Ayoreo

Family
Zamucoan
Region
South America
ISO 639-3
ayo
Location
-19.22°, -60.22°
Notes
Features
Basic Vocabulary
Flora Fauna Vocabulary
Cultural Vocabulary
Data Sources
Briggs, Janet R. 2007. Ayoreo. Intercontinental Dictionary Series, ed. Mary Ritchie Key. http://lingweb.eva.mpg.de/ids/


Basic Vocabulary (191)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Etymology Notes Source Created By
above encima, arriba acima location gaa'tee; gaay See Language page PLE
and y e grammar See Language page PLE
ash ceniza(s) cinzas environment 'uučuk-u'ru-i See Language page PLE
at en, a em, a location See Language page PLE
back espalda costas body giido'booi See Language page PLE
bad mal mal quality sii'n̥aa-i; siin̥aa-'ŋe See Language page PLE
belly barriga barriga body a'hee-i See Language page PLE
below abajo, debajo abaixo location 'udi; n̥u'mi See Language page PLE
big grande grande quality ke'ruu-i; ke'ruu-a See Language page PLE
black negro preto colour uta'ta-i; uta'ta See Language page PLE
blood sangre sangue body i'yoi See Language page PLE
boil/pimple espinilla, granos espinha, borbulha body duko'si See Language page PLE
bone hueso osso body an̥okeei See Language page PLE
breast pecho, seno peito body i'n̥a See Language page PLE
child niño, niña criança human diis-a'bi See Language page PLE
cloud nube nuvem environment geei See Language page PLE
cold frío frio quality te'n̥uu-i; te'n̥uu-ŋe See Language page PLE
correct/true verdad, de veras verdade quality ipee'sute a'rei See Language page PLE
day día dia time dii'ri See Language page PLE
dirty sucio sujo quality oo'poii; oo'poii-a See Language page PLE
dingo/wolf fauna See Language page PLE
dry seco seco quality ka'n̥or-i; ka'n̥or-e See Language page PLE
dull/blunt sin filo, mocho, desafilado, embotado, romo maçante, desamolado, não afiado quality pa'kaa-i; pa'kaa See Language page PLE
dust polvo poeira environment u'ru-i See Language page PLE
ear oreja orelha body a'ŋorone See Language page PLE
earth/soil tierra terra environment n̥u'mi See Language page PLE
egg huevo ovo fauna kũ'reei See Language page PLE
eye ojo olho body e'do See Language page PLE
far lejos longe quality i'da-haʔ See Language page PLE
fat/grease grasa gordura body ii; 'kučaa 'ii-odeʔ See Language page PLE
father padre, papá pai kinship daa-'ye See Language page PLE
feather pluma pena fauna ãra'ma See Language page PLE
fire fuego fogo environment pii'o-i See Language page PLE
flower flor flor environment a'sige See Language page PLE
fog niebla, neblina nevoeira, bruma, neblina environment hee'si See Language page PLE
fruit fruta fruta flora aa See Language page PLE
good bueno bom quality a're-i; a're-ge See Language page PLE
hair (of head) cabello cabelo body gaa'terero See Language page PLE
hand mano mão body m̥a'naay See Language page PLE
3sg el/ella ele/ela grammar uu'teʔ; uaa'teʔ See Language page PLE
head cabeza cabeça body gaa'toi See Language page PLE
heavy pesado pesado quality 'peenu-i; 'peenu-a See Language page PLE
how? como como grammar iiso'kaarike See Language page PLE
1sg yo eu grammar yu; uu'yu See Language page PLE
if si se grammar u'heeta; 'heeta; ee'ti See Language page PLE
in/inside dentro, adentro dentro location ihiʔ; tihiʔ; -ihiʔ; -hiʔ; a'heei See Language page PLE
intestines intestinos intestinos body u'čaai See Language page PLE
lake lago lago environment gaa'ɲ̥oo See Language page PLE
leaf hoja folha environment poor-ãaka'raai See Language page PLE
left/left hand izquierdo esquerdo location/body ara'se-i; ara'se See Language page PLE
leg/foot pierna perna body oota'di See Language page PLE
lightning rayo, relámpago relampago environment a'n̥oraa-pie See Language page PLE
liver hígado figado body abi'to See Language page PLE
long largo comprido, longo quality yo'iiko-i; yo'iiko See Language page PLE
louse piollo, piojo piolho fauna n̥a'rĩ; n̥are ke'de-n̥ai See Language page PLE
man/male hombre homem human ayo're-i See Language page PLE
meat/flesh carne carne fauna a'ragaɲ̥ua See Language page PLE
moon luna lua environment geedo'si-deʔ See Language page PLE
mother madre, mamá mãe kinship daa-'te See Language page PLE
mouth boca boca body pin̥a'ni See Language page PLE
name nombre nome human ii See Language page PLE
near/close cerca de perto quality i'dogosiʔ See Language page PLE
nape base del cuello, nuca nuca body eeta'bi-di See Language page PLE
neck cuello pescoço body eeta'bi See Language page PLE
new nuevo novo quality iiča-i; iiča; uri'ei; uri'eŋe See Language page PLE
night noche noite time de'haai See Language page PLE
no/not no não grammar See Language page PLE
nose nariz nariz body kõra'čuui See Language page PLE
old viejo velho quality čo'ki-n̥a-i; gaa'ta; u'ata See Language page PLE
one uno um number čõ'm̥ãrãʔ See Language page PLE
other otro outro grammar See Language page PLE
pain/painful/sick dolor, doloroso, enfermo dor, doloroso, doente body een̥aa'retããi See Language page PLE
person/human being persona pessoa human ayo'r-e See Language page PLE
rain lluvia chuva environment geei See Language page PLE
red rojo vermelho colour kara-'taai; kara-'tee See Language page PLE
right/right hand derecha direita location/body ãra'čuu-i; ãra'čuu-a See Language page PLE
road/path camino caminho manufacture gaa'bi; pii'hooi See Language page PLE
root raíz raiz flora ta'posi See Language page PLE
rotten podrido podre quality tara'taa-i; tara'taa-ge See Language page PLE
sand arena areia environment u'n̥a See Language page PLE
sharp afilado, filudo, filoso afiado quality aasii'ko-i; aasii'ko See Language page PLE
short corto curto quality kata'de-i; kata'de See Language page PLE
shoulder hombro ombro body orota'de See Language page PLE
shy/ashamed tímido, vergonzoso timido, com vergonha mental 'kučaaheegaa'tei; uraa'nei See Language page PLE
skin piel pele body a'ooi See Language page PLE
