sky

Semantic Field
environment
Part of Speech
Meaning Spanish
cielo
Meaning Portuguese
céu

Languages

Language Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Etymology Notes Source Created By General Notes
Bankalachi Toloim sā-tus 209 unique Jane Hill
Big Smokey Valley Shoshone tukum-pin, tukum-pana, tuku-pphy inheritance Jane Hill
Cahuilla tukvash inheritance S&H 1979 Jane Hill
Central Sierra Miwok wy:/che- inheritance Jane Hill
Chemehuevi tugu/mp(a) inheritance Jane Hill
Chumash Barbareno alapaj? (on top) inheritance Beeler 1976:263 Jane Hill
Chumash Cruzeno nawani unknown JPH Jane Hill
Chumash Ineseno 7al-apaj “up, above, (in) the sky” inheritance A 17 Jane Hill
Chumash Obispeno tiLhisa unknown JPH Jane Hill
Chumash Ventureno alalpaj unknown Pinart II, B67:12 Jane Hill
Cocopa ma:, ma:Ly inheritance Jane Hill
Comanche tomoba7atY, tomoobI unique Jane Hill
Cupeño tukva'a-sh [tukvəɁəʃ] inheritance Jane Hill
Esselen ot-no “in heaven” unknown Shaul 1995:207 Jane Hill
Gabrielino toku:p-nga; tuku:par inheritance Jane Hill
Iipay 'Aa 'emaay [Ɂəˈmaˑi] inheritance Jane Hill
Kawaiisu tugu-bajaa-vi-dy inheritance Jane Hill
Kiliwa 7-wiiy unknown Jane Hill
Kitanemuk tukuhpach inheritance Jane Hill
Lake Miwok li/ilewali inheritance Jane Hill
Luiseño tu:pa-sh inheritance Jane Hill
Mojave 7amay inheritance Jane Hill
Mutsun Tarah unknown O77:50 Jane Hill
Northern Paiute toko7pa7 inheritance Nichols 1974:339 Jane Hill
Northern Sierra Miwok wy:ce- inheritance Jane Hill
Plains Miwok wic:ek inheritance Jane Hill
Salinan A opolemo loan Pinart (Heizer) Jane Hill
Salinan M leM unknown Mason 1918:133 Jane Hill
Seri (Comcaac) hami/ime unknown Jane Hill
Serrano tukuhp-t inheritance Jane Hill
Southern Paiute tugu-N inheritance Jane Hill
Southern Sierra Miwok helaHk- unknown Jane Hill
Southern Ute tugupaya inheritance Jane Hill
Tübatulabal tukumpa/l inheritance Jane Hill
Tümpisa Shoshone tukumpana(pin) inheritance Jane Hill
Wappo tu/yhuwela unknown Jane Hill
Washo t'éweʔgiliweʔ unknown Washo Project Jane Hill
Wintu q'olci unknown Jane Hill
Yavapai mya::khti^:la “heaven, sky” i has macron and following raised dot inheritance Jane Hill
Yokuts Palewyami dulau unique K1963 Jane Hill
Yokuts Yawdanchi ThipHin “top, up, on, sky” 237 inheritance K07:237 Jane Hill
Yokuts Yowlumne ThipHin inheritance W&G 1986 Jane Hill
Yuki mi:T, mit inheritance S&S 1984 Jane Hill
Yuma 7ama/yva H2:148 inheritance Jane Hill
Baniwa éeno éeno semantic shift thunder See Language page Ana Paula B.
Carijona kahu inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
Cubeo cavarõ; cavarõ mearo kavaɾõ; kavaɾõ meaɾo inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely; Tanja Baeuerlein
Dâw pox pɔx  inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
Desano ʉ̃mʉsĩ ɨ̃mɨsĩ inheritance See Language page Ana Paula; Tanja Baeuerlein
Eñepa kaʔ (IDS) kaʔ (IDS) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross
Hodï younaja unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez
Waorani õ-õdæ unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez, PLE
Hup pǎç pǎç semantic shift See Language page Pattie Epps
Makushi kaʔ (IDS) kaʔ (IDS) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross
Nheengatu iwaka, iyuwaka iwaka, ijuwaka inheritance See Language page John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
Ninam hɨtɨmosi, yãrɨ (EM72) hɨtɨmosi, jãɾɨ inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
Maihiki aibese ja aibese xã unique See Language page Daniel Valle
Pemon kak (A1981); kak (M2000) kak (A1981); 'kak (M2000) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
Resígaro há?ihí háʔihí unique See Language page Ana Paula B.
