Evans
paxiuba palm pona, huacrapona, cashapona, macanilla, pachiuba paxiuba flora-fauna Iriartea exorrhiza OR Iriartea deltoidea missing See Language page Widespread Amazonia palm Rebekah L. Evans
peach palm, pejibaye palm chontaduro (Col, Ecuador); pipire (Col); pijuayo (Peru), pijiguao (Ven); tembe (Bol) pupunha flora-fauna Bactris gasipaes missing See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
seje palm ungurahui (Peru), palma de seje, milpesos, patabá patoá, patuá flora-fauna Jessenia bataua, aka Oenocarpus bataua missing See Language page mostly north of Equator; common in Amazonia may be confused with O. bacaba - compare entries Rebekah L. Evans
coca coca coca flora-fauna Erythroxylum coca missing See Language page secondary scrub vegetation. lower alt. of eastern Andes plant Rebekah L. Evans
cotton algodón algodão flora-fauna Gossypium (barbadense: long fibers; hirsutum: short fibers) missing See Language page secondary scrub vegetation plant; some sources may confound with kapok Ceiba pentandra (esp. if a single gloss for 'cotton' is given') Rebekah L. Evans
kapok ceiba, huimba, lupuna (Peru for Ceiba sp.) sumaumeira flora-fauna Ceiba pentandra missing See Language page northern South America and central America; common in disturbed areas tree Rebekah L. Evans
hot pepper ají, pimentón/pimiento rojo, pucunucho (Peru), charapilla (Peru) pimenta flora-fauna Capsicum sp., principally chinensis and frutescens kɨ'ɨ̃y kɨ̃ʔɨ̃y inheritance See Language page secondary scrub vegetation, indigenous garden plant Rebekah L. Evans
peanut maní (may be loan from Taino Arawak), cacahuete amendoim flora-fauna Arachis hypogaea See Language page plant Rebekah L. Evans
pineapple piña abacaxi flora-fauna Ananas comosus missing See Language page plant Rebekah L. Evans
arrow cane, wildcane caña flecha, caña brava, caña isana cana para flechas, frecheira, Cana-do-rio flora-fauna Gynerium sagittatum See Language page tropical regions, especially river banks plant Rebekah L. Evans
banana, plantain banano, banana, cambur, bellaco, variedad de plátano banana flora-fauna Musa sp. paˀakop paˀakop inheritance? Mello 2000 reconstructs to PTG; Balée 2011 argues for original meaning banana See Language page Names for banana/plantain may be derived from bastard plantain by semantic shift. Rebekah L. Evans
beans frijoles, frejol, caraotas (negras, rojas, blancas) feijão flora-fauna Phaseolus spp. kumana kumana inheritance? - WW %kumana See Language page plant Rebekah L. Evans
grass hierba, pasto capim, grama flora-fauna (generic) missing See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
maize, corn mazorca, maiz milho flora-fauna Zea mays awatsi (K12) awatsi (K12) inheritance See Language page widespread, esp. in river floodplains plant Rebekah L. Evans
tobacco tabaco tabaco flora-fauna Nicotiana tabacum missing See Language page plant Rebekah L. Evans
tree árbol arvore flora-fauna dei dei unique See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
achiote, anatto achiote urucum flora-fauna Bixa orellana missing See Language page secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens shrub Rebekah L. Evans
inga guaba, guamo, guama, shimbillo (Peru) inga flora-fauna Inga spp. missing See Language page Secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens. North and South America (Brazil, Peru, Bolivia, Suriname, Colombia) Rebekah L. Evans
avocado palta, aguacate abacate flora-fauna Persea americana missing See Language page secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens tree Rebekah L. Evans
bitterwood tortuga caspi, pretina (Peru for tree and tumpline); carahuasca (Peru) envira flora-fauna Duguetia sp. OR Fusaea longifolia OR Guatteria chrysopetala See Language page secondary forests, native to Brazil tree Rebekah L. Evans
brazil nut castaña castanha do para (B. excelsa); castanha de cutia (C. edulis) flora-fauna Bertholletia excelsa [cf. Couepia edulis 'castanha do cutia'] minata minata See Language page 1) Couepia: restricted area within Brazil, Rio Purus basin and middle Solimões. 2) Bertholletia: elev: consistently about 200m; mature forests. Widely distributed from Peru, E. Colombia, Brazil to Nicaragua. tree Rebekah L. Evans
cashew anarcado, castaña de cajú, nuez de la India, marañon, cajú, merey (Venezuela) caju flora-fauna Anacardium occidentale / giganteum missing See Language page secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens tree; most sources will not distinguish between occidentale and other varieties Rebekah L. Evans
genipap jagua, majagua - Colombia, caruto, xagua - Venezuela, bigrande - Bolivia, huito, yaguayagua - Peru, ygualti - Nicaragua, maluco - Mexico genipapo, jenipapo flora-fauna Genipapa americana janɨap janɨap inheritance See Language page widespread lowland SA shrub Rebekah L. Evans
japurá oreja de murcielago japurá flora-fauna Erisma japura See Language page large tree Rebekah L. Evans
rubber tree (sorva) caucho, siringa, shiringa seringa, borracha flora-fauna Hevea sp. missing See Language page Widespread Amazonia tree Rebekah L. Evans