sky cielo céu environment gaa'teei See Language page PLE
small pequeño pequeno quality aa'tiami; aa'tiami-a See Language page PLE
smoke humo fumaça environment ii'oti See Language page PLE
star estrella estrela environment 'geedo See Language page PLE
stick/wood palo pau, vara flora eero-'godeʔ See Language page PLE
stone piedra pedra environment kukara'ne See Language page PLE
tail cola, rabo rabo body ka'ri See Language page PLE
that ese/esa esse grammar See Language page PLE
3pl ellos/ellas eles/elas grammar o'reeʔ See Language page PLE
thick grueso, gordo, espeso grosso quality daɲoo'ree-i; daɲoo'ree See Language page PLE
thin delgado fino quality See Language page PLE
this este/esta este grammar See Language page PLE
2sg xx xx grammar ua See Language page PLE
throat garganta garganta body puusu'guui See Language page PLE
three tres tres number gadi'ok; gadi'o-i; gadi'o-ge See Language page PLE
thunder truenos trovão environment 'gee-ode uruu-'odeʔ See Language page PLE
bite morder morder body i'gaaseʔ See Language page PLE
blow soplar soprar body u'buču See Language page PLE
breathe respirar respirar body uɲ̥a'ri See Language page PLE
burn quemar queimar environment See Language page PLE
chew masticar, mascar mastigar body agu; akeʔ See Language page PLE
climb subir subir motion ee'ru; oo'ru See Language page PLE
come venir vir motion i'bagi See Language page PLE
cook cocinar cozinhar impact ãa'reʔ See Language page PLE
count contar contar mental ĩsee'karũ See Language page PLE
cry llorar chorar mental ii'boʔ See Language page PLE
cut/hack cortar cortar impact akesuʔ See Language page PLE
die/be dead morir morrer state tooi See Language page PLE
dig cavar cavar impact i'hoočaʔ See Language page PLE
dream soñar sonhar mental ĩĩ'karã See Language page PLE
drink beber, tomar beber body 'oohiʔ See Language page PLE
eat comer comer body a'gu; 'akeʔ See Language page PLE
fall caer cair motion ĩi'koorãʔ See Language page PLE
fear miedo medo mental isado'de-riŋai; itodoo-ti'gai See Language page PLE
flow fluir fluir motion čaa'yoʔ See Language page PLE
fly volar voar motion ii'yoʔ See Language page PLE
grow crecer crescer state ĩ'keeraʔ See Language page PLE
hear oír ouvir mental u'duteʔ See Language page PLE
hide esconder esconder motion aa'goseʔ; i'poogu See Language page PLE
hit golpear, pegar bater impact u'heeʔ See Language page PLE
hold correr, asegurar, sostener segurar other i'saaʔ See Language page PLE
kill matar matar impact u'heeʔ See Language page PLE
know/be knowledgeable saber, conecer saber, conhecer mental i'moʔ See Language page PLE
laugh reír rir mental da'goi See Language page PLE
lie down acostarse, echarse deitar motion i'm̥ar-ahaʔ See Language page PLE
live/be alive vivir viver, morar body ee'kai; ue'kai See Language page PLE
open/uncover abrir abrir other ge'saa-i; gesaa-'ge See Language page PLE
pound/beat machacar, golpear bater impact i'ŋira; u'heeʔ See Language page PLE
say decir dizer mental ikate'karẽʔ; ikate'karĩ See Language page PLE
scratch rascar rasgar impact See Language page PLE
see ver ver mental i'moʔ See Language page PLE
shoot tirar, disparar, balear atirar impact ii'čoʔ See Language page PLE
sit sentar(se) sentar state 'akar-ihiʔ See Language page PLE
sleep dormir dormir body i'moʔ See Language page PLE
sniff/smell olfatear, oler cheirar body o'hareʔ See Language page PLE
spit escupir cuspir body ũ'tira-haʔ See Language page PLE
split partir, dividir rachar, dividir, partir impact a'hukeʔ; ĩpoo'čereʔ See Language page PLE
squeeze estrujar, exprimir espremer impact ido'ta; ĩ'rie See Language page PLE
stab/pierce apuñalar, acuchillar apunhalar impact See Language page PLE
stand estar de pié ficar em pé state i'yageʔ See Language page PLE
steal robar roubar other 'ooriʔ; 'ooriia See Language page PLE
suck chupar chupar body u'kuʔ See Language page PLE
swell hincharse inchar body geen̥aa-ri'ŋai See Language page PLE
swim nadar nadar motion i'hi tutu'ne See Language page PLE
think pensar pensar mental oo 'yaayugu See Language page PLE
throw tirar, lanzar atirar, jogar impact a'tareʔ; ati'ŋaareʔ See Language page PLE
tie up/fasten atar, amarrar amarrar impact iga'ru See Language page PLE
turn girar, volter, torcer virar other aa'n̥iʔ; aa'n̥i-hiʔ See Language page PLE
vomit vomitar vomitar body 'ipogaai See Language page PLE
walk caminar, andar andar motion ĩi'rikeʔ; i'ka-iʔ; i'ka-hiʔ See Language page PLE
work trabajar trabalhar other i'saa ye'ho-deʔ See Language page PLE
yawn bostezar bocejar body itiboo'ha? See Language page PLE
tongue lengua lingua body a'reei See Language page PLE
tooth diente dente body pã'tarãai See Language page PLE
two dos dois number 'gareʔ See Language page PLE
water agua agua environment yoo'di See Language page PLE
1pl.incl nosotros (inclusivo) nós (inclusivo) grammar -- See Language page PLE
1pl.excl nosotros (exclusivo) nós (exclusivo) grammar -- See Language page PLE
wet mojado molhado quality te'taa-i; te'taa-ge See Language page PLE
what? que, qué que grammar goo'tike e; goo'tora'kee See Language page PLE
when? cuando quando grammar gee'de 'dee-hi rike e See Language page PLE
where? donde onde grammar 'dee-hi 'rike e; 'tia See Language page PLE
white blanco branco colour 'pororo-i; 'pororo See Language page PLE
who? quien, quién quem grammar goo'si te e; goo'to te e See Language page PLE
wife esposa esposa kinship ako'te See Language page PLE
wind viento vento environment ee'mi See Language page PLE
wing ala asa body u'n̥ooi See Language page PLE
woman/female mujer mulher human ayo're See Language page PLE
yellow amarillo amarelo colour 'sarẽ-i; 'sarẽ See Language page PLE
2pl ustedes vocês grammar 'uakeʔ; uak See Language page PLE
foot pie body 'giidaai See Language page PLE
again de nuevo, otra vez de novo grammar -apoo ...rĩ; -poo ... rĩ See Language page PLE
