snake (generic)

Semantic Field
flora-fauna
Part of Speech
Meaning Spanish
culebra, serpiente
Meaning Portuguese
cobra

Languages

Language Linnean Name Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Range of Term Word Structure Word Structure Notes Classifier Classifier Notes Hypernym Source Association with Social Categories Ritual/Mythologically Significant Ritual Notes Food Source Food Notes Medicinal Medicinal Notes How Collected Who Collects How Prepared Psychotropic Psychotropic Notes Traded Trade Notes Distribution Habitat Dangerous Ethnobiology Notes Species Notes General Notes Created By
Bankalachi Toloim nah'-tis snake (any) loan Yokuts Yowlumne not'-tit; nŏt'-titCH “rattlesnake”; Chukchansi nah'-sis “rattlesnake, any snake”; Proto-NimYokuts *naThiTh “rattlesnake” (Golla 1964:64) same underived C. H. Merriam 60-463 0 1 0 0 0 no
Big Smokey Valley Shoshone tokoa snake (generic), rattlesnake inheritance *tɨ-*koNwa Numic Stubbs 2009 (2008:279), prefix only in Numic same underived etymologicall a phrase, rock-snake Crapo 1976:179 0 1 0 0 0 no
Cahuilla séwet ˈsewet snakes inheritance *sɨwɨn- Takic S2011a (Stubbs 2009:280); not Stubbs' reconstruction, but Kitanemuk, Serrano are conservative in retaining these nasals. same other complex sewe-t -7aʃ "pet" possessive classifier -7aʃ (probably) Bean 1972:61 no info 0 Moon gaves snakes their colors; they are her paintings (Seiler 1970:44) 1 no info hunted Men boiled, roasted 0 0 Americas Diverse habitats yes
Central Sierra Miwok lah'-wah-te snake (any) inheritance Sierra Miwokan only In Miss underived must be etymologically complex Merriam 57:463 0 1 0 0 0 no
Chemehuevi kwe-ets kwiijaatsi snake (any) unique same other complex has -ci ABS Merriam 59:535 0 1 0 0 0 no
Chumash Barbareno c'iqHiy' snake unique underived Beeler 1978:175 0 1 0 0 0 no
Chumash Ineseno i-yu-wes'-sĕ snake (any) unique other complex I'll bet this is an 7al form misheard by CHM Merriam 55:17 0 1 0 0 0 no
Chumash Obispeno tʃo vibora unique underived Harrington III:1:0085 0 1 0 0 0 no
Chumash Ventureno pʃoʃ snake inheritance *pSoSo Proto-Chumash underived Heizer/Pinart I:58 0 1 0 0 0 no
Cocopa ɂawí appears in other snake names, always in phrase inheritance Proto-Yuman Note Kiliwa ?+wi? same underived Crawford 1989 0 1 0 0 0 no
Comanche kwasinaboo? snake (general) unique same finite clause? kwasi-naboo? tail-is.striped/spotted/patterned Robinson & Armagost 1990:163 0 1 0 0 0 no
Cupeño missing missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
Esselen missing missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
Gabrielino ta:hur, ta:xor (281) ˈta:hur la culebra, gopher snake inheritance *tahu- Northern Uto-Aztecan S2015 (Stubbs 2009:280) narrower (does not include rattlesnakes) other complex ˈta:hu-r snake-npn -ʔaʧ “pet possessive classifier for animals Harrington 161 no info 0 1 McC p. 116 no info hunted all no info 0 0 Americas Diverse habitats no
Iipay 'Aa han-nă-kor' snake (any) unique same underived a wild guess Merriam 55:213 0 1 0 0 0 no
Kawaiisu to-go'-wah inheritance *tɨ-*koNwa Proto-Numic Stubbs 2009 but with this prefix only Numic unknown Merriam 59:375 0 1 0 0 0 no
Kiliwa ?+wi? snake, viper inheritance Proto-Yuman same underived Mixco 1985 0 1 0 0 0 no
Kitanemuk hɨŋt hɨŋt snake, rattlesnake inheritance *sɨwɨn- Takic S2011a (Stubbs 2009:280); not Stubbs' reconstruction, but Kitanemuk, Serrano are conservative in retaining these nasals. broader (also generic for snake) other complex hɨŋ-t rattlesnake-npn -ʔacit "pet" possessive classifier for animals Anderton 1988:312 no info 0 1 no info no info no info no info 0 0 Americas Diverse habitats yes
