Auxiliary verb(s)

Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs
There are verbs that accompany main verbs of clauses and take grammatical marking not expressed by main verbs


Language Feature Status Grammatical Notes Source Created By Etymology Notes General Notes Phylogenetic Code
Cahuilla Jane Hill
Cupeño Jane Hill
Luiseño Jane Hill
Serrano Jane Hill
Kitanemuk Jane Hill
Kawaiisu Jane Hill
Timbisha Jane Hill
Western Mono Jane Hill
Chemehuevi Jane Hill
Southern Paiute Jane Hill
Southern Ute Jane Hill
Shoshone Jane Hill
Comanche Jane Hill
Idaho Shoshone Jane Hill
Northern Paiute Jane Hill
Gabrielino Jane Hill
Achagua yes Wilson & Levinsohn 1992: 5 Ana Paula Brandao
Resígaro yes Allin identifies three auxiliaries, which take person marking. However, the reflexive and privative markers are found on main verb. Allin, 1976: 214 Aimee Lawrence
Bare no info Aikhenvald, 1995 Ana Paula Brandao
Piapoco yes Galindo, 2002: 292 Aimee Lawrence
Yukuna yes The remote past is expressed with the auxiliary verb iʔima'ka. Shauer & Shauer, 2000: p. 522 Aimee Lawrence
Yavitero yes Some aspectual information is conveyed using auxiliary verbs. Both auxiliary and main verbs have person-referencing prefixes in constructions with auxiliary verbs. Mosonyi, 1987: p. 64-65 Aimee Lawrence
Wapishana yes Santos, 2006: 156 Ana Paula Brandao, Amanda Meeks
Wayuu yes Mansen & Mansen, 1976: p. 256 Aimee Lawrence
Tariana yes Aikhenvald 2003: 235 Ana Paula Brandao
Apurinã yes Facundes, 2000: 294-295 Aimee Lawrence
Asheninka Apurucayali no Instead, suffixes are utilized in such a way that they translate as auxiliary verbs, but do not take grammatical markings. (In a way, they are verbal markings themselves.) Payne 1981:3031 Amanda Meeks
Maipure no info Zamponi 2003:37-47 Daniel Smith
Yanesha' yes Duff-Tripp 1997:120-4 Daniel Valle
Kinikinau no info Daniel Valle
Baure no "There are no auxiliaries in Baure. Instead there are free verbal particles in addition to the affixes attached to verbs for TMA marking" Danielsen 2007: p269 Mitz Perez
Nanti no Michael, 2008 Aimee Lawrence
Paresi no info Rowan 1978, Rowan and Burgess 1979, Brandão 2010 Daniel Valle
Palikur no Launey 2003 Daniel Smith
Yine no info Matteson 1965 Daniel Smith
Añun no Patte 1989 Daniel Smith
Bora no Seifart - 2005:58-62 Amanda Meeks
Makiritare yes Auxiliaries are forms of 'to go' and 'to be' Hall 1988: 335 Melody Ann Ross
Makushi yes ená 'become', wanɨ 'be', komámɨ 'stay, remain', mápɨɨtɨɨ 'cause' and kúpɨ 'force' Carson 1982: 136 Melody Ann Ross
Eñepa yes Thomas Payne 1989, 1995, 2012:169-171 Daniel Smith
Pemon yes The author calls these verbs as auxiliaries but they do not seem to fit the definition of auxiliary verbs since they do not show any grammatical information not already present in the main verb; rahter, they seem to be a instance of verb serialization de Armellada 1999: 27-9 Daniel Valle
Guna no Smith texts Daniel Smith
Naso yes Quesada 2000 Daniel Smith
Ika yes Frank 1990:46 Daniel Valle
Kogi no info Daniel Valle
Cabecar no info Daniel Valle
Guaymí yes There seem to be four auxiliary verbs Alphonse 1956:30, Quesada 2008:134 Daniel Valle
Damana yes Daniel Valle
Sikuani yes Quexalós 1998:268-286 Daniel Smith
