grass

Semantic Field
flora-fauna
Part of Speech
Meaning Spanish
hierba, pasto
Meaning Portuguese
capim, grama

Languages

Language Linnean Name Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Range of Term Word Structure Word Structure Notes Classifier Classifier Notes Hypernym Source Association with Social Categories Ritual/Mythologically Significant Ritual Notes Food Source Food Notes Medicinal Medicinal Notes How Collected Who Collects How Prepared Psychotropic Psychotropic Notes Traded Trade Notes Distribution Habitat Dangerous Ethnobiology Notes Species Notes General Notes Created By
Bankalachi Toloim (NA) yah'-wit Grass (any) loan Yokuts Yowlumne yah'-wil “grass, any”; Wikchamni/Yawdanchi yah'-wut; same underived C. H. Merriam 72-79, 60-473 0 0 0 0 0 no
Big Smokey Valley Shoshone (NA) soni-ppyh grass, hay (M: grass (any) inheritance *sonV Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 1029 (2008:166) same other complex has -pɨ ABS Crapo 1976:138 0 0 0 0 0 no
Cahuilla (NA) sámat ˈsamat brush, herb, grass inheritance *sama/u- Northern Uto-Aztecan S1025a (Stubbs 2009:166 broader (extended to mean herbs in general, and the chaparral community with grass) other complex sama-t -m-exan-7a "inanimate" -m-exan-7a (for inanimates; literally "somehow - doing.thus- possessed.noun") Seiler&Hioki 1979:176 no info 0 0 seeds eaten no info gathered (wild) women seeds ground with other seeds as source of flour for porridges, etc. 0 0 All Americas Diverse habitats no
Central Sierra Miwok (NA) čít:aky- (green, and green tree) green grass/tree inheritance Sierra Miwokan only Also in Miss; from Pmie “green” other complex -y nominalizer Freeland & Broadbent 1960 0 0 0 0 0 no
Chemehuevi (NA) maha Grass inheritance *maha Proto-Northern Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 1614 needs to be corrected (2008:234) same underived Merriam 59:545 0 0 0 0 0 no
Chumash Barbareno (NA) missing missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
Chumash Ineseno (NA) cweq grass, herb unique underived Applegate 280 0 0 0 0 0 no
Chumash Obispeno (NA) pšelpše zacate unique reduplicated Harrington III:1:0232 0 0 0 0 0 no
Chumash Ventureno (NA) tašta7aš grass (any) unique reduplicated taš “un tule muy delgado” Merriam 55:61; JPH III:91:0114 0 0 0 0 0 no
Cocopa (NA) şmal grass, hay, shrub, bush inheritance Delta-California Iipay Aa ɂesemay broader (see definition) underived Crawford 1989 0 0 0 0 0 no
Comanche (NA) sonipɨ grass inheritance *sonV Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 1029 (2008:166) same other complex has -pɨ ABS Robinson & Armagost 1990:153 0 0 0 0 0 no
Cupeño (NA) saval saˈval grass unique same (unlike samat, does not include herbs, weeds, as far as I can tell) other complex saˈva-l grass-npn Hill & Nolasquez 1973:171 no info 0 0 seeds no info gathered (wild but closely managed) women seeds parched, mixed with other seeds for mush 0 0 Americas depends on species no
Esselen (NA) missing missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
Gabrielino (NA) mama:har maˈma:har grass, zacate inheritance *maha- Northern Uto-Aztecan S1614 (Stubbs 2009:234), also S. Numic (I'm sure it's elsewhere in Numic etc.) broader; note poku' mama:har “una rama” Harrington 602, puku' ma:har “1 zacate plant” 164 other complex maˈma:ha-r grass-npn (root may have redup) -hi:n classifier for worthwhile possessions Harrington 602, 164 no info 0 0 for seeds no info gathered (wild but closely managed) women seeds parched, mixed with other seeds, some ground 0 0 Americas depends on species no
Iipay 'Aa (NA) ɂesemay grass, reed, hay inheritance Delta-California Note Cocopa şmal ; a loan from NUA *sama/u?? broader (includes “reed” and fodder function) underived Couro & Hutcheson 1973 0 0 0 0 0 no
Kawaiisu (NA) mă-hah'-bah mahabɨ grass inheritance *maha “brush” Proto-Northern Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 1614 needs to be corrected (2008:234) broader (includes brush) other complex maha-bɨ grass/brush-ABS bɨ, pɨ bɨ, pɨ seem to classify for plants, trees Merriam 59:387 0 0 0 0 0 no