ucuqui yugo, caimitillo del monte (Peru) ucuqui flora-fauna Pouteria ucuqui See Language page native to NW Amazonia, found primarily in Vaupes and Caqueta regions other species of Pouteria exist and have much-used edible fruit; these can be subsituted where relevant Rebekah L. Evans
Amazon tree-grape uva de monte, uvilla (Peru), puruma, caime, caimarona (and variants; Col.) cucura flora-fauna Pourouma cecropiifolia missing See Language page grows wild in Western Amazon basin; cultivated in Colombia since pre-Colombian times a tree; not a true grape Rebekah L. Evans
manioc (bitter or generic) yuca brava mandioca flora-fauna Manihot esculenta maniˀp maniˀp inheritance See Language page not generally cultivated in western (subAndean) Amazon. Arroyo-Kalin (2010) argues for a correlation with distribution of dark earths, mostly formed after 1AD, and the modeled-incised pottery tradition. Provides more starch and is more pest-resistant than the sweet variety, but requires much processing. Arroyo-Kalin (2010) proposes that bitter type was developed from sweet through post-ceremic agricultural intensification (motivated by high starch yield Rebekah L. Evans
manioc (sweet) yuca, caribe macaxeira flora-fauna Manihot esculenta missing See Language page Primary staple in western/subAndean Amazonia, less important elsewhere No processing required, but lower starch yield and pest resistance than bitter variety Rebekah L. Evans
potato papa batata flora-fauna Solanum tuberosum See Language page secondary scrub vegetation compare entries for sweet potato Rebekah L. Evans
potato, sweet potato camote, batata dulce, batata, cumara batata-doce flora-fauna Ipomoea batatas jetɨk (M2000) jetɨk (M2000) inheritance See Language page plant Rebekah L. Evans
cará tuber, purple or white camote, sachapapa cará roxo, branco flora-fauna Dioscorea sp. missing See Language page secondary scrub vegetation; forest clearings plant Rebekah L. Evans
tannia, yautia huitina (Peru), ñame taioba branca flora-fauna Xanthosoma spp. missing See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
bottle-gourd (vine) or calabash (tree) calabazo, calabaza; auyama (Dominican Republic and Venezuela), ayote (parts of Central America), zapallo (parts of South America), tutumo/totumo/totuma (Cresc tree), huingo (Peru for Crescentia cujete), tapara cabaça flora-fauna Crescentia cujete (round variety - tree); (Cucurbita) Lagenaria siceraria (bottle variety - vine) kujahapĩ, ɨˀa (cuia), ɨˀapĩ (cabaça pequena) kujahapĩ, ɨˀa (cuia), ɨˀapĩ (cabaça pequena) See Language page indigenous gardens plant; tree Rebekah L. Evans
squash calabaza, calabacines, auyamas, zapallos, huingo (Peru) abóbora flora-fauna Cucurbita sp. missing See Language page plant Rebekah L. Evans
cipó vine tamishi, bejuco, yare cipó flora-fauna Heteropsis spp. missing See Language page secondary forest, floodplain vine Rebekah L. Evans
fish poison, barbasco barbasco, matapez (Colombia) timbó flora-fauna Lonchocarpus spp. tsimo tsimo inheritance See Language page secondary forests and secondary srcrub vegetation shrub/tree Rebekah L. Evans
hallucinogenic vine, banisterium, ayahuasca ayahuasca, yage ayahuasca, caapi flora-fauna Banisteriopsis caapi missing See Language page semi-domesticated, native to Amazonian basin, esp. NW vine Rebekah L. Evans
hallucinogenic snuff vilca, cebil, yopo paricá, yopo flora-fauna Anadenanthera sp. or virola See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
insect (generic) insecto insecto flora-fauna generic See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
ant (generic) hormiga formiga flora-fauna Formicidae ɨawataj ɨawataj See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
bullet ant, lesser giant hunter ant conga, hormiga yanabe (Colombia), isula (Peru), Hormiga Veinticuatro tocandira flora-fauna Paraponera clavata missing See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
leaf-cutter ant Colombia: zampopo, hormiga arriera; Venezuela: bachaco; Peru: curuhuinse saúva flora-fauna Atta sp. missing See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
honeybee abeja abelha flora-fauna Apis mellifera; Tetragonisca angustula; Trigona amazonensis nuˀujeit (M2000) nuˀujeit (M2000) unique See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
cockroach cucaracha barata-do-mato flora-fauna order Blattaria missing See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
firefly, lightning bug lampírido, luciérnaga (Peru), añañahui (Peru), cocuyo (attributed Taino origin) vagalume flora-fauna fam: Elateridae, Fengodidae, Lampyridae missing See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
butterfly, moth mariposa borboleta flora-fauna order Lepidoptera missing See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
moth mariposa nocturna, polilla mariposa flora-fauna order Lepidoptera See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
angleworm lombriz minhoca flora-fauna order Opisthopora ewoˀi (K12) ewoˀi (K12) inheritance See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
