Reciprocal/reflexive: same morpheme

Category
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing
Notes
Verb becomes reciprocal or reflexive through use of a morpheme that means either reciprocal or reflexive which attaches to the root of the verb

Languages

Language Feature Status Grammatical Notes Source Created By Etymology Notes General Notes Phylogenetic Code
Cahuilla yes Jane Hill
Cupeño yes Jane Hill
Luiseño yes Jane Hill
Serrano yes Jane Hill
Kitanemuk yes Jane Hill
Kawaiisu yes Jane Hill
Timbisha yes Jane Hill
Western Mono yes Jane Hill
Chemehuevi yes Jane Hill
Southern Paiute yes Jane Hill
Southern Ute no Jane Hill
Shoshone yes Jane Hill
Comanche yes Jane Hill
Idaho Shoshone Jane Hill
Northern Paiute yes Jane Hill
Gabrielino yes Jane Hill
Achagua no Wilson & Levinsohn 1992:115 Ana Paula Brandao
Resígaro no Allin, 1976: 129 Ana Paul Brandao, Aimee Lawrence
Bare yes reflexive/reciprocal are the only intransitivizing morphology listed Aikhenvald, 1995: 38 Ana Paula Brandao, Aimee Lawrence
Warekena yes Aikhenvald 1998: 371 Ana Paula Brandao, Aimee Lawrence
Piapoco no Galindo, 2002: 259-261 Aimee Lawrence
Yukuna no Shauer 1978: 47 Aimee Lawrence
Yavitero yes Mosonyi, 1987: p. 68-69 Ana Paula Brandão, Aimee Lawrence
Wapishana no Santos 2006 Ana Paula Brandao, Amanda Meeks
Wayuu no Unclear: there is a morpheme -ira which is identified as a “reciprocal.” No discussion of whether this can also be used for reflexives (or what is used for reflexives, but I assume that it is only a reciprocal marker. Aimee Lawrence
Tariana yes However, this is no longer productive. Aikhenvald, 2003: 263-266 Aimee Lawrence
Apurinã no Facundes, 2000: 327, 407-408 Aimee Lawrence
Asheninka Apurucayali no Payne 1982:57; Payne 1981:11,12 Amanda Meeks
Maipure no info Zamponi 2003 Amanda Meeks
Yanesha' no Duff-Tripp 1997:70, 97 Daniel Valle
Kinikinau no The reflexive marker is /-koko/ Souza 2008:113 Daniel Valle
Baure no Danielsen 2007:244 Daniel Valle
Nanti no Michael, 2008. p. 278 Aimee Lawrence
Paresi no Brandão 2010:30 Daniel Valle
Palikur no Green and Green 1972:6 Daniel Valle
Yine no info Matteson 1965 Daniel Smith
Añun no info no info on reciprocal Patte 1989 Daniel Smith
Bora no Seifart - 2005:59 Amanda Meeks
Makiritare yes Hall 1988: 173 Melody Ann Ross
Makushi yes Reflexives, reciprocals, and unspecified arguments are all expressed by means of the detransitivizer verb prefix at-/es-/e'- Abbott 1991: 37-38 Melody Ann Ross
Eñepa no Thomas Payne 1989:40 Daniel Valle
Pemon yes de Armellada 1999:40-265-6 Daniel Valle
Guna no Smith texts Daniel Smith
Naso no Quesada 2000 Daniel Smith
Ika yes Frank 1990:71 Daniel Valle
Kogi no info Daniel Valle
Cabecar no info Daniel Valle
Guaymí yes Quesada 2008:71 Daniel Valle
Damana no Daniel Valle
Sikuani no de Kondo (Vol.1,2) - 1985; Queixalós - 2000 Amanda Meeks
Macaguan no Buenaventura - 1993 Amanda Meeks
Aguaruna no Overall 2007:311-3 Daniel Valle
Northern Emberá no info Daniel Valle
Waorani no info Daniel Valle
Ingá yes Levinson 1987:12 Daniel Valle
Matses yes Fleck:349 Daniel Valle
Mapudungun yes Salas 1992, p.129-30 Daniel Valle
Páez no info Daniel Valle
Quechua Ayacuchano no Parker 1965:75, 80 Daniel Valle
Tikuna no info Daniel Valle
Urarina no Olawsky:603-9 Daniel Valle
Waunana no info Daniel Valle
Andoke yes reciprocal/reflexive is a pronominal suffix -hə́ Landaburu 1979: 167 Kelsey Neely may actually be verbal, depends on status of Pn as proclitic or not
Puinave no Giron 2008: p366-367 Mitz Perez, Daniel Valle
Central Aymara yes Deza Galindo 1992: 225, 226 Shannon Dardis
Kakua no info Bolaños fieldnotes Katherine Bolaños
Kaingang yes Goncalves 2011:290 Daniel Smith
Minica Witoto no info Minor and Minor 1982. p.87, 102-103 Daniel Smith
Hup yes Epps 2008 Pattie Epps
Nadëb/Roçado dialect yes Weir 1984 Katherine Bolaños
Dâw no Martins 2004 Katherine Bolaños
Desano yes Miller 1999, p. 118 Amanda Novak
