Ngandi

Family
Gunwinyguan
Region
Australia
ISO 639-3
nid
Location
-14.09°, 135.38°
Notes
Features
Basic Vocabulary
Flora Fauna Vocabulary
Cultural Vocabulary
Ethnographic Information
Data Sources
none


Basic Vocabulary (186)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Etymology Notes Source Created By
1pl.excl nosotros (exclusivo) nós (exclusivo) grammar missing Claire Bowern
1pl.incl nosotros (inclusivo) nós (inclusivo) grammar missing Claire Bowern
1sg yo eu grammar missing Claire Bowern
2pl ustedes vocês grammar missing Claire Bowern
2sg xx xx grammar missing Claire Bowern
3pl ellos/ellas eles/elas grammar missing Claire Bowern
3sg el/ella ele/ela grammar missing Claire Bowern
above encima, arriba acima location garrkala- inheritance Claire Bowern
again de nuevo, otra vez de novo grammar buluki loan Claire Bowern
all todo todos other warlaman' unique Claire Bowern
and y e grammar X missing Claire Bowern
ankle tobillo tornozelo body gu-rdungurru inheritance Claire Bowern
armpit axila, sobaco axila body gu-wany inheritance Claire Bowern
ashamed xx xx mental missing Claire Bowern
ashes xx xx environment missing Claire Bowern
at en, a em, a location gi inheritance Claire Bowern
back espalda costas body gu-gark unique Claire Bowern
bad mal mal quality missing Claire Bowern
be alive xx xx body missing Claire Bowern
belly barriga barriga body mo-rdolo unique Claire Bowern
below abajo, debajo abaixo location gardi inheritance Claire Bowern
big grande grande quality dharpal unique Claire Bowern
bite morder morder body ba inheritance Claire Bowern
black negro preto colour mul'mul loan Claire Bowern
blood sangre sangue body mo-borngo' unique Claire Bowern
blow soplar soprar body bu'-dhu inheritance Claire Bowern
blunt xx xx quality missing Claire Bowern
bone hueso osso body gu-ngaraka loan Claire Bowern
boomerang xx xx manufacture missing Claire Bowern
breast pecho, seno peito body gu-ngam loan Claire Bowern
breathe respirar respirar body X missing Claire Bowern
burn quemar queimar environment rnaki inheritance Claire Bowern
chew masticar, mascar mastigar body X missing Claire Bowern
child niño, niña criança human dhaku loan direction unknown Claire Bowern
climb subir subir motion X missing Claire Bowern
cloud nube nuvem environment gurnung inheritance Claire Bowern
cold frío frio quality ma-martun inheritance Claire Bowern
come venir vir motion wa inheritance Claire Bowern
cook cocinar cozinhar impact rna, dharl'-dhu inheritance Claire Bowern
count contar contar mental yolkyolk-dhu unique Claire Bowern
cry llorar chorar mental X missing Claire Bowern
cut xx xx impact missing Claire Bowern
die/be dead morir morrer state missing Claire Bowern
dig cavar cavar impact ngur'-dhu unknown Claire Bowern
dingo/wolf fauna missing Claire Bowern
dirty sucio sujo quality burnurrk inheritance Claire Bowern
dream soñar sonhar mental X missing Claire Bowern
drink beber, tomar beber body (bun)-ngu unique Claire Bowern
dry seco seco quality barndany loan Claire Bowern
dust polvo poeira environment gu-dhul unique Claire Bowern
ear oreja orelha body ma-ganam unique Claire Bowern
earth/soil tierra terra environment missing Claire Bowern
eat comer comer body ngu- inheritance Claire Bowern
egg huevo ovo fauna gu-garlang inheritance Claire Bowern
eye ojo olho body gu-go' inheritance Claire Bowern
faeces heces, mierda, excremento, estiércol fezes body X missing Claire Bowern
fall caer cair motion rukba- inheritance Claire Bowern
far lejos longe quality ngutu unique Claire Bowern
fat/grease grasa gordura body missing Claire Bowern
father padre, papá pai kinship nyarr inheritance Claire Bowern
fear miedo medo mental gunyjiki unique Claire Bowern
feather pluma pena fauna gu-warlmurr inheritance Claire Bowern
fire fuego fogo environment gu-wurk unique Claire Bowern
fish xx xx fauna a-jeny inheritance Claire Bowern
flow fluir fluir motion X missing Claire Bowern
flower flor flor environment mo-ngorro inheritance Claire Bowern
fly volar voar motion burt-dhu unique Claire Bowern
fog niebla, neblina nevoeira, bruma, neblina environment X unique Claire Bowern
foot pie body gu-dheng inheritance Claire Bowern
