Burarra

Family
Maningrida
Region
Australia
ISO 639-3
bvr
Location
-12.02°, 134.72°
Notes
Features
Basic Vocabulary
Flora Fauna Vocabulary
Cultural Vocabulary
Ethnographic Information
Data Sources
none


Basic Vocabulary (186)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Etymology Notes Source Created By
1pl.excl nosotros (exclusivo) nós (exclusivo) grammar ngayburrgugu inheritance? Claire Bowern
1pl.incl nosotros (inclusivo) nós (inclusivo) grammar nguburr- unknown Claire Bowern
1sg yo eu grammar [missing] missing Claire Bowern
2pl ustedes vocês grammar [missing] missing Claire Bowern
2sg xx xx grammar ny- inheritance Claire Bowern
3pl ellos/ellas eles/elas grammar [missing] missing Claire Bowern
3sg el/ella ele/ela grammar [missing] missing Claire Bowern
above encima, arriba acima location [missing] missing Claire Bowern
again de nuevo, otra vez de novo grammar mola unknown Claire Bowern
all todo todos other -murra unknown Claire Bowern
and y e grammar aa unknown Claire Bowern
ankle tobillo tornozelo body gun-mardaparr Claire Bowern
armpit axila, sobaco axila body warmbarrk unknown Claire Bowern
ashamed xx xx mental gona loan Yolngu Claire Bowern
ashes xx xx environment 1876 unknown Claire Bowern
at en, a em, a location [missing] missing Claire Bowern
back espalda costas body jonama unknown Claire Bowern
bad mal mal quality -nerra unknown Claire Bowern
be alive xx xx body wanngu loan Yan-nhangu Claire Bowern
belly barriga barriga body gochila unknown Claire Bowern
below abajo, debajo abaixo location missing Claire Bowern
big grande grande quality wana unknown Claire Bowern
bite morder morder body baya doubtful loan Pama-Nyungan Claire Bowern
black negro preto colour ngunyja unknown Claire Bowern
blood sangre sangue body maningan / -maningan unknown Claire Bowern
blow soplar soprar body bupija unknown Claire Bowern
blunt xx xx quality -jamala doubtful loan Djinang Claire Bowern
bone hueso osso body -mama unknown Claire Bowern
boomerang xx xx manufacture garligarli loan Yolngu Claire Bowern
breast pecho, seno peito body ngamangama unknown Claire Bowern
breathe respirar respirar body ngeka unknown Claire Bowern
burn quemar queimar environment rro unknown Claire Bowern
chew masticar, mascar mastigar body jilamja unknown Claire Bowern
child niño, niña criança human -gungarda / gu-ngarda inheritance Claire Bowern
climb subir subir motion warrcha unknown Claire Bowern
cloud nube nuvem environment nguparr unknown Claire Bowern
cold frío frio quality -mujarracharra unknown Claire Bowern
come venir vir motion bengga unknown Claire Bowern
cook cocinar cozinhar impact wumbargujama unknown Claire Bowern
count contar contar mental 1923 unknown Claire Bowern
cry llorar chorar mental rruwuja unknown Claire Bowern
cut xx xx impact gornda unknown Claire Bowern
die/be dead morir morrer state juwa unknown Claire Bowern
dig cavar cavar impact gapaja unknown Claire Bowern
dingo/wolf fauna an-mugarla unknown Claire Bowern
dirty sucio sujo quality birninyja unknown Claire Bowern
dream soñar sonhar mental borrcheka unknown Claire Bowern
drink beber, tomar beber body wurlcha unknown Claire Bowern
dry seco seco quality -gorla unknown Claire Bowern
dust polvo poeira environment [missing] missing Claire Bowern
ear oreja orelha body gelama unknown Claire Bowern
earth/soil tierra terra environment jel unknown Claire Bowern
eat comer comer body bay unknown Claire Bowern
egg huevo ovo fauna -giya / giya unknown Claire Bowern
eye ojo olho body mipila unknown Claire Bowern
faeces heces, mierda, excremento, estiércol fezes body ngukarda unknown Claire Bowern
fall caer cair motion bungga unknown Claire Bowern
far lejos longe quality barrparrwa unknown Claire Bowern
fat/grease grasa gordura body burlurla unknown Claire Bowern
father padre, papá pai kinship nyinya unknown Claire Bowern
fear miedo medo mental jurkuja unknown Claire Bowern
feather pluma pena fauna mula unknown Claire Bowern
fire fuego fogo environment bol unknown Claire Bowern
fish xx xx fauna gurdijarra unknown Claire Bowern
flow fluir fluir motion [missing] missing Claire Bowern
flower flor flor environment -jawanyja unknown Claire Bowern
fly volar voar motion muya unknown Claire Bowern
fog niebla, neblina nevoeira, bruma, neblina environment -jola unknown Claire Bowern
foot pie body jugurra unknown Claire Bowern