Macaguan yes author suggests that the language has auxiliaries, but the example he shows does not seem like one Buenaventura - 1993:52 Daniel Smith
Aguaruna yes There are 11 verbs that can function as auxiliary verbs. Overall 2007:279-80 Daniel Valle There are six auxiliary verbs
Northern Emberá yes Mortensen 1999:12 Daniel Valle Catío
Waorani no info Daniel Valle
Ingá yes Verbs of motion are used as auxiliaries. Levinson 1976:74 Daniel Valle
Matses no info Daniel Valle
Mapudungun no Zúñiga 2006, p. 102-78 Daniel Valle
Páez no info Daniel Valle
Quechua Ayacuchano no info more likely not Parker 1965:47-57, Perroud 1973:46-62 Daniel Valle
Tikuna no info Daniel Valle
Urarina yes Olawsky:303 Daniel Valle
Waunana yes Loewen 1954:40 Daniel Valle
Andoke no info Kelsey Neely
Puinave no info Mitz Perez, Daniel Valle
Central Aymara yes Deza Galindo 1992: 99 Shannon Dardis
Kakua no info Bolaños fieldnotes Katherine Bolaños
Kaingang yes for mood Silva 2011:104 Daniel Smith
Minica Witoto no not indicated/expected Minor and Minor 1982. p.19-27 Christopher Clack
Hup no Epps 2008 Pattie Epps
Nadëb/Roçado dialect yes Positionals/directionals Weir 1984 Katherine Bolaños
Dâw no Martins 2004 Katherine Bolaños
Desano yes Desano has two auxiliary verbs, ii- 'do' and wa- 'go'. Miller 1999, p. 87 Amanda Novak aux verbs carry person and number
Cubeo yes Morse & Maxwell 1999, p. 60 Amanda Novak; note addition by Chris Clack As is common with languages of the OV type, auxiliary verbs in Cubeo normally appear at the end of the verb phrase.
Kotiria yes Stenzel 2004, p. 237 Amanda Novak
Makuna yes Smothermon & Smothermon 1993, p.43 Chris Clack
Koreguaje yes Cook & Criswell 1993, p.82 Chris Clack
Barasano yes Barsano has 3 auxiliaries: ya, yi, yã Jones & Jones 1991, p.37-38 Chris Clack ya 'to do, say, think' is used for Progressive aspect, yi 'to do, say, think' is used with any distance in space/time, yã 'to be' is Durative.
Tanimuca yes The auxiliary verb baa 'do, make' is used to create a construction that indicates imminence. Strom 1992, p.38 Chris Clack The auxiliary takes the tense suffic while the content verb takes the subject prefix.
Siona yes Wheeler 1987:168-170 Daniel Smith
Tukano yes auxiliary used with verb 'to do/make' to indicate aspect (we'e), and to indicate going to do something (wa'a) or coming from doing something (eja) West and Welch 2004: 36-37; Ramirez 1997: 112 Kelsey Neely
Yanomami yes /ku/ is the only auxiliary, and it's use is not restricted to aux. functions. Often occurs after the main verb Ramirez 1994: p.350 Kelsey Neely
Ninam yes Goodwin-Gomez, p.91, 99 Kelsey Neely
Sanumá yes Borgman says it "can be considered" an auxiliary Borgman 1990: p.207 Kelsey Neely
Surui no info Daniel Valle
Karitiana no info Daniel Valle
Nheengatu yes Cruz 2011:438 Daniel Smith
Paraguayan Guaraní no info Daniel Valle
Aché no info Daniel Valle
Kokama yes Vallejos 2010:402 Daniel Smith
Nyangumarta no done 0
Jingulu no done 0
Wambaya no done 0
Bunuba no done 0
Walmajarri yes Done-Claire 1
Nyulnyul no info done? x
Warrwa no info done x
Worrorra yes 40 done 1
Garrwa no info done X
Gooniyandi no info done x
Warlpiri yes BS152, elsewhere done 1
Bardi no done-Claire 0
Yugambeh Y?