fruit fruta fruta flora dhakirditj inheritance Claire Bowern
good bueno bom quality maak unique Claire Bowern
grow crecer crescer state garlak-dhu- unique Claire Bowern
hair (of head) cabello cabelo body missing Claire Bowern
hand mano mão body gu-mar inheritance Claire Bowern
head cabeza cabeça body gu-rlong inheritance Claire Bowern
hear oír ouvir mental nga- inheritance Claire Bowern
heavy pesado pesado quality X missing Claire Bowern
hide esconder esconder motion barl'dhu- unique Claire Bowern
hit golpear, pegar bater impact bu inheritance Claire Bowern
hit (with hand) xx xx impact missing Claire Bowern
hold correr, asegurar, sostener segurar other rnima inheritance Claire Bowern
how? como como grammar X missing Claire Bowern
if si se grammar X missing Claire Bowern
in/inside dentro, adentro dentro location missing Claire Bowern
intestines intestinos intestinos body ma-nguk unique Claire Bowern
itch hormiguear, sentir comezón coçar body rdey'-dhu loan Claire Bowern
kill matar matar impact bu inheritance Claire Bowern
know/be knowledgeable saber, conecer saber, conhecer mental missing Claire Bowern
lake lago lago environment gu-dheren unique Claire Bowern
laugh reír rir mental X missing Claire Bowern
leaf hoja folha environment manjarr' inheritance Claire Bowern
left/left hand izquierdo esquerdo location/body X missing Claire Bowern
leg/foot pierna perna body missing Claire Bowern
lie down acostarse, echarse deitar motion rdopol'-dhu unique Claire Bowern
lightning rayo, relámpago relampago environment mirnim-dhu inheritance Claire Bowern
liver hígado figado body gu-dhiw inheritance Claire Bowern
long largo comprido, longo quality dhokmay' unique Claire Bowern
louse piollo, piojo piolho fauna a-mitj unique Claire Bowern
lung pulmón pulmão body X missing Claire Bowern
man/male hombre homem human missing Claire Bowern
meat/flesh carne carne fauna missing Claire Bowern
moon luna lua environment rni-gurrnga inheritance Claire Bowern
mother madre, mamá mãe kinship nganang inheritance Claire Bowern
mouth boca boca body gu-dha loan Claire Bowern
name nombre nome human ngitj inheritance Claire Bowern
nape base del cuello, nuca nuca body gu-ngin unique Claire Bowern
near/close cerca de perto quality missing Claire Bowern
neck cuello pescoço body gu-manga unique Claire Bowern
new nuevo novo quality golkol inheritance Claire Bowern
night noche noite time gurnmuk unique Claire Bowern
no/not no não grammar may' inheritance Claire Bowern
nose nariz nariz body gu-gibarn unique Claire Bowern
old viejo velho quality yanatji unique Claire Bowern
one uno um number wangginy' loan Claire Bowern
open/uncover abrir abrir other missing Claire Bowern
other otro outro grammar wiripu loan Claire Bowern
person/human being persona pessoa human missing Claire Bowern
pimple xx xx body missing Claire Bowern
rain lluvia chuva environment nyalk loan direction unknown Claire Bowern
red rojo vermelho colour rlirrwitj unique Claire Bowern
right/right hand derecha direita location/body X missing Claire Bowern
road/path camino caminho manufacture missing Claire Bowern
roof xx xx manufacture missing Claire Bowern
root raíz raiz flora warndal' unique Claire Bowern
rotten podrido podre quality bagoolng unique Claire Bowern
sand arena areia environment dhambur inheritance Claire Bowern
say decir dizer mental yima inheritance Claire Bowern
scratch rascar rasgar impact rdey'-dhu loan Claire Bowern
see ver ver mental rna- inheritance Claire Bowern
sharp afilado, filudo, filoso afiado quality X missing Claire Bowern
shoot tirar, disparar, balear atirar impact gurr-warr-dhu unique Claire Bowern
short corto curto quality dhuburdu' unique Claire Bowern
shoulder hombro ombro body gu-beremelk unique Claire Bowern
sick xx xx body missing Claire Bowern
sit sentar(se) sentar state rni inheritance Claire Bowern
skin piel pele body gu/ma-gurla' inheritance Claire Bowern
sky cielo céu environment X missing Claire Bowern
sleep dormir dormir body ma-ngerre unique Claire Bowern
small pequeño pequeno quality dhaku loan Rembarrnga Claire Bowern
smell (tr/intr) xx xx body missing Claire Bowern
