Yavitero

Family
Arawakan
Region
South America
ISO 639-3
yvt
Location
-9.82°, -67.43°
Notes
The last known speaker died in 1984.
Features
Basic Vocabulary
Flora Fauna Vocabulary
Cultural Vocabulary
Grammatical Data
Data Sources
Mosonyi, J. C., 1987. El idioma yavitero: ensayo de gramática y diccionario. Ph.D. diss., Universidad Central de Venezuela, Caracas.


Basic Vocabulary (191)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Etymology Notes Source Created By
above encima, arriba acima location a'niye; hutaye aʔnije; hutaje See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
and y e grammar -na -na See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
ash ceniza(s) cinzas environment jalítsi halítsi See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
at en, a em, a location íwa íwa See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
back espalda costas body tul'i tulʔi See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
bad mal mal quality kuľusi kuľusi See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
belly barriga barriga body huwite huwite See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
below abajo, debajo abaixo location jajlíye hahlíye See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
big grande grande quality iľ̥uwaľi-hi iľ̥uwaľi-hi See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
black negro preto colour mumu-hi mumu-hi See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
blood sangre sangue body miyani mijani See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
boil/pimple espinilla, granos espinha, borbulha body See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
bone hueso osso body ihi-u ihi-u See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
breast pecho, seno peito body c̷ini tsini See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
child niño, niña criança human ľ̥ihani ľ̥ihani See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
cloud nube nuvem environment ľ̥i'aľi-ľi enu 'smoke of sky' ľ̥i'aľi-ľi enu 'smoke of sky' See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
cold frío frio quality ka'winini ka'winini See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
correct/true verdad, de veras verdade quality See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
day día dia time eɲahiľ̥i eɲahiľ̥i See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
dirty sucio sujo quality éku(j) éku(h) See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
dingo/wolf fauna See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
dry seco seco quality c̷uheta; c̷uweta tsuheta; tsuweta See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
dull/blunt sin filo, mocho, desafilado, embotado, romo maçante, desamolado, não afiado quality hata ka'mena-hi 'not sharp' hata kaʔmena-hi 'not sharp' See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
dust polvo poeira environment See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
ear oreja orelha body tasine tasine See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
earth/soil tierra terra environment ka'hac̷i kaʔhatsi See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
egg huevo ovo fauna inesi-naha inesi-naha See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
eye ojo olho body huľisi huľisi See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
far lejos longe quality teye(na) teje(na) See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
fat/grease grasa gordura body mungu; c̷ita mungu; tsita See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
father padre, papá pai kinship ihi (dp91) ihi (dp91) See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
feather pluma pena fauna ic̷u itsu See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
fire fuego fogo environment kaľ̥i kaľ̥i See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
flower flor flor environment jlóre hlóre See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
fog niebla, neblina nevoeira, bruma, neblina environment See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
fruit fruta fruta flora átasi átasi See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
good bueno bom quality yunihi-na junihi-na See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
hair (of head) cabello cabelo body mau, ic̷u 'body hair' mau, itsu 'body hair' See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
hand mano mão body kahahi kahahi See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
3sg el/ella ele/ela grammar ani-hi ani-hi See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
head cabeza cabeça body sihu sihu See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
heavy pesado pesado quality sina-hi sina-hi See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
how? como como grammar jlána hlána See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
1sg yo eu grammar nuya-ha nuja-ha See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
if si se grammar íjlanája íhlanáha See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
in/inside dentro, adentro dentro location íye, íyesitena íye, íyesitena See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
intestines intestinos intestinos body ¢i'a-hi (¢i'a = excrement) tsiʔa-hi See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
lake lago lago environment See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
leaf hoja folha environment hasi hasi See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
left/left hand izquierdo esquerdo location/body ga'nuľ̥i gaʔnuľ̥i See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
leg/foot pierna perna body ku¢u kutsu See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
lightning rayo, relámpago relampago environment mélika(mélimelika) énu, íye énu (íye 'angry' + énu 'sky') mélika(mélimelika) énu, íye énu (íye 'angry' + énu 'sky') See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
liver hígado figado body hane hane See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
long largo comprido, longo quality a'ľ̥utu-hi a'ľ̥utu-hi See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
louse piollo, piojo piolho fauna tsuída tsuída See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
man/male hombre homem human enami enami See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
meat/flesh carne carne fauna enami enami See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
moon luna lua environment keľi keľi See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
mother madre, mamá mãe kinship iľ̥uami iľ̥uami See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
mouth boca boca body numa numa See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
name nombre nome human iľ̥iwanaha iľ̥iwanaha See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
near/close cerca de perto quality ka'ľehana kaʔľehana See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
nape base del cuello, nuca nuca body tusiwa tusiwa See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
neck cuello pescoço body ínu ínu See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
new nuevo novo quality a'wemaľi a'wemaľi See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
night noche noite time yaľ̥i-na jaľ̥i-na See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
no/not no não grammar játa, yáma háta, yáma See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
nose nariz nariz body siwi siwi See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
old viejo velho quality a'winesitami a'winesitami See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
one uno um number há(sai)(na) (dp91), hasi'ana há(sai)(na) (dp91), hasi'ana See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
other otro outro grammar See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
pain/painful/sick dolor, doloroso, enfermo dor, doloroso, doente body maʔľ̥ikaľi; kuľusi maʔľ̥ikaľi; kuľusi See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
person/human being persona pessoa human ka'mewa ka'mewa See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
rain lluvia chuva environment jlía hlía See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
red rojo vermelho colour sitami sitami See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
right/right hand derecha direita location/body minaľi (lit. 'chief, boss') minaľi (lit. 'chief, boss') See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
road/path camino caminho manufacture ta'nehu taʔnehu See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
root raíz raiz flora iwinaha iwinaha See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
rotten podrido podre quality méteji(ji) métehi(hi) See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
sand arena areia environment ka'hac̷i-na ka'hatsi-na See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
sharp afilado, filudo, filoso afiado quality ka'mena-hi kaʔmena-hi See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
short corto curto quality u'wima-hi; witasima-hi. uʔwima-hi; witasima-hi. See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
shoulder hombro ombro body kuľuhasi (lit. 'root of arm') kuľuhasi (lit. 'root of arm') See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
shy/ashamed tímido, vergonzoso timido, com vergonha mental See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
skin piel pele body itamaka itamaka See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
sky cielo céu environment énu énu See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
small pequeño pequeno quality witasima-hi witasima-hi See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
smoke humo fumaça environment ľ̥i'aľi; ľ̥i'aľiľi ľ̥i'aľi; ľ̥i'aľiľi See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
star estrella estrela environment wiwinaľi wiwinaľi See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
stick/wood palo pau, vara flora ata ata See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
stone piedra pedra environment siha siha See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
tail cola, rabo rabo body hiľ̥i hiľ̥i See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
that ese/esa esse grammar íya íja See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
3pl ellos/ellas eles/elas grammar anini anini See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
thick grueso, gordo, espeso grosso quality ajtúmina(ji), íjluwali(ji) ahtúmina(hi), íhluwali(hi) See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
thin delgado fino quality huwiha-hi huwiha-hi See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
this este/esta este grammar íni íni See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
2sg xx xx grammar hiya-ha hija-ha See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
throat garganta garganta body kanasi kanasi See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
three tres tres number te'resi te'resi See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
thunder truenos trovão environment iye enu iye enu See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
bite morder morder body tata tata See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
blow soplar soprar body huweha-hi; huwita huweha-hi; huwita See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
breathe respirar respirar body ¢uha tsuha See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
burn quemar queimar environment kája káha See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
chew masticar, mascar mastigar body jlámua hlámua See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
climb subir subir motion kuwa; ku'a kuwa; kuʔa See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
come venir vir motion nuha nuha See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
cook cocinar cozinhar impact hahua hahua See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
count contar contar mental See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
cry llorar chorar mental jáya háya See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
cut/hack cortar cortar impact kétsu(a), tsiúka kétsu(a), tsiúka See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
die/be dead morir morrer state wiyua wijua See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
dig cavar cavar impact hana ka'hac̷i hana kaʔhatsi See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
dream soñar sonhar mental tahuni tahuni See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
drink beber, tomar beber body ľ̥iya ľ̥ija See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
eat comer comer body eɲa; na eɲa; na See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
fall caer cair motion núma núma See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
fear miedo medo mental ľ̥asita; ľ̥asia; hiľiha; ka'yunane ľ̥asita; ľ̥asia; hiľiha; kaʔjunane See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
flow fluir fluir motion huľua huľua See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
fly volar voar motion mita mita See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
grow crecer crescer state tawina tawina See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
hear oír ouvir mental keheta keheta See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
