pound/beat

Semantic Field
impact
Part of Speech
Meaning Spanish
machacar, golpear
Meaning Portuguese
bater

Languages

Language Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Etymology Notes Source Created By General Notes
Big Smokey Valley Shoshone to-ppaih “beat up” inheritance Jane Hill
Cahuilla -tula- inheritance S&H 1979 Jane Hill
Central Sierra Miwok lo/pLa- unknown Jane Hill
Chumash Barbareno itatan inheritance Beeler 1976:265 Jane Hill
Chumash Cruzeno hiwekH “machucar” inheritance JPH Jane Hill
Chumash Ineseno -tatan inheritance A 58 Jane Hill
Chumash Obispeno tsiLmu7 (same as “mortero”) unknown JPH Jane Hill
Chumash Ventureno wiwex “with blows (not instrument)” inheritance JPH Jane Hill
Cocopa kucu/, kusu/l; cuya/Ly (when wet) unknown Jane Hill
Comanche naraajaakypY, tyhraniity unique Jane Hill
Cupeño pux-0 [pux] inheritance Jane Hill
Iipay 'Aa aarrap, wetutt [aˑˈrap], [wəˈt̯ʊt] unknown Jane Hill
Kawaiisu coko- inheritance Jane Hill
Kiliwa h+nya7 (w/ hammer), p+tiiti “pound seeds” unknown Mixco 1985 Jane Hill
Kitanemuk pi7 (metate) inheritance Jane Hill
Lake Miwok 7u/Tuk inheritance Jane Hill
Luiseño paqa~i- inheritance Jane Hill
Maidu jo/k inheritance Jane Hill
Mojave saveq=(mash, pound, squish insect), tadiily=,(something hard, usually to about 1/2 former size), talaath= (pound corn to crack a little), talyes= (pound lightly), atoot=(meat, corn, etc.), katoo= (mesquite beans) unknown Jane Hill
Mutsun hutna “pounds (in a mortar) unknown O77:81, 211 Jane Hill
Nisenan juluj unknown Jane Hill
Northern Paiute pota “pound acorns” inheritance Stubbs 08 Jane Hill
Northern Sierra Miwok mac:a- unknown Jane Hill
Plains Miwok 72:l2-, 7y:ly- unknown Jane Hill
Salinan A (p)T'etoyo (A), “pound, pulverize” unknown Jane Hill
Salinan M *(k)a/nata 'pound, pulverize' unknown Mason 1918:138 Jane Hill
Seri (Comcaac) ccaxz (with long thing) unknown Jane Hill
Serrano pO:ng inheritance Jane Hill
Southern Paiute tap:oru7 “to pound w/ stone”; unique Jane Hill
Southern Sierra Miwok lop:a- inheritance Jane Hill
Southern Ute wHchog'wa inheritance Jane Hill
Tübatulabal kohkohwin-at, unique Jane Hill
Tümpisa Shoshone tappaih, inheritance Jane Hill
Wappo wa/Thmi7 “hit or strike several times, beat” unknown Jane Hill
Washo e/tb unknown J497 Jane Hill
Western Mono tabi “to pound” inheritance Jane Hill
Wintu palya inheritance Jane Hill
Yavapai (s)peqi, tu/, mqwa_ni unknown Jane Hill
Yokuts Yawdanchi duku “pulverize” 247; unknown K07:247 Jane Hill
Yokuts Yowlumne potox “smash” loan direction unknown 293 K 1907 Jane Hill
Yuki TuT' unknown S&S 1984 Jane Hill
Yuma kaco/ “to pound lightly” H5:93; tawe/ “to grind” H5:95 unknown Jane Hill
Baniwa nãa, kháama, tãime nãa, kháama, tãime inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
Cubeo chĩtoñʉ; pẽ́ðayʉ; piroyʉ ʧĩtojɨ; pẽ́ðajɨ; piɾojɨ unique See Language page Kelsey Neely; Tanja Baeuerlein
Dâw pam  pam unique See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
Desano mutũ-ri (with the hand) mutĩ-ɾi inheritance See Language page Ana Paula; Tanja Baeuerlein
Eñepa -ɨpuʔmo- (IDS) -ɨpuʔmo- (IDS) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross
Waorani te te ã-po unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez, PLE
Hup j’ɔŋ- ~ɟ’ɔg- unique See Language page Pattie Epps
Makushi iʔpopɨtɨ (SM) iʔpopɨtɨ (SM) unique See Language page Melody Ann Ross
Nheengatu peteka, nupá peteka, nupá unknown See Language page John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
Ninam pašə (EM72) paʃə inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
Pemon ame, tatama, pichaka, kichouka (A1981) ame, tatama, pitʃaka, kitʃouka (A1981) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
Sanumá pasɨ (EM72) pasɨ inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
Sikuani tafuta (2) tafúta missing See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, Rebecca Khorram, PLE
Tariana túda túda unique See Language page Ana Paula B.
Kotiria mᵾtana; mᵾtona; ña tihãhna; tihãna; dahra tihãna (between two fingers) (all Waltz) mᵾtana; mᵾtona; ja tihãhna; tihãna; dahɾa tihãna (all Waltz) inheritance E Tuk See Language page D. Jagannathan, Tanja Bauerlein
Yanomam pasu (EM72) pasu inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
Yanomami shë-aɨ ʃʃ-aɨ unique See Language page Kelsey Neely
Yukuna ñatakaje ɲatakahe inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
Gajirrabeng dilybe unique Claire Bowern
Gurindji tarl pa- loan Wardaman Claire Bowern
Kija taj inheritance Claire Bowern
Miriwung daj inheritance Claire Bowern
Walmajarri tuka- inheritance Claire Bowern
Achagua báaseri báaseri See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
Piapoco nunúaca nunúaka See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
Warekena peta peta See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
Yavitero dac̷ika datsika See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
Bare wát'uka, watʃuka wát'uka, watʃuka See Language page Ana Paula B.