Kiliwa (NA) t+hip grass, fodder, pasture unique This may be same root as tobacco (?-hip “tobacco, cigarettes” broader (grass and its functions) other complex t-hip ?-hip Mixco 1985 0 0 0 0 0 no
Kitanemuk (NA) hamat ˈhamat grass, etc. (includes “any rama” inheritance *sama/u- Northern Uto-Aztecan S1025a (Stubbs 2009:166; similar Yuman forms need thought broader (grass, weeds,hay, etc) other complex ˈhama-t grass-npn -niw possessive classifier for things Anderton 1988:300 no info 0 Kitanemuk used seeds as offerings in most ceremonies 0 seeds 1 tea from one species for eyes, laxative from another gathered (wild) women seeds parched, mixed with other seeds, eaten in diverse preparations 0 0 N/A N/A no
Lake Miwok (NA) púTa grass unique Note Misn po:ca “grass”, no other Mis resemblants. underived Callaghan 1965 0 0 0 0 0 no
Luiseño (NA) $áamut ʹşa:mut grass, weeds, hay inheritance *sama/u- Northern Uto-Aztecan S1025a (Stubbs 2009:166 broader (includes non-grass weeds and vegetation type: note $am-nga “in the fields”) other complex ʹşa:mu-t grass-non.possessed.noun Elliott 1999:828 no info 0 0 many grass seeds eaten no info gathered (wild but closely managed) women seeds parched and mixed with other seeds for pinole mush 0 0 Americas depends on species no
Maidu (NA) sop'ó grass unique underived Shipley 1963 0 0 0 0 0 no
Mojave (NA) ɂichɂivily grass, green plant, field unique Note Yavapai ɂìwīla broader (really means “herbaceous plant”) underived Munro et al.1992 0 0 0 0 0 no
Mutsun (NA) tcasuni (Merriam hoo'-ne' hay; grass (any) unique other complex morphology unknown Mason 1916: 430; Merriam 55:427 0 0 0 0 0 no
Nisenan (NA) potto tall grass, tule; green brush willow (CHM gives for “grass”, along with po-paw' Merriam 57:253 unique Note Mins po:ca- underived Uldall & Shipley 1966 0 0 0 0 0 no
Northern Paiute (NA) wahabu hay, (M: Grass (any) inheritance Numic Stubbs 1635 same other complex has -pɨ ABS Merriam 61:157 0 0 0 0 0 no
Northern Sierra Miwok (NA) po:ca- grass unique Note Mil puTa- ??, Nisenan potto underived Callaghan 1987 0 0 0 0 0 no
Plains Miwok (NA) cike- grass unique probably from the “green” word but not like other examples underived Callaghan 1984 0 0 0 0 0 no
Salinan A (NA) k'a:T grass, hay unique Salinan underived Turner 1980:75 0 0 0 0 0 no
Salinan M (NA) kat; hay, grass; unique Salinan underived Mason 1918:129 0 0 0 0 0 no
Seri (Comcaac) (NA) conée grass unique same underived Comcaac Dictionary 212 0 0 0 0 0 no
Serrano (NA) ha:mt grass inheritance &sama/u- Northern Uto-Aztecan S1025a (Stubbs 2009:166; similar Yuman forms need thought other complex -t NPN KCHill ms 2001:13 0 0 0 0 0 no
Southern Paiute (NA) ugwivɨ grass inheritance *huk(w)i Proto-Northern Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 1027 (2008:167) same other complex has -pɨ ABS Sapir 1930:709 0 0 0 0 0 no
Southern Sierra Miwok (NA) cit:ak- grass inheritance Sierra Miwokan only Also in Mics, related to Pmie “green” underived Broadbent 1964: 0 0 0 0 0 no
Southern Ute (NA) ?ugwí-vŲ grass inheritance *huk(w)i Northern Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 1027 (2008:167) unknown Givon 1979 0 0 0 0 0 no
Tübatulabal (NA) māshil, masshil ma:ˈʃil grass/deer grass (Epicampes rigens), grass, weeds inheritance *maha-si Northern Uto-Aztecan S1033 (Stubbs 2009:167) and see also 1614 broader (includes non-used herbs as well as grass) other complex ma:ˈʃi-l grass-npn Hill 2010:44 no info 0 0 seeds no info gathered (wild but closely managed) women seeds parched, mixed with other seeds, mixed with water as gruel 0 0 N/A N/A no
Tümpisa Shoshone (NA) pohmaa grass, hay, alfalfa, mat, mattress unique from ?poh- *maha “brush” (PNUA, Stubbs 1614 needs amendment) broader (includes grass products) other complex poh-maha ?-brush/grass Dayley 1989:216 0 0 0 0 0 no
Wappo (NA) šíy'e grass, weed (CHM confirms 52:589) unique Looks like Miwokan “green” words underived Sawyer 1965 0 0 0 0 0 no
