Cahuilla

Family
Uto-Aztecan
Region
North America
ISO 639-3
chl
Location
33.53°, -116.69°
Notes
Features
Basic Vocabulary
Flora Fauna Vocabulary
Cultural Vocabulary
Grammatical Data
Ethnographic Information
Data Sources
none


Basic Vocabulary (185)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Etymology Notes Source Created By
above encima, arriba acima location 7awsun unknown S&H 1979 Jane Hill
again de nuevo, otra vez de novo grammar missing Jane Hill
all todo todos other umun inheritance S&H 1979 Jane Hill
and y e grammar man inheritance S&H 1979 Jane Hill
ankle tobillo tornozelo body -'i kaw'a loan direction unknown S&H 1979 Jane Hill
armpit axila, sobaco axila body -kwal- (? from vb) inheritance S&H 1979 Jane Hill
ash ceniza(s) cinzas environment nisxish inheritance S&H 1979 Jane Hill
at en, a em, a location -va-, -pa inheritance Jane Hill
back espalda costas body hulul inheritance S&H 1979 Jane Hill
bad mal mal quality ele/le-ma loan direction unknown S&H 1979 Jane Hill
belly barriga barriga body te'i-ly loan S&H 1979 Jane Hill
below abajo, debajo abaixo location pe/-tuk (under) inheritance S&H 1979 Jane Hill
big grande grande quality 7amna- inheritance S&H 1979 Jane Hill
bite morder morder body -ke'- inheritance S&H 1979 Jane Hill
black negro preto colour tul-nek inheritance S&H 1979 Jane Hill
blood sangre sangue body ew-ily inheritance S&H 1979 Jane Hill
blow soplar soprar body pu'an-, -puwan- inheritance S&H 1979 Jane Hill
boil/pimple espinilla, granos espinha, borbulha body missing Jane Hill
bone hueso osso body te'i-ly (? = 'belly, stomach') loan S&H 1979 Jane Hill
breast pecho, seno peito body pi-ly inheritance S&H 1979 Jane Hill
breathe respirar respirar body -hikus- inheritance S&H 1979 Jane Hill
burn quemar queimar environment -chut- (tr.) unknown S&H 1979 Jane Hill
chew masticar, mascar mastigar body -mish inheritance S&H 1979 Jane Hill
child niño, niña criança human ki'at loan direction unknown S&H 1979 Jane Hill
climb subir subir motion -chawa- inheritance S&H 1979 Jane Hill
cloud nube nuvem environment wewni-sh (clouds) inheritance S&H 1979 Jane Hill
cold frío frio quality yuyma inheritance S&H 1979 Jane Hill
come venir vir motion -nek-en- inheritance S&H 1979 Jane Hill
cook cocinar cozinhar impact -kul- inheritance S&H 1979 Jane Hill
correct/true verdad, de veras verdade quality chepe/v loan direction unknown S&H 1979 Jane Hill
count contar contar mental -tewan- unknown S&H 1979 Jane Hill
cry llorar chorar mental -ngang- inheritance S&H 1979 Jane Hill
cut/hack cortar cortar impact -wek- inheritance S&H 1979 Jane Hill
day día dia time tamit inheritance S&H 1979 Jane Hill
die/be dead morir morrer state -muk- inheritance S&H 1979 Jane Hill
dig cavar cavar impact -walin- inheritance S&H 1979 Jane Hill
dingo/wolf fauna isi-ly (coyote) inheritance S&H 1979 Jane Hill
dirty sucio sujo quality selya/xama loan S&H 1979 Jane Hill
dream soñar sonhar mental -tet'ayaw- inheritance S&H 1979 Jane Hill
drink beber, tomar beber body -pa- inheritance S&H 1979 Jane Hill
dry seco seco quality -wax- (vb) inheritance S&H 1979 Jane Hill
dull/blunt sin filo, mocho, desafilado, embotado, romo maçante, desamolado, não afiado quality missing Jane Hill
dust polvo poeira environment muli-sh unknown S&H 1979 Jane Hill
ear oreja orelha body naq-al inheritance S&H 1979 Jane Hill
earth/soil tierra terra environment tema-l loan S&H 1979 Jane Hill
eat comer comer body -kwa'- inheritance S&H 1979 Jane Hill
egg huevo ovo fauna weevu' loan S&H 1979 Jane Hill
eye ojo olho body puch-ily inheritance S&H 1979 Jane Hill
faeces heces, mierda, excremento, estiércol fezes body -kwa'a unique S&H 1979 Jane Hill
fall caer cair motion -chavi- unknown S&H 1979 Jane Hill
far lejos longe quality pepiy loan direction unknown S&H 1979 Jane Hill
fat/grease grasa gordura body wi-ly inheritance S&H 1979 Jane Hill
father padre, papá pai kinship -na inheritance S&H 1979 Jane Hill