smoke humo fumaça environment gu-bul unique Claire Bowern
spit escupir cuspir body X missing Claire Bowern
split partir, dividir rachar, dividir, partir impact X missing Claire Bowern
squeeze estrujar, exprimir espremer impact X missing Claire Bowern
stab/pierce apuñalar, acuchillar apunhalar impact missing Claire Bowern
stand estar de pié ficar em pé state jaka-dhi unique Claire Bowern
star estrella estrela environment dhaporlk unique Claire Bowern
steal robar roubar other yarra-ma unique Claire Bowern
stone piedra pedra environment gu-jundu unique Claire Bowern
suck chupar chupar body dhing'dhing'dhu inheritance Claire Bowern
sun sol sol time ma-warlirr inheritance Claire Bowern
sweat sudar suor, suar body gu-wuburr loan Claire Bowern
swell hincharse inchar body X missing Claire Bowern
swim nadar nadar motion worr-dhu unique Claire Bowern
tail cola, rabo rabo body ma-raparra inheritance Claire Bowern
that ese/esa esse grammar na' unique Claire Bowern
thick grueso, gordo, espeso grosso quality ngutngut loan Claire Bowern
thin delgado fino quality X missing Claire Bowern
think pensar pensar mental giyang loan Claire Bowern
this este/esta este grammar ni' unique Claire Bowern
three tres tres number X missing Claire Bowern
throat garganta garganta body inheritance Claire Bowern
throw tirar, lanzar atirar, jogar impact geyk-dha unique Claire Bowern
thunder truenos trovão environment X missing Claire Bowern
tie up/fasten atar, amarrar amarrar impact missing Claire Bowern
tongue lengua lingua body gu-dhelng inheritance? Claire Bowern
tooth diente dente body gu-gibal unique Claire Bowern
true xx xx quality missing Claire Bowern
turn girar, volter, torcer virar other burlet-dhu unique Claire Bowern
two dos dois number yapan' inheritance? Claire Bowern
vomit vomitar vomitar body wer'-dhu unique Claire Bowern
walk caminar, andar andar motion X missing Claire Bowern
water agua agua environment bun- gu-jark unique Claire Bowern
wet mojado molhado quality jali' unique Claire Bowern
what? que, qué que grammar nyja unique Claire Bowern
when? cuando quando grammar mala-itjwo unique Claire Bowern
where? donde onde grammar wo:-gi unique Claire Bowern
white blanco branco colour barwitj unique Claire Bowern
who? quien, quién quem grammar nyja unique Claire Bowern
wife esposa esposa kinship gardak unique Claire Bowern
wind viento vento environment a-barra loan Claire Bowern
wing ala asa body X missing Claire Bowern
woman/female mujer mulher human missing Claire Bowern
work trabajar trabalhar other X missing Claire Bowern
yawn bostezar bocejar body X missing Claire Bowern
yellow amarillo amarelo colour X missing Claire Bowern


Flora Fauna Vocabulary (139)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Linnean Name Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Range of Term Word Structure Word Structure Notes Classifier Classifier Notes Hypernym Source Association with Social Categories Ritual/Mythologically Significant Ritual Notes Food Source Food Notes Medicinal Medicinal Notes How Collected Who Collects How Prepared Psychotropic Psychotropic Notes Traded Trade Notes Distribution Habitat Dangerous Ethnobiology Notes Species Notes General Notes Created By
grasshopper flora-fauna Caelifera jalma dyalma unique underived 2 1 0 0 0 no
agile wallaby, river wallaby flora-fauna Macropus agilis boroŋgol bu:ru:lk unknown simplex 0 1 0 0 0 no
ant (generic) hormiga formiga flora-fauna Formicidae dalawutbut dalawutbut unknown simplex 0 0 0 0 0 no
Australian pelican flora-fauna Pelecanus conspicillatus gologolk gu:lu:gu:lk inheritance reduplicated 0 0 0 0 0 no
Australian snubfin dolphin flora-fauna Orcaella heinsohnii missing missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
baler shell flora-fauna Melo amphora missing missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
bandicoot flora-fauna Peramelemorphia wangura7 wangura7 loan direction unknown Ritharrngu WW %warnkurra 0 0 0 0 0
barn owl flora-fauna Tyto alba missing missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
barramundi flora-fauna Lates calcarifer mirici mindyi7 unknown Ritharrngu has cognate (means reddish ant) 1 1 0 0 0 no