Lake Miwok p'ódwaj snake loan Hill Patwin “probably from Hill Patwin porwan “snake”” with -aj by analogy” (1965:117) other complex -aj Callaghan 1965 0 1 0 0 0 no
Luiseño píiqwala ʹpi:qʷala snake (any kind) (but not rattlesnakes, see Species notes JHH) unique narrower (does not include rattlesnakes) other complex ʹpi:qʷa-la (root may be derived) -ʔaʃ "pet" possessive classifier; NPN form of noun is ʔaʃla Elliott 1999: 714 no info 0 1 lizards not eaten, so snakes may also be proscribed no info no info no info no info 0 0 Americas diverse habitats no
Maidu húsky snake (general) unique underived Shipley 1963 0 1 0 0 0 no
Mojave ɂave snake inheritance Proto-Yuman Note Kiliwa ?+wi? ; Maricopa ɂave; Yuma 7a.ve/ Halpern 1:30 same underived Munro et al.1992 0 1 0 0 0 no
Mutsun ko:Tehwa snake (any) Merriam confirms inheritance Yok-Utian Cf. Pynim *xo:THongiTH (and *ko:langkHil “king snake”), Pmis *ho.tong-ja-; Callaghan 1997:60 other complex -wa is "serpent" suffix Okrand p. 142 Merriam 55:417 0 1 0 0 0 no
Nisenan kojmo Merriam confirms snake (any); also haw'-tot unique underived Merriam 57:241 0 1 0 0 0 no
Northern Paiute nooyooadu Snake unique same derived nuyua-dɨ “crawl-er” Merriam 61:147 0 1 0 0 0 no
Northern Sierra Miwok lo:pa:Ti- snake inheritance Sierra Miwokan only In Mics other complex -To 0 1 0 0 0 no
Plains Miwok wilo-, wilu- snake unique underived 0 1 0 0 0 no
Salinan A šk'ot snake, worm, grub; Merriam's “snake, any” 55”379 unique Salinan other complex s- animal prefix Mason 1918:123; Turner 1980:83 0 1 0 0 0 no
Salinan M ck'ot snake, worm, grub; (Merriam's “snake, any” 55”379) unique Salinan underived Mason 1918:123 0 1 0 0 0 no
Seri (Comcaac) ziix coíimaj hant cöquiih cö is /kw/ snake, general term for non-biting species (biting species change coiimaj for cocazni) unique narrower (doesn't include biting snakes/vipers) relative clause animal coiler (whipsnake) earththat- lies (?) Comcaac Dictionary 205 0 1 0 0 0 no
Serrano hyr:ng-t snake, any (CHM confirms) inheritance *sɨwɨn- Takic S2011a (Stubbs 2008:280); not Stubbs' reconstruction, but Kitanemuk, Serrano are conservative in retaining these nasals. other complex -t NPN Merriam 60-109 0 1 0 0 0 no
Southern Paiute kwe-ets' L, M, A; kwe-etch L snake (any) unique this is a western form otherwise unique to Chemehuevi -- loan? Euphemism? same other complex has -tsi ABS Merriam 59:471 0 1 0 0 0 no
Southern Sierra Miwok 7ici- snake (Merriam has law:ati- 57:463 unique underived Broadbent 1964: 0 1 0 0 0 no
Southern Ute togóa-vI snake, rattlesnake inheritance *koNwa Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2009 (2008:279); this word with the to- prefix is just Numic, however same other complex has -pi ABS Givon 1979 0 1 0 0 0 no
Tübatulabal tuhhatt tuˈhat water snake (see species notes) inheritance *tahu Northern Uto-Aztecan S2015 (Stubbs 2009:280); seems reasonable to include in the set narrower (does not include rattlesnakes) other complex tuˈha-t snake-npn Hill 2010:92 no info 0 1 no reptiles eaten (Voegelin 1938:6) no info N/A N/A N/A 0 0 Americas Diverse habitats no
Tümpisa Shoshone tokowa snake, rattlesnake inheritance *tɨ-*koNwa Proto-Numic Stubbs 2009; with this prefix only in Numic same underived obviously to-kowa “rock-snake” but I doubt if this is accessible to speakers Dayley 1989:291 0 1 0 0 0 no
Wappo holo:wík'a snake (CHM confirms 52:577) unique Note Lake Miwok holoomaj “rattlesnake” phrase holo:- presumably some kind of critter element; see “ant” Sawyer 1965 0 1 0 0 0 no