centipede ciempiés centopéia flora-fauna class Chilopoda missing See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
scorpion escorpión; alacran escorpião flora-fauna order Scorpiones missing See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
cicada cigarra, chicharra cigarra flora-fauna super fam. Cicadoidea missing See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
flea pulga pulga flora-fauna order Siphonaptera missing See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
blowfly/housefly mosca mosca flora-fauna Diptera meirup meirup inheritance See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
cricket saltón, grillo grilo flora-fauna family Gryllidae missing See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
edible palm-dwelling larva (palm weevil) suri, mojojoy larva, broca-do-coqueiro, aramandaiá flora-fauna Rhynchophorus sp. missing See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
praying mantis, stick insects mantis religiosa louva-a-deus flora-fauna order Mantodea, family Mantidae See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
mosquito mosquito, zancudo mosquito, carapana flora-fauna Anopheles sp. jatsiˀũ, meiruwi jatsiˀũ, meiruwi inheritance See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
termites, white-ants comején (Peru), termitas cupim flora-fauna order Isoptera kupiˀi kupiˀi inheritance See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
tick garrapata carrapato flora-fauna superfam Ixodoidea missing See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
wasp avispa; specific type: ronzapa/ronsapa caba flora-fauna order Hymenoptera, sub: Apocrita missing See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
snail caracol, churo (Peru) caracol flora-fauna class Gastropoda missing See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
spider araña aranha flora-fauna Arachnidae, Araneae januhã januhã inheritance See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
jaguar yaguar, yaguareté, jaguar, otorongo (Peru), tigre (Peru) onca flora-fauna Panthera onca jawat jawat inheritance cf. Arawak, Tukanoan See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
manatee vaca marina, manatí peixe-boi flora-fauna Trichechus sp. See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
brown woolly monkey Mono Lanudo Común, Choro, Churucu, mono choro (Peru), mono lanudo cafe, barrigudo de Humboldt macaco barrigudo flora-fauna Lagothrix lagothricha missing See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
howler monkey (red-handed) mono aullador, mono coto (Peru) guariba flora-fauna Alouatta belzebul [or other Alouatta sp.] akɨkɨ (M2000) akɨkɨ (M2000) inheritance See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
tufted capuchin monkey mono negro (Peru), Machín Negro, Maicero Cachón, mono maicero macaco prego flora-fauna Cebus apella kaˀi kaˀi inheritance See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
white-fronted capuchin Machín Blanco, mono blanco, Maicero Cariblanco, mono blanco (Peru) Caiarara flora-fauna Cebus albifrons missing See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
white-fronted spider monkey Machin Blanco, Mono Araña de Vientre Amarillo, maquisapa (Peru), braceadora (Colombia) macaco aranha, coatá, quatá flora-fauna Ateles belzebuth/paniscus missing See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
opossum zarigüeya, rabipelado, zorro, zorrillo mucura flora-fauna family Didelphidae missing See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
giant otter Lobo Grande de Río, nutria gigante, lutria ariranha flora-fauna Pteronura brasiliensis missing See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
neotropical otter (small) Nutria, Lobo de Agua, lobito de rio, perro de agua (Colombia) lontra flora-fauna Lontra longicaudis missing See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
collared peccary sajino, pecarí de collar, jabalf, Javelina, Saíno, Pecarí de Collar caititu, caetitu flora-fauna Pecari tajacu, Tayassu tajacu jaku-aem (K12) jaku-aem (K12) unique See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
white-lipped peccary Chancho de Monte, Cariblanco, Huangana queixada flora-fauna Tayassu pecari missing See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
porcupine puerco espín, erizo (Peru), casha cushillo (Peru) cuandu, porco-espinho flora-fauna family Erethizontidae missing See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
cotamundi, coatimundi Coatí, Tejón, Achuni, zorro guache quati flora-fauna genus Nasua missing See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
agouti (black agouti, black-rumped agouti) Guatusa Negra, Añuje, Agutí (black-rumped), picure, jochi colorado cutia flora-fauna Dasyprocta spp. akutsi akutsi loan into protolg, direction unknown Carib See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
capybara Capibara, Carpincho, Ronsoco capivara flora-fauna Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris kapiˀɨwat (K12) kapiˀɨwat (K12) inheritance See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