bat murciélago morcego flora-fauna Chiroptera spp walgawalga walan7 unknown reduplicated 0 1 0 0 0 no
bindii, caltrop flora-fauna Tribulus terrestris missing missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
bird pajaro, ave passaro flora-fauna gajaguru gadyaguru unknown 0 0 0 0 0 no
black-breasted buzzard flora-fauna Hamirostra melanosternon bundul bundul loan direction unknown Ritharrngu missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
black-faced cuckoo-shrike flora-fauna Coracina novaehollandiae missing missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
black-headed python flora-fauna Aspidites melanocephalus missing gunuŋu loan direction unknown Ritharrngu missing 0 2 0 0 0 no
black-soil yam flora-fauna Ipomoea diamantinensis missing tuymantyi unique missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
bloodwood flora-fauna Eucalyptus (Corymbia) bleeseri dumbudumbu7 dumbi unknown reduplicated 0 1 1 0 0 no
blowfly maggots flora-fauna Diptera, Sarcophagidae worolol wu:rtywu:rty unique reduplicated 0 0 0 0 0 no
blue-tongue lizard flora-fauna Tiliqua species gurmulu7 gurtyal7 unknown simplex 0 1 0 0 0 no
blue-winged kookaburra flora-fauna Dacelo leachii gorowkorow gu:rdu:7 unknown simplex 0 0 0 0 0 no
bluebone flora-fauna Choerodon cyanodus missing missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
brolga flora-fauna Grus rubicunda banami banami loan direction unknown Ngandi/Ritharrngu simplex 1 0 0 0 0 no
brown goshawk flora-fauna Accipiter fasciatus karrkkañ7 malwidiwidi semantic shift? cf “wren” wididyirwididyir ? reduplicated 0 0 0 0 0 no
brush-tailed possum flora-fauna Trichosurus vulpecula du7 du:ru:w7 unknown simplex 0 1 0 0 0 no
bush cockroach flora-fauna (many species) jaramumu dyaradatbuwa unknown 0 0 0 0 0 no
bush stone-curlew flora-fauna Burhinus grallarius missing missing missing 1 0 0 0 0 no
bush tobacco flora-fauna Lobelia quadrangularis missing missing missing 0 0 0 1 0 no
bush turkey, Australian bustard flora-fauna Ardeotis australis walpuruŋgu7 walpuruŋgu7 semantic shift? “walpuruŋgu7” also means tree 0 1 0 0 0 no
bush yam flora-fauna Vigna lanceolata var. lanceolata missing kulparuŋ loan direction unknown Ritharrngu missing 0 1 2 0 1 no
butterfly, moth mariposa borboleta flora-fauna Lepidoptera missing missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
carpet snake flora-fauna Morelia spilota missing 0 1 0 0 0
caterpillar flora-fauna Lepidoptera dapalan dapalan loan Yolngu simplex 0 0 0 0 0 no
catfish flora-fauna (many species) missing bartyar unique missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
centipede ciempiés centopéia flora-fauna Chilopoda, Myriapoda mala mala unknown perhaps cf malapinbin “small bat” simplex 0 0 0 0 0 no
channel-billed cuckoo flora-fauna Scythops novaehollandiae missing missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
crested pigeon flora-fauna Ocyphaps lophotes missing missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
darter/cormorant flora-fauna Anhinga melanogaster, Phalacrocorax species garakarak garakarak unknown reduplicated 0 1 0 0 0 no
death adder, five-minute snake flora-fauna Acanthophis praelongus banbalŋu banar7 doubtful loan Yolngu 0 0 0 0 0 yes
dingo flora-fauna Canis familiaris dingo gawir7 gawir7 unknown simplex 0 0 0 0 0 no
dog (camp, domestic) perro cachorro flora-fauna Canis familiaris watu watu loan Yolngu simplex 0 0 0 0 0 no
duck pato pato, marreco flora-fauna Anatidae nyalwan mutiti7 loan Yolngu Yolngu Yolngu Yolngu Yolngu Yolngu Yolngu Yolngu Yolngu Yolngu Yolngu Yolngu Yolngu Yolngu Yolngu 0 1 0 0 0 no
dugong flora-fauna Dugon dugong missing missing missing 1 1 0 0 0 no
earthworm flora-fauna Annelida, Oligochaeta missing missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
emu flora-fauna Dromaius novaehollandiae wurpan wurpan loan Yolngu WW %wurrparn simplex 2 1 2 0 0 no
fish (generic) pez peixe flora-fauna ceñ ceny inheritance simplex 0 1 0 0 0 N/A
flower flora-fauna (NA) ŋoro ŋu:ru: unknown simplex 0 0 0 0 0 no
blowfly/housefly mosca mosca flora-fauna Diptera missing missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