Washo má:k'i7 snake (any) unique underived Merriam 55:311; WPD 0 1 0 0 0 no
Western Mono toGoqA “snake (any)” as well as rattlesnake inheritance *tɨ-koNwa Proto-Numic UA “snake” word *koNwa is S2009, but this form only in Numic same unknown Merriam 59:81 (transcription from Bethle et al. 0 1 0 0 0 no
Wintu La:q snakes (really, just loses glottalization) unique underived Pitkin 1985 0 1 0 0 0 no
Yavapai ɂlwĭ breve is hachek snake inheritance Proto-Yuman Note Kiliwa ?+wi? unknown Shaterian 1983 0 1 0 0 0 no
Yokuts Palewyami missing missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
Yokuts Yawdanchi e-now'-we-det' snake (any) (Wik) unique same other complex I'm sure this is complex form but analysis impossible Merriam 58:371 0 1 0 0 0 no
Yokuts Yowlumne yax Kroeber's transcription for Merriam's yah” snake (any) inheritance Yokutsan usually the word for “water-snake” in Kroeber same underived Merriam 58:561 0 1 0 0 0 no
Yuki hunk'an' any snake MW inheritance *hunk'an' Yukian-Wappo Schlichter 1985 underived Sawyer & Schlichter 1984 0 1 0 0 0 no
Yuma ah-vĭh' snake (any) inheritance unknown Merriam 61:463 0 1 0 0 0 no
Akawaio ögöi ögöɪ inheritance Northern Carib? See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin
Baniwa áapi, ããpi (hr01) áapi, ããpi (hr01) inheritance Proto-Arawak (North and South) uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B., Aimee Lawrence
Carijona əkəi aka'i (H&R) inheritance Northern Carib? H&R aka'i See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
Cubeo no generic term ã'jã́ inheritance Proto-Tukanoan uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Amanda Meeks
Dâw rẽér hæ̃̌h inheritance missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
Desano ã'jã́ ã'jã́ inheritance Several ET languages use 'snake' root in both forms uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Amanda Meeks
Eñepa ake, Var. ajke (MM) ake, Var. ahke (MM) inheritance Northern Carib? See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Melody Ann Ross
Guayabero hom hom inheritance uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram, Aimee Lawrence, Amanda Meeks
Hodï ih'ko iʰkʷo unique cf. Carib But compare Carib, e.g.Eñepa ajke uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Amanda Meeks
Waorani tæ̃tæbó unique uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Amanda Meeks
Hup [no generic] [no generic] missing missing See Language page 0 1 some kinds and some people only 0 hunted? 0 0 no Pattie Epps
Kakua ~bâj ~bâj inheritance underived See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Katherine Bolaños
Macaguan jom hom inheritance uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Rebecca Khorram, Amanda Meeks
Makushi ikɨ́í ikɨ́í inheritance Northern Carib? See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Melody Ann Ross
Nheengatu buya buja inheritance Proto-Tupi-Guarani Reconstructed PTG Mello 2000 underived See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
Ninam rosik (gom), orɨk (EM72) rosik (gom), oɾɨk inheritance uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Kelsey Neely
Nukak mãĩ4 inheritance uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no
Maihiki aña aguɨ aɲa agɨ, ãjã inheritance Proto-Tukanoan uncoded agɨ agɨ = masculine animate See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Daniel Valle
Pemon okoi; ököi (E1980); ököi (M2000) oko (A1981)i; ököɪ (E1980) inheritance Northern Carib? See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
Resígaro oná?kó onáʔkó unique Central North Arawak uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B.
