Apurinã

Family
Arawakan
Region
South America
ISO 639-3
apu
Location
-8.22°, -66.77°
Notes
Features
Grammatical Data
Data Sources
Facundes, Sidney da Silva. 2000. The language of the Apurinã people of Brazil (Maipure/Arawak). PhD. Diss: SUNY Albany


Grammatical Data (226)
Category Grammatical Feature Grammatical Feature: Notes Feature Status Phonemicized Form Orthographic Form Grammatical Notes Source Created By Etymology Notes General Notes Phylogenetic Code
Phonology - Segmental Pre-/post-nasalized stops Analysis posits that the stop is the most relevant underlying phoneme. Comment in notes on whether the nasal contour is understood as a phonetic (allophonic) effect, or is phonologically contrastive. no Facundes 2000: 70-78 Aimee Lawrence
Phonology - Segmental Glottalized/ejective consonants Phonemic contrast [NOT counting glottal stop/fricative] no Facundes, 2000: 71 Aimee Lawrence
Phonology - Segmental Palatalized stops Phonemic contrast no palatalized stops are allophonic Facundes, 2000: 71 Aimee Lawrence
Phonology - Segmental Phonemic vowel length Does the language have long and short vowels? yes a:, e:, i:, u:, ɨ: a:, e:, i:, u:, ɨ: Facundes, 2000: 55 Aimee Lawrence
Phonology - Segmental Phonemic glottalization/laryngealization of vowels no Facundes, 2000: 55 Aimee Lawrence
Phonology - Segmental Complex onsets Onset consists of more than one consonant phoneme no Facundes, 2000: 87 Aimee Lawrence
Phonology - Segmental No codas *(C)VC [no also equals highly constrained] yes Facundes, 2000: 87 Aimee Lawrence
Phonology - Segmental Word-final coda required Do all syllables end in a consonant? no Facundes, 2000: 87 Aimee Lawrence
Phonology - Suprasegmental Contrastive tones Note how many contrastive tones no Facundes, 2000 Aimee Lawrence
Phonology - Suprasegmental Contrastive stress Does stress occur on different syllables with meaning difference? no Facundes, 2000: 93 Aimee Lawrence
Phonology - Suprasegmental Nasalization property of morpheme or syllable In contrast to nasalization as a property of segments no info not discussed in phonolgoy or morphology sections Facundes, 2000 Aimee Lawrence
Phonology - Suprasegmental Nasal spreading across some morpheme boundaries Do some affixes or other morphemes take the nasal/oral properties of the root they attach to? no info not discussed in phonolgoy or morphology sections Facundes, 2000 Aimee Lawrence
Phonology - Suprasegmental Vowel harmony no Facundes, 2000: 57-67 Aimee Lawrence
Morphology - General Verbal fusion (2+ categories marked by portmanteau morphemes on verb) Verb combines two or more categories (tense, aspect, mood, person, number, etc.) in portmanteau morphemes{ [ignore proclitics unless they are fused with values other than person/number] no The only fused categories are person/number Facundes, 2000: 271 Aimee Lawrence
Morphology - General Inflection manifested by replacement of segmental or suprasegmental phonemes Stem change, tone no Facundes, 2000: 270 Aimee Lawrence
Morphology - General Verbal synthesis (1+ inflectional categories marked by verbal affixes) Morphological complexity in verbs - multiple inflectional affixes in a single verb word yes Facundes, 2000: 270 Aimee Lawrence
Morphology - General Prefixing/suffixing inflectional morph: strongly prefixing There are many more prefixes than suffixes no Facundes, 2000: 270 Aimee Lawrence
Morphology - General Prefixing/suffixing inflectional morph: strongly suffixing There are many more suffixes than prefixes yes Facundes, 2000: 270 Aimee Lawrence
Morphology - General Prefixing/suffixing inflectional morph: roughly equal or one weakly preferred The numbers of suffixes and prefixes are not notably different no Facundes, 2000: 270 Aimee Lawrence
Morphology - General Reduplication: full The full morpheme is reduplicated no only for onomotopaeic forms Facundes, 2000: 250 Aimee Lawrence
Morphology - General Reduplication: partial Only part of the morpheme is reduplicated no only for onomotopaeic forms Facundes, 2000: 250 Aimee Lawrence
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Productive NN compounding Noun compounds created from two noun phrases are common and systematically produced yes There are both productive and non-productive compounding processes, classificatory nouns (CN2s) are productive elements. Facundes, 2000: 187, 208 Aimee Lawrence
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Productive VV serialization (without compounding) Verb roots can be combined in a single predicate without markers of subordination (distinct from subordinating construction) or distinct inflection no Facundes, 2000: 464-469 Aimee Lawrence
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Productive VV compounding Serial verb constructions involve chaining of roots together in one morphophonological word no Facundes, 2000: 4664-469 Aimee Lawrence
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Verb-adjunct (aka light verb) constructions There is a set of semantically weak verbs used in complex verbal constructions, e.g. 'take a nap' no Facundes, 2000: 464-469 Aimee Lawrence
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Auxiliary verb(s) There are verbs that accompany main verbs of clauses and take grammatical marking not expressed by main verbs yes tʃa txa Facundes, 2000: 294-295 Aimee Lawrence
Morphology - Incorporation Incorporation of nouns into verbs is a productive intransitivizing process Verb contains nominal segment yes seems to be limited to a certain set of nouns, but no information on the size of that set; classificatory nouns are incorporated in an anaphoric way Facundes, 2000: 298 Aimee Lawrence