all todo todos other 'n̥eeseʔ See Language page PLE
ankle tobillo tornozelo body 'giidogoro See Language page PLE
armpit axila, sobaco axila body u'raya See Language page PLE
faeces heces, mierda, excremento, estiércol fezes body u'čiʔ See Language page PLE
lung pulmón pulmão body pu'n̥ui See Language page PLE
sweat sudar suor, suar body oo 'm̥ara 'm̥ara See Language page PLE
itch hormiguear, sentir comezón coçar body do'riteʔ See Language page PLE
bark corteza casca environment poor-a'ooi See Language page PLE
fingernail uña unha body 'uusugurui See Language page PLE
heart corazón coração body i'yo-bie See Language page PLE
sun sol sol time gee-'deʔ See Language page PLE
mountain/hill montaña, colina, loma, cerro morro, serra environment oro'ko-daa'te See Language page PLE
green verde verde quality 'sarẽ-i; 'sarẽ See Language page PLE
hot caliente quente quality no'tar-i; no'tar-e See Language page PLE


Flora Fauna Vocabulary (133)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Linnean Name Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Range of Term Word Structure Word Structure Notes Classifier Classifier Notes Hypernym Source Association with Social Categories Ritual/Mythologically Significant Ritual Notes Food Source Food Notes Medicinal Medicinal Notes How Collected Who Collects How Prepared Psychotropic Psychotropic Notes Traded Trade Notes Distribution Habitat Dangerous Ethnobiology Notes Species Notes General Notes Created By
horse caballo cavalho flora-fauna Equus caballus See Language page
bat murciélago morcego flora-fauna Chiroptera spp. čaabo'to See Language page PLE
bird pajaro, ave passaro flora-fauna ču'ŋuperẽ See Language page A small bird. A large bird is ču'ŋuperĩ. PLE
curassow mitu, montete (Peru), paujil/panjuil (Peru), paujil de Salvin (Peru for Mitu salvini) mutum flora-fauna Crax sp., Nothocrax sp. See Language page Amazonia PLE
toucan tucán, pinsha (Peru) tucano flora-fauna Ramphastos sp. See Language page Widespread Amazonia PLE
gray-winged trumpeter Grulla, Trompetero Ala Gris jacamim flora-fauna Psophia crepitans See Language page Northern Amazonia (N of Solimões), not in northern Colombia; Dark-winged trumpeter is found south of Solimões PLE
guan pava, pucacunga (Peru), pava de Spix (Peru) jacu flora-fauna Penelope sp. See Language page Different types have different localized ranges PLE
tinamou tinamu, perdiz, gallineta inambu, inhambu flora-fauna family Tinamidae See Language page Widespread Amazonia PLE
hummingbird colibrí, picaflor (Peru) beija-flor flora-fauna family Trochilidae See Language page Widespread PLE
kingfisher martín pescador, catalan (Peru) martim-pescador flora-fauna family Alcedinidae See Language page Widespread Amazonia PLE
owl (large) búho, lechuza corujão flora-fauna order Strigiformes digoro'koi See Language page Widespread Also digoro'ko-n̥ai; digoroko ke'de-n̥a-i; huusi'ei; uusi'ei. PLE
macaw ara, guacamaya Arara flora-fauna family Psittacidae; Ara sp. See Language page Widespread Amazonia PLE
parrot loro real, loro (Sp. form is a loan from Carib) papagaio flora-fauna Amazona amazonica suaria See Language page Widespread Small green, yellow, red parrot. Small blue p. with yellow beak is sirooga-'bi-a; small red p. is tiiya-'bi, čii'ya-'bi; cf. 03.831; small green p. is suaka'ra; small yellow p. is suakara ke'de-n̥a; small green p. with blue tail, yellow beak and wings is PLE
dove paloma pomba flora-fauna family Columbidae kuuku'huui See Language page Also giidobooi; kuuku'huu-daa'te, augmentative -daa'te. Also kuuku'huu-dai-'n̥a-i. PLE
hawk halcón, gavilán gavião flora-fauna family Accipitridae See Language page PLE
vulture buitre, gallinazo, rinahui (Peru) urubu flora-fauna family Cathartidae ãra'potorĩ See Language page Widespread South America Lives in the rocks. Also 'koboto. See 03.832. PLE
duck pato pato, marreco flora-fauna Anatidae family n̥aa'ko-n̥a-i See Language page Also n̥aa'ko-n̥a, domestic duck. A water duck is n̥aa'ko-yike; a small water duck is kučibohaa-i. kučaa is 'thing'. PLE
great egret Garza Blanca, Guyratî Garça-Branca-Grande flora-fauna Ardea alba See Language page Widespread South America PLE
woodpecker pájaro carpintero, carpintero pica-pau flora-fauna family Picidae See Language page Widespread Amazonia PLE
dog (camp, domestic) perro cachorro flora-fauna Canis famililaris tamo'koi See Language page Not native; widespread PLE
dog (wild; bush dog) sachaperro, Perro de Monte, Zorro Vinagre, Guanfando; Zorro Ojizarco, Zorro Negro, Perro de Orejas Corta cachorro-do-mato flora-fauna Speothos venaticus; Atelocynus microtis See Language page Widespread Amazonia PLE
anteater oso hormiguero; tapia pelejo or pelejo chico for Cyclopes didactylus tamanduá flora-fauna Myrmecophaga tridactyla (giant anteater); Cyclopes didactylus (silky anteater) See Language page Widespread Amazonian lowlands PLE
armadillo armadillo, carachupa (Peru), yangunturi (Peru for Giant armadillo) tatu flora-fauna family Dasypodidae; e.g. Priodontes maximus (Giant armadillo), Dasypus novemcinctus, Dasypus kappleri See Language page Widespread in Amazonia PLE
sloth pereza, pelejo (Peru), perezoso (Peru) macaco preguica flora-fauna Choloepus sp., Bradypus sp. See Language page Widespread Amazonia PLE
alligator, black caiman babilla; cachirre jacaré flora-fauna Melanosuchus niger, Caiman schlerops; Paleosuchus sp. See Language page Throughout Amazonia Port term reportedly borrowed from Tupi PLE
electric eel anguila eléctrica poraquê flora-fauna Electrophorus electricus See Language page PLE
fish (generic) pez peixe flora-fauna o'yidi See Language page PLE
pacu fish palometa, garopita, garopa, curhuara (Peru) pacu flora-fauna Mylossoma sp. See Language page PLE
pirana piraña, caribe piranha flora-fauna subfamily Serrasalmidae See Language page Widespread Amazonia PLE