Cubeo no there are 3 suffixes that are marked on the noun but not on the verb. Morse & Maxwell 1999, p. 105 Amanda Novak
Kotiria no Stenzel 2004 Amanda Novak
Makuna no Smothermon & Smothermon 1993, p.35,64 Chris Clack
Koreguaje no Cook & Criswell 1993, p.69-80 Chris Clack no info/not expected
Barasano no Jones & Jones 1991,p.107-111 Chris Clack
Tanimuca no Strom 1992, p.133 Chris Clack
Siona no There are no morphemes for these verb forms. Wheeler - 1987:138-158 Amanda Meeks
Tukano no info Ramirez 1997 Kelsey Neely if distinct reciprocal marking does exist, it may not be morphological
Yanomami no Ramirez 1994 Kelsey Neely no evidence for this
Ninam n/a no special form for reciprocal or reflexive Goodwin-Gomez: 47 Kelsey Neely
Sanumá no no reflexive Borgman 1990: 43-45 Kelsey Neely
Surui yes Van der Meer (?):14 Daniel Smith
Karitiana no info Daniel Valle
Nheengatu yes prefix Cruz 2011:294 Daniel Smith
Paraguayan Guaraní no The reciprocal is marked by /-jo, ño/ Zarratea 2002:97 Daniel Valle
Aché no info Daniel Valle
Kokama yes -ka marks several different related functions Vallejos 2010:336 Daniel Smith
Nyangumarta yes done 1
Jingulu yes done 1
Wambaya yes done 1
Bunuba yes done 1
Walmajarri yes Done-Claire 1
Nyulnyul yes done? 1
Warrwa yes done 1
Worrorra yes 105-6, ms16.0 done 1
Garrwa yes 25 done 1
Gooniyandi yes done 1
Warlpiri yes s163 done 1
Bardi yes done-Claire 1
Yugambeh Y?
Yorta Yorta no 88-89 done 0
Yir Yoront Done-Dan
Yindjibarndi no info done-Dan x
Yidiny no done-Catherine 0
Yanyuwa yes 123 Done-Austin 1
Yandruwandha yes 64-5 Done-Dan 1
Yan-nhangu not yet
Yalarnnga yes 49-50 Done-Dan 1
Woiwurrung no 73 done-Amalia 0
Wirangu yes 109-110 done 1
Wemba-Wemba no H 47 done-Amalia 0
Warumungu No 43 done-Amalia 0
Wangkumara no 37-8 done 0
Uradhi No 374 Y 0
Paakantyi no 186 Y-Hannah 0
Pitta-Pitta yes 206 Done-Amalia 1
Pintupi yes 15; 114-115; 120-121 done-Hannah 1
Nyungar no info done x
Nhanta no Done-Hannah 0
Ngiyambaa no 166 Done-Emily 0
Ngayawang yes 14 done-Amalia 1
Muruwari no 150, 153 Done-Dan 0
Mpakwithi
Mayi-Yapi No 55, 68 done 0
Martuthunira no done 0
Marrgany No 322 Done-Amalia 0
Kuuk Thaayorre No 412 Done-Amalia 0
Kuku Yalanji no Done-Jessica 0
Kugu-Nganhcara No 398 done-Amalia 0
Kaurna No 10 done-Amalia 0
Kalkatungu yes 86 Done-Dan 1
Jaru yes 152-9 Done-Amalia 1
Guugu-Yimidhirr yes 97 Done-Amalia 1
Gureng Gureng no info Done-Amalia x
Gupapuyngu
Gumbaynggirr no 343 done-Amalia 0
Gugu-Badhun no 142 done-Jessica 0
Yuwaalaraay No 82-3 0
Dyirbal No 89, 92 done-Amalia 0
Duungidjawu no 87 done 0
Djinang Yes 147 Done-Amalia 1
Djabugay done
Diyari no done-Hannah 0
Dharuk
Dharawal yes 55 done-Hannah w Dhurga) 1
Darkinyung no 37 done 0
Bularnu no 101 Done-Austin 0
Biri no 42-3 done-Jessica 0
Bidjara-Gungabula no 38 done-Jessica 0
Batyala no info Done-Amalia x
Arabana no 152-3 Done-Dan 0
Alyawarr no 57 done 0
Nyikina yes done-Claire 1
Yawuru Y-Claire
Ngarinyin
Yulparija Yes 30 Done-Amalia 1
Wathawurrung no 80 done 0
Mathi-Mathi no 99 done-Amalia 0
Hunter River and Lake Macquarie no 81, 82 done-Amalia 0
Thanggati no 52-3 done 0
Katthang yes 83 done-Amalia 1
Panyjima no 160, 191 done 0
Ngarinyeri No 29 done-Amalia 0
Kurrama no 144-5, 223 done-Dan 0
Yingkarta yes Done-Claire 1
Githabul No 15 Done-Amalia 0
Gunya No 330 Done-Amalia 0
Kunjen No 94 Done- 0
WesternTorres no info done x
Wakaya yes 103 done 1
Yindjilindji no 503 done 0
Bandjalang yes 91 Done-Amalia 1
Ngaatjatjara yes 61 done 1
Arrernte No 191 0
Kokatha no info x
Karajarri Yes 233 Done-Amalia 1
Pitjantjatjara Yes G 127 1
Ritharrngu Yes 61 Done-Amalia 1
Warrgamay No 75 Done-Amalia 0
Warluwarra no 867 Done-Amalia 0
Warnman Yes 37 Done-Amalia 1
Djapu yes 76 1
Bilinarra yes 5.2.4 done 1
Wiradjuri no? 17, m280-90 done 0
Aghu-Tharnggala Yes 90 Y2 1
Narungga No info done x
Tharrkari No 36 0
Wajarri Yes 108 1
Warungu no 516, 537 0
Adnyamathanha Y2
Yagua yes Payne and Payne 1990:275 Daniel Smith
Baniwa yes Ramirez 2001 Patience Epps