Sanumá olɨgɨgɨ (edible snakes only), olɨkɨkɨ (EM72) olɨgɨgɨ (edible snakes only), olɨkɨkɨ (EM72) inheritance Narrower (edible snakes only) uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Kelsey Neely
Sikuani jomo (rk83); atsajomo (42), jomo (2), manu (2)(Arawak borrowing) hómo inheritance atsajomo (42), jomo (2), manu (2) (Arawak borrowing) uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Amanda Meeks
Tariana api (dp91), mawáli 'cobra, verme'; ʔã́mpi (H&R92) api (dp91), mawáli 'cobra, verme' inheritance Proto-Arawak (North and South) Also mawáli 'cobra, verme' uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B.
Tukano pĩrô ã́jã́, pĩrô inheritance In other ET languages, this means boa/anaconda. Also ã́jã́ (cognate with other Tuk) uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Ana Paula, Amanda Novak, Aimee Lawrence
Kotiria ~phido ã'gã (H&R), ~pʰido inheritance Means 'boa, anaconda' in most other ET languages. Also ã'gã (H&R) uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Amanda Meeks
Wapishana generic snake: kʰuwaẓaẓ generic snake: kʰuwaẓaẓ unique See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B.
Yanomam orukɨk (EM72) oɾukɨk inheritance uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Kelsey Neely
Yanomami oru oɾu inheritance underived kəkɨ is a nominal classifier specifying that things are of the same species See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Kelsey Neely
Yukuna jeina, jeí (rk83); heíŋ (H&R92) heina unique uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B., Aimee L., PLE
Bardi juurru juurru inheritance underived 0 1 0 0 0 N/A
Bunuba bilanyi bilanyi inheritance pirlanyi Bunuban cf. Jam. Pulany WW %pulany underived 0 1 0 0 0 N/A
Burarra missing missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 N/A
Dhangu missing missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 N/A
Dhay’yi missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 N/A
Dhuwal missing missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 N/A
Djinang missing missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 N/A
Gajirrabeng nganjoowarrng nganjuwarrng semantic shift nganjuwarr N.Jarragan original meaning 'King Brown snake' underived 0 1 0 0 0 N/A
Gooniyandi barlanyi barlanyi inheritance pirlanyi Bunuban underived 0 1 0 0 0 N/A
Gumatj missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 N/A
Gupapuyngu missing missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 N/A
Gurindji kuljany kuljany semantic shift kuljany python also wari; kuljany 'carpet snake' in Jaru underived 0 1 0 0 0 N/A
Guugu Yimidhirr thaarba & thunggul thaarba & thunggul unique To KYal /thaarba/ 'snake'; poss. a loan in KYal from GYim. underived 0 1 0 0 0
Jaminjung pulany pulany loan Bunaban Bun pirlany/parlarny - direction? Other pula snake words? WW %pulany underived 0 1 0 0 0 N/A
Jaru muntiny muntiny semantic shift muntiny Ngumpin black-headed python > muntuty by Nasal Cluster Dissimilation. Doublet? uncoded 0 1 0 0 0 N/A
Jingulu mikintyi mikintyi unknown underived 0 1 0 0 0 N/A
Karajarri djuṛu djuṛu loan Nyulnyulan underived 0 1 0 0 0 N/A