Morphology - Incorporation Productive incorporation of other elements (adjectives, locatives, etc.) into verbs Like noun incorporation, but incorporated elements are not nouns no info Thre is a section on noun incorporation, but no suggestion that other elements can be incorporated. Language has no adjectives Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Noun classes/genders Nouns are organized into sets with distinct morphological treatment; usually affects all nouns and involves agreement within the NP yes masculine and feminine, cross-referenced on verb and demonstratives Facundes, 2000: 150 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Number of noun classes/genders Note the (approximate) total number of noun classes/genders 2 Facundes, 2000: 150 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Noun classifiers (distinct from noun classes/genders) Nouns are organized into sets, but only a limited set of nouns may be implicated, with no or limited agreement marking. If only numeral classifiers exist, indicate yes but explain. yes There are two types of what are called "classificatory nouns," one set is less productive, the other set is more productive. Facundes notes that these have properties of both classifiers and noun class/genders, so they are somewhere between the two. Facundes, 2000: 167, 169, 176 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Sex is a relevant category in noun class(ification) system for animates Masculine, feminine, neuter yes noun classes are masculine and feminine Facunes, 2000: 218 Aimee lawrence
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Sex is a relevant category in noun class(ification) system for inanimates yes Facundes, 2000: 218 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Animacy (w/o reference to sex) is a relevant category in the noun class(ification) system Animate/inanimate, human/non-human no info All nouns are assigned to a noun class regardless of animacy. No indication of relative rates of agreement marking. Facundes, 2000: 218 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Sex/gender distinction only in 3rd person pronouns add in notes section whether gender is present in other PNs or not in any PNs; consider with reference to pronouns and person marking only yes Facundes, 2000: 218 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Shape is a relevant category in the noun class(ification) system for animates yes Many classificatory nouns (CN2s) have semantics related to shape. Facundes, 2000:169-175 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Shape is a relevant category in the noun class(ification) system for inanimates yes Many classificatory nouns (CN2s) have semantics related to shape. Facundes, 2000:169-175 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification "Repeater" classifiers Where no distinct classifier exists, a copy of the noun itself may function in the morphosyntactic classifier "slot" no Nouns do not require classifiers, so no classifier slot to be filled Facundes, 2000: 162-179 Aimee lawrence
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Numeral classifiers (specific to numerals) Special classifier forms that occur only with numerals no no mention of numeral classifiers in section on numerals Facundes, 2000: 359-360 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Classifiers used as derivational suffixes to derive nouns Verb + classifier = 'thing for doing V, thing that does V, etc.' no Deverbal nouns derived using other suffixes. Facundes, 2000: 214-215 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Categories - Number Singular number may be marked on the noun Often occurs in a small subset of nouns if a single entity is referred to, e.g. insects that normally occur in groups no No discussion of singular marker among number markers. Facundes, 2000: 260-263 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Categories - Number Plural affix on noun yes Facundes, 2000: 260-262 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Categories - Number Plural marked by stem change or tone on noun no Facundes, 2000: 260-262 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Categories - Number Plural marked by reduplication of noun no Facundes, 2000: 260-262 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Categories - Number Plural word/clitic no Facundes, 2000: 260-262 Aimee lawrence
Nominal Categories - Number Plural marked on human or animate nouns only no Facundes, 2000: 260-262 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Categories - Number Pronominal plural: stem + nominal plural affix Pronouns use a nominal plural affix not specific to pronouns no Not for subject/object marking or possessive prefixes Facundes, 2000: 345-355 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Categories - Number Unique associative plural marker e.g. 'John and his associates', 'John and them' no No discussion of associative plural marker among other number markers. Facundes, 2000: 260-263 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Definite or specific articles Definite = particular referent known to both speaker and addressee; specific = particular referent known to speaker only no Only demonstratives Facundes, 2000: 356 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Marker of definiteness distinct from demonstratives Focus on articles/markers whose primary function is to mark definiteness no Facundes, 2000: 356 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Indefinite or non-specific article or marker no Facundes, 2000: 356 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Inclusive/exclusive: in free pronominals Inclusive =us + you, exclusive = us but not you no Facundes, 2000: 345-346 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Inclusive/exclusive: in verbal inflection (bound) no Facundes, 2000: 380 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Distance contrasts in demonstratives (number) Note the number of distances in the demonstrative system 2 -ye (proximate), -kira (distal) -ye (proximate), -kira/wera (distal) The demonstratives inflect for gender. Facundes, 2000: 355-357 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Other contrasts in demonstratives (visibility, elevation, etc.) no The demonstratives also inflect for gender. Facundes, 2000: 355-357 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Gender in 3sg pronouns yes ɨwa (masc.), owa (fem.) uwa (masc.), owa (fem.) Facundes, 2000: 345-346 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Gender in 3pl pronouns no ɨnawa (3pl.) unawa (3pl.) Facundes, 2000: 345-346 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Gender in 1st and/or 2nd person pronouns no Facundes, 2000: 345-346 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Formal/informal distinction in pronouns Polite pronominal variants or differential avoidance of pronouns no Facundes, 