Sanumá hutumosɨ (EM72) hutumosɨ inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
Tariana enú-kwa enú-kwa inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
Tukano ɨ̃ʔmɨ̂se ɨ̃ʔmɨ̂se inheritance E Tuk See Language page Ana Paula, Amanda Novak
Kotiria ~bʉa; me sehe; mᵾano mʉ̃ã (Stenzel); me sehe; mᵾano (Waltz) inheritance E Tuk See Language page D. Jagannathan, Tanja Bauerlein
Yanomam hutumos (EM72) hutumos inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
Yanomami hetu hetu inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
Yukuna je'echú heʔetʃú unique See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
Yuhup poh poh inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
Arabana kadlara unique Claire Bowern
Bardi gurrwal kurrwal inheritance Claire Bowern
Bunuba birrinyi doubtful loan Claire Bowern
Burarra girlngarr unknown Claire Bowern
Dhangu djiwarr(') unknown Claire Bowern
Dhuwal djiwarr(') Claire Bowern
Dhuwala djiwarr(') unknown Claire Bowern
Diyari pariwilpa inheritance Claire Bowern
DiyariREU [missing] missing Claire Bowern
Djambarrpuyngu 2262 unknown Claire Bowern
Djapu djiwarr(') unknown Claire Bowern
Djinang ṉami unknown Claire Bowern
Gajirrabeng ngandongoorroong unique NJ Claire Bowern
Gooniyandi birrinyi doubtful loan Claire Bowern
Gupapuyngu djiwarr(') unknown Claire Bowern
Gurindji kulumarra loan Jaminjung Claire Bowern
Jaru birrinyi loan Claire Bowern
Karajarri kurrwal inheritance Claire Bowern
Kija pirriny-ji unique NJ Claire Bowern
Malyangapa ngayiri loan direction unknown Claire Bowern
Mangala yirri unknown Claire Bowern
Miriwung ngandongoorroong unique NJ Claire Bowern
Mithaka dikarra loan direction unknown Claire Bowern
Mudburra kulumarra Claire Bowern
Mudburra kulumarra loan Claire Bowern
Ngamini paRiwilpa inheritance Claire Bowern
Ngandi X missing Claire Bowern
Ngarluma barlbar Claire Bowern
Ngumbarl kalboo, koorrwal <kalboo, koorrwal> inheritance Claire Bowern
Nhirrpi [missing] missing Claire Bowern
Nimanburru gorwal gorwal korwal korwal inheritance Claire Bowern
Northern Mangarla yirri Claire Bowern
Northern Nyangumarta palparr inheritance Claire Bowern
Nyangumarta parlparr inheritance Claire Bowern
Nyikina gurruwal kurruwal inheritance Claire Bowern
Nyulnyul gurrwal kurrwal inheritance Claire Bowern
Paakantyi galgara unique Claire Bowern
Pirriya niila unique Claire Bowern
Pitta-Pitta rtikarrha loan direction unknown Claire Bowern
Rirratjingu ga:rak Claire Bowern
Ritharrngu X missing Claire Bowern
Walmajarri yalkiri inheritance Claire Bowern
Wangkayutyuru yalkira loan Arandic Claire Bowern
Warrwa n kurrwal inheritance Claire Bowern
Wubuy gu-wongo inheritance? Claire Bowern
Yan-nhangu [missing] missing Claire Bowern
Yandruwandha pariwilpa inheritance Claire Bowern
Yarluyandi pari-wilpa inheritance Claire Bowern
Yawarrawarrka [missing] missing Claire Bowern
Yawuru gorwal korwal inheritance Claire Bowern
Achagua é:ʒi é:ʒi unique See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
Piapoco capìlaléeri kapìlaléeri See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
Kabiyari ʔianati ?ianati See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
Warekena enu enu See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
Yavitero énu énu See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
Wapishana aukaʐ aukaʐ unique See Language page Ana Paula B.