tigerfish taraira, guabina, huasaco (Peru) traíra flora-fauna Hoplias sp. See Language page Widespread Amazonia PLE
mandi catfish maparate (used in Peru for some types of catfish, including Auchenipterus sp.), cunchi (used in Peru for some types of catfish), bagre (catfish) mandi flora-fauna Auchenipterus sp. See Language page Widespread Amazonia PLE
speckled catfish surubí, pintadillo surubim, sorubim flora-fauna Pseudoplatystoma sp. See Language page Widespread Amazonia PLE
toad sapo sapo flora-fauna order Anura See Language page PLE
iguana iguana, garipiares (Colombia) camaleão flora-fauna Iguana sp. See Language page iguana' is reportedly from Arawak iwana PLE
small lizard lagartija calango flora-fauna order Squamata nee'nei See Language page Also o'gobee-daay; u'gobee-daay. PLE
stingray (generic) rayas látigo, raya arraia flora-fauna Potamotrygon sp. dikaa're See Language page An edible stingray. Nonedible is 'dika-če'ke; cf. 03.130. PLE
crab cangrejo caranguejo flora-fauna infraorder Brachyura See Language page PLE
anaconda anaconda, boa, boa acuática grande sucuri flora-fauna genus Eunectes See Language page Widespread Amazonia PLE
boa boa; mantona (red-tailed boa); boa de altura jiboia flora-fauna family Boidae, subf. Boinae See Language page PLE
snake (generic) culebra, serpiente cobra flora-fauna u'gaai See Language page A poisonous s. is nasaa'miroi. Tobité dialect is asaa'rio. A black s. is u'gaa-gadooi, lit. 's. that goes'. PLE
snake (poisonous generic) or rattlesnake víbora (Peru), jergón (Peru), yarara jararaca flora-fauna Bothrops jararaca/atrox See Language page Widespread South America PLE
tortoise (red foot, yellow foot/giant) tortuga, morrocoy, motelo jabutí, tartaruga flora-fauna Yellow-footed: Geochelone denticulata; Red-footed: Geochelone carbonaria 'yokai See Language page Widespread PLE
Amazon dolphin bufeo, delfín, tonina (del Orinoco) boto cor-de-rosa flora-fauna Inia geoffrensis See Language page Downstream of major rapids and waterfalls PLE
mushroom champiñón, hongo cogumelo flora-fauna (any edible generic) puu See Language page Edible m. is hupa-'ŋoori, in the N̥upedo Goosodeʔ dialect. PLE
black palm bacaba, mapora, pusui, patabá bacaba flora-fauna Oenocarpus bacaba See Language page Mature forests of Rio Negro and Upper Amazon may be confused in some entries with O. bataua PLE
açai palm huasí (Peru), asahi, manaca (Ven), asaí, palmiche (Colombia) açaí flora-fauna Euterpe sp. See Language page floodplains, swamp; esp. northern Amazonia PLE
miriti palm moriche (Col, Ven), aguaje (Col, Peru), achual, miriti buriti flora-fauna Mauritia flexuosa See Language page Brazil, Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guyana, Peru, Venezuela; in and near swamps trunks contain sago-like starch PLE
palm for roof thatch pui, irapay, hoja de irapay, caraná caraná flora-fauna Mauritiella armata OR Lepidocaryum tenue (irapay), Mauritius carana See Language page Mauritia carana is limited principally to the Rio Negro and Upper Orinoco regions; dry catinga forests palm PLE
paxiuba palm pona, huacrapona, cashapona, macanilla, pachiuba paxiuba flora-fauna Iriartea exorrhiza OR Iriartea deltoidea See Language page Widespread Amazonia palm PLE
peach palm, pejibaye palm chontaduro (Col, Ecuador); pipire (Col); pijuayo (Peru), pijiguao (Ven); tembe (Bol) pupunha flora-fauna Bactris gasipaes See Language page PLE
seje palm ungurahui (Peru), palma de seje, milpesos, patabá patoá, patuá flora-fauna Jessenia bataua, aka Oenocarpus bataua See Language page mostly north of Equator; common in Amazonia may be confused with O. bacaba - compare entries PLE
coca coca coca flora-fauna Erythroxylum coca See Language page secondary scrub vegetation. lower alt. of eastern Andes plant PLE
cotton algodón algodão flora-fauna Gossypium (barbadense: long fibers; hirsutum: short fibers) n̥a'tua See Language page secondary scrub vegetation See 06.380 'thread'. PLE
kapok ceiba, huimba, lupuna (Peru for Ceiba sp.) sumaumeira flora-fauna Ceiba pentandra See Language page northern South America and central America; common in disturbed areas tree PLE
hot pepper ají, pimentón/pimiento rojo, pucunucho (Peru), charapilla (Peru) pimenta flora-fauna Capsicum sp., principally chinensis and frutescens 'n̥uui See Language page secondary scrub vegetation, indigenous garden plant PLE
peanut maní (may be loan from Taino Arawak), cacahuete amendoim flora-fauna Arachis hypogaea See Language page plant PLE
pineapple piña abacaxi flora-fauna Ananas comosus See Language page plant PLE
arrow cane, wildcane caña flecha, caña brava, caña isana cana para flechas, frecheira, Cana-do-rio flora-fauna Gynerium sagittatum See Language page tropical regions, especially river banks plant PLE
banana, plantain banano, banana, cambur, bellaco, variedad de plátano banana flora-fauna Musa sp. 'unoro-ke'den̥a See Language page 'unoro is a water plant with leaves like the banana leaves. PLE
beans frijoles, frejol, caraotas (negras, rojas, blancas) feijão flora-fauna Phaseolus spp. ku'gee-i See Language page Also ku'gee ča'ki-peei; white b. is kugee ke'de-n̥ai; short b. is ku'gee-pitai, lit. a small bean; lima b. 'koyabe-n̥ai; vine b. is ku'gee-i ba'haai, lit. first b.; ku'gee-i ne'haai; ku'gee-i du'guu-taai 10.472, a climbing vine. PLE
grass hierba, pasto capim, grama flora-fauna (generic) n̥aaka'raai See Language page Cf. 08.430, 08.480, 08.520, 08.941. PLE
maize, corn mazorca, maiz milho flora-fauna Zea mays edo ee'toi; edo ua'ha-di See Language page widespread, esp. in river floodplains Refers to hard c., 15.740. Sweet c. is edo pa'rataai, 15.750; yellow sweet c. is edo 'sarẽ-i 15.690; popcorn is 'geen̥a-pitai 12.560; blue c. is ugare-'tei; c. on the cob is 'geen̥a u'po-i, 15.680; shelled c. is geen̥a'ɲ̥u-nieʔ; 'geen̥a-pina'su-i; sparce PLE
tobacco tabaco tabaco flora-fauna Nicotiana tabacum si-'di See Language page plant PLE