2000: 345-346 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Reflexive pronouns e.g. English 'himself', Spanish 'se'; distinct form(s) from basic (non-reflexive) pronominals; distinct from reflexive verbal affix no Facundes, 2000: 510 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Adpositions mark core NPs Prepositions or postpositions mark subjects, objects, beneficiaries/recipients yes -monhi -monhi The goal marker -monhi marks goal role in ditransitives. Facundes, 200: 285-286 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: number of cases Note the number of grammatical relations that may be morphologically marked on the noun 6 Facundes, 2000: 385-390 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: only non-core arguments morphologically marked Subjects, objects, beneficiaries/recipients NOT marked, but other grammatical relations are no -monhi, -mokarɨ (goal markers) -monhi, -mokaru (goal markers) Beneficiaries/recipients are marked as goals. Facundes, 2000: 389 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: symmetrical All NPs marked if in appropriate syntactic relation; no distinction in marking based on semantics (type of entity) yes Facundes notes that instrumental marking is limited to inanimates, while associative marking is limited to humans. Other case markers do not seem to be limited. Facundes, 2000: 385-390 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: asymmetrical Semantically defined subset of NPs marked for case, e.g. animates no Facundes, 2000: 385-390 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: suffix or postpositional clitic yes Facundes, 2000: 385 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: prefix or prepositional clitic no Facundes, 2000: 385 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: infix or inpositional clitic no Facundes, 2000: 385 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: stem change no Facundes, 2000: 385 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: tone no Facundes, 2000: 385 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: comitative = instrumental Same marking for 'with a person' and 'with an instrument' no -ã (instrumental/locative), -kata (associative) -ã (instrumental/locative), -kata (associative) Facundes uses the term "associative" rather than "comitative" Facundes, 2000: 385 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Categories - Numerals Base-2 At least some part of the system involves base-2 yes hãt-o, hãt-u (one), epi (two) hãt-o, hãt-u (one), epi (two) Facundes, 2000: 359 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Categories - Numerals Base-5 At least some part of the system involves base-5 no Facundes, 2000: 359 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Categories - Numerals Base-10 At least some part of the system involves base-10 no Facundes, 2000: 359 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Categories - Numerals Other base (specify) 4, 20, etc. no Facundes, 2000: 359 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Categories - Numerals Etymological transparency in any numerals under 5 e.g. two = 'eye-quantity' no info epi-epi-hãtu-kapanu 'five' is often translated as 'a handful' but this seems to be more due to the complexity of the phrase. No discussion of other numerals. Facundes, 2000: 359-360 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Categories - Numerals Numerals do not go above 5 'Many' or some other non-exact term used yes Facundes, 2000: 359-360 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Categories - Numerals Numerals do not go above 10 'Many' or some other non-exact term used yes Facundes, 2000: 359-360 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Categories - Other nominal Tense or aspect inflection on non-verbal predicates i.e. nominal or adjectival no Future marking can attach to noun, pronoun, numeral, and particle bases, but this isn't exclusive to predicative constructions (future marker is a clitic). In examples of non-verbal clauses, none have tense/aspect marking. Facundes, 2000: 410, 504 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Categories - Other nominal Person inflection on non-verbal predicates i.e. nominal or adjectival no Examples on page 504 do not seem to have person marking, although this may be because they have an overt subject. Facundes notes that non-verbal clauses are formed "solely of the juxtaposition of two NPs." Facundes, 2000: 504 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Syntax - Possession Pronominal possessive affixes: prefix on N alienable/inalienable? yes Independent pronouns marking possession is also possible. Facundes, 2000: 380 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Syntax - Possession Pronominal possessive affixes: suffix on N alienable/inalienable? no Facundes, 2000: 380 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Syntax - Possession Head/dependent marking in possessive NP: dependent e.g. 'the boy-'s dog' no Possessive constructions are formed by juxtaposing two noun phrases, the second of which is the possessed noun, although the possessed noun phrase sometimes receives a possessed marker. Facundes, 2000: 449 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Syntax - Possession Head/dependent marking in possessive NP: head e.g. 'the boy his-dog' yes Possessive constructions are formed by juxtaposing two noun phrases, the second of which is the possessed noun, although the possessed noun phrase sometimes receives a possessed marker. The head marker does not agree with possessor. da Silva Facundes, Sidney. (2000). The Language of the Apurinã People of Brazil. Doctoral Dissertation, SUNY Albany: 449 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Syntax - Possession Possessive classifiers There are special classifiers that occur with possessed entities no Facundes notes that possessive markers on alienably possessed nouns could be analyzed as genitive classifiers, but doesn't push this analysis, seemingly on the basis that the various markers do not have semantic content. Facundes, 2000: 232-233 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Morphological marking of inalienable possession Where inalienable possession differs from alienable, the former takes a morphological marker (may include an associated free particle/pronoun) no Unpossessed inalienable nouns require the "unposession" marker -txi, but no marking necessary to occur in possessed form. Facundes, 2000: 152 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Morphological marking of alienable possession Where inalienable possession differs from alienable, the latter takes a morphological marker (may include an associated free particle/pronoun) yes -te, -ne, -re -te, -ne, -re Alienable nouns require one of three suffixes when they are possessed. Facundes, 2000: 199 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Default marker for inalienably possessed nouns if unpossessed An inalienable noun that is in an unpossessed state must have a derivational affix or associated form yes -tʃi -txi Unpossessed inalienable nouns require the "unposession" marker -txi, but no pmarking necessary to occur in possessed form. Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Inalienable possession of kin terms 'my-father' but *father yes Kin terms never appear in unpossessed form, are considered inalienable because they do not take possessed suffixes. Facundes, 2000: 154 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Inalienable possession of body parts (human/animal) 'my-leg' but *leg yes Facundes, 2000: 154 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Generic human nouns are obligatorily bound/possessed Human nouns must co-occur with another noun (e.g. Hup-man, NonIndian-woman, but *man) no woman,' 'man,' 'male child,' and 'woman child' are all alienable nouns an can occur alone Facundes, 2000: 202 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Syntax - Adjectives Underived adjectives There are underived adjectives which do not have counterparts in other word classes no Adjectival function accomplished through use of classificatory nouns (CNs) or descriptive verbs. Facundes, 2000: 432-344 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Syntax - Adjectives Gender inflection on adjectives within the NP There is gender agreement/concord (animate/inanimate or masc/fem, etc.) within the NP, e.g. la casa blanca, el perro blanco n/a The language doesn’t have adjectives Facundes, 2000: 432-344 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Syntax - Derivation Productive nominalizing morphology: action/state (arrive/arrival) There is a morpheme which derives an event from a verb yes -inhi -inhi Facundes, 2000: 247 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Syntax - Derivation Productive nominalizing morphology: agentive (sing/singer) There is a morpheme which derives an agent or subject from a verb yes -muna -muna Facundes notes that both nominalizers are not completely productive. Facundes, 2000: 244-245 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Syntax - Derivation Productive nominalizing morphology: object (sing/song) There is a morpheme which derives a patient or object from a verb yes -iko -iko This suffix is used as either an instrumental or object nominalizer "thing to V with" or "thing to V". Facundes notes that both nominalizers are not completely productive. Facundes, 2000: 240-241 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Syntax - Derivation Productive verbalizing morphology There is a morpheme which derives a verb from a noun or adjective yes -ta -ta No indication of how productive it is, but it is also used on verbal roots. Facundes, 2000: 324 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Syntax - Other NP coordination and comitative phrases marked differently 'John and Mary went to market' is marked differently from 'John went to market with Mary' no -kata -kata Apurinã has an associative construction, but no conjoined constructions. Facundes, 2000: 463, 495 Aimee Lawrence
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Dedicated past marker(s) Past tense is regularly morphologically marked on the verb or elsewhere no Facundes, 2000: 513 Aimee Lawrence
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Multiple past tenses, distinguishing distance from time of reference e.g. distant vs. recent past no Facundes, 2000: 513 Aimee Lawrence
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Multiple future tenses, distinguishing distance from time of reference e.g. imminent vs. distant future no Facundes, 2000: 513 Aimee Lawrence
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Dedicated future or non-past marker(s) yes -ko -ko Facundes, 2000: 513 Aimee Lawrence
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Tense-aspect affixes: prefix no Facundes, 2000: 513 Aimee Lawrence
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Tense-aspect affixes: suffix yes Facundes, 2000: 513 Aimee Lawrence
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Tense-aspect affixes: tone or ablaut no Facundes, 2000: 513 Aimee Lawrence
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Tense-aspect suppletion no Facundes, 2000: 513 Aimee Lawrence
Verbal Categories - Mood Dedicated imperative morpheme or verb form There is a special morpheme (or morphemes, or a bare verb root where inflection is normally expected) used to signal imperative (command) mood no Facundes says that most speakers do not use a special imperative form, although one speaker has used a special form in elicited data. Facundes, 2000: 542 Aimee Lawrence
Verbal Categories - Mood Polite imperative morpheme There is a distinct morpheme for polite imperative constructions (specify if it has other functions in the language) no Facundes, 2000: 542 Aimee Lawrence
Verbal Categories - Mood Difference between negation in imperative (prohibitive) and declarative clauses There are different strategies for marking negation in imperative and declarative clauses no Facundes discusses morphological and periphrastic negation, but does not indicate a difference between imperative and declarative clauses. Facundes, 2000: 530-533 Aimee Lawrence
Verbal Categories - Mood Dedicated hortative morpheme or verb form (1pl or 3rd person imperative) as opposed to imperative; the person in control of desired state of affairs is not the addressee; ex: 'Let's sing' / 'Let him sing' yes hamo, am- hamo, am- Exact form depends on speech register and rate of speech. Facundes, 2000: 374 Aimee Lawrence