Kija ngamarrany ngamarrany unique As with the other root King Brown is extended to snake life-form underived 0 1 0 0 0 N/A
Koko-Bera missing missing
Kuku-Thaypan missing missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 N/A
Kuku-Yalanji jarba jarba loan Guugu Yimidhirr To GYim /thaarba/ 'snake'; judged a loan from GYim because of loss of vowel length distinction. underived 0 1 0 0 0 N/A
Kurtjar missing missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 N/A
Kuuk Thaayorre yak yak unique underived 0 1 0 0 0 N/A
Mbabaram agerr agerr unique underived 0 1 0 0 0 N/A
Miriwung ngandjuwarrng ngandjuwarrng inheritance ngantyuwarr Jarragan King Brown>snake underived 0 1 0 0 0 N/A
Ngandi missing missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 N/A
Ngarinyin langkut langkut inheritance *rlangku- proto-Worrorran uncoded 0 1 0 0 0 N/A
Ngumbarl tchooroo tchooroo inheritance underived 0 1 0 0 0 N/A
Nimanburru djur% djur% inheritance underived 0 1 0 0 0 N/A
Nyangumarta jurru jurru loan Nyulnyulan underived 0 1 0 0 0 N/A
Nyikina jilbidikoodanyoon jilbidikoodanyoon unique derived 0 1 0 0 0 N/A
Nyulnyul bulgun, juurr bulgun, juurr inheritance underived 0 1 0 0 0 N/A
Pakanh missing missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 N/A
Rembarrnga missing missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 N/A
Ritharrngu missing missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 N/A
Tjaapukay djama cama snake (generic) inheritance *cama pYTj To Yidiny underived 0 1 0 0 0 N/A
Uw-Olkol missing missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 N/A
Uw-Oykangand missing missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 N/A
Walmajarri tyilpirtitjarti tyilpirtitjarti unique compound guts-HAVING 0 1 0 0 0 N/A
Wardaman linin linin unknown uncoded 0 1 0 0 0 N/A
Warlpiri warna warna inheritance warna Ngumpin-Yapa underived 0 1 0 0 0 N/A
Wik Ngathan ngench ngeñc snake unique per Sutton, to WNgathan /-ngench/ & WMng /ngench/ 'sacred'. Therefore ultimately < pPNyungan *ngalñca underived Can be preposed to a species name as a generic. 0 1 0 0 0 N/A
Yan-nhangu mol’ mol’ unique simplex 0 1 0 0 0 N/A
Yawuru jurru jurru inheritance underived 0 1 0 0 0 N/A
Yidiny jama jama inheritance *cama pYTj To Tjaap. /djama/. underived minya 0 1 0 0 0 N/A
Yir-Yoront tholqorr; minh- minh-thol7orr unique underived tholqorr 'long': minh-tholqorr (like the respect-language equivalent wirqvyvw ('bony one', referring to the many ribs) is a coinage of convenience; there is, properly speaking, no generic term for 'snake' 0 1 0 Post-Wet, peaking in Dry; Pre-Wet. Eggs Post-Wet & Dry 0 0 many spp
Achagua áapi (dp91),ái á:pi (dp91), ái inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Aimee Lawrence, PLE
Piapoco áapi (dp91), àapi á:pi (dp91), àapi See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
Kabiyari apí (dp91) apí (dp91) See Language page Ana Paula B., Aimee Lawrence, PLE
Warekena mawaya, api mawaja, api See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
Yavitero u'meni u'meni See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
Bare mawaya mawaja See Language page Ana Paula B.