hide esconder esconder motion waľia; mawata waľia; mawata See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
hit golpear, pegar bater impact má, jújuta má, húhuta See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
hold correr, asegurar, sostener segurar other kasita (hold, get) kasita (hold, get) See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
kill matar matar impact ma ma See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
know/be knowledgeable saber, conecer saber, conhecer mental wita wita See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
laugh reír rir mental táteja táteha See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
lie down acostarse, echarse deitar motion jájita, juínta háhita, huínta See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
live/be alive vivir viver, morar body hac̷ika; huhe hatsika; huhe See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
open/uncover abrir abrir other kálaja kálaha See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
pound/beat machacar, golpear bater impact dac̷ika datsika See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
say decir dizer mental ma ma See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
scratch rascar rasgar impact See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
see ver ver mental nita nita See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
shoot tirar, disparar, balear atirar impact ľ̥inua; c̷awita 'shoot arrow' ľ̥inua; tsawita 'shoot arrow' See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
sit sentar(se) sentar state játsika hátsika See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
sleep dormir dormir body c̷ima tsima See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
sniff/smell olfatear, oler cheirar body ľ̥imeta ľ̥imeta See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
spit escupir cuspir body kuma; ľ̥uheta. kuma; ľ̥uheta. See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
split partir, dividir rachar, dividir, partir impact huľeta; kuhaha huľeta; kuhaha See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
squeeze estrujar, exprimir espremer impact tájija táhiha See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
stab/pierce apuñalar, acuchillar apunhalar impact maľ̥ika maľ̥ika See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
stand estar de pié ficar em pé state kac̷ia katsia See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
steal robar roubar other jújata húhata See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
suck chupar chupar body ľ̥iya (also 'drink') ľ̥ija (also 'drink') See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
swell hincharse inchar body játa háta See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
swim nadar nadar motion ku'inta ku'inta See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
think pensar pensar mental naniwata naniwata See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
throw tirar, lanzar atirar, jogar impact yuta; wahi yuta; wahi See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
tie up/fasten atar, amarrar amarrar impact kálita kálita See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
turn girar, volter, torcer virar other See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
vomit vomitar vomitar body tésia tésia See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
walk caminar, andar andar motion heha; kac̷ic̷ia heha; katsictsa See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
work trabajar trabalhar other játata, jájajata hátata, háhahata See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
yawn bostezar bocejar body hahahata hahahata See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
tongue lengua lingua body tate tate See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
tooth diente dente body eľ̥i eľ̥i See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
two dos dois number c̷i'naha tsi'naha See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
water agua agua environment weni weni (=river) See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
1pl.incl nosotros (inclusivo) nós (inclusivo) grammar waya-ha waja-ha See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
1pl.excl nosotros (exclusivo) nós (exclusivo) grammar See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
wet mojado molhado quality keľ̥a-hi keľ̥a-hi See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
what? que, qué que grammar See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
when? cuando quando grammar ájetsa, játsa ájetsa, játsa See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
where? donde onde grammar kisa kisa See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
white blanco branco colour ka'haľi-hi ka'haľi-hi See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
who? quien, quién quem grammar méjli méľ̥i See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
wife esposa esposa kinship hiľ̥u hiľ̥u See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
wind viento vento environment uwítsi uwítsi See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
wing ala asa body tanahasi tanahasi See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
woman/female mujer mulher human ľ̥a'ľinemi enami See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
yellow amarillo amarelo colour si'hutemi si'hutemi See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
2pl ustedes vocês grammar niya-ha nija-ha See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
foot pie body c̷ic̷i tsitsi See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
again de nuevo, otra vez de novo grammar ha'c̷inuwa haʔtsinuwa See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
all todo todos other huľi'ana huľi'ana See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
ankle tobillo tornozelo body See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
armpit axila, sobaco axila body tánaye tánaye See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
faeces heces, mierda, excremento, estiércol fezes body c̷i'a tsiʔa See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
lung pulmón pulmão body júwite, júwitetunaja húwite, húwitetunaha See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
sweat sudar suor, suar body jájlata (noun) háhlata (noun) See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
itch hormiguear, sentir comezón coçar body See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
bark corteza casca environment kamújlita kamúľ̥ita See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
fingernail uña unha body c̷uľawi tsul'awi See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
heart corazón coração body huwite huwite See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
sun sol sol time ka'muľ̥i ka'muľ̥i See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
mountain/hill montaña, colina, loma, cerro morro, serra environment yaha jaha See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
green verde verde quality si'hutemi si'hutemi See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
hot caliente quente quality atawaľihi atawaľihi See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE


Flora Fauna Vocabulary (133)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Linnean Name Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Range of Term Word Structure Word Structure Notes Classifier Classifier Notes Hypernym Source Association with Social Categories Ritual/Mythologically Significant Ritual Notes Food Source Food Notes Medicinal Medicinal Notes How Collected Who Collects How Prepared Psychotropic Psychotropic Notes Traded Trade Notes Distribution Habitat Dangerous Ethnobiology Notes Species Notes General Notes Created By
bat murciélago morcego flora-fauna Chiroptera spp. wayu waju See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
bird pajaro, ave passaro flora-fauna niľ̥i 'bird, animal' niľ̥i 'bird, animal' See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
curassow mitu, montete (Peru), paujil/panjuil (Peru), paujil de Salvin (Peru for Mitu salvini) mutum flora-fauna Crax sp., Nothocrax sp. See Language page Amazonia Ana Paula B., PLE
toucan tucán, pinsha (Peru) tucano flora-fauna Ramphastos sp. yukúwe jukúwe See Language page Widespread Amazonia Ana Paula B., PLE
gray-winged trumpeter Grulla, Trompetero Ala Gris jacamim flora-fauna Psophia crepitans dúliu dúliu See Language page Northern Amazonia (N of Solimões), not in northern Colombia; Dark-winged trumpeter is found south of Solimões Ana Paula B., PLE
guan pava, pucacunga (Peru), pava de Spix (Peru) jacu flora-fauna Penelope sp. mátsi mátsi See Language page Different types have different localized ranges Ana Paula B., PLE
tinamou tinamu, perdiz, gallineta inambu, inhambu flora-fauna family Tinamidae tújulu túhulu See Language page Widespread Amazonia Ana Paula B., PLE
hummingbird colibrí, picaflor (Peru) beija-flor flora-fauna family Trochilidae burujlana buruľ̥ana See Language page Widespread Ana Paula B., PLE
kingfisher martín pescador, catalan (Peru) martim-pescador flora-fauna family Alcedinidae tsátsali tsátsali See Language page Widespread Amazonia Ana Paula B., PLE
owl (large) búho, lechuza corujão flora-fauna order Strigiformes ma'kuku ma'kuku See Language page Widespread Ana Paula B., PLE
macaw ara, guacamaya Arara flora-fauna family Psittacidae; Ara sp. See Language page Widespread Amazonia Ana Paula B., PLE
parrot loro real, loro (Sp. form is a loan from Carib) papagaio flora-fauna Amazona amazonica ku'ľi-kuľi ku'ľi-kuľi See Language page Widespread Ana Paula B., PLE
dove paloma pomba flora-fauna family Columbidae c̷uc̷ubu tsutsubu See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
hawk halcón, gavilán gavião flora-fauna family Accipitridae ku'kuwi ku'kuwi See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
vulture buitre, gallinazo, rinahui (Peru) urubu flora-fauna family Cathartidae See Language page Widespread South America Ana Paula B., PLE
duck pato pato, marreco flora-fauna Anatidae family patu patu (Spanish loan) See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
great egret Garza Blanca, Guyratî Garça-Branca-Grande flora-fauna Ardea alba máli máli See Language page Widespread South America Ana Paula B., PLE
woodpecker pájaro carpintero, carpintero pica-pau flora-fauna family Picidae yatútsi jatútsi See Language page Widespread Amazonia Ana Paula B., PLE
dog (camp, domestic) perro cachorro flora-fauna Canis famililaris ku'aiľ̥i ku'aiľ̥i See Language page Not native; widespread Ana Paula B., PLE
dog (wild; bush dog) sachaperro, Perro de Monte, Zorro Vinagre, Guanfando; Zorro Ojizarco, Zorro Negro, Perro de Orejas Corta cachorro-do-mato flora-fauna Speothos venaticus; Atelocynus microtis mábulibuli mábulibuli See Language page Widespread Amazonia Ana Paula B., PLE
anteater oso hormiguero; tapia pelejo or pelejo chico for Cyclopes didactylus tamanduá flora-fauna Myrmecophaga tridactyla (giant anteater); Cyclopes didactylus (silky anteater) mulújli mulúľ̥i See Language page Widespread Amazonian lowlands Ana Paula B., PLE
armadillo armadillo, carachupa (Peru), yangunturi (Peru for Giant armadillo) tatu flora-fauna family Dasypodidae; e.g. Priodontes maximus (Giant armadillo), Dasypus novemcinctus, Dasypus kappleri yána jána See Language page Widespread in Amazonia Ana Paula B., PLE
sloth pereza, pelejo (Peru), perezoso (Peru) macaco preguica flora-fauna Choloepus sp., Bradypus sp. wamú, tsíkedali wamú, tsíkedali See Language page Widespread Amazonia Ana Paula B., PLE
alligator, black caiman babilla; cachirre jacaré flora-fauna Melanosuchus niger, Caiman schlerops; Paleosuchus sp. kai'manu kai'manu See Language page Throughout Amazonia Port term reportedly borrowed from Tupi Ana Paula B., PLE
electric eel anguila eléctrica poraquê flora-fauna Electrophorus electricus See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
fish (generic) pez peixe flora-fauna kuhási (dp91), simasi kuhási (dp91), simasi See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
pacu fish palometa, garopita, garopa, curhuara (Peru) pacu flora-fauna Mylossoma sp. ajlíyaja aľ̥íjaha See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
pirana piraña, caribe piranha flora-fauna subfamily Serrasalmidae uma (dp91) uma (dp91) See Language page Widespread Amazonia Ana Paula B., PLE
tigerfish taraira, guabina, huasaco (Peru) traíra flora-fauna Hoplias sp. yawíleje jawílehe See Language page Widespread Amazonia Ana Paula B., PLE
mandi catfish maparate (used in Peru for some types of catfish, including Auchenipterus sp.), cunchi (used in Peru for some types of catfish), bagre (catfish) mandi flora-fauna Auchenipterus sp. See Language page Widespread Amazonia Ana Paula B., PLE
speckled catfish surubí, pintadillo surubim, sorubim flora-fauna Pseudoplatystoma sp. See Language page Widespread Amazonia Ana Paula B., PLE
toad sapo sapo flora-fauna order Anura tu'kutua tu'kutua See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
iguana iguana, garipiares (Colombia) camaleão flora-fauna Iguana sp. iwána iwána See Language page iguana' is reportedly from Arawak iwana Ana Paula B., PLE
small lizard lagartija calango flora-fauna order Squamata ku'itu ku'itu See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