fruit fruta fruta flora balaja unknown Claire Bowern
good bueno bom quality manymak loan areal Claire Bowern
grow crecer crescer state wana ni bamba unknown Claire Bowern
hair (of head) cabello cabelo body mejimija unknown Claire Bowern
hand mano mão body murna inheritance Claire Bowern
head cabeza cabeça body jawurrga unknown Claire Bowern
hear oír ouvir mental galiya unknown Claire Bowern
heavy pesado pesado quality -gun.gun loan direction unknown Claire Bowern
hide esconder esconder motion barrbirrima unknown Claire Bowern
hit golpear, pegar bater impact bu inheritance Yolngu Claire Bowern
hit (with hand) xx xx impact buya inheritance Yolngu Claire Bowern
hold correr, asegurar, sostener segurar other rrimachichiya unknown Claire Bowern
how? como como grammar [missing] missing Claire Bowern
if si se grammar minyja unknown Claire Bowern
in/inside dentro, adentro dentro location wuparnana unknown Claire Bowern
intestines intestinos intestinos body -jirromba unknown Claire Bowern
itch hormiguear, sentir comezón coçar body rrirrja unknown Claire Bowern
kill matar matar impact guya rruma unknown Claire Bowern
know/be knowledgeable saber, conecer saber, conhecer mental marn.gi loan Yolngu Claire Bowern
lake lago lago environment [missing] missing Claire Bowern
laugh reír rir mental gu-wakal bu doubtful loan Yolngu Claire Bowern
leaf hoja folha environment jarlawurra unknown Claire Bowern
left/left hand izquierdo esquerdo location/body -weyka unknown Claire Bowern
leg/foot pierna perna body jerra unknown Claire Bowern
lie down acostarse, echarse deitar motion gurrmiya unknown Claire Bowern
lightning rayo, relámpago relampago environment maykarran loan direction unknown Claire Bowern
liver hígado figado body -dumbulk unknown Claire Bowern
long largo comprido, longo quality -baykarda unknown Claire Bowern
louse piollo, piojo piolho fauna dalmurk unknown Claire Bowern
lung pulmón pulmão body -jikwich doubtful loan Yolngu djikiwitj Claire Bowern
man/male hombre homem human wurra unknown Claire Bowern
meat/flesh carne carne fauna minyjak unknown Claire Bowern
moon luna lua environment an-jirderda unknown Claire Bowern
mother madre, mamá mãe kinship muma unknown Claire Bowern
mouth boca boca body ngana unknown Claire Bowern
name nombre nome human -nelangga unknown Claire Bowern
nape base del cuello, nuca nuca body mobula unknown Claire Bowern
near/close cerca de perto quality ay-gurrepa unknown Claire Bowern
neck cuello pescoço body manyjirda unknown Claire Bowern
new nuevo novo quality -geka unknown Claire Bowern
night noche noite time ana-munya loan Yolngu Claire Bowern
no/not no não grammar ngika unknown Claire Bowern
nose nariz nariz body ngoyurra unknown Claire Bowern
old viejo velho quality -maywa unknown Claire Bowern
one uno um number -ngardapa unknown Claire Bowern
open/uncover abrir abrir other lapkujama loan Yolngu Claire Bowern
other otro outro grammar -werranga Claire Bowern
person/human being persona pessoa human wurra gama gorlk unknown Claire Bowern
pimple xx xx body bongbongja unknown Claire Bowern
rain lluvia chuva environment mu-lamula unknown Claire Bowern
red rojo vermelho colour -mugulumberrpa doubtful loan Claire Bowern
right/right hand derecha direita location/body -munganaguwa unknown Claire Bowern
road/path camino caminho manufacture guburda unknown Claire Bowern
roof xx xx manufacture bala loan Claire Bowern
root raíz raiz flora rrepara unknown Claire Bowern
rotten podrido podre quality -gulol unknown Claire Bowern
sand arena areia environment jaranga unknown Claire Bowern
say decir dizer mental wengga inheritance Claire Bowern
scratch rascar rasgar impact wirrka loan Yolngu Claire Bowern
see ver ver mental garrgaja unknown Claire Bowern
sharp afilado, filudo, filoso afiado quality -dirrartka unknown Claire Bowern
shoot tirar, disparar, balear atirar impact [missing] missing Claire Bowern
short corto curto quality -balmbarra unknown Claire Bowern
shoulder hombro ombro body wagarba unknown Claire Bowern
sick xx xx body gu-derda unknown Claire Bowern
sit sentar(se) sentar state ninya loan Yolngu Claire Bowern
skin piel pele body -maliyarra unknown Claire Bowern
sky cielo céu environment girlngarr unknown Claire Bowern
sleep dormir dormir body ngorrngurra loan Yolngu Claire Bowern
small pequeño pequeno quality -balgurla Claire Bowern