Verbal Categories - Mood Situational possibility: affix on verb Inflectional marking of capacity to do something no Not listed among verbal morphology or "bound formatives" (clitics). Facundes, 2000: 305-327, 379-410 Aimee Lawrence
Verbal Categories - Mood Situational possibility: verbal construction no info Facundes, 2000 Aimee Lawrence
Verbal Categories - Mood Situational possibility: other marking no info Facundes, 2000 Aimee Lawrence
Verbal Categories - Mood Epistemic possibility: affix on verb Modal expressing hypothesis no Not listed among verbal morphology or "bound formatives" (clitics). Facundes, 2000: 305-327, 379-410 Aimee Lawrence
Verbal Categories - Mood Epistemic possibility: verbal construction no info Facundes, 2000 Aimee Lawrence
Verbal Categories - Mood Epistemic possibility: other marking no info Facundes, 2000 Aimee Lawrence
Verbal Categories - Mood Marking of expected/unexpected action or result There is inflectional marking of expected/unexpected yes -ma -ma This is called "frustrative," has the meaning that the result of the action what not expected or desired. Facundes, 2000: 404 Aimee Lawrence
Verbal Categories - Mood Verbal frustrative Modal expressing frustration ("in vain") yes -wari -wari Facundes calls this anti-perfective/"almost" marking, to indicate that some event almost happened. Facundes, 2000: 315 Aimee Lawrence
Verbal Categories - Mood Verbal habitual Modal expressing habituality yes -pi -pi Used to mark events that occur with reasonable frequency. Facundes, 2000: 327 Aimee Lawrence
Verbal Categories - Mood Apprehensive construction There is a single morpheme or verb form to mean '(be careful lest) X happens' no Not listed among verbal morphology or "bound formatives" (clitics). Facundes, 2000: 305-327, 379-410 Aimee Lawrence
Verbal Categories - Mood Reality status marking on verbs There are dedicated morpheme(s) for realis/irrealis 'actualized/unactualized events' no Not listed among verbal morphology or "bound formatives" (clitics). Facundes, 2000: 305-327, 379-410 Aimee Lawrence
Verbal Categories - Mood Affect markers (positive/negative) Note whether these inflectional markers are positive or negative no Not listed among verbal morphology or "bound formatives" (clitics). Facundes, 2000: 305-327, 379-410 Aimee Lawrence
Verbal Categories - Directionals Directional elements affixed to the verb There are grammaticalized elements indicating movement away, toward, there and back, etc. no Not listed among verbal morphology or "bound formatives" (clitics). Facundes, 2000: 305-327, 379-410 Aimee Lawrence
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized visual Indicates information has been witnessed visually - indicate only if an overt marker no Not discussed among verbal morphology or "bound formatives" (clitics). Facundes, 2000: 305-327, 379-410 Aimee Lawrence
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized nonvisual Indicates information has been sensed firsthand but not visually (usually heard; also smelled, tasted, felt) no Not discussed among verbal morphology or "bound formatives" (clitics). Facundes, 2000: 305-327, 379-410 Aimee Lawrence
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized inferential Indicates information has not been experienced firsthand, but inferred from some kind of evidence - indicate only if an overt marker. no Not discussed among verbal morphology or "bound formatives" (clitics). Facundes, 2000: 305-327, 379-410 Aimee Lawrence
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized reportive Indicates speaker is not responsible for veracity of statement, merely reporting; 'allegedly' yes -pira -pira No evidential system discussed among verbal morphology or "bound formatives" (clitics). Facundes, 2000: 305-327, 379-410 Aimee Lawrence
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized quotative Indicate presence of adjacent representation of repeated discourse no Not discussed among verbal morphology or "bound formatives" (clitics). Facundes, 2000: 305-327, 379-410 Aimee Lawrence
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Other evidential Any other evidential values not represented above no Not discussed among verbal morphology or "bound formatives" (clitics). Facundes, 2000: 305-327, 379-410 Aimee Lawrence
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Evidentiality: verb affix or clitic yes Only one evidential value. Facundes, 2000: 305-327, 379-410 Aimee Lawrence
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Evidentiality: part of tense system Includes portmanteau morphs no Not discussed among verbal morphology or "bound formatives" (clitics). Facundes, 2000: 513-529 Aimee Lawrence
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Evidentiality: separate particle no No evidentials mentioned in section on particles. Facundes, 2000: 366-374 Aimee Lawrence
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Evidentiality: modal morpheme no No evidential system discussed among verbal morphology or "bound formatives" (clitics). Facundes, 2000: 305-327, 379-410 Aimee Lawrence
Verbal Categories - Verbal number Verbal number suppletion no info Facundes, 2000 Aimee Lawrence
Verbal Categories - Other Social interaction markers Note the type of interaction yes -pir˜ika -pir˜ika Collective action marking, limited to verbs that describe actions that Apurinãs do collectively Facundes, 2000: 313-314 Aimee Lawrence
Word Order No fixed basic constituent order no Facundes notes that only VSO is not possible, and all orders but VSO and VOS appear in texts. However, many of the examples he gives have pronominal arguments. Aberdour (1985) discusses a basic constituent order. In addition, Facundes' corpora is mostly S Facundes, 2000: 548 Aimee Lawrence
Word Order VS in intransitive clauses Verb precedes subject no In corpus, only 15/173 free subjects follow verb. Aberdour, 1985: 28 Aimee Lawrence
Word Order VS in transitive clauses no In corpus, only 15/173 free subjects follow verb. Aberdour, 1985: 28 Aimee Lawrence
Word Order VO in transitive clauses Verb precedes object no In corpus, 38 of 57 free objects precede verb. Aberdour, 1985: 28 Aimee Lawrence