stingray (generic) rayas látigo, raya arraia flora-fauna Potamotrygon sp. yajíwe jahíwe See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
crab cangrejo caranguejo flora-fauna infraorder Brachyura See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
anaconda anaconda, boa, boa acuática grande sucuri flora-fauna genus Eunectes See Language page Widespread Amazonia Ana Paula B., PLE
boa boa; mantona (red-tailed boa); boa de altura jiboia flora-fauna family Boidae, subf. Boinae See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
snake (generic) culebra, serpiente cobra flora-fauna u'meni u'meni See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
snake (poisonous generic) or rattlesnake víbora (Peru), jergón (Peru), yarara jararaca flora-fauna Bothrops jararaca/atrox See Language page Widespread South America Ana Paula B., PLE
tortoise (red foot, yellow foot/giant) tortuga, morrocoy, motelo jabutí, tartaruga flora-fauna Yellow-footed: Geochelone denticulata; Red-footed: Geochelone carbonaria sihú[li] (dp91), mata-'matu 'turtle' sihú[li] (dp91), mata-'matu 'turtle' See Language page Widespread Ana Paula B., PLE
Amazon dolphin bufeo, delfín, tonina (del Orinoco) boto cor-de-rosa flora-fauna Inia geoffrensis múna múna See Language page Downstream of major rapids and waterfalls Ana Paula B., PLE
mushroom champiñón, hongo cogumelo flora-fauna (any edible generic) See Language page prioritize generic term that includes any edible species Ana Paula B., PLE
black palm bacaba, mapora, pusui, patabá bacaba flora-fauna Oenocarpus bacaba See Language page Mature forests of Rio Negro and Upper Amazon may be confused in some entries with O. bataua Ana Paula B., PLE
açai palm huasí (Peru), asahi, manaca (Ven), asaí, palmiche (Colombia) açaí flora-fauna Euterpe sp. See Language page floodplains, swamp; esp. northern Amazonia Ana Paula B., PLE
miriti palm moriche (Col, Ven), aguaje (Col, Peru), achual, miriti buriti flora-fauna Mauritia flexuosa téwi téwi See Language page Brazil, Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guyana, Peru, Venezuela; in and near swamps trunks contain sago-like starch Ana Paula B., PLE
palm for roof thatch pui, irapay, hoja de irapay, caraná caraná flora-fauna Mauritiella armata OR Lepidocaryum tenue (irapay), Mauritius carana hu'ne¢i (thatch roof) huʔnetsi (thatch roof) See Language page Mauritia carana is limited principally to the Rio Negro and Upper Orinoco regions; dry catinga forests palm Ana Paula B., PLE
paxiuba palm pona, huacrapona, cashapona, macanilla, pachiuba paxiuba flora-fauna Iriartea exorrhiza OR Iriartea deltoidea kúja kúha See Language page Widespread Amazonia palm Ana Paula B., PLE
peach palm, pejibaye palm chontaduro (Col, Ecuador); pipire (Col); pijuayo (Peru), pijiguao (Ven); tembe (Bol) pupunha flora-fauna Bactris gasipaes See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
seje palm ungurahui (Peru), palma de seje, milpesos, patabá patoá, patuá flora-fauna Jessenia bataua, aka Oenocarpus bataua See Language page mostly north of Equator; common in Amazonia may be confused with O. bacaba - compare entries Ana Paula B., PLE
coca coca coca flora-fauna Erythroxylum coca See Language page secondary scrub vegetation. lower alt. of eastern Andes plant Ana Paula B., PLE
cotton algodón algodão flora-fauna Gossypium (barbadense: long fibers; hirsutum: short fibers) See Language page secondary scrub vegetation plant; some sources may confound with kapok Ceiba pentandra (esp. if a single gloss for 'cotton' is given') Ana Paula B., PLE
kapok ceiba, huimba, lupuna (Peru for Ceiba sp.) sumaumeira flora-fauna Ceiba pentandra amíti amíti See Language page northern South America and central America; common in disturbed areas tree Ana Paula B., PLE
hot pepper ají, pimentón/pimiento rojo, pucunucho (Peru), charapilla (Peru) pimenta flora-fauna Capsicum sp., principally chinensis and frutescens atsítsi (dp91) atsítsi (dp91) See Language page secondary scrub vegetation, indigenous garden plant Ana Paula B., PLE
peanut maní (may be loan from Taino Arawak), cacahuete amendoim flora-fauna Arachis hypogaea See Language page plant Ana Paula B., PLE
pineapple piña abacaxi flora-fauna Ananas comosus See Language page plant Ana Paula B., PLE
arrow cane, wildcane caña flecha, caña brava, caña isana cana para flechas, frecheira, Cana-do-rio flora-fauna Gynerium sagittatum See Language page tropical regions, especially river banks plant Ana Paula B., PLE
banana, plantain banano, banana, cambur, bellaco, variedad de plátano banana flora-fauna Musa sp. ha'ľatana (Sp loan) ha'ľatana (Sp loan) See Language page Names for banana/plantain may be derived from bastard plantain by semantic shift. Ana Paula B., PLE
beans frijoles, frejol, caraotas (negras, rojas, blancas) feijão flora-fauna Phaseolus spp. ku'mana ku'mana See Language page plant Ana Paula B., PLE
grass hierba, pasto capim, grama flora-fauna (generic) yewaľi jewaľi See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
maize, corn mazorca, maiz milho flora-fauna Zea mays kana kana See Language page widespread, esp. in river floodplains plant Ana Paula B., PLE
tobacco tabaco tabaco flora-fauna Nicotiana tabacum jema (dp91) jema (dp91) See Language page plant Ana Paula B., PLE
tree árbol arvore flora-fauna ata ata (=wood) See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
achiote, anatto achiote urucum flora-fauna Bixa orellana See Language page secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens shrub Ana Paula B., PLE
inga guaba, guamo, guama, shimbillo (Peru) inga flora-fauna Inga spp. See Language page Secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens. North and South America (Brazil, Peru, Bolivia, Suriname, Colombia) Ana Paula B., PLE
avocado palta, aguacate abacate flora-fauna Persea americana See Language page secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens tree Ana Paula B., PLE
bitterwood tortuga caspi, pretina (Peru for tree and tumpline); carahuasca (Peru) envira flora-fauna Duguetia sp. OR Fusaea longifolia OR Guatteria chrysopetala See Language page secondary forests, native to Brazil tree Ana Paula B., PLE
brazil nut castaña castanha do para (B. excelsa); castanha de cutia (C. edulis) flora-fauna Bertholletia excelsa [cf. Couepia edulis 'castanha do cutia'] See Language page 1) Couepia: restricted area within Brazil, Rio Purus basin and middle Solimões. 2) Bertholletia: elev: consistently about 200m; mature forests. Widely distributed from Peru, E. Colombia, Brazil to Nicaragua. tree Ana Paula B., PLE
cashew anarcado, castaña de cajú, nuez de la India, marañon, cajú, merey (Venezuela) caju flora-fauna Anacardium occidentale / giganteum See Language page secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens tree; most sources will not distinguish between occidentale and other varieties Ana Paula B., PLE
genipap jagua, majagua - Colombia, caruto, xagua - Venezuela, bigrande - Bolivia, huito, yaguayagua - Peru, ygualti - Nicaragua, maluco - Mexico genipapo, jenipapo flora-fauna Genipapa americana See Language page widespread lowland SA shrub Ana Paula B., PLE
japurá oreja de murcielago japurá flora-fauna Erisma japura See Language page large tree Ana Paula B., PLE
rubber tree (sorva) caucho, siringa, shiringa seringa, borracha flora-fauna Hevea sp. gúma gúma See Language page Widespread Amazonia tree Ana Paula B., PLE
ucuqui yugo, caimitillo del monte (Peru) ucuqui flora-fauna Pouteria ucuqui See Language page native to NW Amazonia, found primarily in Vaupes and Caqueta regions other species of Pouteria exist and have much-used edible fruit; these can be subsituted where relevant Ana Paula B., PLE
Amazon tree-grape uva de monte, uvilla (Peru), puruma, caime, caimarona (and variants; Col.) cucura flora-fauna Pourouma cecropiifolia See Language page grows wild in Western Amazon basin; cultivated in Colombia since pre-Colombian times a tree; not a true grape Ana Paula B., PLE
manioc (bitter or generic) yuca brava mandioca flora-fauna Manihot esculenta kaľ̥esi; yuku (plant) kaľ̥esi; juku (plant) See Language page not generally cultivated in western (subAndean) Amazon. Arroyo-Kalin (2010) argues for a correlation with distribution of dark earths, mostly formed after 1AD, and the modeled-incised pottery tradition. Provides more starch and is more pest-resistant than the sweet variety, but requires much processing. Arroyo-Kalin (2010) proposes that bitter type was developed from sweet through post-ceremic agricultural intensification (motivated by high starch yield Ana Paula B., PLE
manioc (sweet) yuca, caribe macaxeira flora-fauna Manihot esculenta See Language page Primary staple in western/subAndean Amazonia, less important elsewhere No processing required, but lower starch yield and pest resistance than bitter variety Ana Paula B., PLE
potato papa batata flora-fauna Solanum tuberosum batáta, élu batáta, élu See Language page secondary scrub vegetation compare entries for sweet potato Ana Paula B., PLE
potato, sweet potato camote, batata dulce, batata, cumara batata-doce flora-fauna Ipomoea batatas elu (dp91), eľu; ba'tata elu (dp91), eľu; ba'tata See Language page plant Ana Paula B., PLE
cará tuber, purple or white camote, sachapapa cará roxo, branco flora-fauna Dioscorea sp. See Language page secondary scrub vegetation; forest clearings plant Ana Paula B., PLE
tannia, yautia huitina (Peru), ñame taioba branca flora-fauna Xanthosoma spp. bilína bilína See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
bottle-gourd (vine) or calabash (tree) calabazo, calabaza; auyama (Dominican Republic and Venezuela), ayote (parts of Central America), zapallo (parts of South America), tutumo/totumo/totuma (Cresc tree), huingo (Peru for Crescentia cujete), tapara cabaça flora-fauna Crescentia cujete (round variety - tree); (Cucurbita) Lagenaria siceraria (bottle variety - vine) ku'asi (large gourd); kaľia (small gourd) ku'asi (large gourd); kaľia (small gourd) See Language page indigenous gardens plant; tree Ana Paula B., PLE
squash calabaza, calabacines, auyamas, zapallos, huingo (Peru) abóbora flora-fauna Cucurbita sp. u'wiyama 'pumpkin, squash' (Carib loan?) u'wijama 'pumpkin, squash' See Language page plant Ana Paula B., PLE
cipó vine tamishi, bejuco, yare cipó flora-fauna Heteropsis spp. See Language page secondary forest, floodplain vine Ana Paula B., PLE
fish poison, barbasco barbasco, matapez (Colombia) timbó flora-fauna Lonchocarpus spp. kúya, unája kúja, unáha See Language page secondary forests and secondary srcrub vegetation shrub/tree Ana Paula B., PLE
hallucinogenic vine, banisterium, ayahuasca ayahuasca, yage ayahuasca, caapi flora-fauna Banisteriopsis caapi See Language page semi-domesticated, native to Amazonian basin, esp. NW vine Ana Paula B., PLE
hallucinogenic snuff vilca, cebil, yopo paricá, yopo flora-fauna Anadenanthera sp. or virola See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
insect (generic) insecto insecto flora-fauna generic See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
ant (generic) hormiga formiga flora-fauna Formicidae See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
bullet ant, lesser giant hunter ant conga, hormiga yanabe (Colombia), isula (Peru), Hormiga Veinticuatro tocandira flora-fauna Paraponera clavata manéjli manéľ̥i See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
leaf-cutter ant Colombia: zampopo, hormiga arriera; Venezuela: bachaco; Peru: curuhuinse saúva flora-fauna Atta sp. ka'wihic̷u ka'wihitsu See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
honeybee abeja abelha flora-fauna Apis mellifera; Tetragonisca angustula; Trigona amazonensis maha maha See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
cockroach cucaracha barata-do-mato flora-fauna order Blattaria kumálala kumálala See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
firefly, lightning bug lampírido, luciérnaga (Peru), añañahui (Peru), cocuyo (attributed Taino origin) vagalume flora-fauna fam: Elateridae, Fengodidae, Lampyridae túke, kukúwi túke, kukúwi See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
butterfly, moth mariposa borboleta flora-fauna order Lepidoptera kahuľi kahuľi See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
moth mariposa nocturna, polilla mariposa flora-fauna order Lepidoptera See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
angleworm lombriz minhoca flora-fauna order Opisthopora kéni kajátsi kéni kahátsi See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
centipede ciempiés centopéia flora-fauna class Chilopoda See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
scorpion escorpión; alacran escorpião flora-fauna order Scorpiones c̷ec̷e tsetse See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
cicada cigarra, chicharra cigarra flora-fauna super fam. Cicadoidea tsitsárra [Sp. loan?] tsitsárra See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
flea pulga pulga flora-fauna order Siphonaptera c̷u'ida tsu'ida See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
blowfly/housefly mosca mosca flora-fauna Diptera julétsilu julétsilu See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
cricket saltón, grillo grilo flora-fauna family Gryllidae jítsi hítsi See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
edible palm-dwelling larva (palm weevil) suri, mojojoy larva, broca-do-coqueiro, aramandaiá flora-fauna Rhynchophorus sp. See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