Paresi ˈowi ˈuwi inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
Baure ki'woṛ̌; 'peropi ki'woṛ̌; 'peropi inheritance S. Arawak See Language page Anissa Capuccino
Waurá uwi uwi inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick, PLE
Bora íínyimye íínjimjɛ inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
Muinane xíinimo; íttɨ {small snake} xíinimo; íttɨ {small snake} See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
Apalai okoi okoi inheritance See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
Wayana ëkëi ǝkǝi inheritance See Language page PLE
Tiriyó əkəi əkəi inheritance See Language page Becky Walker
Makiritare əkə̄yu (IDS) (Also tadādwēmə); ökö:yu (KH) əkə:ju inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
Mapoyo ëkëi (ëkkëi) ɛkɛi (ɛkkɛi) See Language page Melody Ann Ross
Wai Wai okoyi okoyi inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross
Waimiri Atroari kyrywy kɨrɨwɨ See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
Yukpa kiripo ko'nena See Language page Phon only in source Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross, Aimee Lawrence
Kalapalo eke eke inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick
Muisca muyso aquyca gue muɨso akuɨka γe See Language page Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
Northern Emberá daamá daːmá, tamá (H&R) See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, PLE
Cofán anttanfasi iyo See Language page phonemic transcriptions are ESTIMATIONS Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
Candoshi-Shapra góyogópshi nkóyonkópʃi unique See Language page Daniel Valle
Páez ol ol, ul (H&R) See Language page Daniel Valle
Tikuna ãxtape ãʔtape unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
Urarina akanu akanu unique See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
Camsa mɨtɕkuáje mɨtɕkuáje See Language page Daniel Valle
Andoke poʌtaʌ unique See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
Puinave generic snake: sə̃p generic snake: sə̃p unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
Warao hube See Language page John Blaha
Ashuar nápi napi See Language page Daniel Valle
Huambisa napi napi See Language page Daniel Valle
Aguaruna dápi dápi inheritance See Language page Daniel Valle
Matses nisi nisi unknown See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
Chácobo rono rono inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick
Yagua codiy kondij doubtful loan, direction unknown Iquito kuni See Language page Daniel Valle
Ingá amarun kulíbra (SP loan, H&R) See Language page Daniel Valle
Napo Lowland Quichua palu palu See Language page Daniel Valle
Quechua Ayacuchano machaqway, maqta-uru matʃaqwaj, maqta-uɾu See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
Piaroa wiriät'erä; ahkáh (K76) wiriæt'eræ, ahkáh doubtful loan Carib See Language page Paulina Franco, Becky Walker
Sáliva llacui ʤakʷi unknown See Language page Becky Walker
Barasano ãjã ãjã See Language page Amanda Meeks
Carapana ãña ãɲã, 'ãjã (H&R), pĩno (FS) See Language page Amanda Meeks
Makuna ãña ãɲa, ãjã inheritance See Language page Amanda Meeks
Yuruti ã́jã ã́jã See Language page Amanda Meeks
Waikhana ã'jã ã'jã See Language page Amanda Meeks
Siriano ãñá ãɲá, ã'jã́ See Language page Amanda Meeks
Tanimuca ã'dyã 'ka ã'ʎã 'ka inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely, Aimee Lawrence
Tatuyo ˈã'jã ˈã'jã See Language page Emily Buell, Paulina Franco
Tuyuka ã'jã́ ã'jã́ See Language page D. Jagannathan, Paulina Franco, Ana Paula B.