Wapishana tʰinikʰa-n tʰinikʰa-n unknown See Language page Ana Paula B.
Paresi mokotya mokotya See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
Waurá maitʸa; tau-ta maitʸa; tau-ta See Language page Joyce McCormick
Bora wápaájco, íllaáyo, wádɨrɨhjáco (beat with stick) (T98) kʷápʰaáxkʰo, ítʃaájo, kʷátɨrɨʔxákʰo See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
Muinane gánɨɨcɨhi, gávírícuhi, púpúcuhi, úvútúsuhi (W97) gánɨɨkɨʔi, gáβíríkuʔi, púpúkuʔi, úβútúsuʔi See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
Akawaio ariipogɨ ari'pɔgɨ unique See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin
Makiritare -aiʔhuka-dɨɨ (IDS) -aiʔhuka-dɨɨ (IDS) unknown See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
Wai Wai wetaΦa oyamorɨ ke wetaΦa oyamorɨ ke See Language page Melody Ann Ross
Yukpa néveksa, núvesta See Language page Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross
Northern Emberá bhĩ́raa huĩ́, berrachíi bhĩ́raː huĩ́, berratʃíi See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, PLE
Macaguan tsakít tsakít unknown See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
Candoshi-Shapra tpámaama tpámaama See Language page Daniel Valle
Páez pequins pekins See Language page Daniel Valle
Tikuna na2na3po2 (A58) nanapo See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
Urarina fwaufwaa fwaufwaa See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
Camsa xuénanana, xáxantɕetana xuénanana, xáxantɕetana See Language page Daniel Valle, Anissa Capuchino
Andoke -bəʌ (to beat/smash) -bəʌ (to beat/smash) See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
Pumé kʰae gua (with fist); bede kʰae-iʊ (strike) See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
Puinave [-pou] (strike); [-tãu] (~ with fist pou; tãu See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
Ashuar chánatin, chínatin tʃanatin, tʃinatin See Language page Daniel Valle
Huambisa chanuatsa, namuktasa tʃanuatsa, namuktasa See Language page Daniel Valle
Aguaruna dekéet, initát dɨkɨ:t, initat See Language page Daniel Valle
Matses chocueshca, mase tʃokueʃka, mase See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
Chácobo čaka-; pɨc̷a-; tooṣ̌-; raši; čoša-; sɨtia- (the latter two are listed under "pound with fist") čaka-; pɨc̷a-; tooṣ̌-; raši; čoša-; sɨtia- (the latter two are listed under "pound with fist") See Language page Joyce McCormick
Yagua doya; mara (food item); musiy (as to punish) doja; mara:; musij See Language page Daniel Valle
Southern Pastaza Quechua llapina, nitina ʎapina, nitina See Language page Daniel Valle
Ingá kapii kapii See Language page Daniel Valle
Napo Lowland Quichua tiquina, cutarina tikina, kutaɾina See Language page Daniel Valle
Quechua Ayacuchano llapiy ʎapij See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
Piaroa pa'tápuɨh paɁtápuɨh See Language page Amanda Novak, Becky Walker
Carapana tãnirĩqũẽ tãniɾĩkẽ See Language page Amanda Novak, Tanja Baeuerlein
Makuna baje-re (could be a loan from Portuguese); ja-re; roca-re ('to punch in the face') (entire lexical entry is identical with hit) baxe-ɾe; xa-ɾe; ɾoka-ɾe See Language page Amanda Novak, D. Jagannathan, Tanja Bauerlein
Koreguaje ja'emʉ xaʔemʉ See Language page Daniel Valle
Siona paonji, quëonji paonhi, kɨonhi See Language page Kelsey Neely
Karitiana mĩ mĩ See Language page Daniel Valle
Kokama ayuka ajuka See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
Wayampi #NAME? #NAME? See Language page PLE
Sirionó kurukʷa; iruã nua; ukʷa (P85) kurukʷa; iruã nua; ukʷa See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
Kamayurá nupã nupã See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
Ocaina boonm̈a bõõma See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
Murui Witoto doberite, donede (comestibles); guàte (golpeando) dobɛritɛ, donɛdɛ (comestibles); guàtɛ (B83) See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
Záparo ahiryasutanu ahiɾjasutanu See Language page Becky Walker
Wari to' (E&K97) toʔ (E&K97) See Language page PLE
Ese Ejja/Huarayo poho-kwe (also means "hit") poho-kwe See Language page Joyce McCormick
Cavineña miri-ya; hari-ya; a-ya, miri-ya; taro-; kac̷a-ya (The first two, miri-ya and hari-ya, mean pounding specifically with a fist; the rest are the same as the entry for "hit") miri-ya; hari-ya; a-ya, miri-ya; taro-; kača-ya See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
Kwazá duduñũ-, tãtãi, ahỹ-, babay-, mɛ̃- (first two are pound , last three are beat ) duduñũ-, tãtãi, ahỹ-, babay-, mɛ̃- (first two are pound , last three are beat ) See Language page Joyce McCormick
Movima han̉-na han̉-na See Language page Anissa Capuccino, Becky Walker
Trumai ha fa (G99) ha fa (G99) See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
Kaingang mrãn-mrãn; nə e; kã nə e (IDS) pɔ he; pɔke See Language page PLE
Suyá čičík čičík See Language page Rebekah Evans
Djeoromitxi päpä, tümi pǝpǝ, tümi See Language page PLE