praying mantis, stick insects mantis religiosa louva-a-deus flora-fauna order Mantodea, family Mantidae See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
mosquito mosquito, zancudo mosquito, carapana flora-fauna Anopheles sp. ma'hiti; a'niyu maʔhiti, aʔniyu See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
termites, white-ants comején (Peru), termitas cupim flora-fauna order Isoptera kamáta kamáta See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
tick garrapata carrapato flora-fauna superfam Ixodoidea tujáli tuháli See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
wasp avispa; specific type: ronzapa/ronsapa caba flora-fauna order Hymenoptera, sub: Apocrita ani ani See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
snail caracol, churo (Peru) caracol flora-fauna class Gastropoda karakólu karakólu See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
spider araña aranha flora-fauna Arachnidae, Araneae uľu uľu See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
jaguar yaguar, yaguareté, jaguar, otorongo (Peru), tigre (Peru) onca flora-fauna Panthera onca kuáijli kuáiľ̥i See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
manatee vaca marina, manatí peixe-boi flora-fauna Trichechus sp. manití (Spanish loan?) manití (Spanish loan?) See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
brown woolly monkey Mono Lanudo Común, Choro, Churucu, mono choro (Peru), mono lanudo cafe, barrigudo de Humboldt macaco barrigudo flora-fauna Lagothrix lagothricha See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
howler monkey (red-handed) mono aullador, mono coto (Peru) guariba flora-fauna Alouatta belzebul [or other Alouatta sp.] See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
tufted capuchin monkey mono negro (Peru), Machín Negro, Maicero Cachón, mono maicero macaco prego flora-fauna Cebus apella huatsĩ (dp91) huatsĩ (dp91) See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
white-fronted capuchin Machín Blanco, mono blanco, Maicero Cariblanco, mono blanco (Peru) Caiarara flora-fauna Cebus albifrons awámi awámi See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
white-fronted spider monkey Machin Blanco, Mono Araña de Vientre Amarillo, maquisapa (Peru), braceadora (Colombia) macaco aranha, coatá, quatá flora-fauna Ateles belzebuth/paniscus See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
opossum zarigüeya, rabipelado, zorro, zorrillo mucura flora-fauna family Didelphidae See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
giant otter Lobo Grande de Río, nutria gigante, lutria ariranha flora-fauna Pteronura brasiliensis néwi néwi See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
neotropical otter (small) Nutria, Lobo de Agua, lobito de rio, perro de agua (Colombia) lontra flora-fauna Lontra longicaudis wanáyali wanájali See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
collared peccary sajino, pecarí de collar, jabalf, Javelina, Saíno, Pecarí de Collar caititu, caetitu flora-fauna Pecari tajacu, Tayassu tajacu See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
white-lipped peccary Chancho de Monte, Cariblanco, Huangana queixada flora-fauna Tayassu pecari ahija (dp91) ahija (dp91) See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
porcupine puerco espín, erizo (Peru), casha cushillo (Peru) cuandu, porco-espinho flora-fauna family Erethizontidae wála wála See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
cotamundi, coatimundi Coatí, Tejón, Achuni, zorro guache quati flora-fauna genus Nasua kajíjli kahíľ̥i See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
agouti (black agouti, black-rumped agouti) Guatusa Negra, Añuje, Agutí (black-rumped), picure, jochi colorado cutia flora-fauna Dasyprocta spp. wayútu wajútu See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
capybara Capibara, Carpincho, Ronsoco capivara flora-fauna Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
green acouchi Guatín, Punchana, curi, picurito rabudo, picurito rabilargo cutiara flora-fauna Myoprocta pratti See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
paca (lowland) Guanta, Paca, Majaz, majás (Peru), labba (Guyana) paca flora-fauna Cuniculus paca (Agouti paca is sometimes used as well although cuniculus is the correct term.) páka (loan) páka (loan) See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
mouse, rat ratón camundongo, rata flora-fauna Mus musculus a'ľamuľu a'ľamuľu See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
squirrel ardilla, danta (Ven) serelepe, quatipuru, esquilo flora-fauna family Sciuridae matéti matéti See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
tapir sachavaca, danta anta flora-fauna Tapirus terrestris kéma (dp91) kéma (dp91) See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
deer venado veado, cariacu flora-fauna family Cervidae, esp. Odocoileus virginianus ma'tahiyu ma'tahiju See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
horse caballo cavalho flora-fauna Equus caballus ka'wayu kaʔwaju See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE


Cultural Vocabulary (97)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Word Structure Word Structure Notes General Notes Source Created By
basket (general) canasta, canasto, cesta cesto culture-material ka'ha-miaľ̥i ka'ha-miaľ̥i See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
basket, small canasta, canasto, cesta cesto pequeno, tampado culture-material See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
bead abalorio, mostacilla, cuenta, gota, puca; necklace=collar miçanga culture-material See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
bed cama cama culture-material kama (Spanish loan) kama (Spanish loan) See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
hammock hamaca, chinchorro rede culture-material amáija amáiha See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
bench, seat banco, silla, asiento banco culture-material bánku (loan) bánku (loan) See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
canoe canoa canoa transport ku'aľ̥a ku'aľ̥a See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
drum (large signal) tambor, manguaré, maguaré (Colombia) tambor culture Used to be used by Tukanoan peoples (and others?), sound carried for long distances See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
drum tambor tambor culture-mythology tam'buru (Spanish loan) tam'buru (Spanish loan) See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
shaman, healer chamán, brujo xaman, pajé, feiticeiro culture-mythology ma'riri maʔriri In RN region, there is typically one person per village (if that) who is a full-fledged 'shaman'. He is very much a specialist and has considerable power to cure, as well as power to curse. He is respected and feared. Shamans are thought to turn themselv See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
healer curandero benzador, curandeiro, kumu (Tukano) culture-mythology jinájatali hináhatali Refers to a lower-level healer; in RN region, most older men in a village have this capacity, and command a repertoire of healing spells. Power is primarily for good, whereas the true shaman is capable of malignant acts as well. See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
broom escoba vassoura culture-material ka'ha-miaľ̥i ka'ha-miaľ̥i See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
clothing ropa roupa culture-mythology nawa nawa See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
fence, palisade cerco cerca other ku'rara ~ ku'ľaľa ku'rara ~ ku'ľaľa may be related to defense/warfare? See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
firewood leña lenha other ka(ɬi) (dp91), kaľ̥i ka(ɬi) (dp91), kaľ̥i See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
Curupira (spirit type) Curupira, Madremonte Curupira culture-mythology malignant forest spirit, covered with long hair, feet turned backward; in Upper Rio Negro region See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
ghost (of dead person)/evil spirit espíritu malo, espíritu maligno, fantasma, demonio espirito culture-mythology a'meľ̥ami 'soul, espirit', ka'c̷imehe a'meľ̥ami 'soul, espirit', ka'tsimehe See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
deity/powerful spirit/culture figure dios(es), deidad divinidade, figura mítica culture-mythology Napiruľi Napiruľi In RN region, frequently translates as 'Bone-Son', 'One on the bone', etc. See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
flute flauta, quena (Peru) flauta culture-mythology ya'huľuľu ja'huľuľu multiple types? japurutu, deer-bone, etc. See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
panpipe carrizo, zampoñas, flautas de pan, rondadora caniço, flauta de pã culture-mythology See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
hollow log/trough for beer-making canoa para chicha cocho de caxiri narcotics See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
ritual song cycle (kapiwaya) kapiwaya capiwaya culture-mythology See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
knife cuchillo faca culture-material ku'c̷iyu (Spanish loan) ku'tsiju (Spanish loan) See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
machete machete facão culture-material See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
axe/stone axe hacha (de piedra) machado (de pedra) subsistence tool ¢uwa tsuwa especially for clearing fields See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
arrow flecha flecha subsistence tool ʃumetsa, c̷awita ʃumetsa, tsawita hunting, warfare See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
spear lanza lança subsistence tool lansa (Spanish loan) lansa (Spanish loan) See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
bow arco arco subsistence tool [ta]po; c̷a'wituľeľ̥i [ta]po; ts̷aʔwituľeľ̥i arco See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
paddle/oar remo remo transport néju néhu See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
plate plato prato culture-material ha'ľatu ha'ľatu (Spanish loan) See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
pot olla, pote panela, vasilha subsistence tool aniuľ̥i aniuľ̥i See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
basin/bowl tazón, plato hondo, taza tijela culture-material See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
griddle for cooking flatbread tiesto (Colombia), budare (Venezuela), tortera (Peru) forno para beiju subsistence tool agriculture? See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
rattle matraca, maraca marico, chocalho culture-mythology See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
resin resina, brea, copal resina, brea, breu subsistence tool mani mani See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
wax cera cera other maha-c̷ia 'bee-excrement' maha-tsia 'bee-excrement' See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
honey miel mel food íja maha (íja 'juice'+ maha 'bee') íja máha (íja 'juice'+ máha 'bee') only gathered in wild throughout Amazonia? See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
stone for lighting fires piedra para hacer fuego pedra para acender fogo culture-material See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
rope/string mecate, cuerda, soga corda culture c̷ima-naha ¢ima-naha See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
tattoo tatuaje, tatu tatuagem culture-mythology See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
thatch/roof crisneja palha, caraná culture-material hu'ne¢i (thatch roof) huʔnetsi (thatch roof) See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
yurupari, jurupari (or any flutes forbidden to women) yurupari jurupari culture-mythology a ritual complex in various parts of Amazonia involving sacred flutes/trumpets, forbidden to women. See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
fetish, charm fetiche, encanto, filtro de amor, pusanga feitiço, puçanga culture-mythology See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
feather headdress plumaje, corona de plumas enfeite/capacete de penas culture-mythology See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
paint body, body paint pintura corporal pintura corporal culture-mythology See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
afterworld, land of dead, Heaven tierra do los muertos terra dos mortos culture-mythology See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
school escuela escola acculturation kanainta-kade maľ̥ikuyu 'place where children learn' kanainta-kade maľ̥ikuju 'place where children learn' See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
bottle botella garrafa acculturation See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
paper papel papel acculturation ha'hela (Sp loan) haʔhela (Sp loan) See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
dream sueño, soñar sonho, sonhar culture-mythology tahuni tahuni See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
chicken gallina galinha acculturation ku'ame kuʔame See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
grave tumba, sepultura, sepulcro sepultura, sepulcro, cova culture-mythology hihita-kade 'bury-place' hihita-kade 'bury-place' See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
pipe for tobacco pipa cachimbo other See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
