Auxiliary verb(s)

Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs
There are verbs that accompany main verbs of clauses and take grammatical marking not expressed by main verbs


Language Feature Status Grammatical Notes Source Etymology Notes General Notes Phylogenetic Code
Western Mono
Southern Paiute
Southern Ute
Idaho Shoshone
Northern Paiute
Achagua yes Wilson & Levinsohn 1992: 5
Resígaro yes Allin identifies three auxiliaries, which take person marking. However, the reflexive and privative markers are found on main verb. Allin, 1976: 214
Bare no info Aikhenvald, 1995
Piapoco yes Galindo, 2002: 292
Yukuna yes The remote past is expressed with the auxiliary verb iʔima'ka. Shauer & Shauer, 2000: p. 522
Yavitero yes Some aspectual information is conveyed using auxiliary verbs. Both auxiliary and main verbs have person-referencing prefixes in constructions with auxiliary verbs. Mosonyi, 1987: p. 64-65
Wapishana yes Santos, 2006: 156
Wayuu yes Mansen & Mansen, 1976: p. 256
Tariana yes Aikhenvald 2003: 235
Apurinã yes Facundes, 2000: 294-295
Asheninka Apurucayali no Instead, suffixes are utilized in such a way that they translate as auxiliary verbs, but do not take grammatical markings. (In a way, they are verbal markings themselves.) Payne 1981:3031
Maipure no info Zamponi 2003:37-47
Yanesha' yes Duff-Tripp 1997:120-4
Kinikinau no info
Baure no "There are no auxiliaries in Baure. Instead there are free verbal particles in addition to the affixes attached to verbs for TMA marking" Danielsen 2007: p269
Nanti no Michael, 2008
Paresi no info Rowan 1978, Rowan and Burgess 1979, Brandão 2010
Palikur no Launey 2003
Yine no info Matteson 1965
Añun no Patte 1989
Bora no Seifart - 2005:58-62
Makiritare yes Auxiliaries are forms of 'to go' and 'to be' Hall 1988: 335
Makushi yes ená 'become', wanɨ 'be', komámɨ 'stay, remain', mápɨɨtɨɨ 'cause' and kúpɨ 'force' Carson 1982: 136
Eñepa yes Thomas Payne 1989, 1995, 2012:169-171
Pemon yes The author calls these verbs as auxiliaries but they do not seem to fit the definition of auxiliary verbs since they do not show any grammatical information not already present in the main verb; rahter, they seem to be a instance of verb serialization de Armellada 1999: 27-9
Guna no Smith texts
Naso yes Quesada 2000
Ika yes Frank 1990:46
Kogi no info
Cabecar no info
Guaymí yes There seem to be four auxiliary verbs Alphonse 1956:30, Quesada 2008:134
Damana yes
Sikuani yes Quexalós 1998:268-286
Macaguan yes author suggests that the language has auxiliaries, but the example he shows does not seem like one Buenaventura - 1993:52
Aguaruna yes There are 11 verbs that can function as auxiliary verbs. Overall 2007:279-80 There are six auxiliary verbs
Northern Emberá yes Mortensen 1999:12 Catío
Waorani no info
Ingá yes Verbs of motion are used as auxiliaries. Levinson 1976:74
Matses no info
Mapudungun no Zúñiga 2006, p. 102-78
Páez no info
Quechua Ayacuchano no info more likely not Parker 1965:47-57, Perroud 1973:46-62
Tikuna no info
Urarina yes Olawsky:303
Waunana yes Loewen 1954:40
Andoke no info
Puinave no info
Central Aymara yes Deza Galindo 1992: 99
Kakua no info Bolaños fieldnotes
Kaingang yes for mood Silva 2011:104
Minica Witoto no not indicated/expected Minor and Minor 1982. p.19-27
Hup no Epps 2008
Nadëb/Roçado dialect yes Positionals/directionals Weir 1984
Dâw no Martins 2004
Desano yes Desano has two auxiliary verbs, ii- 'do' and wa- 'go'. Miller 1999, p. 87 aux verbs carry person and number
Cubeo yes Morse & Maxwell 1999, p. 60 As is common with languages of the OV type, auxiliary verbs in Cubeo normally appear at the end of the verb phrase.