Washo (NA) mó7c'im grass, hay unique underived WPD 0 0 0 0 0 no
Western Mono (NA) tɨGo'obe grass (generic term) unique same underived tɨ- may be “earth” Bethel et al.:216 no info 0 0 no info Gathered (wild but closely managed) women seeds dried, ground, used in pinole of all types 0 0 no
Wintu (NA) č'aru:q green, greens, grass, edible clover inheritance *č'aro:q(-i) Wintun Shepherd 2005; Golla 1997:164 relates to Alsea su:lha7k “grass” underived Pitkin 1985 0 0 0 0 0 no
Yavapai (NA) ɂìwīla grass unique Note Mojave ɂichɂivily unknown Shaterian 1983 0 0 0 0 0 no
Yokuts Palewyami (NA) missing missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
Yokuts Yawdanchi (NA) yâwud probably yawuT grass (Merriam confirms yah'-wut) inheritance *ja:wil Nim-Yokuts Callaghan 2001:324, notes Csf yah wah “grass”, rejects Csr wai broader (probably includes brush) underived Kroeber 1961:198 0 0 0 0 0 no
Yokuts Yowlumne (NA) ya:wil OK N 225 grass, brush inheritance *ja:wil Nim-Yokuts Callaghan 2001:324 notes Csf yah wah “grass”, rejects Csr wai broader (includes brush, grass at least) underived the final -il appears on other forms and might be an affix but I think it's just an epenthetic vowel i with a final /l/ on the root Kroeber 1961:199 0 0 0 0 0 no
Yuki (NA) yo:T A, F grass unique underived Sawyer & Schlichter 1984 0 0 0 0 0 no
Yuma (NA) hot-lŏ-mots grass (any) unique unknown Merriam 61:475 0 0 0 0 0 no
Akawaio (generic) wannak (SM) wannak (SM) inheritance Northern Carib? See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin
Baniwa (generic) kanápi-ɻi (R01) kanápi-ɻi (R01) inheritance missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B., Aimee Lawrence
Carijona (generic) woyi (SM) woji (SM), ‘hamɯ’tɯkɯ (H&R) inheritance Unknown (shared Yukpa) Also hamɯ’tɯkɯ (H&R) See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
Cubeo (generic) bʉcʉcõriaðo; cõriáðo bɨkɨkõɾiaðo; kõɾiáðo, kõdĩ'ã́ (H&R) unique cf. Arawak kanapi Also bɨkɨkõɾiaðo uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Amanda Meeks
Dâw (generic) yʉʉ́r yɨ̌h inheritance missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
Desano (generic) taa taa, ta inheritance Proto-Tukanoan uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Amanda Meeks
Eñepa (generic) wanaʔ yɨ-pu-n (IDS) wanaʔ yɨ-pu-n (IDS) inheritance Northern Carib? See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Melody Ann Ross
Guayabero (generic) polá polá inheritance l to n correspondence uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram, Aimee Lawrence, Amanda Meeks
Hodï (generic) kia'lo 'ʰkʸẽlõ unique uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Amanda Meeks
Waorani (generic) gagĩbæ̃ unique uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Amanda Meeks
Hup (generic) cǐh cǐh unique underived See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Pattie Epps
Kakua (generic) jilip jìlip inheritance underived See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Katherine Bolaños
Macaguan (generic) ponáp ponáp inheritance uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Rebecca Khorram, Amanda Meeks
Makushi (generic) wanaʔ (SM) inheritance Northern Carib? See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Melody Ann Ross
Nheengatu (generic) caápií kaápií inheritance Proto-Tupi-Guarani Reconstructed PTG Mello 2000 Other complex ka'a 'grass' pĩ ?? See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
Nukak (generic) dʒilip (H&R) inheritance uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no
Maihiki (generic) taja taja inheritance Proto-Tukanoan uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Daniel Valle
Pemon (generic) wanak (M2000) wanak (M2000) inheritance Northern Carib? See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
Resígaro (generic) himiítsí himiítsí inheritance Yucuna-Resigaro only; inheritance or loan? uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B.