tree árbol arvore flora-fauna poo'ri-a; poo'ri See Language page PLE
achiote, anatto achiote urucum flora-fauna Bixa orellana See Language page secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens shrub PLE
inga guaba, guamo, guama, shimbillo (Peru) inga flora-fauna Inga spp. See Language page Secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens. North and South America (Brazil, Peru, Bolivia, Suriname, Colombia) PLE
avocado palta, aguacate abacate flora-fauna Persea americana See Language page secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens tree PLE
bitterwood tortuga caspi, pretina (Peru for tree and tumpline); carahuasca (Peru) envira flora-fauna Duguetia sp. OR Fusaea longifolia OR Guatteria chrysopetala See Language page secondary forests, native to Brazil tree PLE
brazil nut castaña castanha do para (B. excelsa); castanha de cutia (C. edulis) flora-fauna Bertholletia excelsa [cf. Couepia edulis 'castanha do cutia'] See Language page 1) Couepia: restricted area within Brazil, Rio Purus basin and middle Solimões. 2) Bertholletia: elev: consistently about 200m; mature forests. Widely distributed from Peru, E. Colombia, Brazil to Nicaragua. tree PLE
cashew anarcado, castaña de cajú, nuez de la India, marañon, cajú, merey (Venezuela) caju flora-fauna Anacardium occidentale / giganteum See Language page secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens tree; most sources will not distinguish between occidentale and other varieties PLE
genipap jagua, majagua - Colombia, caruto, xagua - Venezuela, bigrande - Bolivia, huito, yaguayagua - Peru, ygualti - Nicaragua, maluco - Mexico genipapo, jenipapo flora-fauna Genipapa americana See Language page widespread lowland SA shrub PLE
japurá oreja de murcielago japurá flora-fauna Erisma japura See Language page large tree PLE
rubber tree (sorva) caucho, siringa, shiringa seringa, borracha flora-fauna Hevea sp. See Language page Widespread Amazonia tree PLE
ucuqui yugo, caimitillo del monte (Peru) ucuqui flora-fauna Pouteria ucuqui See Language page native to NW Amazonia, found primarily in Vaupes and Caqueta regions other species of Pouteria exist and have much-used edible fruit; these can be subsituted where relevant PLE
Amazon tree-grape uva de monte, uvilla (Peru), puruma, caime, caimarona (and variants; Col.) cucura flora-fauna Pourouma cecropiifolia See Language page grows wild in Western Amazon basin; cultivated in Colombia since pre-Colombian times a tree; not a true grape PLE
manioc (bitter or generic) yuca brava mandioca flora-fauna Manihot esculenta pe'heei See Language page not generally cultivated in western (subAndean) Amazon. Arroyo-Kalin (2010) argues for a correlation with distribution of dark earths, mostly formed after 1AD, and the modeled-incised pottery tradition. Provides more starch and is more pest-resistant than the sweet variety, but requires much processing. Arroyo-Kalin (2010) proposes that bitter type was developed from sweet through post-ceremic agricultural intensification (motivated by high starch yield PLE
manioc (sweet) yuca, caribe macaxeira flora-fauna Manihot esculenta See Language page Primary staple in western/subAndean Amazonia, less important elsewhere No processing required, but lower starch yield and pest resistance than bitter variety PLE
potato papa batata flora-fauna Solanum tuberosum See Language page secondary scrub vegetation compare entries for sweet potato PLE
potato, sweet potato camote, batata dulce, batata, cumara batata-doce flora-fauna Ipomoea batatas See Language page plant PLE
cará tuber, purple or white camote, sachapapa cará roxo, branco flora-fauna Dioscorea sp. See Language page secondary scrub vegetation; forest clearings plant PLE
tannia, yautia huitina (Peru), ñame taioba branca flora-fauna Xanthosoma spp. -- See Language page PLE
bottle-gourd (vine) or calabash (tree) calabazo, calabaza; auyama (Dominican Republic and Venezuela), ayote (parts of Central America), zapallo (parts of South America), tutumo/totumo/totuma (Cresc tree), huingo (Peru for Crescentia cujete), tapara cabaça flora-fauna Crescentia cujete (round variety - tree); (Cucurbita) Lagenaria siceraria (bottle variety - vine) See Language page indigenous gardens plant; tree PLE
squash calabaza, calabacines, auyamas, zapallos, huingo (Peru) abóbora flora-fauna Cucurbita sp. pu'ruua See Language page plant PLE
cipó vine tamishi, bejuco, yare cipó flora-fauna Heteropsis spp. ere'n̥a toto'toi See Language page secondary forest, floodplain Also bahu'tasi; baru'tasi, latter used for houses. A vine used for killing fish is ere'nai. PLE
fish poison, barbasco barbasco, matapez (Colombia) timbó flora-fauna Lonchocarpus spp. ere-'n̥ai bisi-'di See Language page secondary forests and secondary srcrub vegetation Also ere-'n̥ai. Cf. 'poison' 04.890. PLE
hallucinogenic vine, banisterium, ayahuasca ayahuasca, yage ayahuasca, caapi flora-fauna Banisteriopsis caapi See Language page semi-domesticated, native to Amazonian basin, esp. NW vine PLE
hallucinogenic snuff vilca, cebil, yopo paricá, yopo flora-fauna Anadenanthera sp. or virola See Language page PLE
insect (generic) insecto insecto flora-fauna generic See Language page PLE
ant (generic) hormiga formiga flora-fauna Formicidae kaase'kaai See Language page Large black ant (with painful bite)' [isula(?)] is dii'ti. 'Small brown ant (with painful bite)' is diiti ke'de-n̥ai. 'Umbrella ant' is ga'n̥oo. PLE
bullet ant, lesser giant hunter ant conga, hormiga yanabe (Colombia), isula (Peru), Hormiga Veinticuatro tocandira flora-fauna Paraponera clavata dii'ti See Language page PLE
leaf-cutter ant Colombia: zampopo, hormiga arriera; Venezuela: bachaco; Peru: curuhuinse saúva flora-fauna Atta sp. See Language page PLE