smell (tr/intr) xx xx body numa loan Yolngu Claire Bowern
smoke humo fumaça environment jolnga unknown Claire Bowern
spit escupir cuspir body mun-jirdajirda unknown Claire Bowern
split partir, dividir rachar, dividir, partir impact barrja unknown Claire Bowern
squeeze estrujar, exprimir espremer impact mornja unknown Claire Bowern
stab/pierce apuñalar, acuchillar apunhalar impact [missing] missing Claire Bowern
stand estar de pié ficar em pé state -jirra loan Yolngu Claire Bowern
star estrella estrela environment marnnga unknown Claire Bowern
steal robar roubar other [missing] missing Claire Bowern
stone piedra pedra environment jandarra unknown Claire Bowern
suck chupar chupar body bunyja loan Yolngu Claire Bowern
sun sol sol time marnnga unknown Claire Bowern
sweat sudar suor, suar body ngurrunda unknown Claire Bowern
swell hincharse inchar body durtwarrcha loan Yan-nhangu Claire Bowern
swim nadar nadar motion waywa doubtful loan Yolngu Claire Bowern
tail cola, rabo rabo body marda unknown Claire Bowern
that ese/esa esse grammar garda unknown Claire Bowern
thick grueso, gordo, espeso grosso quality -bimbelambila Claire Bowern
thin delgado fino quality werrwerra Claire Bowern
think pensar pensar mental borrwiya unknown Claire Bowern
this este/esta este grammar -guna unknown Claire Bowern
three tres tres number [missing] missing Claire Bowern
throat garganta garganta body gu-lorra unknown Claire Bowern
throw tirar, lanzar atirar, jogar impact jurrka unknown Claire Bowern
thunder truenos trovão environment durrja unknown Claire Bowern
tie up/fasten atar, amarrar amarrar impact gochilabicha unknown Claire Bowern
tongue lengua lingua body ngarl unknown Claire Bowern
tooth diente dente body rrirra loan Yolngu Claire Bowern
true xx xx quality gelama gelama bay loan Yolngu Claire Bowern
turn girar, volter, torcer virar other ngukurdanyja unknown Claire Bowern
two dos dois number -gulirrwirrka unknown Claire Bowern
vomit vomitar vomitar body gurlja unknown Claire Bowern
walk caminar, andar andar motion rrigirrga unknown Claire Bowern
water agua agua environment bugula unknown Claire Bowern
wet mojado molhado quality -jalmuna unknown Claire Bowern
what? que, qué que grammar [missing] missing Claire Bowern
when? cuando quando grammar [missing] missing Claire Bowern
where? donde onde grammar gu-yanngiya Claire Bowern
white blanco branco colour -gungarlcha unknown Claire Bowern
who? quien, quién quem grammar [missing] missing Claire Bowern
wife esposa esposa kinship menggapa unknown Claire Bowern
wind viento vento environment barlmarrk loan Claire Bowern
wing ala asa body mechak unknown Claire Bowern
woman/female mujer mulher human gama unknown Claire Bowern
work trabajar trabalhar other jama loan Claire Bowern
yawn bostezar bocejar body ngawucha unknown Claire Bowern
yellow amarillo amarelo colour dulgu unknown Claire Bowern


Flora Fauna Vocabulary (139)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Linnean Name Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Range of Term Word Structure Word Structure Notes Classifier Classifier Notes Hypernym Source Association with Social Categories Ritual/Mythologically Significant Ritual Notes Food Source Food Notes Medicinal Medicinal Notes How Collected Who Collects How Prepared Psychotropic Psychotropic Notes Traded Trade Notes Distribution Habitat Dangerous Ethnobiology Notes Species Notes General Notes Created By
grasshopper flora-fauna Caelifera jin-gugarrarramiya dyin-gubatpattya unique dyin- noun class 2 1 0 0 0 no
agile wallaby, river wallaby flora-fauna Macropus agilis balkich balkity loan direction unknown Gupapuyngu simplex 0 1 0 0 0 no
ant (generic) hormiga formiga flora-fauna Formicidae bojokpojok bodyokpodyok unknown reduplicated 0 0 0 0 0 no
Australian pelican flora-fauna Pelecanus conspicillatus nanyja nanydya unknown cf ṉanydyak nose in Gumatj, Yan-nhangu simplex 0 0 0 0 0 no
Australian snubfin dolphin flora-fauna Orcaella heinsohnii marnba marnba loan with meaning change Yan-nhangu 0 0 0 0 0 no
baler shell flora-fauna Melo amphora missing missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
bandicoot flora-fauna Peramelemorphia warngurra warngurra loan direction unknown Djinang WW %warnkurra 0 0 0 0 0
barn owl flora-fauna Tyto alba missing missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