Sanumá (generic) sĩsi sĩsi missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Kelsey Neely
Sikuani (generic) póːnaː póːnaː inheritance uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Amanda Meeks
Tariana (generic) kepipipe kepipipe (H&R, Giancone: kanapiri) inheritance Central North Arawak, Rio Negro branch Also Giancone: kanapiri uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B.
Tukano (generic) inheritance Proto-Tukanoan uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Ana Paula, Amanda Novak, Aimee Lawrence
Kotiria (generic) tha tʰáá, tʰa inheritance Proto-Tukanoan uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Amanda Meeks
Wapishana (generic) piniɖi piniɖi unique See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B.
Yanomami (generic) moimoima moimoima (MM07) unique underived See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Kelsey Neely
Yukuna (generic) jimichi himitʃi inheritance Yucuna-Resigaro only; inheritance or loan? uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B., Aimee L., PLE
Bardi (NA) gooljoo gooljoo inheritance underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
Bunuba (NA) bilgi bilgi inheritance pirlki Bunuban assuming Goon gilirni <thorn word underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
Burarra (NA) gorrngunya borrdya unknown simplex 0 0 0 0 0 no
Dhangu (NA) missing missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
Dhay’yi (NA) mulmu mulmu inheritance 0 0 0 0 0 no
Dhuwal (NA) mulmu lawarr unknown cf ḻawarranha Yan-nhangu type of stingray simplex 0 0 0 0 0 no
Djinang (NA) yurryarr yurryarr unique 0 0 0 0 0 no
Gajirrabeng (NA) ramang ramang inheritance rama Jarragan underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
Gooniyandi (NA) gilirni gilirni unknown borrowed from kili 'thorn'? underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
Gumatj (NA) buḻwutja(') buḻwutya(') unique 0 0 0 0 0 no
Gupapuyngu (NA) mulmu mulmu inheritance 0 0 0 0 0 no
Gurindji (NA) yuka yuka loan Jaru NG internal loan *yuka underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
Guugu Yimidhirr (NA) munhu munhu semantic shift Reflexes in other lgs mean 'burnt-over ground'. underived 0 0 0 0 0
Jaminjung (NA) warnta warnta unknown underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
Jaru (NA) yuka yuka inheritance yuka Ngumpin-Yapa uncoded 0 0 0 0 0 no
Jingulu (NA) kurdalya kurdalya unknown underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
Karajarri (NA) bidilj bidilj unique underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
Kija (NA) mangkayam/ny mangkayam/ny unique other word ruraminy could be cognate of rama in othe Jarr. Lgs. underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
Koko-Bera (NA) pukán pukán grass inheritance *pukan pPaman Also in Warrgamay; as *puka attested in Karnic simplex
Kuku-Thaypan (NA) akw3n akw3n inheritance *pukan pPaman Phonological development poss. anomalous in KThaypan. Poss. attested as far as Diyari. underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
Kuku-Yalanji (NA) karrara karrara unique underived /jumul-jumul/ 'grass seed' poss. defines a 'grass' class. 0 0 0 0 0 no
Kurtjar (NA) kuaan & choerkibhay kuaan & choerkibhay inheritance *pukan pPaman pPaman, extending to Warrgamay and poss. as far as Karnic underived kuaan (also choerkibhay?) is preposed to specific terms as a generic 0 0 0 0 0 no
Kuuk Thaayorre (NA) warrath warrath unique underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
Mangala (NA) calkarr calkarr unique underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
Mbabaram (NA) algu algu unique underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
Miriwung (NA) ramang ramang inheritance rama Jarragan underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
Ngandi (NA) bilinjiri bilindyiri unknown 0 0 0 0 0 no
Ngarinyin (NA) dyololu dyololu unknown proto-Worrorran uncoded 0 0 0 0 0 no