honeybee abeja abelha flora-fauna Apis mellifera; Tetragonisca angustula; Trigona amazonensis ahi'di See Language page Also kũ'terĩ; cf. 05.840. PLE
cockroach cucaracha barata-do-mato flora-fauna order Blattaria See Language page PLE
firefly, lightning bug lampírido, luciérnaga (Peru), añañahui (Peru), cocuyo (attributed Taino origin) vagalume flora-fauna fam: Elateridae, Fengodidae, Lampyridae bee'bu-i See Language page Also bee'bu-n̥ai. PLE
butterfly, moth mariposa borboleta flora-fauna order Lepidoptera kan̥ooi See Language page Also gan̥ooi. There are many kinds. PLE
moth mariposa nocturna, polilla mariposa flora-fauna order Lepidoptera See Language page PLE
angleworm lombriz minhoca flora-fauna order Opisthopora uhu'ri See Language page PLE
centipede ciempiés centopéia flora-fauna class Chilopoda poo'raai See Language page PLE
scorpion escorpión; alacran escorpião flora-fauna order Scorpiones sua're-čee'ke See Language page See 03.592; suffix is 'female'. PLE
cicada cigarra, chicharra cigarra flora-fauna super fam. Cicadoidea See Language page PLE
flea pulga pulga flora-fauna order Siphonaptera 'kuča-akaya-'to See Language page Lit. 'the thing, she who bites'. PLE
blowfly/housefly mosca mosca flora-fauna Diptera huu'bi See Language page 'Horsefly' is huu'to-n̥ai, also means 'bumblebee'. PLE
cricket saltón, grillo grilo flora-fauna family Gryllidae See Language page PLE
edible palm-dwelling larva (palm weevil) suri, mojojoy larva, broca-do-coqueiro, aramandaiá flora-fauna Rhynchophorus sp. See Language page PLE
praying mantis, stick insects mantis religiosa louva-a-deus flora-fauna order Mantodea, family Mantidae See Language page PLE
mosquito mosquito, zancudo mosquito, carapana flora-fauna Anopheles sp. 'koboto See Language page Black m. that flies night and day; cf. 03.586. Small m. that flies by night is i'n̥aro; large m. that flies at night is suede'hai; side-'n̥ai; a big m. is i'n̥aro ke'den̥a; m. that flies at dawn and at dusk is se'da-bia; sue'da-bia. PLE
termites, white-ants comején (Peru), termitas cupim flora-fauna order Isoptera See Language page PLE
tick garrapata carrapato flora-fauna superfam Ixodoidea See Language page PLE
wasp avispa; specific type: ronzapa/ronsapa caba flora-fauna order Hymenoptera, sub: Apocrita See Language page No generic name. PLE
snail caracol, churo (Peru) caracol flora-fauna class Gastropoda 'haro See Language page PLE
spider araña aranha flora-fauna Arachnidae, Araneae 'heesabe See Language page 'Black widow s. is i'moi-n̥a; s. that spins webs in trails is ke'nee-ŋe'tee. PLE
jaguar yaguar, yaguareté, jaguar, otorongo (Peru), tigre (Peru) onca flora-fauna Panthera onca See Language page PLE
manatee vaca marina, manatí peixe-boi flora-fauna Trichechus sp. See Language page PLE
brown woolly monkey Mono Lanudo Común, Choro, Churucu, mono choro (Peru), mono lanudo cafe, barrigudo de Humboldt macaco barrigudo flora-fauna Lagothrix lagothricha See Language page PLE
howler monkey (red-handed) mono aullador, mono coto (Peru) guariba flora-fauna Alouatta belzebul [or other Alouatta sp.] See Language page PLE
tufted capuchin monkey mono negro (Peru), Machín Negro, Maicero Cachón, mono maicero macaco prego flora-fauna Cebus apella See Language page PLE
white-fronted capuchin Machín Blanco, mono blanco, Maicero Cariblanco, mono blanco (Peru) Caiarara flora-fauna Cebus albifrons See Language page PLE
white-fronted spider monkey Machin Blanco, Mono Araña de Vientre Amarillo, maquisapa (Peru), braceadora (Colombia) macaco aranha, coatá, quatá flora-fauna Ateles belzebuth/paniscus See Language page PLE
opossum zarigüeya, rabipelado, zorro, zorrillo mucura flora-fauna family Didelphidae See Language page PLE
giant otter Lobo Grande de Río, nutria gigante, lutria ariranha flora-fauna Pteronura brasiliensis See Language page PLE
neotropical otter (small) Nutria, Lobo de Agua, lobito de rio, perro de agua (Colombia) lontra flora-fauna Lontra longicaudis See Language page PLE
collared peccary sajino, pecarí de collar, jabalf, Javelina, Saíno, Pecarí de Collar caititu, caetitu flora-fauna Pecari tajacu, Tayassu tajacu ɲaako're-ke'de-n̥a-i See Language page Lit. 'strange/different wild pig'. PLE
white-lipped peccary Chancho de Monte, Cariblanco, Huangana queixada flora-fauna Tayassu pecari See Language page PLE
porcupine puerco espín, erizo (Peru), casha cushillo (Peru) cuandu, porco-espinho flora-fauna family Erethizontidae See Language page PLE
cotamundi, coatimundi Coatí, Tejón, Achuni, zorro guache quati flora-fauna genus Nasua See Language page PLE
agouti (black agouti, black-rumped agouti) Guatusa Negra, Añuje, Agutí (black-rumped), picure, jochi colorado cutia flora-fauna Dasyprocta spp. See Language page PLE
capybara Capibara, Carpincho, Ronsoco capivara flora-fauna Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris See Language page PLE
green acouchi Guatín, Punchana, curi, picurito rabudo, picurito rabilargo cutiara flora-fauna Myoprocta pratti See Language page PLE
paca (lowland) Guanta, Paca, Majaz, majás (Peru), labba (Guyana) paca flora-fauna Cuniculus paca (Agouti paca is sometimes used as well although cuniculus is the correct term.) See Language page PLE
mouse, rat ratón camundongo, rata flora-fauna Mus musculus puuku'to See Language page Also ho'ɲokoi 'rat'. PLE
squirrel ardilla, danta (Ven) serelepe, quatipuru, esquilo flora-fauna family Sciuridae See Language page PLE
tapir sachavaca, danta anta flora-fauna Tapirus terrestris See Language page PLE
deer venado veado, cariacu flora-fauna family Cervidae, esp. Odocoileus virginianus a'ramoro See Language page Also e'ramoro; a'ramoro-n̥a; e'ramoro-n̥a. PLE


Cultural Vocabulary (97)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Word Structure Word Structure Notes General Notes Source Created By
basket (general) canasta, canasto, cesta cesto culture-material 'enuei gii'pee Means b. of rope; a b. of palm fronds is o'rai in̥aak o'ho. See Language page PLE