Yorta Yorta no 83-91 done 0
Yir Yoront Done-Dan
Yindjibarndi no info done-Dan x
Yidiny no done-Catherine 0
Yanyuwa no info Done-Austin x
Yandruwandha yes 146-7 Done-Dan 1
Yan-nhangu not yet
Yalarnnga no info Done-Dan x
Woiwurrung no info done-Amalia x
Wirangu No 94 done 0
Wemba-Wemba yes H 46 done-Amalia 1
Warumungu No info done-Amalia x
Wangkumara no info done X
Uradhi No 364 Y 0
Paakantyi no info Y-Hannah X
Pitta-Pitta No 201 Done-Amalia 0
Pintupi no done-Hannah 0
Nyungar no info done x
Nhanta no info Done-Hannah x
Ngiyambaa no Done-Emily 0
Ngayawang No 3 done-Amalia 0
Muruwari no info Done-Dan x
Mayi-Yapi No 55 done 0
Martuthunira yes done 1
Marrgany No 314 Done-Amalia 0
Kuuk Thaayorre No 341 Done-Amalia 0
Kuku Yalanji no Done-Jessica 0
Kugu-Nganhcara No 406 done-Amalia 0
Kaurna No 17 done-Amalia 0
Kalkatungu yes? 96 Done-Dan 1
Jaru no 2 Done-Amalia 0
Guugu-Yimidhirr No 105 Done-Amalia 0
Gureng Gureng no info Done-Amalia x
Gumbaynggirr no 317 done-Amalia 0
Gugu-Badhun no done-Jessica 0
Yuwaalaraay No 61 0
Dyirbal No 56 done-Amalia 0
Duungidjawu no 68 done 0
Djinang Yes 131 Done-Amalia 1
Djabugay done
Diyari yes 36; 66 done-Hannah 1
Dharawal maybe 61 done-Hannah w Dhurga) 1
Darkinyung no 38 done 0
Bularnu no Done-Austin 0
Biri no done-Jessica 0
Bidjara-Gungabula no info done-Jessica x
Batyala no info Done-Amalia x
Arabana yes 206 Done-Dan 1
Alyawarr yes 62 done 1
Nyikina no done-Claire 0
Yawuru no Y-Claire 0
Yulparija No 35 Done-Amalia 0
Wathawurrung no 85 done 0
Mathi-Mathi no 99-101 done-Amalia 0
Hunter River and Lake Macquarie no 68 done-Amalia 0
Thanggati yes 46, 60 done 1
Katthang no 73 done-Amalia 0
Panyjima no info done x
Ngarinyeri No 37 done-Amalia 0
Kurrama no info done-Dan x
Yingkarta no Done-Claire 0
Githabul No 21 Done-Amalia 0
Gunya No 329 Done-Amalia 0
Kunjen yes 114 Done- 1
WesternTorres yes? K85c 89-90 done 1
Wakaya no info done x
Yindjilindji no info done x
Bandjalang No 82 Done-Amalia 0
Ngaatjatjara yes 65 done 1
Arrernte Yes 189 1
Kokatha No 44 0
Karajarri Yes 188 Done-Amalia 1
Pitjantjatjara Yes G 206 1
Ritharrngu No 60-64 Done-Amalia 0
Warrgamay No 45 Done-Amalia 0
Warluwarra no info Done-Amalia x
Warnman no info Done-Amalia x
Djapu yes 92 (d) 1
Bilinarra yes 3.4 done 1
Wiradjuri no info done x
Aghu-Tharnggala No 48 Y2 0
Narungga No info done x
Tharrkari No 30 0
Wajarri No 91 0
Warungu no 0
Adnyamathanha Y2
Yagua yes Payne and Payne 1990:413 Daniel Smith
Baniwa no unclear Ramirez 2001 Patience Epps