Ngumbarl (NA) marra marra loan with meaning change Worrorra WW %maarra underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
Nimanburru (NA) maarra maarra loan with meaning change Worrorran WW %maarra underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
Nyangumarta (NA) partalyu partalyu unique underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
Nyikina (NA) woorroo woorroo unique underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
Nyulnyul (NA) maarr maarr loan with meaning change Worrorran WW %maarra underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
Pakanh (NA) waka waka inheritance *warrka Local Local, but pPama-Nyungan if Pilbara forms meaning 'hair' are counted underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
Rembarrnga (NA) damul-na tamul-na unknown 0 0 0 0 0 no
Ritharrngu (NA) mulmu mulmu inheritance 0 0 0 0 0 no
Tjaapukay (NA) nguyay nguyay kangaroo grass [poss. also generic] inheritance *nguyay pYTj Yidiny cognate is 'kangaroo grass' (Themeda australis) underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
Uw-Olkol (NA) ukan ukan grass inheritance *pukan pPaman Northernmost attestation is Umpithamu /ukan/ 'bulguroo' underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
Uw-Oykangand (NA) ukan ukan grass inheritance *pukan pPaman Northernmost attestation is Umpithamu /ukan/ 'bulguroo' underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
Walmajarri (NA) yuka yuka inheritance yuka Ngumpin-Yapa underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
Wardaman (NA) wolon wolon unknown uncoded 0 0 0 0 0 no
Wik Ngathan (NA) pemp ~ yemp pemp ~ yemp grass (syn; both generic) inheritance *yampa PPaman *yampa reflexes otherwise 'leaf'; etym very tentative underived yemp is preposed as generic for grasses (and sedges?) 0 0 0 0 0 no
Worrorra (NA) madyalba madyalba unknown proto-Worrorran uncoded 0 0 0 0 0 no
Wubuy (NA) mulmu mulmu loan Yolngu 0 0 0 0 0
Yan-nhangu (NA) mulmu dharrthal unknown simplex 0 0 0 0 0 no
Yawuru (NA) kurldyu kurldyu inheritance underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
Yidiny (NA) nguyay (TCGW) & jirrgar (TC) nguyay (TCGW) & jirrgar (TC) inheritance *nguyay pYTj To Tjaapukay /nguyay/ underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
Yir-Yoront (NA) warrq warr7 inheritance *warrka local Pos. pPama-Nyungan if 'hair' senses are included grasses and sedges underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
Achagua (generic) kanáhiʒi kanáhiʒi inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Aimee Lawrence, PLE
Piapoco (generic) màsikài, kanapíri (H&R) màsikài, kanapíri (H&R) See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
Kabiyari (generic) ka:na:phiri ka:na:phiri See Language page Ana Paula B., Aimee Lawrence, PLE
Warekena (generic) masí-be masí-be See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
Yavitero (generic) yewaľi jewaľi See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
Bare (generic) damakaɻuku damakaɻuku See Language page Ana Paula B.
Paresi (generic) ime ime inheritance cognate N. Arawak *himitʃi? See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
Baure (generic) es'hiwok es'hiwok unknown See Language page Anissa Capuccino
Waurá (generic) ata-kahɨ ata-kahɨ unknown See Language page Joyce McCormick, PLE
Bora (generic) pɨɨ́βa, tsʰóxkʰómïxɨ pɨɨ́βa, tsʰóxkʰómïxɨ inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
Muinane (generic) súkkumexe (weeds), ɸáíxɨ súkkumɛxɛ (weeds), ɸáíxɨ See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
Apalai (generic) ona, xirikozuru ona, xirikozuru unique See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
Wayana (generic) paja paja unique See Language page PLE
Tiriyó (generic) woji woji inheritance See Language page Becky Walker
Mapoyo (generic) yurari yurari See Language page Melody Ann Ross
Wai Wai (generic) čuuΦu čuuΦu unique See Language page Melody Ann Ross
Yukpa (generic) pawa (SM) pawa (SM); wóʃe (H&R) See Language page Phon only in source Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross, Aimee Lawrence