Word Order OS in transitive clauses Object precedes subject no Aberdour notes that SVO seems like a viable candidate for basic constituent order on the basis of corpus evidence, although notes that more information is necessary. Aberdour, 1985: 27 Aimee Lawrence
Word Order Preposition-Noun no Facundes, 2000: 385 Aimee Lawrence
Word Order Noun-Postposition or case suffix yes Facundes, 2000: 385 Aimee Lawrence
Word Order Gen-Noun Possessive phrase composed of a free possessor and its possessum has possessor first (e.g. John's book) yes Facundes, 2000: 449 Aimee Lawrence
Word Order Noun-Gen Possessive phrase composed of a free possessor and its possessum has possessum first (e.g. 'book of John') no Facundes, 2000: 449 Aimee Lawrence
Word Order Adj-Noun Adjective precedes the noun n/a Apurinã does not have adjectives. Facundes, 2000: 342 Aimee Lawrence
Word Order Noun-Adj Adjective follows the noun n/a Apurinã does not have adjectives. Facundes, 2000: 342 Aimee Lawrence
Word Order Dem-Noun yes All examples are Dem N, although Facundes does not discuss it explicitly. Facundes, 2000: 355-359 Aimee Lawrence
Word Order Noun-Dem no All examples are Dem N, although Facundes does not discuss it explicitly. Facundes, 2000: 355-359 Aimee Lawrence
Word Order Num-Noun yes All examples are Num N, although Facundes does not discuss it explicitly. Facundes, 2000: 359 Aimee Lawrence
Word Order Noun-Num no All examples are Num N, although Facundes does not discuss it explicitly. Facundes, 2000: 359 Aimee Lawrence
Word Order Noun-Rel Relative clause follows noun that it modifies yes Postnominal relative clauses are the most common and the most easily accepted by speakers. Facundes, 2000: 572 Aimee Lawrence
Word Order Rel-Noun Relative clause precedes noun that it modifies no Facundes, 2000: 572 Aimee Lawrence
Word Order Re<Noun>l (internally headed relative) e.g. 'the dog cat chased-NMZR got away' ('the cat that the dog chased got away') no Facundes, 2000: 572 Aimee Lawrence
Word Order Relative clause is correlative or adjoined e.g. 'what is running, the dog chased that cat' no Facundes, 2000: 572 Aimee Lawrence
Word Order Question word is clause initial 'what', 'who', etc. come first in interrogative clause yes Facundes, 2000: 537 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: nominative-accusative w/ marked accusative Objects of transitive clauses ('P') have a unique marker, while subjects of transitive ('A') and intransitive ('S') clauses are unmarked or share a different marker from that occurring on objects no Subject/objects NPs are not case marked. Facundes, 2000: 471-481 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: nominative-accusative w/ marked nominative Subjects of transitive and intransitive clauses share a marker, while objects of transitives are unmarked no Facundes, 2000: 471-481 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: ergative-absolutive Subjects of intransitive clauses and objects of transitives share a unique marker, while subjects of transitive clauses are unmarked or have a different marker no Facundes, 2000: 471-481 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: tripartite Intransitive subjects, transitive subjects, and transitive objects all receive distinct case markers no Facundes, 2000: 471-481 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: active-inactive Subjects of intransitive clauses are treated two different ways: like subjects of transitives if they are more agent-like (e.g. he jumped), and like objects of transitives if they are more patient-like (e.g. he fell asleep) no Facundes, 2000: 471-481 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: marked accusative no Pronouns not case marked, the same forms used for both subjects and objects. Facundes, 2000: 346 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: marked nominative no Facundes, 2000: 346 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: ergative-absolutive yes, no, mixed, other no Facundes, 2000: 346 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: tripartite no Facundes, 2000: 346 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: active-inactive no Facundes, 2000: 346 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: nominative-accusative Same as above, for pronominal affixes/clitics on verbs no Facundes, 2000: 481-482 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: ergative-absolutive yes, no, mixed, other no Facundes, 2000: 481-482 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: active-inactive no Facundes, 2000: 481-482 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: hierarchical Marking of A and P depends on their relative ranking on a hierarchy (usually 1>2>3 or 2>1>3) no Facundes, 2000: 481-482 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: split More than one of the above systems is represented in person marking, depending on e.g. person (e.g. 1/2 vs. 3), tense-aspect value, main vs. subordinate clause type, etc. yes Facundes, 2000: 481-482 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: pronouns in subject position Pronominal subjects are free pronouns that occur in the same position as full NP subjects yes Facundes doesn't discuss this directly. However, in a corpus analysis, subjects (both NP and pronoun) were overwhlemingly preverbal. Facundes, 2000: 464, 557 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: prefixes on verb Pronominal subjects are marked as verbal prefixes (free pronouns may be another option) yes Facundes, 2000: 464 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: suffixes on verb Pronominal subjects are marked as verbal suffixes (free pronouns may be another option) no Facundes, 2000: 464 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: clitics on variable host Pronominal subjects are clitics that can attach to verbs, nominal constituents, etc. no Facundes, 2000: 464 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: pronouns in non-subject position Pronominal subjects are free pronouns but do not normally occur in the position expected for full NP subjects no Facundes, 2000: 464 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Person marking on intransitive verbs Intransitive verbs take person-marking clitics/affixes yes Facundes, 2000: 464 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Person marking (of agents) on