sugarcane/sugar azúcar, caña de azúcar açucar (de cana) acculturation min'deľe min'deľe See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
skirt falda, saya, fustan, pollera saia culture-material nawa nawa See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
shoes zapatos sapatos dress c̷a'hatu (Sp loan) tsaʔhatu (Sp loan) See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
policeman polícia policía acculturation See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
soldier soldado soldado acculturation c̷u'rudawa (Sp loan) tsuʔrudawa (Sp loan) See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
cat gato gato acculturation gatu (Sp loan) gatu (Sp loan) See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
gun arma, escopeta espingarda, fusil acculturation mu'kawa mu'kawa See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
hat sombero chapéu dress c̷a'hewa tsaʔhewa (Pt/Sp loan) See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
chief/leader jefe, cacique chefe culture-mythology minaľi minaľi See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
club garrote, cachiporra clava, porrete subsistence tool See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
loincloth taparrabos, guayuco, pampanilla tanga, tapa-sexo dress See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
fireplace hogar lareira other See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
fishing line cordel/cuerda p/ pescar, sedal, tanze linha de pesca subsistence tool See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
salt sal sal food yu'kira juʔkira See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
song (generic) canción, canto canção culture-mythology See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
blowgun cerbatana, pucuna (Peru) zarabatana subsistence tool watája watáha currently limited to certain groups (favoring h-g orientation, e.g. Nadahup) within RN region See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
dart (blowgun) dardo, birote (Peru), bala (Peru) dardo, seta subsistence tool hunting and warfare See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
fan abanico abanador, abano subsistence tool mahu'ita mahu'ita esp. for fanning a cooking fire See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
fish (with line) anzuelear, pescar con linea pescar (com linha) food See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
fish (with fish-poison) pescar con barbasco, barbasquear pescar com timbó; tinguijar food See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
hunt cazar caçar food winahata winahata See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
game animal caza, animal de caza caça, animal de caça food niľ̥i 'bird, animal' niľ̥i 'bird, animal' Interesting correlation to 'fish' in Tukanoan languages See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
gourd (dipper/bowl) cucharón, pate (Peru), totomo, totuma, totumo cuia subsistence tool ku'asi (large gourd); kaľia (small gourd) kuʔasi (large gourd); kaľia (small gourd) See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
grater rallador, rallo ralador, ralo subsistence tool esp. for grating manioc, but can be used for other things as well See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
grid of sticks for smoking meat or placing objects (shelf) barbacoa jirau subsistence tool See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
mortar mortero pilão subsistence tool wi'yaľ̥i wi'jaľ̥i See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
pestle pilón, mano de mortero, mazo, moledor mão de pilão subsistence tool wi'yaľ̥i wi'jaľ̥i See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
fermented drink masato, chicha caxiri, chicha culture ya'ľaki ya'ľaki prioritizes manioc beer where distinction is made See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
flour/meal from manioc fariña, mañoco (Venezuela); harina farinha food ľ̥i'weľ̥i ľ̥i'weľ̥i agriculture See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
flat bread, cassava bread pan de yuca, casabe/cazabe beiju food a'husi aʔhusi usually manioc; agriculture, but also can be made from certain wild seeds/fruits See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
starch (tapioca, other) almidón goma de tapioca food See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
tapioca drink, mingau cahuana, caguana mingau food agriculture See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
tipiti (manioc squeezer) tipiti, matafrio, sebucán, exprimador, prensa para yuca tipiti food word of Tupi origin; agriculture: specifically for squeezing poison out of manioc See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
tripod for washing manioc trípode tripé subsistence tool agriculture See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
venom for darts, poison veneno curare subsistence tool mawáuli mawáuli hunting, currently is falling out of use in Vaupés region, associated primarily with h-g groups (but this may be recent?) See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
woven strainer/sieve colador tejido, cedazo (Peru), cernedor (Peru) peneira, cumatá subsistence tool c̷u'ayuta tsuʔajuta agriculture? commonly used for sifting dry manioc flour See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
bait for fishing cebo, carnada para pescar, empate (Peru) isca subsistence tool imanaha imanaha can refer to worms; more generic See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
fishtrap trampa de peces, trampa matapi, cacuri subsistence tool ka'kuľi ka'kuľi See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
bottom grinding stone manufacture if different word from top grinding stone See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
digging stick subsistence tool See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
top grinding stone metate, mano; piedra de moler metate, mano manufacture use word for top grinding stone if different from bottom stone See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
boomerang/throwing stick (generic) subsistence tool See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
spearthrower subsistence tool lansa (Sp loan) lansa (Sp loan) See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
house other hana; huwi hana; huwi See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE


Grammatical Data (226)
Category Grammatical Feature Grammatical Feature: Notes Feature Status Phonemicized Form Orthographic Form Grammatical Notes Source Created By Etymology Notes General Notes Phylogenetic Code
Phonology - Segmental Pre-/post-nasalized stops Analysis posits that the stop is the most relevant underlying phoneme. Comment in notes on whether the nasal contour is understood as a phonetic (allophonic) effect, or is phonologically contrastive. no Mosonyi (1987), p. 26 Ana Paula Brandão
Phonology - Segmental Glottalized/ejective consonants Phonemic contrast [NOT counting glottal stop/fricative] no Mosonyi (1987), p. 26 Ana Paula Brandão
Phonology - Segmental Palatalized stops Phonemic contrast no Mosonyi (1987), p. 26 Ana Paula Brandão
Phonology - Segmental Phonemic vowel length Does the language have long and short vowels? no Mosonyi (1987), p. 26 Ana Paula Brandão
Phonology - Segmental Phonemic glottalization/laryngealization of vowels no Mosonyi (1987), p. 26 Ana Paula Brandão
Phonology - Segmental Complex onsets Onset consists of more than one consonant phoneme no Mosonyi (1987) Ana Paula Brandão
Phonology - Segmental No codas *(C)VC [no also equals highly constrained] yes Only /n/ can be a coda in Yavitero words. Mosonyi (1987): p. 31 Aimee Lawrence
Phonology - Segmental Word-final coda required Do all syllables end in a consonant? no Mosonyi (1987) Ana Paula Brandão
Phonology - Suprasegmental Contrastive tones Note how many contrastive tones no Mosonyi notes that the pitch accent of Baniwa is reduced to an "accent of intensity." Mosonyi, 1987: p. 25-26 Aimee Lawrence
Phonology - Suprasegmental Contrastive stress Does stress occur on different syllables with meaning difference? yes The intensity accent has "phonemic power. Mosonyi, 1987: p. 30 Aimee Lawrence
Phonology - Suprasegmental Nasalization property of morpheme or syllable In contrast to nasalization as a property of segments no Mosonyi (1987): p. 31 Ana Paula Brandão, Aimee Lawrence
Phonology - Suprasegmental Nasal spreading across some morpheme boundaries Do some affixes or other morphemes take the nasal/oral properties of the root they attach to? no Mosonyi (1987): p. 31 Ana Paula Brandão, Aimee Lawrence
Phonology - Suprasegmental Vowel harmony no info Aimee Lawrence
Morphology - General Verbal fusion (2+ categories marked by portmanteau morphemes on verb) Verb combines two or more categories (tense, aspect, mood, person, number, etc.) in portmanteau morphemes{ [ignore proclitics unless they are fused with values other than person/number] no Mosonyi, 1987: p. 59-69 Aimee Lawrence
Morphology - General Inflection manifested by replacement of segmental or suprasegmental phonemes Stem change, tone no Mosonyi, 1987: p. 59-69 Aimee Lawrence
Morphology - General Verbal synthesis (1+ inflectional categories marked by verbal affixes) Morphological complexity in verbs - multiple inflectional affixes in a single verb word yes Mosonyi, 1987: p. 59-69 Aimee Lawrence
Morphology - General Prefixing/suffixing inflectional morph: strongly prefixing There are many more prefixes than suffixes no Mosonyi, 1987: p. 59-69 Aimee Lawrence
Morphology - General Prefixing/suffixing inflectional morph: strongly suffixing There are many more suffixes than prefixes yes Mosonyi, 1987: p. 59-69 Aimee Lawrence
Morphology - General Prefixing/suffixing inflectional morph: roughly equal or one weakly preferred The numbers of suffixes and prefixes are not notably different no Mosonyi, 1987: p. 59-69 Aimee Lawrence
Morphology - General Reduplication: full The full morpheme is reduplicated no info Aimee Lawrence
Morphology - General Reduplication: partial Only part of the morpheme is reduplicated no info Aimee Lawrence
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Productive NN compounding Noun compounds created from two noun phrases are common and systematically produced no Mosonyi notes that there are compounds, but it is not very productive and the process of productive compounding is in the beginning stages of development. Mosonyi, 1987: p. 45-46 Ana Paula Brandão, Aimee Lawrnece
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Productive VV serialization (without compounding) Verb roots can be combined in a single predicate without markers of subordination (distinct from subordinating construction) or distinct inflection yes Possible to have a number of verbs strung together without subordination (although this is covered in a section on subordination). All verbs receive person-marking. Mosonyi, 1987: p. 93 Aimee Lawrence
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Productive VV compounding Serial verb constructions involve chaining of roots together in one morphophonological word no Possible to chain verbs, but they are separate words. Mosonyi, 1987: p. 93 Aimee Lawrence
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Verb-adjunct (aka light verb) constructions There is a set of semantically weak verbs used in complex verbal constructions, e.g. 'take a nap' no info Aimee Lawrence
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Auxiliary verb(s) There are verbs that accompany main verbs of clauses and take grammatical marking not expressed by main verbs yes Some aspectual information is conveyed using auxiliary verbs. Both auxiliary and main verbs have person-referencing prefixes in constructions with auxiliary verbs. Mosonyi, 1987: p. 64-65 Aimee Lawrence
Morphology - Incorporation Incorporation of nouns into verbs is a productive intransitivizing process Verb contains nominal segment no No discussion of incorporation in chapter on verbs. Mosonyi, 1987: p. 59-69 Aimee Lawrence