Northern Emberá (generic) chirúa ; chirúa; chˈãnso-dyipée tʃirúa ; tʃˈãnso-dʒipée See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, PLE
Tikuna (generic) má-é (Alv44) máʔé unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
Urarina (generic) omane omane unique See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
Camsa (generic) ʃákuana ʃákuana See Language page Daniel Valle
Andoke (generic) sita sita See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
Pumé (generic) kʊrʊ See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
Puinave (generic) ye je, bib (H&R) unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
Ashuar (generic) nupã́ã nupã́ã See Language page Daniel Valle
Huambisa (generic) nupa, nupan nupa, nupan See Language page Daniel Valle
Aguaruna (generic) dupa dupa inheritance See Language page Daniel Valle
Matses (generic) uesin uesin inheritance See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
Chácobo (generic) wasi; niʔi ṣ̌oko wasi; niʔi ṣ̌oko inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick
Yagua (generic) -so; wačuy -so; watʃuy doubtful loan Pano *wasi See Language page Daniel Valle
Napo Lowland Quichua (generic) quiwa kiwa See Language page Daniel Valle
Quechua Ayacuchano (generic) qura, qhachu (CP94) qura, qhachu See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
Piaroa (generic) baˈwi'pahk'uáˈ baɁwiɁpahkɁuáˈ unknown See Language page Paulina Franco, Becky Walker
Sáliva (generic) ohda oʔda unknown See Language page Becky Walker
Barasano (generic) taa taa See Language page Amanda Meeks
Carapana (generic) 'taa 'taa See Language page Amanda Meeks
Makuna (generic) ta ta inheritance See Language page Amanda Meeks
Yuruti (generic) 'táa 'táa See Language page Amanda Meeks
Waikhana (generic) 'taa 'taa See Language page Amanda Meeks
Siriano (generic) See Language page Amanda Meeks
Tanimuca (generic) ta'dya ta'ʎa inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely, Aimee Lawrence
Tatuyo (generic) táa táa See Language page Emily Buell, Paulina Franco
Tuyuka (generic) táa táa See Language page D. Jagannathan, Paulina Franco, Ana Paula B.
Waimaja (generic) See Language page Kelsey Neely
Koreguaje (generic) tʰaʤa tʰaʤa inheritance See Language page Daniel Valle
Siona (generic) taya taja inheritance See Language page Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
Secoya (generic) taya ta'ja See Language page Amanda Meeks
Wayampi (generic) kaʔa; kaʔapiʔi; kwãkwã kaʔa; kaʔapiʔi; kwãkwã inheritance See Language page PLE
Sirionó (generic) ira ruri; kʸata ira ruri; kʸata unknown See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
Ocaina (generic) tyojáán; tyojáánjan tʲohã́ã́; tʲohã́ã́hã unique See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
Nɨpode Witoto (generic) ráidï.aï ráidï.aï See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
Minica Witoto (generic) ráitï.aï ráitï.aï See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
Murui Witoto (generic) raitïkïñ̵o raitïkïñ̵o inheritance/Witoto See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
Iquito (generic) iyásiica ijásiika inheritance See Language page Cjnthia Hansen
Záparo (generic) yawsuka jawsuka See Language page Becky Walker
Wari (generic) tononoin tononoin See Language page PLE
Ese Ejja/Huarayo (generic) sipone sipone See Language page Joyce McCormick
Cavineña (generic) noc̷a; kona (G71) noc̷a; kona (G71) See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
Central Aymara (generic) qora ḳura See Language page PLE
Kwazá (generic) tuituiñɛ̃ tuituiñɛ̃ See Language page Joyce McCormick
Movima (generic) ɗi-mas ɗi-mas See Language page Anissa Capuccino, Becky Walker
Trumai (generic) kutat; kuian kutat; kuian See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
Kaingang (generic) ròrò rɔrɔ; re See Language page PLE
Suyá (generic) See Language page Rebekah Evans
Big Smokey Valley Shoshone soni-ppyh “grass, hay” inheritance Jane Hill
Cahuilla samat inheritance S&H 1979 Jane Hill