basket, small canasta, canasto, cesta cesto pequeno, tampado culture-material See Language page PLE
bead abalorio, mostacilla, cuenta, gota, puca; necklace=collar miçanga culture-material 'araguu-a Refers to big, black seed-beads; small black seed-beads is pu'ru-i. See Language page PLE
bed cama cama culture-material mo'čaa-pii To make the b. is ĩ'tereʔ. To make his own bed or position of sleeping is oo y-ihoga-'di, cf. 07.210. See Language page PLE
hammock hamaca, chinchorro rede culture-material See Language page PLE
bench, seat banco, silla, asiento banco culture-material čaari-'pii See Language page PLE
canoe canoa canoa transport kuu'koi See Language page PLE
drum (large signal) tambor, manguaré, maguaré (Colombia) tambor culture Used to be used by Tukanoan peoples (and others?), sound carried for long distances See Language page PLE
drum tambor tambor culture-mythology ibee'uua See Language page PLE
shaman, healer chamán, brujo xaman, pajé, feiticeiro culture-mythology n̥aani 'kučaa iraha-'soorĩ Lit. 'man thing knower'. See Language page PLE
healer curandero benzador, curandeiro, kumu (Tukano) culture-mythology Refers to a lower-level healer; in RN region, most older men in a village have this capacity, and command a repertoire of healing spells. Power is primarily for good, whereas the true shaman is capable of malignant acts as well. See Language page PLE
broom escoba vassoura culture-material aho-'soorĩ; aho-'to See Language page PLE
clothing ropa roupa culture-mythology bo'raa; bo'raai-dieʔ Same as 'cloth' 06.210. See 06.950. Also igi'de 06.420, 06.440. See Language page PLE
fence, palisade cerco cerca other may be related to defense/warfare? See Language page PLE
firewood leña lenha other eero-'godeʔ See Language page PLE
Curupira (spirit type) Curupira, Madremonte Curupira culture-mythology malignant forest spirit, covered with long hair, feet turned backward; in Upper Rio Negro region See Language page PLE
ghost (of dead person)/evil spirit espíritu malo, espíritu maligno, fantasma, demonio espirito culture-mythology oo're gaa'tee See Language page PLE
deity/powerful spirit/culture figure dios(es), deidad divinidade, figura mítica culture-mythology Du'paa-deʔ Also oo du'paa-de ihiʔ, means 'to make yourself a god'. See Language page PLE
flute flauta, quena (Peru) flauta culture-mythology ubu'čui multiple types? japurutu, deer-bone, etc. See Language page PLE
panpipe carrizo, zampoñas, flautas de pan, rondadora caniço, flauta de pã culture-mythology See Language page PLE
hollow log/trough for beer-making canoa para chicha cocho de caxiri narcotics See Language page PLE
ritual song cycle (kapiwaya) kapiwaya capiwaya culture-mythology See Language page PLE
knife cuchillo faca culture-material kee'seei A k. in a sheath is ka'ričaai; kee'seei ka'ričaai 03.655. See Language page PLE
machete machete facão culture-material See Language page PLE
axe/stone axe hacha (de piedra) machado (de pedra) subsistence tool ahi'neree; ge'bee'kahi'de See 09.670. See Language page PLE
arrow flecha flecha subsistence tool dak-a'n̥aa hunting, warfare See Language page PLE
spear lanza lança subsistence tool ã'sore See Language page PLE
bow arco arco subsistence tool 'dok-oo'hi; oo'hi See 07.580. See Language page PLE
paddle/oar remo remo transport orota'de See 04.300. See Language page PLE
plate plato prato culture-material aga'pii; geedo'si See note under 'dish' 05.310. See Language page PLE
pot olla, pote panela, vasilha subsistence tool pĩra'kã See Language page PLE
basin/bowl tazón, plato hondo, taza tijela culture-material aga'pii; geedo'si See note under 'dish' 05.310. See Language page PLE
griddle for cooking flatbread tiesto (Colombia), budare (Venezuela), tortera (Peru) forno para beiju subsistence tool -- agriculture? See Language page PLE
rattle matraca, maraca marico, chocalho culture-mythology paraka'rã See Language page PLE
resin resina, brea, copal resina, brea, breu subsistence tool See Language page PLE
wax cera cera other e'nočaai The b. prepared for use in a ball is di'rin̥e; b. from the hive and chewed is du'kuudaai; black b. of the 'golden bee' is ii'beye; black edible b. of the 'suro bee' is kũtere ke'de-n̥a-i. Black or red b. that is sticky is čaake'do; čaae'do. In the N̥upedo See Language page PLE
honey miel mel food kũ'terĩ Domestic bee h. is a'ka 08.530; a cell of wild h. is du'kuu-pie; abundance of h. is ku'terĩ-'pepie; h. brought to camp is i'saa-i 11.140; h. guarded is hoo'yaa-i; wasp h. is 'asago; tree in which they hope will yield h. is 'tode; h. water kũ'ter-ota'di, l See Language page PLE
stone for lighting fires piedra para hacer fuego pedra para acender fogo culture-material See Language page PLE
rope/string mecate, cuerda, soga corda culture 'enuei; ča'ge-n̥ai The latter is 'braided rope'. 'Lasso' is 'enuhe-n̥ai; 'feather rope' is ibota'ye. See Language page PLE
tattoo tatuaje, tatu tatuagem culture-mythology See Language page PLE
thatch/roof crisneja palha, caraná culture-material See Language page PLE
yurupari, jurupari (or any flutes forbidden to women) yurupari jurupari culture-mythology a ritual complex in various parts of Amazonia involving sacred flutes/trumpets, forbidden to women. See Language page PLE
fetish, charm fetiche, encanto, filtro de amor, pusanga feitiço, puçanga culture-mythology See Language page PLE
feather headdress plumaje, corona de plumas enfeite/capacete de penas culture-mythology See Language page PLE
paint body, body paint pintura corporal pintura corporal culture-mythology See Language page PLE
afterworld, land of dead, Heaven tierra do los muertos terra dos mortos culture-mythology gaa'tee-i; gaa'tee-odeʔ Respectively: 12.080, 01.510, 12.470; plural form. Also gaa'tan̥o-keei; and 'gee-ode 'ueečaai, means 'the other side of the clouds'. See Language page PLE