transitive verbs Transitive verbs take subject (A) markers yes If the subject or object is deleted or postverbal. Facundes, 2000: 466-467 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Person-marking (of objects) on transitive verbs Transitive verbs take object (P) markers yes If the subject or object is deleted or postverbal. Facundes, 2000: 466-467 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking 3rd person zero in verbal person marking: subjects 3rd person subjects are not overtly marked within the verbal person-marking system no 3rd person masculine is phonemcally /i-/, but sometimes surfaces phonetically as ø. Facundes, 2000: 141-145 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking 3rd person zero in verbal person marking: objects 3rd person objects are not overtly marked within the verbal person-marking system no ɨ- (masc.) o- (fem.) ɨ-…-na (plural) u- (masc.) o- (fem.) i-…-na (plural) Third person masculine, feminine, and plural are all overtly marked Facundes, 2000: 141-145 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Number can be marked separately from person on the verb Verbal person marking exists, but number is (or can) be marked separately yes Subject marking: ɨ- (masc.) o- (fem.) ɨ-…-na (plural) Subject marking: ɨ- (3rd singular masc), ɨ-…-na (3rd plural) Third person plural looks like it is built from the third-person singular marker, plus another suffix. However, person and plural number are fused in first and second persons. Facundes, 2000: 141 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Possessive affixes/clitics on nouns are same as verbal person markers Where nouns take possessive affixes, these are the same as the person-marking affixes yes The same as subject markers Facundes, 2000: 141-145 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Gender distinguished in verbal person markers For any person, verbal person markers exhibit different forms depending on the gender (masc/fem, animate/inanimate, etc.) of the referent yes Third person singular disitnguishes masculine and feminine Facundes, 2000: 141-145 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice Ditransitive constructions: indirect object In ditransitives (e.g. 'John gives a book to Bill'), the theme (book) is treated in the same way as are objects of transitives, while the recipient/beneficiary (Bill) is treated differently yes The theme is marked with object marking on verb, is required and does not take case marking. However, the goal is not marked on verb, is optional, and is marked with an oblique case marker. Facundes, 2000: 287 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice Ditransitive constructions: double object In ditransitives (e.g. 'John gives Bill a book'), both the theme (book) and the recipient/beneficiary (Bill) is treated in the same way as are objects of transitives no Facundes, 2000: 287 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice Ditransitive constructions: secondary object In ditransitives, the recipient/beneficiary is treated in the same way as are objects of transitives, while the theme (book) is treated differently no Facundes, 2000: 287 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Reciprocal: dedicated morpheme Verb becomes reciprocal through use of reciprocal morpheme associated with the verb (may be attached to the verb root). This morpheme is only used to mean reciprocal. yes -kaka -kaka Facundes, 2000: 327 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Reflexive: dedicated morpheme Verb becomes reflexive through use of reflexive morpheme associated with the verb (may be attached to the verb root). This morpheme is used only to mean reflexive. yes -wa -wa This morpheme appears in the same slot as other object markers. Facundes, 2000: 407-408 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Reciprocal/reflexive: same morpheme Verb becomes reciprocal or reflexive through use of a morpheme that means either reciprocal or reflexive which attaches to the root of the verb no Facundes, 2000: 327, 407-408 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Passive Passive voice usually involves a change to the verb, while the object of the active voice verb is promoted to subject in the passive voice, and the former subject is deleted/demoted yes -~ka -~ka This is rare in texts, but speakers accept it. Facundes, 2000: 400-402 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Antipassive Like passive, but deletes or demotes the object of a transitive verb; usually found in ergative languages no Not discussed in Facundes (2000). Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Other intransitivizing morphology There is/are some other mechanism(s) for reducing valency yes -rewa -rewa Gives the meaning "to do X" Facundes, 2000: 310-311 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Applicative: benefactive Applicative adds a beneficiary/maleficiary object argument to the verb no The only valence-increasing morpheme is a causative. Facundes, 2000: 505-509 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Applicative: other Applicative adds some other object argument to the verb no The only valence-increasing morpheme is a causative. Facundes, 2000: 505-509 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: prefix Causative is morphological and is attached before the root of the verb no Facundes, 2000: 310 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: suffix Causative is morphological and is attached after the root of the verb yes -ka (all verbs), k˜utaka (limited to transitive verbs) -ka (all verbs), k˜utaka (limited to transitive verbs) Several causative morphemes, both are suffixes. Facundes, 2000: 310 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative marked by circumfix, stem change, or tone Morphological causative other than simple prefix/suffix no Facundes, 2000: 310 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: serial verb or analytical construction Causative construction that involves periphrasis or serialization yes akirita 'call' akirita 'call' This verb takes a full sentence complement clause, has the meaning "call someone to do something." Facundes, 2000: 600 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: dedicated 'make do by proxy' Indicates that the causer does not directly cause the action of the verb to be realized, but does so by inducing someone else to carry out the action, e.g. 