Paresi enokoa enokoa inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
Baure a'ni-ye a'ni-je inheritance See Language page Anissa Capuccino
Waurá enu-taku enu-taku inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick
Bora níxkʰʸe-xɨ, íéβeʔóókʷa níxkʰʲɛ-xɨ, íέβɛʔóókʷa inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
Muinane níkke-xe níkkɛ-xɛ See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
Akawaio kabuuruuk ka'buruk inheritance Proto-Carib See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin
Akawaio/Ingariko dialect kaʔ kaʔ See Language page Lauren Franklin
Apalai kapu kapu inheritance See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
Wayana kapu kapu inheritance See Language page PLE
Tiriyó kapu kapu inheritance See Language page Becky Walker
Makiritare kahuɨ (IDS) kahuɨ (IDS) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
Mapoyo sakau sakau See Language page Melody Ann Ross
Wai Wai kaaΦu kaaΦu inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross
Waimiri Atroari kaapy ka:pɨ See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
Yukpa kabo, masitematpo, obata, obayauicho See Language page Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross
Kalapalo kafu kafu inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick
Muisca guatquyca γuatkuɨka See Language page Daniel Valle
Northern Emberá baahã́ baːhã́ See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, PLE
Cofán sefacco sɛɸakho See Language page Daniel Valle phonemic transcriptions are ESTIMATIONS
Candoshi-Shapra kanĭdá kanĭnntá unique See Language page Daniel Valle
Taushiro a´can aʔkan See Language page Daniel Valle
Páez ë ë See Language page Daniel Valle
Tikuna na3-5a5ne5tü3we3 (A58) naanetɨwe unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
Urarina dede dede unique See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
Camsa sel-óka sel-óka See Language page Daniel Valle, Anissa Capuchino
Andoke põkǝ(ü)he (RW52) unique See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
Pumé ãdȩ See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
Tinigua hãɲiːnã See Language page Zach Burnett
Puinave sənə sənə unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
Ashuar nayáim najaim See Language page Daniel Valle
Huambisa nayaim najaim See Language page Daniel Valle
Aguaruna nayaím najaim inheritance See Language page Daniel Valle
Matses abu abu unknown See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
Chácobo nai-pa nai-pa inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick
Yagua jarichu xaritʃu loan, direction unknown Kokama See Language page Daniel Valle
Southern Pastaza Quechua silu (Spanish loan) silu See Language page Daniel Valle
Napo Lowland Quichua silu (Spanish loan) silu See Language page Daniel Valle
Quechua Ayacuchano hanaq-pacha (CP94) hanaq-patʃa See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
Piaroa morojä morohæ unknown See Language page Amanda Novak, Becky Walker
Sáliva mumasẽxẽ mumasẽxẽ unknown See Language page Becky Walker
Barasano ɨ́bɨ̃-gase-ro ɨ́bɨ̃-gase-ro See Language page D. Jagannathan, Tanja Baeuerlein
Carapana ɨ̃bɨ̃-re'kó ɨ̃bɨ̃-re'kó See Language page Amanda Novak, Tanja Baeuerlein
Makuna macarᵾcᵾro makaɾɨkɨɾo unknown See Language page Amanda Novak, D. Jagannathan, Tanja Bauerlein
Yuruti 'ɨ̃́bɨ̃ãwese 'ɨ̃́bɨ̃ãwese See Language page Ana Paula; Tanja Baeuerlein
Waikhana ɨʔ'bɨ̃se; ɨ̃bĩ'ã-dõ ɨʔ'bɨ̃se; ɨ̃bĩ'ã-dõ See Language page Ana Paula; Tanja Baeuerlein
Siriano ɨ̃'bɨ̃-gasi ɨ̃'bɨ̃-gasi See Language page Ana Paula, Kelsey Neely
Tanimuca wehe-'pebã wehe-'pebã unique See Language page Kelsey Neely
Tatuyo ɨbɨ-re'kóo ɨbɨ-re'kóo See Language page Emily Buell, Paulina Franco
Tuyuka ɨbɨ'ã-se ɨbɨ'ã-se See Language page D. Jagannathan, Paulina Franco, Ana Paula B.
Waimaja ɨ̃mɨ̃́ kahɛ̀řò ɨ̃mɨ̃́ kahɛ̀rò See Language page Kelsey Neely
Koreguaje cʉnaʉmʉ kʉnaʉmʉ inheritance See Language page Daniel Valle
Siona guënamëma'tëmë gɨnamɨmaʔtɨmɨ inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
Secoya matëmo mãtɨmo See Language page Amanda N
Karitiana pãmpi pãmpi unknown See Language page Daniel Valle
Kokama kuarachi kuaratʃi loan, direction unknown Yagua See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
Wayampi ɨwa ɨwa inheritance See Language page PLE
Sirionó ibei ibei unique See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
Kamayurá ɨwɑkɑ ɨwɑkɑ inheritance See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
Ocaina aam̈i; aam̈ijón; bum̈onñ..á; xutymóóña aam:i; aam:ihón; bɯm:õɲá; xɯtʲmóóɲa unique See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
Nɨpode Witoto móna móna See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
Minica Witoto móna móna See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
Murui Witoto mona mona inheritance/Witoto See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
Iquito níiya caricúcu (MC: earth ɨ ceiling) níija karikúku (earth + ceiling) inheritance See Language page Cynthia Hansen
Záparo niya nija See Language page Becky Walker
Wari nanawin nanawin See Language page PLE Also pawin, 'the heights'.
Ese Ejja/Huarayo eya eya See Language page Joyce McCormick
Cavineña bare-pa; ebaro-kʷe (ebaro-kʷe also means "up") bare-pa; ebaro-kʷe inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
Central Aymara alajjpacha alax-pača; laḳampu See Language page PLE
Kwazá hanãwã, -nãwã hanãwã, -nãwã See Language page Joyce McCormick
Movima ɓen̉-ra ɓen̉-ra See Language page Anissa Capuccino, Becky Walker
Trumai naneʔne ~ naʔnene naneʔne ~ naʔnene unique See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
Kaingang kanhkã kaɲkã See Language page PLE
Suyá kay'kwa kaj'kwa See Language page Rebekah Evans
Djeoromitxi bekükü bekøkø See Language page PLE