school escuela escola acculturation See Language page PLE
bottle botella garrafa acculturation See Language page PLE
paper papel papel acculturation daru-'n̥aa-ooi Means 'skin of a cactus' 11.690, 18.520. See Language page PLE
dream sueño, soñar sonho, sonhar culture-mythology ĩĩ'karã See Language page PLE
chicken gallina galinha acculturation 'kooča'gaa-n̥a-mi Also kooča'gaa-n̥a-mi-a. Diminutives. See Language page PLE
grave tumba, sepultura, sepulcro sepultura, sepulcro, cova culture-mythology du'k-oode Also 'oode. See Language page PLE
pipe for tobacco pipa cachimbo other boi-'n̥aai See Language page PLE
sugarcane/sugar azúcar, caña de azúcar açucar (de cana) acculturation 'geen̥a-ke'de-n̥ai Means 'different corn plant'; sugar cane plant is n̥aaka'raai, cf. 08. 510. See Language page PLE
skirt falda, saya, fustan, pollera saia culture-material ori-'di See 22.180. See Language page PLE
shoes zapatos sapatos dress 'giidaai; uči'e-di Also 'giidaai u'čiedi, lit. 'stepped on'. See Language page PLE
policeman polícia policía acculturation See Language page PLE
soldier soldado soldado acculturation hõkara'tai; hõkara'tee See Language page PLE
cat gato gato acculturation kaari-'n̥ai See Language page PLE
gun arma, escopeta espingarda, fusil acculturation po'kaa A 'pistol' is po'kaa kata'de 12.590; 'rifle' is po'kaa; po'kaa garahaa-'dieʔ 02.458; 'shot-gun' is po'kaa ke'ruu-a 12.550. See Language page PLE
hat sombero chapéu dress gaa'tohee See Language page PLE
chief/leader jefe, cacique chefe culture-mythology dai'n̥ai; dai'n̥ee See 04.870. See Language page PLE
club garrote, cachiporra clava, porrete subsistence tool o'ge Non-possessed form is gan̥i'meei. See Language page PLE
loincloth taparrabos, guayuco, pampanilla tanga, tapa-sexo dress See Language page PLE
fireplace hogar lareira other See Language page PLE
fishing line cordel/cuerda p/ pescar, sedal, tanze linha de pesca subsistence tool See Language page PLE
salt sal sal food e'čo-i Ground s. is e'čo u'rui, lit. salt dust; cf. 'flour' 05.550. A chunk of s. is e'čo-i i'ribi-di; to sprinkle s. on the food u'n̥ute-gaay; s. crystals ũri'arõi ga'n̥ui, lit. a picture of molartooth 04.272. See Language page PLE
song (generic) canción, canto canção culture-mythology iɲ̥e'kãreʔ See Language page PLE
blowgun cerbatana, pucuna (Peru) zarabatana subsistence tool currently limited to certain groups (favoring h-g orientation, e.g. Nadahup) within RN region See Language page PLE
dart (blowgun) dardo, birote (Peru), bala (Peru) dardo, seta subsistence tool hunting and warfare See Language page PLE
fan abanico abanador, abano subsistence tool pee'ye esp. for fanning a cooking fire See Language page PLE
fish (with line) anzuelear, pescar con linea pescar (com linha) food See Language page PLE
fish (with fish-poison) pescar con barbasco, barbasquear pescar com timbó; tinguijar food See Language page PLE
hunt cazar caçar food nii'so-rãai; ni'sorẽe A one-day hunt, is baai; 'baage; an overnight hunt is moo-i; moo-'ŋe 04.610. See Language page PLE
game animal caza, animal de caza caça, animal de caça food kučii'sooi Refers to a wild animal. See Language page PLE
gourd (dipper/bowl) cucharón, pate (Peru), totomo, totuma, totumo cuia subsistence tool See Language page PLE
grater rallador, rallo ralador, ralo subsistence tool esp. for grating manioc, but can be used for other things as well See Language page PLE
grid of sticks for smoking meat or placing objects (shelf) barbacoa jirau subsistence tool -- See Language page PLE
mortar mortero pilão subsistence tool uguu'ta-di See Language page PLE
pestle pilón, mano de mortero, mazo, moledor mão de pilão subsistence tool ãra'ŋe See Language page PLE
fermented drink masato, chicha caxiri, chicha culture yoote-pii'oi Lit. 'water-fire' 01.310+01.810. See Language page PLE
flour/meal from manioc fariña, mañoco (Venezuela); harina farinha food u'ru-i Also means 'dust' 01.213; also rice hull, 05.810. 'Palm nut flour' is nami-'ni; wheat or manioc f. is 'kučaa u'rui; fine corn f. is ti'ki-n̥ai. See Language page PLE
flat bread, cassava bread pan de yuca, casabe/cazabe beiju food usually manioc; agriculture, but also can be made from certain wild seeds/fruits See Language page PLE
starch (tapioca, other) almidón goma de tapioca food See Language page PLE
tapioca drink, mingau cahuana, caguana mingau food agriculture See Language page PLE
tipiti (manioc squeezer) tipiti, matafrio, sebucán, exprimador, prensa para yuca tipiti food word of Tupi origin; agriculture: specifically for squeezing poison out of manioc See Language page PLE
tripod for washing manioc trípode tripé subsistence tool agriculture See Language page PLE
venom for darts, poison veneno curare subsistence tool hunting, currently is falling out of use in Vaupés region, associated primarily with h-g groups (but this may be recent?) See Language page PLE
woven strainer/sieve colador tejido, cedazo (Peru), cernedor (Peru) peneira, cumatá subsistence tool agriculture? commonly used for sifting dry manioc flour See Language page PLE
bait for fishing cebo, carnada para pescar, empate (Peru) isca subsistence tool can refer to worms; more generic See Language page PLE
fishtrap trampa de peces, trampa matapi, cacuri subsistence tool 'čimeno; i'čimeno See Language page PLE
bottom grinding stone manufacture if different word from top grinding stone See Language page PLE
digging stick subsistence tool See Language page PLE
top grinding stone metate, mano; piedra de moler metate, mano manufacture use word for top grinding stone if different from bottom stone See Language page PLE
boomerang/throwing stick (generic) subsistence tool See Language page PLE
spearthrower subsistence tool See Language page PLE
house other i'gi-n̥aai Possessive form. See Language page PLE