flying-fox (generic) flora-fauna (many species) macur matyur unknown simplex 0 0 0 0 0 no
freshwater crocodile flora-fauna Crocodylus johnstoni goyow gu:yu:w unknown simplex 0 0 0 0 0 no
freshwater mussel flora-fauna Velesunio wilsoni gurupu7 gurupil unknown simplex 0 1 0 0 0 no
freshwater prawn flora-fauna Macrobrachium rosenbergii missing missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
frill-necked lizard flora-fauna Chlamydosaurus kingii jaŋgur dyaŋgur inheritance simplex 0 1 0 0 0 no
frog (generic) flora-fauna (many species) dakbarara7 dakawa7 unknown simplex 0 0 0 0 0 no
galah flora-fauna Eolophus roseicapilla guliguli7 unique 0 0 0 0 0
turtle (generic) flora-fauna (many species) missing missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
ghost gum flora-fauna Eucalyptus papuana (Corymbia bella) darawk darawan unknown simplex 2 0 1 0 0 no
goanna (generic) or sand goanna flora-fauna Varanus spp gawgaw gawgaw unique reduplicated 0 1 2 0 0 no
grass hierba, pasto capim, grama flora-fauna (NA) bilinjiri bilindyiri unknown 0 0 0 0 0 no
grasshopper flora-fauna Orthoptera dyalma unknown simplex 0 0 0 0 0
great bowerbird flora-fauna Chlamydera nuchalis jurer7 dyuri:r7 loan direction unknown WW %tyurwirr simplex 1 0 0 0 0 no
green ant flora-fauna Oecophylla smaragdina malwork malwu:rk unknown 0 2 2 0 0 no
green sea turtle flora-fauna Chelonia mydas missing missing missing 1 1 0 0 0 no
green tree snake flora-fauna Dendrelaphis punctulata missing missing missing 0 2 0 0 0 no
head/body lice flora-fauna Pediculus capitis, Pediculus humanus missing missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
horse caballo cavalho flora-fauna Equus caballus yaraman yanuk unknown WW %yarraman simplex 0 0 0 0 0 no
hummingbird colibrí, picaflor (Peru) beija-flor flora-fauna Trochilidae barir7barir barir7barir loan direction unknown WW %parrir’parrir 0 0 0 0 0 no
humpback whale flora-fauna Megaptera novaeangliae missing missing missing 1 1 0 0 0 no
insect (generic) insecto insecto flora-fauna generic missing missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
jabiru flora-fauna Ephippiorhynchus asiaticus gandyi gandyi loan Yolngu WW %kanytyi 0 0 0 0 0
jungle-fowl (scrub-fowl) flora-fauna Megapodius freycinet missing missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
kangaroo (generic) flora-fauna Macropodidae missing missing missing 2 1 0 0 0 no
land snail flora-fauna Gastropoda gaka7 gaka7 loan direction unknown Rembarrnga simplex 0 0 0 0 0 no
magpie goose flora-fauna Anseranas semipalmata laŋguna laŋguna unknown 0 1 0 0 0 no
military dragon flora-fauna Ctenophorus isolepis, Diporiphora spp., Lophognathus spp. missing missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
mosquito mosquito, zancudo mosquito, carapana flora-fauna Anopheles spp, Isoptera milkmilk milkmilk unknown Cognates in Gupapuyngu, Ritharrngu, Dhuwal reduplicated 0 0 0 0 0 no
mud wasp, hornet flora-fauna (many species) missing missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
native bee flora-fauna (many species) missing missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
native cat flora-fauna Dasyurus nyuluk nyuluk loan direction unknown simplex 0 0 0 0 0 no
northern brown bandicoot flora-fauna Isoodon macrourus missing missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
northern kurrajong flora-fauna Brachychiton diversifolius missing missing missing 0 1 no? 0 0 no
nut tree flora-fauna Terminalia grandifolia missing missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
octopus flora-fauna Octopus australis missing missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
pandanus palm flora-fauna Pandanus spiralis ma_x001E_gunjak ru:k unknown simplex 1 1 0 0 1 no
paperbark flora-fauna Melaleuca sericea, Melaleuca stenostachya missing missing missing 0 0 1 0 0 no
peaceful dove flora-fauna Geopelia placida golotok gu:lu:tu:k loan direction unknown WW %kurutuk simplex 0 0 0 0 0 no
pearlshell flora-fauna Pinctada spp missing missing missing 1 1 0 0 1 no
peewee flora-fauna Gryllina cyanoleuca missing dilkdilk unknown 0 0 0 0 0 no