green acouchi Guatín, Punchana, curi, picurito rabudo, picurito rabilargo cutiara flora-fauna Myoprocta pratti missing See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
paca (lowland) Guanta, Paca, Majaz, majás (Peru), labba (Guyana) paca flora-fauna Cuniculus paca (Agouti paca is sometimes used as well although cuniculus is the correct term.) paku paku inheritance See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
mouse, rat ratón camundongo, rata flora-fauna Mus musculus missing See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
squirrel ardilla, danta (Ven) serelepe, quatipuru, esquilo flora-fauna family Sciuridae missing See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
tapir sachavaca, danta anta flora-fauna Tapirus terrestris tapiˀit tapiˀit inheritance See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
deer venado veado, cariacu flora-fauna family Cervidae, esp. Odocoileus virginianus ɨhuku (M2000) ɨhuku (M2000) unknown See Language page Rebekah L. Evans


Cultural Vocabulary (97)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Word Structure Word Structure Notes General Notes Source Created By
basket (general) canasta, canasto, cesta cesto culture-material tupe tupe unknown See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
basket, small canasta, canasto, cesta cesto pequeno, tampado culture-material tupe tupe See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
bead abalorio, mostacilla, cuenta, gota, puca; necklace=collar miçanga culture-material missing See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
bed cama cama culture-material missing See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
hammock hamaca, chinchorro rede culture-material ini ini inheritance See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
bench, seat banco, silla, asiento banco culture-material 'apɨkap 'apɨkap inheritance from 'sit' See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
canoe canoa canoa transport ɨat ɨat inheritance See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
drum (large signal) tambor, manguaré, maguaré (Colombia) tambor culture missing Used to be used by Tukanoan peoples (and others?), sound carried for long distances See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
drum tambor tambor culture-mythology missing See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
shaman, healer chamán, brujo xaman, pajé, feiticeiro culture-mythology paje paje inheritance In RN region, there is typically one person per village (if that) who is a full-fledged 'shaman'. He is very much a specialist and has considerable power to cure, as well as power to curse. He is respected and feared. Shamans are thought to turn themselv See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
healer curandero benzador, curandeiro, kumu (Tukano) culture-mythology Refers to a lower-level healer; in RN region, most older men in a village have this capacity, and command a repertoire of healing spells. Power is primarily for good, whereas the true shaman is capable of malignant acts as well. See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
broom escoba vassoura culture-material missing See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
clothing ropa roupa culture-mythology tɨruhet tɨruhet inheritance See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
fence, palisade cerco cerca other missing may be related to defense/warfare? See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
firewood leña lenha other jepeˀap jepeˀap inheritance See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
Curupira (spirit type) Curupira, Madremonte Curupira culture-mythology malignant forest spirit, covered with long hair, feet turned backward; in Upper Rio Negro region See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
ghost (of dead person)/evil spirit espíritu malo, espíritu maligno, fantasma, demonio espirito culture-mythology missing See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
deity/powerful spirit/culture figure dios(es), deidad divinidade, figura mítica culture-mythology missing In RN region, frequently translates as 'Bone-Son', 'One on the bone', etc. See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
flute flauta, quena (Peru) flauta culture-mythology missing multiple types? japurutu, deer-bone, etc. See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
panpipe carrizo, zampoñas, flautas de pan, rondadora caniço, flauta de pã culture-mythology See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
hollow log/trough for beer-making canoa para chicha cocho de caxiri narcotics See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
ritual song cycle (kapiwaya) kapiwaya capiwaya culture-mythology See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
knife cuchillo faca culture-material kɨeˀi kɨeˀi inheritance See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
machete machete facão culture-material missing See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