Central Sierra Miwok cit:aky- inheritance Jane Hill
Chemehuevi tysy/v(i) inheritance Jane Hill
Chumash Barbareno sicweq “zacate”; cweq (Wash 41) unknown Mithun 1997:225 Jane Hill
Chumash Cruzeno swyly unknown JPH Jane Hill
Chumash Obispeno pshelpshe unknown JPH Jane Hill
Chumash Ventureno tashta7ash “grass in general” unknown JPH Jane Hill
Cocopa Smal inheritance Jane Hill
Comanche soni, sonipY inheritance Jane Hill
Cupeño sava-l [səˈval], [samət] unique Jane Hill
Gabrielino mama:har inheritance Jane Hill
Iipay 'Aa esemay [Ɂəsəˈmai] inheritance Jane Hill
Kiliwa smiil “hierba” unknown Jane Hill
Kitanemuk hamat inheritance Jane Hill
Lake Miwok pu/Ta unique Jane Hill
Luiseño $a:-mu-t inheritance Jane Hill
Maidu sop'o/ unknown Jane Hill
Mojave kwiimiith “lawn” inheritance Jane Hill
Mutsun huni “any type of grass” unknown NW (JPH) Jane Hill
Northern Paiute wahaby “grass, hay” inheritance Thornes 03:106 Jane Hill
Northern Sierra Miwok po:ca- unknown Jane Hill
Plains Miwok sese-, inheritance Jane Hill
Salinan A k'a:Th (A), unknown Jane Hill
Salinan M petL unknown Mason 1918:129 Jane Hill
Seri (Comcaac) cone/e unknown Jane Hill
Serrano ha:m-t inheritance Jane Hill
Southern Paiute ugwi-vy inheritance Jane Hill
Southern Sierra Miwok cit:ak- inheritance Jane Hill
Southern Ute sag'wa7itY, “grass, greenery, flowers” inheritance Jane Hill
Tübatulabal mashil inheritance Jane Hill
Tümpisa Shoshone pohmaa(ppyh) unique Jane Hill
Wappo game unknown Jane Hill
Washo móʔc'im unknown Washo Project Jane Hill
Western Mono ty/go7o/be; unknown Jane Hill
Wintu c'aru:q “green, grass,clover” inheritance? Jane Hill
Yavapai ?i\wi_la, ?i\wi^l unknown Jane Hill
Yokuts Yawdanchi yawud “brush, grass” 243 inheritance K07:243 Jane Hill
Yokuts Yowlumne ya/\wil inheritance K 1963 Jane Hill
Yuki yo:T unknown S&S 1984 Jane Hill
Arabana kantjarra inheritance Claire Bowern
Bardi garawal karawal inheritance Claire Bowern
Bunuba birlgi unknown Claire Bowern
Burarra gorrngunya unknown Claire Bowern
Dhangu [missing] missing Claire Bowern
Dhuwal mulmu Claire Bowern
Dhuwala buḻwutja(') unknown Claire Bowern
Diyari kanhtha inheritance Claire Bowern
DiyariREU kuljuru loan Arabana Claire Bowern
Djambarrpuyngu mulmu inheritance Claire Bowern
Djapu mulmu inheritance Claire Bowern
Djinang yurryarr unknown Claire Bowern
Gajirrabeng ramang unique NJ Claire Bowern
Gooniyandi girlani unique Claire Bowern
Gupapuyngu mulmu inheritance Claire Bowern
Gurindji yuka loan Claire Bowern
Jabirr-Jabirr bidilj bidily inheritance Claire Bowern
Jaru yuga inheritance Claire Bowern
Karajarri jalngu unknown Claire Bowern
Kija rurra- unique Claire Bowern
Malyangapa Mal: muthu loan direction unknown Claire Bowern
Mangala yuka unknown Claire Bowern
Miriwung ramang unique NJ Claire Bowern
Mithaka kantha inheritance Claire Bowern
Mudburra 548 Claire Bowern
Mudburra bigira loan Claire Bowern
Ngamini kanta inheritance Claire Bowern
Ngandi mulmu loan Claire Bowern
Ngarluma peela or peelan,worroba Claire Bowern
Ngumbarl marra <marra> semantic shift Claire Bowern
Nhirrpi kanda inheritance Claire Bowern
Nimanburru maarra maarra semantic shift Claire Bowern
Northern Mangarla yuka inheritance? Claire Bowern
Northern Nyangumarta partalyu unknown Claire Bowern
Nyangumarta warrapa loan Pilbara Claire Bowern
Nyikina woorroo wurru inheritance Claire Bowern
Nyulnyul maarr maarr semantic shift Claire Bowern
Paakantyi molo, muttoo unique Claire Bowern
Pirriya kantha inheritance Claire Bowern
Pitta-Pitta pukarrha inheritance Claire Bowern
Rirratjingu bulmirri Claire Bowern
Ritharrngu mulmu inheritance Claire Bowern
Walmajarri yuka inheritance Claire Bowern
Wangkayutyuru pukarra inheritance Claire Bowern
Warrwa n wuurru inheritance Claire Bowern
Wubuy marda unique Claire Bowern
Yan-nhangu mulmu inheritance Claire Bowern
Yandruwandha kantha, kurrkari inheritance Claire Bowern
Yarluyandi kanda inheritance Claire Bowern
Yawarrawarrka kanta inheritance Claire Bowern
Yawuru kurlju kurlju inheritance Claire Bowern