pied butcherbird flora-fauna Cracticus nigrogularis guruwuduk gurur unknown simplex 0 0 0 0 0 no
pike eel flora-fauna Muraenesox arabicus missing ganŋal loan direction unknown Gupapuyngu missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
praying mantis, stick insects mantis religiosa louva-a-deus flora-fauna Mantodea missing missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
prickle bush flora-fauna Sclerolaena bicornis missing missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
quail (generic) flora-fauna Coturnix species, Turnix species missing missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
red river gum flora-fauna Eucalyptus camaldulensis missing ŋu:lu:ŋgu:7 unique missing 2 0 1 0 1 no
red-tailed black-cockatoo flora-fauna Calyptorhynchus banksi darabiya7 dapururu7 unknown simplex 0 0 0 0 0 no
riflefish, archerfish flora-fauna Toxotes chatareus missing ŋatban7 loan direction unknown 0 1 0 0 0 no
river mangrove flora-fauna Aegicera corniculatum missing missing missing 0 0 2 0 1 no
rock fig flora-fauna Ficus brachypoda missing missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
sacred kingfisher flora-fauna Todiramphus sancta missing missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
saltwater crocodile flora-fauna Crocodylus porosus naŋguru nanaŋ unknown 2 2 0 0 0 yes
saltwater mussel flora-fauna Mytilidae missing missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
sawfish flora-fauna Pristis pectinata missing missing missing 1 0 0 0 0 yes
scorpion escorpión; alacran escorpião flora-fauna Arachnida, Scorpiones jatam dyarka7 unknown 0 0 0 0 0 no
shark (generic) flora-fauna Selachimorpha missing missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 variable
shell (generic) flora-fauna missing missing missing 0 1 0 0 1 no
short-beaked echidna flora-fauna Tachyglossus aculeatus manapun manaŋgula unknown 0 2 0 0 0 no
snake (generic) culebra, serpiente cobra flora-fauna missing missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 N/A
snappy gum flora-fauna Eucalyptus brevifolia missing missing missing 0 0 1 0 0 no
spider araña aranha flora-fauna Arachnida, Araneae waci watyi unknown simplex 0 0 0 0 0 no
spinifex flora-fauna Triodia species jalŋ dyalŋ loan direction unknown simplex 0 0 2 0 0 no
spoonbills (yellow-billed spoonbill, black-billed spoonbill) flora-fauna Platalea flavipes, Platalea regia (gu_x001E_)garrala garala inheritance simplex 0 0 0 0 0 no
stingray (generic) rayas látigo, raya arraia flora-fauna Dasyatidae missing missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 variable
stripe-faced dunnart flora-fauna Sminthopsis macroura missing missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
sugarbag wax flora-fauna missing missing missing 1 1 0 0 0 no
sulphur-crested cockatoo flora-fauna Cacatua galerita ŋerkŋerk ŋi:rkŋi:rk unknown reduplicated 0 0 0 0 0 no
swamp eel flora-fauna Ophisternon gutturale missing missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
swamp leech flora-fauna Annelida, Hirudinea jimi7 dyimi7 unknown simplex 0 0 0 0 0 no
tawny frogmouth flora-fauna Podargus strigoides guluykuluy guluykuluy loan direction unknown reduplicated 0 0 0 0 0 no
termite mounds, ant hills flora-fauna Isoptera missing missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
termites, white-ants comején (Peru), termitas cupim flora-fauna (many species) murugulu7 murpungula inheritance simplex 0 0 0 0 0 no
ti-tree flora-fauna Melaleuca bracteata missing missing missing 0 0 1 0 0 no
tick garrapata carrapato flora-fauna Arachnida, Acarina missing missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
tiger shark flora-fauna Galeocerdo cuvier missing missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 yes
torresian crow flora-fauna Corvus orru missing missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
tree árbol arvore flora-fauna (NA) barakal7 bangawudu unknown 0 0 0 0 0 no
waterlily flora-fauna Nymphaea macrosperma burpa7-barŋ burpa7 semantic shift burpa7 “water lily species”, -barŋ “sour, bad-tasting” derived 0 1 2 0 0 no