Morphology - Incorporation Productive incorporation of other elements (adjectives, locatives, etc.) into verbs Like noun incorporation, but incorporated elements are not nouns no No discussion of incorporation in chapter on verbs. Mosonyi, 1987: p. 59-69 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Noun classes/genders Nouns are organized into sets with distinct morphological treatment; usually affects all nouns and involves agreement within the NP yes There is a sex-based gender distinction, found in pronouns, demonstratives, and personal-reference affixes. Mosonyi, 1987: p. 36 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Number of noun classes/genders Note the (approximate) total number of noun classes/genders 3 Masculine, feminine, and plural (both genders). Mosonyi, 1987: p. 49 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Noun classifiers (distinct from noun classes/genders) Nouns are organized into sets, but only a limited set of nouns may be implicated, with no or limited agreement marking. If only numeral classifiers exist, indicate yes but explain. no No mention of classifiers in chapter on nouns. Mosonyi, 1987: p. 36-48 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Sex is a relevant category in noun class(ification) system for animates Masculine, feminine, neuter yes Mosonyi, 1987: p. 36 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Sex is a relevant category in noun class(ification) system for inanimates no The masculine gender is default, while feminine gender is assigned only to feminine animates. Mosonyi, 1987: p. 36, 49 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Animacy (w/o reference to sex) is a relevant category in the noun class(ification) system Animate/inanimate, human/non-human yes The masculine gender is default, while feminine gender is assigned only to feminine animates. Mosonyi, 1987: p. 49 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Sex/gender distinction only in 3rd person pronouns add in notes section whether gender is present in other PNs or not in any PNs; consider with reference to pronouns and person marking only yes Mosonyi, 1987: p. 41 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Shape is a relevant category in the noun class(ification) system for animates no No classifiers identified. Mosonyi, 1987: p. 36-38 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Shape is a relevant category in the noun class(ification) system for inanimates no No classifiers identified. Mosonyi, 1987: p. 36-48 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification "Repeater" classifiers Where no distinct classifier exists, a copy of the noun itself may function in the morphosyntactic classifier "slot" no There do not seem to be any classifiers. Mosonyi, 1987 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Numeral classifiers (specific to numerals) Special classifier forms that occur only with numerals no No classifiers mentioned in sections on nouns or numerals. Mosonyi, 1987: p. 36-48, 78 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Classifiers used as derivational suffixes to derive nouns Verb + classifier = 'thing for doing V, thing that does V, etc.' no Not listed under derivational processes. Mosonyi, 1987: p. 46-48 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Categories - Number Singular number may be marked on the noun Often occurs in a small subset of nouns if a single entity is referred to, e.g. insects that normally occur in groups no Mosonyi, 1987: p. 36 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Categories - Number Plural affix on noun yes -nawi, -he -nawi, -je Used emphatically, the singular form can be used with either a singular or plural meaning. -nawi is the normal plural marker, -je is used on a small set of nouns (mostly words for humans, but also íkule 'thing, belonging.') Mosonyi, 1987: p. 36 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Categories - Number Plural marked by stem change or tone on noun no Mosonyi, 1987: p. 36 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Categories - Number Plural marked by reduplication of noun no Mosonyi, 1987: p. 36 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Categories - Number Plural word/clitic no Mosonyi, 1987: p. 36 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Categories - Number Plural marked on human or animate nouns only no Examples of plural marking on janíjli 'house,' and síja 'stone.' Mosonyi, 1987: p. 36 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Categories - Number Pronominal plural: stem + nominal plural affix Pronouns use a nominal plural affix not specific to pronouns no 1st and 2nd pronominal plurals are completely suppletive. The third-person plural uses the third-person singular form plus another morpheme -ni, but this isn't the same plural marker used elsewhere. Mosonyi, 1987: p. 41 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Categories - Number Unique associative plural marker e.g. 'John and his associates', 'John and them' no Mosonyi, 1987: p. 36 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Definite or specific articles Definite = particular referent known to both speaker and addressee; specific = particular referent known to speaker only no A class of articles is 'inexistent' in Yavitero. Mosonyi, 1987: p. 50 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Marker of definiteness distinct from demonstratives Focus on articles/markers whose primary function is to mark definiteness no Mosonyi, 1987: p. 50 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Indefinite or non-specific article or marker no No articles. Mosonyi, 1987: p. 50, 78-79 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Inclusive/exclusive: in free pronominals Inclusive =us + you, exclusive = us but not you no Mosonyi, 1987: p. 48 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Inclusive/exclusive: in verbal inflection (bound) no Mosonyi, 1987: 60-62 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Distance contrasts in demonstratives (number) Note the number of distances in the demonstrative system 3 Mosonyi, 1987: p. 49 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Other contrasts in demonstratives (visibility, elevation, etc.) yes Visbility: The farthest degree of distance distinguishes between items that are visible and those that are not visible. Mosonyi, 1987: p. 49 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Gender in 3sg pronouns yes Mosonyi, 1987: p. 41, 48 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Gender in 3pl pronouns no Mosonyi, 1987: p. 41, 48 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Gender in 1st and/or 2nd person pronouns no Mosonyi, 1987: p. 41, 48 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Formal/informal distinction in pronouns Polite pronominal variants or differential avoidance of pronouns no Mosonyi, 1987: p. 41, 48 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Reflexive pronouns e.g. English 'himself', Spanish 'se'; distinct form(s) from basic (non-reflexive) pronominals; distinct from reflexive verbal affix no Mosonyi identifies "reflexive" pronouns on page 41, but these seem to be emphatic possessive prefixes ('his own.') Mosonyi, 1987: p. 68-69 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Adpositions mark core NPs Prepositions or postpositions mark subjects, objects, beneficiaries/recipients yes jé (beneficiaries, recipients) yé (beneficiaries, recipients) Mosonyi, 1987: p. 54 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: number of cases Note the number of grammatical relations that may be morphologically marked on the noun 0 All relations seem to use prepositions, although these prepositions are prefixed with personal-reference markers. Mosonyi, 1987: p. 53 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: only non-core arguments morphologically marked Subjects, objects, beneficiaries/recipients NOT marked, but other grammatical relations are n/a All grammatical relations indicated with prepositions. Mosonyi, 1987: 54 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: symmetrical All NPs marked if in appropriate syntactic relation; no distinction in marking based on semantics (type of entity) no No case marking. Mosonyi, 1987: 52-55 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: asymmetrical Semantically defined subset of NPs marked for case, e.g. animates no Mosonyi, 1987: 52-55 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: suffix or postpositional clitic no Mosonyi, 1987: p. 52-53 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: prefix or prepositional clitic no Prepositions. Prepositions also take a cross-referencing prefix that agrees with the object of the preposition. Mosonyi, 1987: p. 52-53 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: infix or inpositional clitic no Mosonyi, 1987: p. 52-53 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: stem change no Mosonyi, 1987: p. 52-53 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: tone no Mosonyi, 1987: p. 52-53 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: comitative = instrumental Same marking for 'with a person' and 'with an instrument' no éhi, íma (comitative), íjunaha (instrumental) éji, íma (comitative), íyunaja (instrumental) Mosonyi, 1987: p. 53 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Categories - Numerals Base-2 At least some part of the system involves base-2 no Yavitero only has native words up to two, it uses Spanish loans above two. Mosonyi, 1987: p. 78 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Categories - Numerals Base-5 At least some part of the system involves base-5 no Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Categories - Numerals Base-10 At least some part of the system involves base-10 no Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Categories - Numerals Other base (specify) 4, 20, etc. no Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Categories - Numerals Etymological transparency in any numerals under 5 e.g. two = 'eye-quantity' no Mosonyi, 1987: p. 78 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Categories - Numerals Numerals do not go above 5 'Many' or some other non-exact term used yes Mosonyi, 1987: p. 78 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Categories - Numerals Numerals do not go above 10 'Many' or some other non-exact term used yes Mosonyi, 1987: p. 78 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Categories - Other nominal Tense or aspect inflection on non-verbal predicates i.e. nominal or adjectival yes To express past or future time, the same indicators are used as in the verbal conjugation. Mosonyi, 1987: p. 87-88 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Categories - Other nominal Person inflection on non-verbal predicates i.e. nominal or adjectival yes On adjectives, but not on nouns. Nouns indicate person with full NPs or free pronominals. Mosonyi, 1987: p. 87-88 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Syntax - Possession Pronominal possessive affixes: prefix on N alienable/inalienable? yes Mosonyi, 1987: p. 38 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Syntax - Possession Pronominal possessive affixes: suffix on N alienable/inalienable? no Mosonyi, 1987: p. 38 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Syntax - Possession Head/dependent marking in possessive NP: dependent e.g. 'the boy-'s dog' no Mosonyi, 1987: p. 38 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Syntax - Possession Head/dependent marking in possessive NP: head e.g. 'the boy his-dog' yes The head gets a marker to agree with the dependent. In the case of alienable nouns, it also gets a marker showing that it's possessed. Mosonyi, 1987: p. 38 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Syntax - Possession Possessive classifiers There are special classifiers that occur with possessed entities no Mosonyi, 1987: p. 38 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Morphological marking of inalienable possession Where inalienable possession differs from alienable, the former takes a morphological marker (may include an associated free particle/pronoun) no Mosonyi, 1987: p. 38 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Morphological marking of alienable possession Where inalienable possession differs from alienable, the latter takes a morphological marker (may include an associated free particle/pronoun) yes -ne, -te, -ɮe -ne, -te, -le Mosonyi, 1987: p. 39 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Default marker for inalienably possessed nouns if unpossessed An inalienable noun that is in an unpossessed state must have a derivational affix or associated form yes -hli -jli Uncommon in everyday speech. Mosonyi, 1987: p. 38 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Inalienable possession of kin terms 'my-father' but *father yes Mosonyi, 1987: p. 36 Ana Paula Brandão, Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Inalienable possession of body parts (human/animal) 'my-leg' but *leg yes Mosonyi, 1987: p. 36 Ana Paula Brandão, Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Generic human nouns are obligatorily bound/possessed Human nouns must co-occur with another noun (e.g. Hup-man, NonIndian-woman, but *man) no Mosonyi, 1987: p. 36 Ana Paula Brandão, Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Syntax - Adjectives Underived adjectives There are underived adjectives which do not have counterparts in other word classes yes Mosonyi suggests a class of adjectives distinction from verbs, on the basis that adjectives take cross-referencing suffixes, while verbs take both suffixes (O) and prefixes (S, A). This may be better described as an active-inactive alignment system. Howev Mosonyi, 1987: p 55-56 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Syntax - Adjectives Gender inflection on adjectives within the NP There is gender agreement/concord (animate/inanimate or masc/fem, etc.) within the NP, e.g. la casa blanca, el perro blanco yes In the third person, 'adjectives' take separate suffixes if they are describing a male or female referent. Mosonyi, 1987: p. 56 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Syntax - Derivation Productive nominalizing morphology: action/state (arrive/arrival) There is a morpheme which derives an event from a verb no Mosonyi, 1987: p. 46-48 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Syntax - Derivation Productive nominalizing morphology: agentive (sing/singer) There is a morpheme which derives an agent or subject from a verb yes -nahli -najli Mosonyi, 1987: p. 47 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Syntax - Derivation Productive nominalizing morphology: object (sing/song) There is a morpheme which derives a patient or object from a verb yes -si, -hitsi -si, -jitsi as in tésiasi 'vomit' from tésia 'vomitar' Mosonyi, 1987: p. 47 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Syntax - Derivation Productive verbalizing morphology There is a morpheme which derives a verb from a noun or adjective no No mention of a verbalizer under verbs or nouns. Mosonyi, 1987: p. 45-47, 69-70 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Syntax - Other NP coordination and comitative phrases marked differently 'John and Mary went to market' is marked differently from 'John went to market with Mary' no info Aimee Lawrence