barramundi flora-fauna Lates calcarifer rajarra dyanambal unknown 1 1 0 0 0 no
bat murciélago morcego flora-fauna Chiroptera spp missing garnapinybiny unique 0 1 0 0 0 no
bindii, caltrop flora-fauna Tribulus terrestris missing missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
bird pajaro, ave passaro flora-fauna burdacha bawul unknown simplex 0 0 0 0 0 no
black-breasted buzzard flora-fauna Hamirostra melanosternon missing gurrtyirityir unique missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
black-faced cuckoo-shrike flora-fauna Coracina novaehollandiae missing missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
black-headed python flora-fauna Aspidites melanocephalus jin-guyalwur dyin-guyalwur unknown dyin- noun class 0 2 0 0 0 no
black-soil yam flora-fauna Ipomoea diamantinensis missing missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
bloodwood flora-fauna Eucalyptus (Corymbia) bleeseri burlba bulba unknown 0 1 1 0 0 no
blowfly maggots flora-fauna Diptera, Sarcophagidae doldol doldol maggot unique reduplicated 0 0 0 0 0 no
blue-tongue lizard flora-fauna Tiliqua species dopalol dopalol unique 0 1 0 0 0 no
blue-winged kookaburra flora-fauna Dacelo leachii gu-rrolkurrol gu-rrolkurrol unknown gu- noun class reduplicated 0 0 0 0 0 no
bluebone flora-fauna Choerodon cyanodus missing missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
brolga flora-fauna Grus rubicunda manikurdorrk manikurdorrk unknown 1 0 0 0 0 no
brown goshawk flora-fauna Accipiter fasciatus garrkiny garrkiny loan direction unknown Rembarrnga WW %karrkiny 0 0 0 0 0 no
brush-tailed possum flora-fauna Trichosurus vulpecula warragul warragul Northern Brushtail Possum unknown simplex 0 1 0 0 0 no
bush cockroach flora-fauna (many species) bulanyja bulanydya beetle unknown 0 0 0 0 0 no
bush stone-curlew flora-fauna Burhinus grallarius gumurnda gumurnda loan direction unknown Gupapuyngu simplex 1 0 0 0 0 no
bush tobacco flora-fauna Lobelia quadrangularis missing missing missing 0 0 0 1 0 no
bush turkey, Australian bustard flora-fauna Ardeotis australis buwarta buwarta Plains Turkey loan direction unknown Gupapuyngu 0 1 0 0 0 no
bush yam flora-fauna Vigna lanceolata var. lanceolata missing missing missing 0 1 2 0 1 no
butterfly, moth mariposa borboleta flora-fauna Lepidoptera missing missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
carpet snake flora-fauna Morelia spilota missing 0 1 0 0 0
caterpillar flora-fauna Lepidoptera dapalany dapalany loan Yolngu simplex 0 0 0 0 0 no
catfish flora-fauna (many species) missing warrwarrnya unique missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
centipede ciempiés centopéia flora-fauna Chilopoda, Myriapoda jin-guga dyin-guga unknown 0 0 0 0 0 no
channel-billed cuckoo flora-fauna Scythops novaehollandiae missing missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
crested pigeon flora-fauna Ocyphaps lophotes missing missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
darter/cormorant flora-fauna Anhinga melanogaster, Phalacrocorax species balagurdarr balagurdarr Darter unknown 0 1 0 0 0 no
death adder, five-minute snake flora-fauna Acanthophis praelongus an-gubamartalja an-gubamartaldya Death Adder unknown 0 0 0 0 0 yes
dingo flora-fauna Canis familiaris dingo an-mugarla an-gugurkudya unknown gugurkudya means “fearful one, shameful thing” 0 0 0 0 0 no
dog (camp, domestic) perro cachorro flora-fauna Canis familiaris gulukula gulukula unknown simplex 0 0 0 0 0 no
duck pato pato, marreco flora-fauna Anatidae missing missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
dugong flora-fauna Dugon dugong jinunggayngu dyinuŋgayŋu inheritance 1 1 0 0 0 no
earthworm flora-fauna Annelida, Oligochaeta bong boŋ unknown 0 0 0 0 0 no
emu flora-fauna Dromaius novaehollandiae wurrparn wurrparn loan Yolngu WW %wurrparn simplex 2 1 2 0 0 no
fish (generic) pez peixe flora-fauna gurdijarra gurdidyarra unknown simplex 0 1 0 0 0 N/A
flower flora-fauna (NA) missing missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
blowfly/housefly mosca mosca flora-fauna Diptera muya muya unknown simplex 0 0 0 0 0 no
flying-fox (generic) flora-fauna (many species) galgu galgu unknown simplex 0 0 0 0 0 no
freshwater crocodile flora-fauna Crocodylus johnstoni gardukardu gardukardu unknown reduplicated 0 0 0 0 0 no