wattle flora-fauna Acacia difficilis balara7 bakara unknown simplex 0 0 1 0 1 no
wedge-tailed eagle flora-fauna Aquila audax damala dalpur7 unknown cf mala “centipede” malapinbin “small bat”?? simplex 1 0 0 0 0 no
willie wagtail flora-fauna Rhipidura leucophrys jirimijirimi dyirimidyirimi loan Yolngu WW %tyintipirri reduplicated 1 0 0 0 0 no
witchetty grub flora-fauna (many species) mara7 mara7 unknown simplex 0 1 2 0 0 no
woma flora-fauna Aspidites ramsayii missing missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
tree árbol arvore flora-fauna missing Claire Bowern
ant (generic) hormiga formiga flora-fauna a-ja' inheritance Claire Bowern
bird pajaro, ave passaro flora-fauna X missing Claire Bowern
blowfly/housefly mosca mosca flora-fauna missing Claire Bowern
dog (camp, domestic) perro cachorro flora-fauna a-wartu loan Claire Bowern
grass hierba, pasto capim, grama flora-fauna mulmu loan Claire Bowern
kangaroo (generic) flora-fauna missing Claire Bowern
snake (generic) culebra, serpiente cobra flora-fauna a-dharlarra inheritance Claire Bowern
spider araña aranha flora-fauna ma-watji inheritance Claire Bowern


Cultural Vocabulary (111)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Word Structure Word Structure Notes General Notes Source Created By
afterworld, land of dead, Heaven tierra do los muertos terra dos mortos culture-mythology missing Claire Bowern
armband dress missing Claire Bowern
awl subsistence tool missing Claire Bowern
axe/stone axe hacha (de piedra) machado (de pedra) subsistence tool missing Claire Bowern
bag (string) culture-material missing Claire Bowern
bait for fishing cebo, carnada para pescar, empate (Peru) isca subsistence tool missing Claire Bowern
basket (general) canasta, canasto, cesta cesto culture-material missing Claire Bowern
body feather decorations culture-mythology missing Claire Bowern
boomerang/throwing stick (generic) subsistence tool missing Claire Bowern
boomerang (number 7) subsistence tool missing Claire Bowern
boomerang (small) subsistence tool missing Claire Bowern
bowl (coolamon) culture-material missing Claire Bowern
broom escoba vassoura culture-material missing Claire Bowern
canoe canoa canoa transport missing Claire Bowern
cicatrice culture-mythology missing Claire Bowern
clapsticks culture-mythology missing Claire Bowern
club (nulla-nulla) subsistence tool missing Claire Bowern
cook food food missing Claire Bowern
cook in earth oven food missing Claire Bowern
damper food missing Claire Bowern
dance (generic) culture-mythology missing Claire Bowern
digging stick subsistence tool missing Claire Bowern
dipper (small coolamon) subsistence tool missing Claire Bowern
dream sueño, soñar sonho, sonhar culture-mythology missing Claire Bowern
dreaming culture-mythology missing Claire Bowern
drone pipe culture-mythology missing Claire Bowern
fire drill subsistence tool missing Claire Bowern
fire-saw other missing Claire Bowern
fireplace hogar lareira other missing Claire Bowern
firewood leña lenha other missing Claire Bowern
fish poison barbasco, matapez (Colombia) timbó subsistence tool gu:lty unique Claire Bowern
fish (with fish-poison) pescar con barbasco, barbasquear pescar com timbó; tinguijar food missing Claire Bowern
fish (with line) anzuelear, pescar con linea pescar (com linha) food missing Claire Bowern
fish (with spear) food missing Claire Bowern
fishing line cordel/cuerda p/ pescar, sedal, tanze linha de pesca subsistence tool missing Claire Bowern
fishtrap (permanent) subsistence tool missing Claire Bowern
fishtrap (woven) subsistence tool missing Claire Bowern
flour (European) food missing Claire Bowern
flour (bush) food missing Claire Bowern
game animal caza, animal de caza caça, animal de caça food missing Claire Bowern
ghost (of dead person)/evil spirit espíritu malo, espíritu maligno, fantasma, demonio espirito culture-mythology missing Claire Bowern
glue subsistence tool missing Claire Bowern
grave tumba, sepultura, sepulcro sepultura, sepulcro, cova culture-mythology missing Claire Bowern
grog food missing Claire Bowern
hair belt dress missing Claire Bowern
headband dress missing Claire Bowern