axe/stone axe hacha (de piedra) machado (de pedra) subsistence tool missing especially for clearing fields See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
arrow flecha flecha subsistence tool ɨˀɨp ɨˀɨp inheritance hunting, warfare See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
spear lanza lança subsistence tool missing See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
bow arco arco subsistence tool ɨwɨrapat ɨwɨrapat inheritance arco See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
paddle/oar remo remo transport missing See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
plate plato prato culture-material potawɨru potawɨru unknown See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
pot olla, pote panela, vasilha subsistence tool jaˀ ẽ jaˀ ẽ inheritance See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
basin/bowl tazón, plato hondo, taza tijela culture-material missing See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
griddle for cooking flatbread tiesto (Colombia), budare (Venezuela), tortera (Peru) forno para beiju subsistence tool missing agriculture? See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
rattle matraca, maraca marico, chocalho culture-mythology missing See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
resin resina, brea, copal resina, brea, breu subsistence tool missing See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
wax cera cera other missing See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
honey miel mel food missing only gathered in wild throughout Amazonia? See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
stone for lighting fires piedra para hacer fuego pedra para acender fogo culture-material See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
rope/string mecate, cuerda, soga corda culture tupaham tupaham inheritance See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
tattoo tatuaje, tatu tatuagem culture-mythology See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
thatch/roof crisneja palha, caraná culture-material missing See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
yurupari, jurupari (or any flutes forbidden to women) yurupari jurupari culture-mythology jakui jakui a ritual complex in various parts of Amazonia involving sacred flutes/trumpets, forbidden to women. See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
fetish, charm fetiche, encanto, filtro de amor, pusanga feitiço, puçanga culture-mythology See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
feather headdress plumaje, corona de plumas enfeite/capacete de penas culture-mythology See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
paint body, body paint pintura corporal pintura corporal culture-mythology See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
afterworld, land of dead, Heaven tierra do los muertos terra dos mortos culture-mythology See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
school escuela escola acculturation See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
bottle botella garrafa acculturation See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
paper papel papel acculturation kaˀahet kaˀahet semantic shift from 'paint' See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
dream sueño, soñar sonho, sonhar culture-mythology See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
chicken gallina galinha acculturation karakarako karakarako loan - WW %kara (karakarako) See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
grave tumba, sepultura, sepulcro sepultura, sepulcro, cova culture-mythology See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
pipe for tobacco pipa cachimbo other See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
sugarcane/sugar azúcar, caña de azúcar açucar (de cana) acculturation See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
skirt falda, saya, fustan, pollera saia culture-material missing See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
shoes zapatos sapatos dress pɨru pɨru See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
policeman polícia policía acculturation See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
soldier soldado soldado acculturation missing See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
cat gato gato acculturation missing See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
gun arma, escopeta espingarda, fusil acculturation missing See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
hat sombero chapéu dress missing See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
chief/leader jefe, cacique chefe culture-mythology morerekwat morerekwat unknown See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
club garrote, cachiporra clava, porrete subsistence tool See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
loincloth taparrabos, guayuco, pampanilla tanga, tapa-sexo dress See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
fireplace hogar lareira other See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