Waimaja ãñã́ ãɲã́ See Language page Kelsey Neely
Koreguaje aña ˈaɲa inheritance See Language page Daniel Valle
Siona aña aɲa inheritance See Language page Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
Secoya aña ˈã'jã See Language page Amanda Meeks
Karitiana moroja moɾoja inheritance See Language page Daniel Valle
Kokama mui mui inheritance See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
Wayampi mɔy mɔj inheritance See Language page PLE
Sirionó mei̯; mei̯ kʷaču mei̯; mei̯ kʷaǩu inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
Kamayurá mõj (M2000) mõj (M2000) inheritance See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
Ocaina gonjóónhinhtsi gõhṍṍʔĩʔtsi unique See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
Nɨpode Witoto hái.o, iβána hái.o, iβána See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
Minica Witoto hái.o hái.o See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
Murui Witoto hai.o hai.o inheritance/Witoto See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
Iquito cúni kúni loan, direction unknown Yagua kondij See Language page Cjnthia Hansen
Wari emʔ emʔ See Language page PLE
Ese Ejja/Huarayo akwišo peo akwišo peo See Language page Joyce McCormick
Cavineña bakʷa; bakwa (G71) bakʷa; bakwa (G71) See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
Central Aymara asiru, katari asiru See Language page PLE
Kwazá -djay -djay See Language page Joyce McCormick
Movima čaβoʔo (J62) tʃaβoʔo See Language page Anissa Capuccino, Becky Walker
Trumai kodešɨš kodešɨš See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
Kaingang pỹn pə̃n See Language page PLE
Suyá kaŋã, kãná kaŋã, kãná See Language page Rebekah Evans
Djeoromitxi mẽ mẽ See Language page PLE
Big Smokey Valley Shoshone tokoa “rattlesnake, snake (generic)” inheritance Jane Hill
Cahuilla sewet (rattlesnake) inheritance S&H 1979 Jane Hill
Central Sierra Miwok lo:paT:i- inheritance Jane Hill
Chemehuevi kogO snake sp inheritance JPH Jane Hill
Chumash Barbareno xshap “rattlesnake” inheritance Ono 1996:26 Jane Hill
Chumash Ineseno xshap “rattlesnake” inheritance A76:279 Jane Hill
Chumash Obispeno tqwa(y)hiqwa7, kwayhiqwa7 rattlesnake(? loan Klar 1977 Jane Hill
Chumash Ventureno xshap “rattlesnake” unknown JPH Jane Hill
Cocopa 7awi/ “rattlesnake” inheritance Jane Hill
Comanche kwasinaboo7 unique Jane Hill
Cupeño sewe-t [sɨwɨt] inheritance Jane Hill
Esselen tse/tselkmati “rattlesnake” unknown Henshaw in Shaul 1995:200 and voc Jane Hill
Gabrielino $o:t “snake”; $o:wot “rattlesnake”; inheritance Jane Hill
Iipay 'Aa 'ewii [Ɂəˈwiˑ] inheritance Jane Hill
Kawaiisu togowa “rattlesnake” inheritance Jane Hill
Kiliwa 7-wi7 inheritance Jane Hill
Kitanemuk hyngt inheritance Jane Hill
Lake Miwok p'o/dwaj loan Jane Hill
Luiseño pi:qwa-la unknown Jane Hill
Maidu hu/sky (does not appear alone) unknown Jane Hill
Mojave 7ave inheritance Jane Hill
Mutsun 7ippi "rattlesnake",ippih "rattlesnake" (a turned-around one) loan O77:145; Jane Hill
Nisenan hi:k'i (big) unknown Jane Hill
Northern Paiute togokwa “rattlesnake” inheritance Thornes 03:298 Jane Hill
Northern Sierra Miwok lo:pa:Ti- inheritance Jane Hill
Plains Miwok wilo-, wilu- unknown Jane Hill
Salinan A Ta:li:ye:7 “serpent” loan direction unknown Jane Hill