healer curandero benzador, curandeiro, kumu (Tukano) culture-mythology missing Claire Bowern
honey miel mel food ŋana unique Claire Bowern
house (European) other missing Claire Bowern
hunt cazar caçar food missing Claire Bowern
initiation (circumcision) culture-mythology missing Claire Bowern
initiation (subincision) culture-mythology missing Claire Bowern
knife cuchillo faca culture-material missing Claire Bowern
loincloth taparrabos, guayuco, pampanilla tanga, tapa-sexo dress missing Claire Bowern
love song culture-mythology missing Claire Bowern
mangrove raft transport missing Claire Bowern
message stick culture-mythology missing Claire Bowern
mortar mortero pilão subsistence tool missing Claire Bowern
nosepeg other missing Claire Bowern
paddle/oar remo remo transport missing Claire Bowern
ochre culture-mythology missing Claire Bowern
paint body, body paint pintura corporal pintura corporal culture-mythology missing Claire Bowern
pestle pilón, mano de mortero, mazo, moledor mão de pilão subsistence tool missing Claire Bowern
pipe for tobacco pipa cachimbo other missing Claire Bowern
public song cycle culture-mythology missing Claire Bowern
red paint culture-mythology missing Claire Bowern
resin resina, brea, copal resina, brea, breu subsistence tool missing Claire Bowern
salt sal sal food missing Claire Bowern
shelter (native) other missing Claire Bowern
song (generic) canción, canto canção culture-mythology missing Claire Bowern
song (for entertainment) culture-mythology missing Claire Bowern
spear lanza lança subsistence tool missing Claire Bowern
spear (fighting) subsistence tool missing Claire Bowern
spear (fishing) subsistence tool missing Claire Bowern
spearthrower subsistence tool missing Claire Bowern
speartip subsistence tool missing Claire Bowern
string (from hair) culture-material missing Claire Bowern
string (from vine) culture-material missing Claire Bowern
sugar acculturation missing Claire Bowern
tea food missing Claire Bowern
tobacco (European) narcotics dambaku loan English WW tobacco Claire Bowern
tobacco (native) narcotics missing Claire Bowern
spirit child culture-mythology missing Claire Bowern
wax cera cera other missing Claire Bowern
white paint culture-mythology missing Claire Bowern
windbreak other missing Claire Bowern
yandy (n) culture-material missing Claire Bowern
school escuela escola acculturation missing Claire Bowern
net subsistence tool missing Claire Bowern
bottle botella garrafa acculturation missing Claire Bowern
paper papel papel acculturation missing Claire Bowern
corpse food missing Claire Bowern
chicken gallina galinha acculturation missing Claire Bowern
tree coffin culture-mythology missing Claire Bowern
clothing ropa roupa culture-mythology missing Claire Bowern
skirt falda, saya, fustan, pollera saia culture-material missing Claire Bowern
shoes zapatos sapatos dress missing Claire Bowern
medicine narcotics missing Claire Bowern
earth oven food missing Claire Bowern
policeman polícia policía acculturation missing Claire Bowern
cat gato gato acculturation missing Claire Bowern
gun arma, escopeta espingarda, fusil acculturation missing Claire Bowern
hat sombero chapéu dress missing Claire Bowern
rope/string mecate, cuerda, soga corda culture ma-balku loan Claire Bowern
bottom grinding stone manufacture X missing Claire Bowern
digging stick subsistence tool 400 inheritance Claire Bowern
winnow aventar, tirar (sementes) joeirar manufacture X missing Claire Bowern
top grinding stone metate, mano; piedra de moler metate, mano manufacture X inheritance Claire Bowern
spearthrower subsistence tool o-bornrdok inheritance? Claire Bowern
spear lanza lança subsistence tool ma-gami unique Claire Bowern
house other gu-dhurkul unique Claire Bowern


Ethnographic Information
Current population (ethnicity) Current population (speakers) Former population estimate Subsistence preference Subsistence notes Density Sedentism Ecotome (riverine/interfluvial/coastal/desert/savannah/etc.) Social hierarchies Multilingualism (rare/occasional/common) Contact languages Marriage pattern Notes Source Created By
small HG dense mobile yes