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Dedicated past marker(s) Past tense is regularly morphologically marked on the verb or elsewhere no Mosonyi, 1987: p. 63-64 Ana Paula Brandão, Aimee Lawrence
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Multiple past tenses, distinguishing distance from time of reference e.g. distant vs. recent past no Mosonyi, 1987: p. 63-64 Ana Paula Brandão, Aimee Lawrence
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Multiple future tenses, distinguishing distance from time of reference e.g. imminent vs. distant future no No regular future tense Mosonyi, 1987: p. 63-64 Aimee Lawrence
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Dedicated future or non-past marker(s) no No regular past/non-future tense. Mosonyi, 1987: p. 63-64 Ana Paula Brandão, Aimee Lawrence
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Tense-aspect affixes: prefix no Mosonyi, 1987: p. 65 Aimee Lawrence
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Tense-aspect affixes: suffix yes Some aspectual information is also conveyed using auxiliary verbs. Mosonyi, 1987: p. 65 Aimee Lawrence
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Tense-aspect affixes: tone or ablaut no Mosonyi, 1987: p. 65 Aimee Lawrence
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Tense-aspect suppletion no Mosonyi, 1987: p. 65 Aimee Lawrence
Verbal Categories - Mood Dedicated imperative morpheme or verb form There is a special morpheme (or morphemes, or a bare verb root where inflection is normally expected) used to signal imperative (command) mood no Mosonyi, 1987: p. 64 Ana Paula Brandão, Aimee Lawrence
Verbal Categories - Mood Polite imperative morpheme There is a distinct morpheme for polite imperative constructions (specify if it has other functions in the language) no Mosonyi, 1987: p. 64 Aimee Lawrence
Verbal Categories - Mood Difference between negation in imperative (prohibitive) and declarative clauses There are different strategies for marking negation in imperative and declarative clauses yes hinta -na (prohibitive), háta (negative) jinta -na (prohibitive), játa (negative) Mosonyi, 1987: p. 65 Ana Paula Brandão, Aimee Lawrence
Verbal Categories - Mood Dedicated hortative morpheme or verb form (1pl or 3rd person imperative) as opposed to imperative; the person in control of desired state of affairs is not the addressee; ex: 'Let's sing' / 'Let him sing' no Imperatives in general do not make use of special morphology, so a hortative meaning is expressed using the relevant person-marking. Mosonyi, 1987: p. 64 Aimee Lawrence
Verbal Categories - Mood Situational possibility: affix on verb Inflectional marking of capacity to do something no Mosonyi, 1987: p. 66 Aimee Lawrence
Verbal Categories - Mood Situational possibility: verbal construction yes yé (yéna) yé (yéna) Described as a "potestativo," this auxiliary verb is also used in "obligative" constructions. Mosonyi, 1987: p. 66 Aimee Lawrence
Verbal Categories - Mood Situational possibility: other marking no Mosonyi, 1987: p. 66 Aimee Lawrence
Verbal Categories - Mood Epistemic possibility: affix on verb Modal expressing hypothesis yes -na -na Mosonyi, 1987: p. 68 Aimee Lawrence
Verbal Categories - Mood Epistemic possibility: verbal construction no Mosonyi, 1987: p. 68 Aimee Lawrence
Verbal Categories - Mood Epistemic possibility: other marking yes Several particles can indicate doubt or 'maybe.' Mosonyi, 1987: p. 68 Aimee Lawrence
Verbal Categories - Mood Marking of expected/unexpected action or result There is inflectional marking of expected/unexpected no Mosonyi, 1987: p. 66-69 Aimee Lawrence
Verbal Categories - Mood Verbal frustrative Modal expressing frustration ("in vain") no Mosonyi, 1987: p. 66-69 Aimee Lawrence
Verbal Categories - Mood Verbal habitual Modal expressing habituality no Mosonyi, 1987: p. 66-69 Aimee Lawrence
Verbal Categories - Mood Apprehensive construction There is a single morpheme or verb form to mean '(be careful lest) X happens' no Mosonyi, 1987: p. 66-69 Aimee Lawrence
Verbal Categories - Mood Reality status marking on verbs There are dedicated morpheme(s) for realis/irrealis 'actualized/unactualized events' no There are morphemes indicating "conditional," "desiderative," etc., but no realis/irrealis distinction. Mosonyi, 1987: p. 66-69 Aimee Lawrence
Verbal Categories - Mood Affect markers (positive/negative) Note whether these inflectional markers are positive or negative no Mosonyi, 1987: p. 63-69 Aimee Lawrence
Verbal Categories - Directionals Directional elements affixed to the verb There are grammaticalized elements indicating movement away, toward, there and back, etc. no Mosonyi, 1987: p. 63-69 Aimee Lawrence
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized visual Indicates information has been witnessed visually - indicate only if an overt marker no Mosonyi, 1987: p. 63-69 Aimee Lawrence
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized nonvisual Indicates information has been sensed firsthand but not visually (usually heard; also smelled, tasted, felt) no Mosonyi, 1987: p. 63-69 Aimee Lawrence
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized inferential Indicates information has not been experienced firsthand, but inferred from some kind of evidence - indicate only if an overt marker. no Mosonyi, 1987: p. 63-69 Aimee Lawrence
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized reportive Indicates speaker is not responsible for veracity of statement, merely reporting; 'allegedly' no Mosonyi, 1987: p. 63-69 Aimee Lawrence
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized quotative Indicate presence of adjacent representation of repeated discourse no Mosonyi, 1987: p. 63-69 Aimee Lawrence
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Other evidential Any other evidential values not represented above no Mosonyi, 1987: p. 63-69 Aimee Lawrence
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Evidentiality: verb affix or clitic n/a No evidentials Mosonyi, 1987: p. 63-69 Aimee Lawrence
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Evidentiality: part of tense system Includes portmanteau morphs n/a Mosonyi, 1987: p. 63-69 Aimee Lawrence
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Evidentiality: separate particle n/a Mosonyi, 1987: p. 63-69 Aimee Lawrence
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Evidentiality: modal morpheme n/a Mosonyi, 1987: p. 63-69 Aimee Lawrence
Verbal Categories - Verbal number Verbal number suppletion n/a Mosonyi, 1987: p. 63-69 Aimee Lawrence
Verbal Categories - Other Social interaction markers Note the type of interaction n/a Mosonyi, 1987: p. 63-69 Aimee Lawrence
Word Order No fixed basic constituent order no Mosonyi, 1987: p. 62 Aimee Lawrence
Word Order VS in intransitive clauses Verb precedes subject yes When the subject of the verb is a noun, rather than a pronoun, the verb normally precedes the subject. Mosonyi, 1987: p. 62 Aimee Lawrence
Word Order VS in transitive clauses yes The verb must be at the beginning and either of the orders are accepted VOS or VSO Mosonyi, 1987: p. 67, 90 Ana Paula Brandão, Aimee Lawrence
Word Order VO in transitive clauses Verb precedes object yes The verb must be at the beginning and either of the orders are accepted VOS or VSO Mosonyi, 1987: p. 90 Ana Paula Brandão, Aimee Lawrence
Word Order OS in transitive clauses Object precedes subject yes This is the preferred interpretation, but also possible to use VSO order or interpret a sentence as VSO. Mosonyi, 1987: p. 90 Aimee Lawrence
Word Order Preposition-Noun yes Prepositions. Prepositions also take a cross-referencing prefix that agrees with the object of the preposition. Mosonyi, 1987: p. 52-53 Aimee Lawrence
Word Order Noun-Postposition or case suffix no Mosonyi, 1987: p. 53 Aimee Lawrence
Word Order Gen-Noun Possessive phrase composed of a free possessor and its possessum has possessor first (e.g. John's book) no All examples of possessive noun phrases show a noun-gen pattern. Mosonyi, 1987: p. 37 Aimee Lawrence
Word Order Noun-Gen Possessive phrase composed of a free possessor and its possessum has possessum first (e.g. 'book of John') yes All examples of possessive noun phrases show a noun-gen pattern. Mosonyi, 1987: p. 37 Aimee Lawrence
Word Order Adj-Noun Adjective precedes the noun no Mosonyi, 1987: p. 58 Aimee Lawrence
Word Order Noun-Adj Adjective follows the noun yes The order can be reversed, but noun-adj is the most frequent and normal. Mosonyi, 1987: p. 58 Aimee Lawrence
Word Order Dem-Noun yes Examples are all Dem-Noun, although this doesn’t seem to be made explicit. Mosonyi, 1987: p. 50 Aimee Lawrence
Word Order Noun-Dem no Mosonyi, 1987: p. 50 Aimee Lawrence
Word Order Num-Noun yes In the examples, all are Num-Noun Mosonyi, 1987: p. 78 Aimee Lawrence
Word Order Noun-Num no Mosonyi, 1987: p. 78 Aimee Lawrence
Word Order Noun-Rel Relative clause follows noun that it modifies yes Mosonyi, 1987: p. 94 Ana Paula Brandão, Aimee Lawrence
Word Order Rel-Noun Relative clause precedes noun that it modifies no Mosonyi, 1987: p. 94 Ana Paula Brandão, Aimee Lawrence
Word Order Re<Noun>l (internally headed relative) e.g. 'the dog cat chased-NMZR got away' ('the cat that the dog chased got away') no Mosonyi, 1987: p. 94 Ana Paula Brandão, Aimee Lawrence
Word Order Relative clause is correlative or adjoined e.g. 'what is running, the dog chased that cat' no Mosonyi, 1987: p. 94 Aimee Lawrence
Word Order Question word is clause initial 'what', 'who', etc. come first in interrogative clause yes All examples on page 79 have the question word/question phrase in initial position. Mosonyi, 1987: p. 79 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: nominative-accusative w/ marked accusative Objects of transitive clauses ('P') have a unique marker, while subjects of transitive ('A') and intransitive ('S') clauses are unmarked or share a different marker from that occurring on objects no No case marking on NPs. Mosonyi, 1987: p. 36-48 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: nominative-accusative w/ marked nominative Subjects of transitive and intransitive clauses share a marker, while objects of transitives are unmarked no Mosonyi, 1987: p. 36-48 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: ergative-absolutive Subjects of intransitive clauses and objects of transitives share a unique marker, while subjects of transitive clauses are unmarked or have a different marker no Mosonyi, 1987: p. 36-48 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: tripartite Intransitive subjects, transitive subjects, and transitive objects all receive distinct case markers no Mosonyi, 1987: p. 36-48 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: active-inactive Subjects of intransitive clauses are treated two different ways: like subjects of transitives if they are more agent-like (e.g. he jumped), and like objects of transitives if they are more patient-like (e.g. he fell asleep) no Mosonyi, 1987: p. 36-48 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: marked accusative no No case marking on pronouns. Mosonyi, 1987: p. 36-49 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: marked nominative no Mosonyi, 1987: p. 36-49 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: ergative-absolutive yes, no, mixed, other no Mosonyi, 1987: p. 36-49 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: tripartite no Mosonyi, 1987: p. 36-49 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: active-inactive no Mosonyi, 1987: p. 36-49 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: nominative-accusative Same as above, for pronominal affixes/clitics on verbs yes S and A are marked with prefixes, O is marked with suffixes. Adjectives are also marked with suffixes, but they do seem to form a separate class, suggesting nominative-accusative, rather than active-inactive, alignment. Mosonyi, 1987: p. 59-62 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: ergative-absolutive yes, no, mixed, other no Mosonyi, 1987: p. 59-62 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: active-inactive no Mosonyi, 1987: p. 59-62 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: hierarchical Marking of A and P depends on their relative ranking on a hierarchy (usually 1>2>3 or 2>1>3) no Mosonyi, 1987: p. 59-62 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: split More than one of the above systems is represented in person marking, depending on e.g. person (e.g. 1/2 vs. 3), tense-aspect value, main vs. subordinate clause type, etc. no Mosonyi, 1987: p. 59-62 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: pronouns in subject position Pronominal subjects are free pronouns that occur in the same position as full NP subjects no Mosonyi, 1987: p. 60-61 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: prefixes on verb Pronominal subjects are marked as verbal prefixes (free pronouns may be another option) yes Yavitero verbs always carry cross-referencing prefixes, so this may be better described as "pro-drop." Mosonyi, 1987: p. 60-61 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: suffixes on verb Pronominal subjects are marked as verbal suffixes (free pronouns may be another option) no Mosonyi, 1987: p. 59-62 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: clitics on variable host Pronominal subjects are clitics that can attach to verbs, nominal constituents, etc. no Mosonyi, 1987: p. 48, 61-62 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: pronouns in non-subject position Pronominal subjects are free pronouns but do not normally occur in the position expected for full NP subjects yes Free pronouns are used for emphasis. They precede the verb, while full NP subjects follow the verb. Mosonyi, 1987: p. 61-62 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Person marking on intransitive verbs Intransitive verbs take person-marking clitics/affixes yes Mosonyi demonstrates person-marking with two intransitive verbs. Mosonyi, 1987: p. 60 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Person marking (of agents) on transitive verbs Transitive verbs take subject (A) markers yes Mosonyi, 1987: p. 62 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Person-marking (of objects) on transitive verbs Transitive verbs take object (P) markers yes Mosonyi, 1987: p. 62 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking 3rd person zero in verbal person marking: subjects 3rd person subjects are not overtly marked within the verbal person-marking system yes Masculine third-person, but not feminine. Mosonyi, 1987: p. 41, 60 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking 3rd person zero in verbal person marking: objects 3rd person objects are not overtly marked within the verbal person-marking system yes There can be a marker, but ø for third-person objects is also common. Mosonyi, 1987: p. 62 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Number can be marked separately from person on the verb Verbal person marking exists, but number is (or can) be marked separately no Mosonyi, 1987: 41, 60, 62 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Possessive affixes/clitics on nouns are same as verbal person markers Where nouns take possessive affixes, these are the same as the person-marking affixes yes Mosonyi, 1987: 41, 60 Ana Paula Brandão, Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Gender distinguished in verbal person markers For any person, verbal person markers exhibit different forms depending on the gender (masc/fem, animate/inanimate, etc.) of the referent yes In third-person singular, masculine and feminine are distinguished. Mosonyi, 1987: 41, 60 Ana Paula Brandão, Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice Ditransitive constructions: indirect object In ditransitives (e.g. 'John gives a book to Bill'), the theme (book) is treated in the same way as are objects of transitives, while the recipient/beneficiary (Bill) is treated differently yes There is a preposition to introduce a recipient, but not a theme. Mosonyi, 1987: p. 53 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice Ditransitive constructions: double object In ditransitives (e.g. 'John gives Bill a book'), both the theme (book) and the recipient/beneficiary (Bill) is treated in the same way as are objects of transitives no Mosonyi, 1987: p. 53 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice Ditransitive constructions: secondary object In ditransitives, the recipient/beneficiary is treated in the same way as are objects of transitives, while the theme (book) is treated differently no Mosonyi, 1987: p. 53 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Reciprocal: dedicated morpheme Verb becomes reciprocal through use of reciprocal morpheme associated with the verb (may be attached to the verb root). This morpheme is only used to mean reciprocal. no Mosonyi, 1987: p. 68-69 Ana Paula Brandão, Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Reflexive: dedicated morpheme Verb becomes reflexive through use of reflexive morpheme associated with the verb (may be attached to the verb root). This morpheme is used only to mean reflexive. no Mosonyi, 1987: p. 68-69 Ana Paula Brandão, Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Reciprocal/reflexive: same morpheme Verb becomes reciprocal or reflexive through use of a morpheme that means either reciprocal or reflexive which attaches to the root of the verb yes -wa/-waja -wa/-waja Mosonyi, 1987: p. 68-69 Ana Paula Brandão, Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Passive Passive voice usually involves a change to the verb, while the object of the active voice verb is promoted to subject in the passive voice, and the former subject is deleted/demoted no Mosonyi, 1987: p. 63 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Antipassive Like passive, but deletes or demotes the object of a transitive verb; usually found in ergative languages no Mosonyi, 1987: p. 66-69 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Other intransitivizing morphology There is/are some other mechanism(s) for reducing valency no Mosonyi, 1987: p. 66-69 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Applicative: benefactive Applicative adds a beneficiary/maleficiary object argument to the verb no Mosonyi, 1987: p. 66-69 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Applicative: other Applicative adds some other object argument to the verb no Mosonyi, 1987: p. 66-69 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: prefix Causative is morphological and is attached before the root of the verb no Mosonyi, 1987: p. 68 Ana Paula Brandão, Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: suffix Causative is morphological and is attached after the root of the verb yes -ta -ta Mosonyi, 1987: p. 68 Ana Paula Brandão, Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative marked by circumfix, stem change, or tone Morphological causative other than simple prefix/suffix no Mosonyi, 1987: p. 68 Ana Paula Brandão, Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: serial verb or analytical construction Causative construction that involves periphrasis or serialization yes Using verbs wé 'let,' má 'make' or wénija, 'order.' Mosonyi, 1987: p. 68, 91 Ana Paula Brandão, Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: dedicated 'make do by proxy' Indicates that the causer does not directly cause the action of the verb to be realized, but does so by inducing someone else to carry out the action, e.g. 'John had the house painted.' no info Ana Paula Brandão, Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: dedicated sociative Indicates that causer participates in event no info Ana Paula Brandão, Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Other transitivizing morphology (adds valence) There is/are some other mechanism(s) for increasing valency no Mosonyi, 1987: p. 66-69 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Negation Clausal negator is a preposed element Clausal negator is a preposed element yes The negation marker is a particle that appears immediately before the verb, so it would normally be the first thing in the clause. Mosonyi, 1987: p. 64 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Negation Clausal negator is a postposed element Clausal negator is a postposed element no Mosonyi, 1987: p. 64 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Negation Negatives: affix Negatives: affix no Mosonyi, 1987: p. 64 Ana Paula Brandão, Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Negation Negatives: particle Negatives: particle yes Mosonyi, 1987: p. 64 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Negation Negatives: auxiliary verb Negatives: auxiliary verb no Mosonyi, 1987: p. 64 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Negation Negatives: double Standard (non-emphatic) negation typically requires two morphemes, e.g. French 'ne V pas' no Mosonyi, 1987: p. 64 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Negation Distinct negative form for 'NP does not exist' no Mosonyi, 1987: p. 64 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Negation Distinct negative expression 'I don't know' Lexical expression or highly idiomatic phrase no Mosonyi, 1987: p. 64 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Polar questions: interrogative particle Yes/no questions distinguished from declaratives by interrogative particle no Mosonyi, 1987: p. 64 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Polar questions: verb morphology Yes/no questions distinguished from declaratives by interrogative verb morphology no Mosonyi, 1987: p. 64 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Polar questions: word order Yes/no questions distinguished from declaratives by word order (esp. subject-verb inversion) no Mosonyi, 1987: p. 64 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Polar questions: intonation only Yes/no questions distinguished from declaratives by intonation only yes Mosonyi, 1987: p. 64 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Content questions: word order differs from declaratives Content questions distinguished from declaratives by word order (esp. subject-verb inversion) as well as by presence of Q-word (who, what, etc.) yes Mosonyi, 1987: p. 64, 79 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Predication Predicate adjectives: verbal Adjectives act like verbs in predicative position yes Adjectives take personal reference suffixes to reference the subject, while nouns must take either full pronouns or full NPs as arguments and verbs can also take cross-referencing prefixes. All can take time affixes when used predicatively. Mosonyi, 1987: p. 55, 87-88 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Predication Predicate adjectives: nominal Adjectives act like nouns in predicative position no Adjectives take personal reference suffixes to reference the subject, while nouns must take either full pronouns or full NPs as arguments and verbs can also take cross-referencing prefixes. All can take time affixes when used predicatively. Mosonyi, 1987: p. 55, 87-88 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Predication Zero copula for predicate nominals is possible Predicate nominals may occur without a copula (i.e. grammatical in some circumstances, if not all) yes Examples in Mosonyi (1987) do not have copulas. Mosonyi, 1987: p. 88 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Predication Headless relative clauses Compare Eng 'the one that fell' (but in Eng 'one' could be considered a head) no Mosonyi, 1987: p. 94 Ana Paula Brandão, Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Predication Headless relative clauses are the dominant or only form of relative clause Relative clauses that form a constituent with a head noun (in a single noun phrase) are rare or nonexistent; some descriptions may refer to adjoined or correlative clauses. no Mosonyi, 1987: p. 94 Ana Paula Brandão, Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Predication Relative clause may occur with a noun classifier/class marker It may be unclear whether the classifier is the nominal head of the construction or is an agreement marker on the relative clause no Mosonyi, 1987:p. 94 Ana Paula Brandão, Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Predication Relativizer is a verbal affix yes -ɮi -li Mosonyi, 1987: p. 69 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Predication Morphological relativizer is homophonous with nominalizer The same morpheme marks a relative clause and is a nominalizer on verbs (and/or other word classes) no Mosonyi, 1987: p. 46-48, 69 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Desiderative expressions Grammaticalized verbal desiderative Indicates that the subject desires to carry out the action denoted by the verb (distinct from verb 'want', but may be grammaticalized from it) yes -ma, -heta, tálima -ma, -jeta, tálima The particle tálima is invariable and doesn't seem to be a verb. Mosonyi, 1987: p. 67 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Other Clause chaining Clauses can be grouped such that only one bears most of the verb morphology, and the others are marked as to whether they share a subject with this reference clause. no Strings of three or four verbs can be combined, but all carry their own person markers. No mention of whether all verbs get tense/aspect marking. Mosonyi, 1987: p. 93 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Other Morphologically marked switch-reference system There are special markers to indicate same vs. different subject when two clauses are combined no Mosonyi, 1987: p. 93 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Other Morphologically marked distinction between simultaneous and sequential clauses Morphology (usually on verb) distinguishes between clauses denoting events that occur at the same time or in sequence no Mosonyi, 1987: p. 63-69, 93 Aimee Lawrence