'John had the house painted.' no info Facundes, 2000 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: dedicated sociative Indicates that causer participates in event no info Facundes, 2000 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Other transitivizing morphology (adds valence) There is/are some other mechanism(s) for increasing valency no The only valence-increasing morpheme is a causative. Facundes, 2000: 505-509 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Negation Clausal negator is a preposed element Clausal negator is a preposed element yes The negation particle kona is either clause initial, or follows first element of the sentence. Facundes, 2000: 531-533 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Negation Clausal negator is a postposed element Clausal negator is a postposed element no Facundes, 2000: 531-533 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Negation Negatives: affix Negatives: affix yes ma- ma- Facundes, 2000: 530-533 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Negation Negatives: particle Negatives: particle yes Facundes, 2000: 530-533 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Negation Negatives: auxiliary verb Negatives: auxiliary verb no Facundes, 2000: 530-533 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Negation Negatives: double Standard (non-emphatic) negation typically requires two morphemes, e.g. French 'ne V pas' no Facundes, 2000: 530-533 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Negation Distinct negative form for 'NP does not exist' no Facundes, 2000: 530-533 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Negation Distinct negative expression 'I don't know' Lexical expression or highly idiomatic phrase no Facundes, 530-533 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Polar questions: interrogative particle Yes/no questions distinguished from declaratives by interrogative particle no Facundes, 2000: 536 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Polar questions: verb morphology Yes/no questions distinguished from declaratives by interrogative verb morphology no Facundes, 2000: 536 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Polar questions: word order Yes/no questions distinguished from declaratives by word order (esp. subject-verb inversion) no Facundes, 2000: 536 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Polar questions: intonation only Yes/no questions distinguished from declaratives by intonation only yes Facundes, 2000: 536 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Content questions: word order differs from declaratives Content questions distinguished from declaratives by word order (esp. subject-verb inversion) as well as by presence of Q-word (who, what, etc.) yes clause-initial question word Facundes, 2000: 361 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Predication Predicate adjectives: verbal Adjectives act like verbs in predicative position n/a No adjectives in Apurinã. Facundes, 2000: 342 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Predication Predicate adjectives: nominal Adjectives act like nouns in predicative position n/a No adjectives in Apurinã. Facundes, 2000: 342 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Predication Zero copula for predicate nominals is possible Predicate nominals may occur without a copula (i.e. grammatical in some circumstances, if not all) yes Facundes, 2000: 504-505 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Predication Headless relative clauses Compare Eng 'the one that fell' (but in Eng 'one' could be considered a head) yes Facundes, 2000: 583-585 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Predication Headless relative clauses are the dominant or only form of relative clause Relative clauses that form a constituent with a head noun (in a single noun phrase) are rare or nonexistent; some descriptions may refer to adjoined or correlative clauses. no No discussion of how relatively common headed and headless relative clauses are, but much more space is given to headed relative clauses. Facundes, 2000: 561, 583-585 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Predication Relative clause may occur with a noun classifier/class marker It may be unclear whether the classifier is the nominal head of the construction or is an agreement marker on the relative clause no No indication in the section on relative clauses that class markers can be used this way. Facundes, 2000: 560-587 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Predication Relativizer is a verbal affix yes Facundes, 2000: 564 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Predication Morphological relativizer is homophonous with nominalizer The same morpheme marks a relative clause and is a nominalizer on verbs (and/or other word classes) no Nominalizers and relativizers do not look related. Facundes, 2000: 240-245 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Desiderative expressions Grammaticalized verbal desiderative Indicates that the subject desires to carry out the action denoted by the verb (distinct from verb 'want', but may be grammaticalized from it) yes -ene -ene Facundes, 2000: 316 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Other Clause chaining Clauses can be grouped such that only one bears most of the verb morphology, and the others are marked as to whether they share a subject with this reference clause. no No discussion of clause chaining among description of complex clauses. Facundes, 2000: 560-612 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Other Morphologically marked switch-reference system There are special markers to indicate same vs. different subject when two clauses are combined no Facundes, 2000: 560-612 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Other Morphologically marked distinction between simultaneous and sequential clauses Morphology (usually on verb) distinguishes between clauses denoting events that occur at the same time or in sequence no No discussion among description of morphology. Facundes, 2000 Aimee Lawrence