fishing line cordel/cuerda p/ pescar, sedal, tanze linha de pesca subsistence tool See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
salt sal sal food jukɨt (K12) jukɨt (K12) inheritance - WW See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
song (generic) canción, canto canção culture-mythology missing See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
blowgun cerbatana, pucuna (Peru) zarabatana subsistence tool missing currently limited to certain groups (favoring h-g orientation, e.g. Nadahup) within RN region See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
dart (blowgun) dardo, birote (Peru), bala (Peru) dardo, seta subsistence tool hunting and warfare See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
fan abanico abanador, abano subsistence tool missing esp. for fanning a cooking fire See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
fish (with line) anzuelear, pescar con linea pescar (com linha) food pinamomot pinamomot See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
fish (with fish-poison) pescar con barbasco, barbasquear pescar com timbó; tinguijar food missing See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
hunt cazar caçar food missing See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
game animal caza, animal de caza caça, animal de caça food missing Interesting correlation to 'fish' in Tukanoan languages See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
gourd (dipper/bowl) cucharón, pate (Peru), totomo, totuma, totumo cuia subsistence tool kujahapĩ, ɨˀa (cuia), ɨˀapĩ (cabaça pequena) kujahapĩ, ɨˀa (cuia), ɨˀapĩ (cabaça pequena) inheritance; inheritance See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
grater rallador, rallo ralador, ralo subsistence tool missing esp. for grating manioc, but can be used for other things as well See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
grid of sticks for smoking meat or placing objects (shelf) barbacoa jirau subsistence tool jura jura inheritance See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
mortar mortero pilão subsistence tool enuˀa enuˀa inheritance See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
pestle pilón, mano de mortero, mazo, moledor mão de pilão subsistence tool See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
fermented drink masato, chicha caxiri, chicha culture missing prioritizes manioc beer where distinction is made See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
flour/meal from manioc fariña, mañoco (Venezuela); harina farinha food kuˀi (Mello) kuˀi (Mello) inheritance agriculture See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
flat bread, cassava bread pan de yuca, casabe/cazabe beiju food mejũ mejũ inheritance usually manioc; agriculture, but also can be made from certain wild seeds/fruits See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
starch (tapioca, other) almidón goma de tapioca food missing See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
tapioca drink, mingau cahuana, caguana mingau food missing agriculture See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
tipiti (manioc squeezer) tipiti, matafrio, sebucán, exprimador, prensa para yuca tipiti food missing word of Tupi origin; agriculture: specifically for squeezing poison out of manioc See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
tripod for washing manioc trípode tripé subsistence tool agriculture See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
venom for darts, poison veneno curare subsistence tool missing hunting, currently is falling out of use in Vaupés region, associated primarily with h-g groups (but this may be recent?) See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
woven strainer/sieve colador tejido, cedazo (Peru), cernedor (Peru) peneira, cumatá subsistence tool ɨrɨpem (K12) ɨrɨpem (K12) inheritance agriculture? commonly used for sifting dry manioc flour See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
bait for fishing cebo, carnada para pescar, empate (Peru) isca subsistence tool pinapotap pinapotap can refer to worms; more generic See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
fishtrap trampa de peces, trampa matapi, cacuri subsistence tool See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
bottom grinding stone manufacture if different word from top grinding stone See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
digging stick subsistence tool See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
top grinding stone metate, mano; piedra de moler metate, mano manufacture ahwɑ̃j ahwɑ̃j use word for top grinding stone if different from bottom stone See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
boomerang/throwing stick (generic) subsistence tool See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
spearthrower subsistence tool See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
house other hok, ok, pɨt hok, ok, pɨt inheritance See Language page Rebekah L. Evans