Kotiria yes Stenzel 2004, p. 237
Makuna yes Smothermon & Smothermon 1993, p.43
Koreguaje yes Cook & Criswell 1993, p.82
Barasano yes Barsano has 3 auxiliaries: ya, yi, yã Jones & Jones 1991, p.37-38 ya 'to do, say, think' is used for Progressive aspect, yi 'to do, say, think' is used with any distance in space/time, yã 'to be' is Durative.
Tanimuca yes The auxiliary verb baa 'do, make' is used to create a construction that indicates imminence. Strom 1992, p.38 The auxiliary takes the tense suffic while the content verb takes the subject prefix.
Siona yes Wheeler 1987:168-170
Tukano yes auxiliary used with verb 'to do/make' to indicate aspect (we'e), and to indicate going to do something (wa'a) or coming from doing something (eja) West and Welch 2004: 36-37; Ramirez 1997: 112
Yanomami yes /ku/ is the only auxiliary, and it's use is not restricted to aux. functions. Often occurs after the main verb Ramirez 1994: p.350
Ninam yes Goodwin-Gomez, p.91, 99
Sanumá yes Borgman says it "can be considered" an auxiliary Borgman 1990: p.207
Surui no info
Karitiana no info
Nheengatu yes Cruz 2011:438
Paraguayan Guaraní no info
Aché no info
Kokama yes Vallejos 2010:402
Nyangumarta no 0
Jingulu no 0
Wambaya no 0
Bunuba no 0
Walmajarri yes 1
Nyulnyul no info x
Warrwa no info x
Worrorra yes 40 1
Garrwa no info X
Gooniyandi no info x
Warlpiri yes BS152, elsewhere 1
Bardi no 0
Yorta Yorta no 83-91 0
Yir Yoront
Yindjibarndi no info x
Yidiny no 0
Yanyuwa no info x
Yandruwandha yes 146-7 1
Yalarnnga no info x
Woiwurrung no info x
Wirangu No 94 0
Wemba-Wemba yes H 46 1
Warumungu No info x
Wangkumara no info X
Uradhi No 364 0
Paakantyi no info X
Pitta-Pitta No 201 0
Pintupi no 0
Nyungar no info x
Nhanta no info x
Ngiyambaa no 0
Ngayawang No 3 0
Muruwari no info x
Mayi-Yapi No 55 0
Martuthunira yes 1
Marrgany No 314 0
Kuuk Thaayorre No 341 0
Kuku Yalanji no 0
Kugu-Nganhcara No 406 0
Kaurna No 17 0
Kalkatungu yes? 96 1
Jaru no 2 0
Guugu-Yimidhirr No 105 0
Gureng Gureng no info x
Gumbaynggirr no 317 0
Gugu-Badhun no 0
Yuwaalaraay No 61 0
Dyirbal No 56 0
Duungidjawu no 68 0
Djinang Yes 131 1
Diyari yes 36; 66 1
Dharawal maybe 61 1
Darkinyung no 38 0
Bularnu no 0
Biri no 0
Bidjara-Gungabula no info x
Batyala no info x
Arabana yes 206 1
Alyawarr yes 62 1
Nyikina no 0
Yawuru no 0
Yulparija No 35 0
Wathawurrung no 85 0
Mathi-Mathi no 99-101 0
Hunter River and Lake Macquarie no 68 0
Thanggati yes 46, 60 1
Katthang no 73 0
Panyjima no info x
Ngarinyeri No 37 0
Kurrama no info x
Yingkarta no 0
Githabul No 21 0
Gunya No 329 0
Kunjen yes 114 1
WesternTorres yes? K85c 89-90 1
Wakaya no info x
Yindjilindji no info x
Bandjalang No 82 0
Ngaatjatjara yes 65 1
Arrernte Yes 189 1
Kokatha No 44 0
Karajarri Yes 188 1
Pitjantjatjara Yes G 206 1
Ritharrngu No 60-64 0
Warrgamay No 45 0
Warluwarra no info x
Warnman no info x
Djapu yes 92 (d) 1
Bilinarra yes 3.4 1
Wiradjuri no info x
Aghu-Tharnggala No 48 0
Narungga No info x
Tharrkari No 30 0
Wajarri No 91 0
Warungu no 0
Yagua yes Payne and Payne 1990:413
Baniwa no unclear Ramirez 2001