freshwater mussel flora-fauna Velesunio wilsoni missing mutyarra unique missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
freshwater prawn flora-fauna Macrobrachium rosenbergii ramacha arr-merndarra unknown arr- first person marker? 0 1 0 0 0 no
frill-necked lizard flora-fauna Chlamydosaurus kingii an-gurreymagonyinyjiya an-gugelamagonyinydyiya unknown 0 1 0 0 0 no
frog (generic) flora-fauna (many species) bogaboga bogaboga unknown reduplicated 0 0 0 0 0 no
galah flora-fauna Eolophus roseicapilla wirliwirla unique 0 0 0 0 0
turtle (generic) flora-fauna (many species) missing missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
ghost gum flora-fauna Eucalyptus papuana (Corymbia bella) missing missing missing 2 0 1 0 0 no
goanna (generic) or sand goanna flora-fauna Varanus spp gun-baḻ ana-dyawa gun-baḻ ana-dyawa unique phrase 0 1 2 0 0 no
grass hierba, pasto capim, grama flora-fauna (NA) gorrngunya borrdya unknown simplex 0 0 0 0 0 no
grasshopper flora-fauna Orthoptera dyin-gubatpattya unknown dyin- noun class 0 0 0 0 0
great bowerbird flora-fauna Chlamydera nuchalis mu-rran mu-rran unknown mu- noun class 1 0 0 0 0 no
green ant flora-fauna Oecophylla smaragdina muya muya semantic shift? “muya” also means “fly” simplex 0 2 2 0 0 no
green sea turtle flora-fauna Chelonia mydas garriwa garriwa loan direction unknown WW %karriwa 1 1 0 0 0 no
green tree snake flora-fauna Dendrelaphis punctulata missing missing missing 0 2 0 0 0 no
head/body lice flora-fauna Pediculus capitis, Pediculus humanus dalmurk dalmurk louse unknown 0 0 0 0 0 no
horse caballo cavalho flora-fauna Equus caballus missing missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
hummingbird colibrí, picaflor (Peru) beija-flor flora-fauna Trochilidae an-mugirrirta an-mugirrirta unknown “an-” noun class marker 0 0 0 0 0 no
humpback whale flora-fauna Megaptera novaeangliae missing wuymurra unique missing 1 1 0 0 0 no
insect (generic) insecto insecto flora-fauna generic missing missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
jabiru flora-fauna Ephippiorhynchus asiaticus batyadya unknown 0 0 0 0 0
jungle-fowl (scrub-fowl) flora-fauna Megapodius freycinet missing missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
kangaroo (generic) flora-fauna Macropodidae missing missing missing 2 1 0 0 0 no
land snail flora-fauna Gastropoda missing missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
magpie goose flora-fauna Anseranas semipalmata manakarda goba unknown simplex 0 1 0 0 0 no
military dragon flora-fauna Ctenophorus isolepis, Diporiphora spp., Lophognathus spp. missing missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
mosquito mosquito, zancudo mosquito, carapana flora-fauna Anopheles spp, Isoptera missing missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
mud wasp, hornet flora-fauna (many species) burnangula burnaŋula unknown 0 0 0 0 0 no
native bee flora-fauna (many species) missing missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
native cat flora-fauna Dasyurus missing missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
northern brown bandicoot flora-fauna Isoodon macrourus warn.gurra warn.gurra loan direction unknown cf “gurra” one that spears? unlikely? 0 1 0 0 0 no
northern kurrajong flora-fauna Brachychiton diversifolius missing missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
nut tree flora-fauna Terminalia grandifolia missing missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
octopus flora-fauna Octopus australis missing missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
pandanus palm flora-fauna Pandanus spiralis gun-menama gun-menama unique cf “menama” knee (gun- noun class) derived 1 1 0 0 1 no
paperbark flora-fauna Melaleuca sericea, Melaleuca stenostachya jikara dyikara unknown simplex 0 0 1 0 0 no
peaceful dove flora-fauna Geopelia placida missing missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
pearlshell flora-fauna Pinctada spp missing missing missing 1 1 0 0 1 no
peewee flora-fauna Gryllina cyanoleuca missing missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
pied butcherbird flora-fauna Cracticus nigrogularis missing missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
pike eel flora-fauna Muraenesox arabicus missing missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