Salinan M Tinele/' 'serpent' loan direction unknown Mason 1918:125 Jane Hill
Seri (Comcaac) coca/zni “rattlesnake” unknown Jane Hill
Serrano hY:ng-t “rattlesnake” inheritance Jane Hill
Southern Paiute togoa-S rattlesnake inheritance Jane Hill
Southern Sierra Miwok 7ici- unknown Jane Hill
Southern Ute no generic tog'oavI “rattlesnake” inheritance Jane Hill
Tübatulabal shymmynt “rattlesnake” inheritance Jane Hill
Tümpisa Shoshone tokowa (rattlesnake) inheritance Jane Hill
Wappo holo:wi/k'a loan Jane Hill
Washo ma/7ki7 unknown J69 Jane Hill
Western Mono togo/qA “rattlesnake” inheritance Jane Hill
Wintu lya:q “snake, rattlesnake” loan direction unknown Jane Hill
Yavapai ?lwi\/, ?lwi/ inheritance Jane Hill
Yokuts Palewyami Te7et “rattlesnake” inheritance Source? JPH Jane Hill
Yokuts Yawdanchi t:OOd “rattlesnake” 242 THO7Ot? inheritance K07:242 Jane Hill
Yokuts Yowlumne naTHiTH (rattlesnake) inheritance Golla 1964 Jane Hill
Yuki lil na,w'en, lil na,7in, lil na,7en, lil na,:7en' “rattlesnake” unknown S&S 1984 Jane Hill
Yuma 7a:ve/ H1:29 inheritance Jane Hill
Arabana alakura unique Claire Bowern
Bardi djur% jurr inheritance Claire Bowern
Bunuba birlanyi inheritance Claire Bowern
Burarra ana-bericha unknown Claire Bowern
Dhangu djäḻki(') unknown Claire Bowern
Dhuwal mundukuḻ(') Claire Bowern
Dhuwala djäḻki(') unknown Claire Bowern
Diyari wanku inheritance Claire Bowern
DiyariREU [missing] missing Claire Bowern
Djambarrpuyngu [missing] missing Claire Bowern
Djapu mundukuḻ(') unknown Claire Bowern
Djinang minarr unknown Claire Bowern
Gajirrabeng nganjoowarrng inheritance Claire Bowern
Gooniyandi barlanyi inheritance Claire Bowern
Gupapuyngu djäḻki(') unknown Claire Bowern
Gurindji kuljany loan Jaru Claire Bowern
Jabirr-Jabirr djur% jurr inheritance Claire Bowern
Jaru lingga semantic shift Claire Bowern
Jawi tora dorra inheritance Claire Bowern
Karajarri jurru inheritance Claire Bowern
Kija ngamarra- inheritance Claire Bowern
Malyangapa thurru inheritance Claire Bowern
Mangala kalakata (T) unknown Claire Bowern
Miriwung nganjoowarrng inheritance Claire Bowern
Mithaka pardi inheritance? Claire Bowern
Mudburra wari Claire Bowern
Mudburra wari doubtful loan Claire Bowern
Ngamini nganytyi unique Claire Bowern
Ngandi a-dharlarra inheritance Claire Bowern
Ngarluma warlu Claire Bowern
Ngumbarl tchooroo jurru inheritance Claire Bowern
Nhirrpi kathikathi semantic shift Claire Bowern
Nimanburru djur% jurr inheritance Claire Bowern
Northern Mangarla jurru Claire Bowern
Northern Nyangumarta jikatany inheritance Claire Bowern
Nyangumarta jurru inheritance Claire Bowern
Nyikina juru juru inheritance Claire Bowern
Nyulnyul djur% jurr inheritance Claire Bowern
Paakantyi mulkeri unique Claire Bowern
Pirriya kathi semantic shift Claire Bowern
Pitta-Pitta kunderry loan direction unknown Claire Bowern
Rirratjingu mol'ŋu Claire Bowern
Ritharrngu dharlarra loan Claire Bowern
Walmajarri jilpirtijarti inheritance Claire Bowern
Wangkayutyuru wama loan Claire Bowern
Warrwa juurru juurru inheritance Claire Bowern
Wubuy lharlarra inheritance Claire Bowern
Yan-nhangu moḻ' unknown Claire Bowern
Yandruwandha kathikathi, pardi kathikathi semantic shift Claire Bowern
Yarluyandi wangu inheritance Claire Bowern
Yawarrawarrka wonku inheritance Claire Bowern
Yawuru jurru jurru inheritance Claire Bowern