praying mantis, stick insects mantis religiosa louva-a-deus flora-fauna Mantodea missing missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
prickle bush flora-fauna Sclerolaena bicornis missing missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
quail (generic) flora-fauna Coturnix species, Turnix species burr-balma burr-balma unique 0 0 0 0 0 no
red river gum flora-fauna Eucalyptus camaldulensis missing missing missing 2 0 1 0 1 no
red-tailed black-cockatoo flora-fauna Calyptorhynchus banksi banggurarrk baŋgurarrk unknown 0 0 0 0 0 no
riflefish, archerfish flora-fauna Toxotes chatareus missing yaŋkurra unique 0 1 0 0 0 no
river mangrove flora-fauna Aegicera corniculatum missing missing missing 0 0 2 0 1 no
rock fig flora-fauna Ficus brachypoda missing missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
sacred kingfisher flora-fauna Todiramphus sancta missing missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
saltwater crocodile flora-fauna Crocodylus porosus marrchila marrtyila unknown 2 2 0 0 0 yes
saltwater mussel flora-fauna Mytilidae missing missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
sawfish flora-fauna Pristis pectinata ana-jalagurarr ana-dyalagurarr unknown 1 0 0 0 0 yes
scorpion escorpión; alacran escorpião flora-fauna Arachnida, Scorpiones maringgul ji-jurlpa mariŋgul dyi-dyuḻpa unique cf mariŋgul “spear thrower”, dyi “be”, dyuḻpa “bottom end” derived 0 0 0 0 0 no
shark (generic) flora-fauna Selachimorpha missing missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 variable
shell (generic) flora-fauna missing missing missing 0 1 0 0 1 no
short-beaked echidna flora-fauna Tachyglossus aculeatus gajarrkcharrk gadyarrktyarrk unknown reduplicated 0 2 0 0 0 no
snake (generic) culebra, serpiente cobra flora-fauna missing missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 N/A
snappy gum flora-fauna Eucalyptus brevifolia missing missing missing 0 0 1 0 0 no
spider araña aranha flora-fauna Arachnida, Araneae gat gardany doubtful loan Yolngu simplex 0 0 0 0 0 no
spinifex flora-fauna Triodia species borichel borityel unique 0 0 2 0 0 no
spoonbills (yellow-billed spoonbill, black-billed spoonbill) flora-fauna Platalea flavipes, Platalea regia ganarra ganarra spoonbill loan direction unknown Djinang 0 0 0 0 0 no
stingray (generic) rayas látigo, raya arraia flora-fauna Dasyatidae an-maka an-maka unique “an” marker of noun class, “maka” can mean father’s mother 0 1 0 0 0 variable
stripe-faced dunnart flora-fauna Sminthopsis macroura missing missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
sugarbag wax flora-fauna galanyan galanyan bee's wax; putty loan direction unknown WW %kalanyan simplex 1 1 0 0 0 no
sulphur-crested cockatoo flora-fauna Cacatua galerita an-gungarrcha an-guŋarrtya unknown “an-” marker of noun class 0 0 0 0 0 no
swamp eel flora-fauna Ophisternon gutturale an-murnajapurra an-murnadyapurra unique “murna” means “ray” (generic), “dyapurra” means both “sacred” and “mouth parts”? derived 0 1 0 0 0 no
swamp leech flora-fauna Annelida, Hirudinea birlimurra biḻimurra leech unknown 0 0 0 0 0 no
tawny frogmouth flora-fauna Podargus strigoides missing missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
termite mounds, ant hills flora-fauna Isoptera morliya moḻiya ant hill; ant bed unknown simplex 0 0 0 0 0 no
termites, white-ants comején (Peru), termitas cupim flora-fauna (many species) an-gurroḻpa an-gurroḻpa unique 0 0 0 0 0 no
ti-tree flora-fauna Melaleuca bracteata missing missing missing 0 0 1 0 0 no
tick garrapata carrapato flora-fauna Arachnida, Acarina missing missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
tiger shark flora-fauna Galeocerdo cuvier missing missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 yes
torresian crow flora-fauna Corvus orru wakwak wakwak inheritance reduplicated 0 0 0 0 0 no
tree árbol arvore flora-fauna (NA) gun-jong gun-dyoŋ unique 0 0 0 0 0 no
waterlily flora-fauna Nymphaea macrosperma birdik birdik Water Lily unknown simplex 0 1 2 0 0 no
wattle flora-fauna Acacia difficilis gayparl gaypaḻ acacia tree; Black Wattle unknown simplex 0 0 1 0 1 no
wedge-tailed eagle flora-fauna Aquila audax missing missing missing 1 0 0 0 0 no
willie wagtail flora-fauna Rhipidura leucophrys gu-jijibirrchijibirr -dyibirrityibirrity loan Yolngu WW %tyintipirri reduplicated 1 0 0 0 0 no
witchetty grub flora-fauna (many species) rrurta rrurta unknown simplex 0 1 2 0 0 no
woma flora-fauna Aspidites ramsayii missing missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
tree árbol arvore flora-fauna jalmurra unknown Claire Bowern
ant (generic) hormiga formiga flora-fauna bojokpojok unknown Claire Bowern
bird pajaro, ave passaro flora-fauna burdacha unknown Claire Bowern
blowfly/housefly mosca mosca flora-fauna wurrurlul loan Yolngu Claire Bowern
dog (camp, domestic) perro cachorro flora-fauna gulukula loan Yan-nhangu Claire Bowern
grass hierba, pasto capim, grama flora-fauna gorrngunya unknown Claire Bowern
kangaroo (generic) flora-fauna gornabola unknown Claire Bowern
snake (generic) culebra, serpiente cobra flora-fauna ana-bericha unknown Claire Bowern
spider araña aranha flora-fauna gat doubtful loan Claire Bowern


Cultural Vocabulary (111)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Word Structure Word Structure Notes General Notes Source Created By
afterworld, land of dead, Heaven tierra do los muertos terra dos mortos culture-mythology missing Claire Bowern
armband dress nganybak unique Claire Bowern
awl subsistence tool missing Claire Bowern
axe/stone axe hacha (de piedra) machado (de pedra) subsistence tool galamaŋ unique Claire Bowern
bag (string) culture-material maladyaŋgarra unique Claire Bowern
bait for fishing cebo, carnada para pescar, empate (Peru) isca subsistence tool missing Claire Bowern
basket (general) canasta, canasto, cesta cesto culture-material missing Claire Bowern
body feather decorations culture-mythology missing Claire Bowern
boomerang/throwing stick (generic) subsistence tool gaḻigaḻi inheritance Claire Bowern
boomerang (number 7) subsistence tool missing Claire Bowern
boomerang (small) subsistence tool missing Claire Bowern
bowl (coolamon) culture-material gun-baŋgalat unique Claire Bowern
broom escoba vassoura culture-material missing Claire Bowern
canoe canoa canoa transport mityiyaŋ loan Makassar Claire Bowern
cicatrice culture-mythology mun-dyakarn unique Claire Bowern
clapsticks culture-mythology an-gurdoŋgoldya unique Claire Bowern
club (nulla-nulla) subsistence tool dyurrka REDO - noun not verb Claire Bowern
cook food food wumbargudyama unique Claire Bowern
cook in earth oven food missing Claire Bowern
damper food gandityawa unknown Claire Bowern
dance (generic) culture-mythology buŋgul loan Yolŋu Claire Bowern
digging stick subsistence tool banaka inheritance Claire Bowern
dipper (small coolamon) subsistence tool missing Claire Bowern
dream sueño, soñar sonho, sonhar culture-mythology borrtyeka unique Claire Bowern
dreaming culture-mythology warrgapa unique Claire Bowern
drone pipe culture-mythology ŋoḻa unique Claire Bowern
fire drill subsistence tool ŋurtka inheritance Claire Bowern
fire-saw other missing Claire Bowern
fireplace hogar lareira other missing Claire Bowern
firewood leña lenha other missing Claire Bowern
fish poison barbasco, matapez (Colombia) timbó subsistence tool missing Claire Bowern
fish (with fish-poison) pescar con barbasco, barbasquear pescar com timbó; tinguijar food missing Claire Bowern
fish (with line) anzuelear, pescar con linea pescar (com linha) food missing Claire Bowern
fish (with spear) food missing Claire Bowern
fishing line cordel/cuerda p/ pescar, sedal, tanze linha de pesca subsistence tool missing Claire Bowern
fishtrap (permanent) subsistence tool an-gudyetyiya unique Claire Bowern
fishtrap (woven) subsistence tool missing Claire Bowern
flour (European) food gandityawa unique Claire Bowern
flour (bush) food missing Claire Bowern
game animal caza, animal de caza caça, animal de caça food minydyak unique Claire Bowern
ghost (of dead person)/evil spirit espíritu malo, espíritu maligno, fantasma, demonio espirito culture-mythology -gubuwupa unique Claire Bowern
glue subsistence tool missing Claire Bowern
grave tumba, sepultura, sepulcro sepultura, sepulcro, cova culture-mythology missing Claire Bowern
grog food bupupa unique also nganicha Claire Bowern
hair belt dress mortiny loan direction unknown Claire Bowern
headband dress missing Claire Bowern
healer curandero benzador, curandeiro, kumu (Tukano) culture-mythology -buburda unique Claire Bowern
honey miel mel food dulgu loan with semantic shift Claire Bowern
house (European) other gu-rrambalk semantic shift Claire Bowern
hunt cazar caçar food woḻpa unique Claire Bowern
initiation (circumcision) culture-mythology missing Claire Bowern
initiation (subincision) culture-mythology missing Claire Bowern
knife cuchillo faca culture-material an-gudyarrtya unique Claire Bowern
loincloth taparrabos, guayuco, pampanilla tanga, tapa-sexo dress ŋarndam unique Claire Bowern
love song culture-mythology missing Claire Bowern
mangrove raft transport missing Claire Bowern
message stick culture-mythology mak loan Claire Bowern
mortar mortero pilão subsistence tool rambala unique Claire Bowern
nosepeg other missing Claire Bowern
paddle/oar remo remo transport guli unique Claire Bowern
ochre culture-mythology missing Claire Bowern
paint body, body paint pintura corporal pintura corporal culture-mythology missing Claire Bowern
pestle pilón, mano de mortero, mazo, moledor mão de pilão subsistence tool missing Claire Bowern
pipe for tobacco pipa cachimbo other missing Claire Bowern
public song cycle culture-mythology missing Claire Bowern
red paint culture-mythology -mugulumberrpa unique Claire Bowern
resin resina, brea, copal resina, brea, breu subsistence tool missing Claire Bowern
salt sal sal food dyoḻp unique Claire Bowern
shelter (native) other gun-murnaŋana rrawa missing Claire Bowern
song (generic) canción, canto canção culture-mythology manakay inheritance Claire Bowern
song (for entertainment) culture-mythology missing Claire Bowern
spear lanza lança subsistence tool rra unique Claire Bowern
spear (fighting) subsistence tool missing Claire Bowern
spear (fishing) subsistence tool dyitabata unique Claire Bowern
spearthrower subsistence tool mariŋgul loan direction unknown Claire Bowern
speartip subsistence tool missing Claire Bowern
string (from hair) culture-material missing Claire Bowern
string (from vine) culture-material missing Claire Bowern
sugar acculturation mu-daymbaŋa semantic shift Claire Bowern
tea food missing Claire Bowern
tobacco (European) narcotics ŋarali loan Claire Bowern
tobacco (native) narcotics missing Claire Bowern
spirit child culture-mythology missing Claire Bowern
wax cera cera other galanyan loan direction unknown Claire Bowern
white paint culture-mythology missing Claire Bowern
windbreak other missing Claire Bowern
yandy (n) culture-material missing Claire Bowern
school escuela escola acculturation missing Claire Bowern
net subsistence tool mulutya unique Claire Bowern
bottle botella garrafa acculturation botyula loan Claire Bowern
paper papel papel acculturation dyurra loan Makassar WW %djorra Claire Bowern
corpse food missing Claire Bowern
chicken gallina galinha acculturation missing Claire Bowern
tree coffin culture-mythology missing Claire Bowern
clothing ropa roupa culture-mythology mirikal loan direction unknown Claire Bowern
skirt falda, saya, fustan, pollera saia culture-material batigut loan with semantic shift English WW petticoat Claire Bowern
shoes zapatos sapatos dress but loan English Claire Bowern
medicine narcotics mun-guburda unique Claire Bowern
earth oven food missing Claire Bowern
policeman polícia policía acculturation an-batyirra unique Claire Bowern
cat gato gato acculturation budyibudyi loan Claire Bowern
gun arma, escopeta espingarda, fusil acculturation marriyaŋ loan Claire Bowern
hat sombero chapéu dress dyuŋka loan Claire Bowern
rope/string mecate, cuerda, soga corda culture wajipa unknown Claire Bowern
bottom grinding stone manufacture rambala Claire Bowern
digging stick subsistence tool banaka unknown Claire Bowern
winnow aventar, tirar (sementes) joeirar manufacture [missing] missing Claire Bowern
top grinding stone metate, mano; piedra de moler metate, mano manufacture [missing] missing Claire Bowern
spearthrower subsistence tool maringgul loan direction unknown Claire Bowern
spear lanza lança subsistence tool jitabata unknown Claire Bowern
house other gu-rrambalk unknown Claire Bowern


Ethnographic Information
Current population (ethnicity) Current population (speakers) Former population estimate Subsistence preference Subsistence notes Density Sedentism Ecotome (riverine/interfluvial/coastal/desert/savannah/etc.) Social hierarchies Multilingualism (rare/occasional/common) Contact languages Marriage pattern Notes Source Created By
large HG dense mobile yes