fear miedo medo mental -yuki- inheritance S&H 1979 Jane Hill
feather pluma pena fauna wikily inheritance S&H 1979 Jane Hill
fire fuego fogo environment ku-t inheritance S&H 1979 Jane Hill
fish xx xx fauna kiyul inheritance S&H 1979 Jane Hill
flow fluir fluir motion -wane- inheritance S&H 1979 Jane Hill
flower flor flor environment se'-ish inheritance S&H 1979 Jane Hill
fly volar voar motion -hing- inheritance S&H 1979 Jane Hill
fog niebla, neblina nevoeira, bruma, neblina environment haway-sh inheritance S&H 1979 Jane Hill
foot pie body -'i- inheritance S&H 1979 Jane Hill
fruit fruta fruta flora tu'-ish inheritance S&H 1979 Jane Hill
good bueno bom quality acha-'e inheritance S&H 1979 Jane Hill
grow crecer crescer state -wel- inheritance S&H 1979 Jane Hill
hair (of head) cabello cabelo body yuluka-l (head) inheritance S&H 1979 Jane Hill
hand mano mão body ma-l inheritance S&H 1979 Jane Hill
3sg el/ella ele/ela grammar pe' inheritance S&H 1979 Jane Hill
head cabeza cabeça body yuluka-l inheritance S&H 1979 Jane Hill
hear oír ouvir mental -naqma- inheritance S&H 1979 Jane Hill
heavy pesado pesado quality pele-ma inheritance S&H 1979 Jane Hill
hide esconder esconder motion -neng- inheritance S&H 1979 Jane Hill
hit golpear, pegar bater impact -pux (see also -vuk-) inheritance S&H 1979 Jane Hill
hold correr, asegurar, sostener segurar other -yaw- inheritance S&H 1979 Jane Hill
how? como como grammar mexanuk inheritance S&H 1979 Jane Hill
1sg yo eu grammar ne' inheritance S 1977 Jane Hill
if si se grammar hawa unknown S&H 1979 Jane Hill
in/inside dentro, adentro dentro location pe-tuk inheritance S&H 1979 Jane Hill
intestines intestinos intestinos body sa'i-ly inheritance S&H 1979 Jane Hill
itch hormiguear, sentir comezón coçar body -saqa- loan direction unknown S&H 1979 Jane Hill
kill matar matar impact -mek-an- inheritance S&H 1979 Jane Hill
know/be knowledgeable saber, conecer saber, conhecer mental -'e'nan- inheritance S&H 1979 Jane Hill
lake lago lago environment pal muye-qal-et unique S&H 1979 Jane Hill
laugh reír rir mental -sem- inheritance S&H 1979 Jane Hill
leaf hoja folha environment pala-t loan S&H 1979 Jane Hill
left/left hand izquierdo esquerdo location/body ishva inheritance S&H 1979 Jane Hill
leg/foot pierna perna body -'i inheritance S&H 1979 Jane Hill
lie down acostarse, echarse deitar motion -max- unknown S&H 1979 Jane Hill
lightning rayo, relámpago relampago environment tawva-l te7ayaw7a “thunder power” unique S&H 1979 Jane Hill
live/be alive vivir viver, morar body kwapiqalet “living” unknown S&H 1979 Jane Hill
liver hígado figado body -nem'a inheritance S&H 1979 Jane Hill
long largo comprido, longo quality wavu-ma inheritance S&H 1979 Jane Hill
louse piollo, piojo piolho fauna sa'wal (head) inheritance S&H 1979 Jane Hill
lung pulmón pulmão body yavayva unique S&H 1979 Jane Hill
man/male hombre homem human naxanish loan S&H 1979 Jane Hill
meat/flesh carne carne fauna wa'ish inheritance S&H 1979 Jane Hill
moon luna lua environment menily inheritance S&H 1979 Jane Hill
mother madre, mamá mãe kinship -ye inheritance S&H 1979 Jane Hill
mouth boca boca body tama-l inheritance S&H 1979 Jane Hill
name nombre nome human tew-al inheritance S&H 1979 Jane Hill
nape base del cuello, nuca nuca body missing Jane Hill
near/close cerca de perto quality sunchi unknown S&H 1979 Jane Hill
neck cuello pescoço body -qily7i inheritance S&H 1979 Jane Hill
new nuevo novo quality pangish (in “new moon” inheritance S&H 1979 Jane Hill
night noche noite time tukmiyat inheritance S&H 1979 Jane Hill
no/not no não grammar ki'i (no), kilye (not) unique S&H 1979 Jane Hill
nose nariz nariz body -mu-l inheritance S&H 1979 Jane Hill
old viejo velho quality missing S&H 1979 Jane Hill
one uno um number suplye inheritance S&H 1979 Jane Hill
open/uncover abrir abrir other -hakush unknown S&H 1979 Jane Hill
other otro outro grammar supul inheritance S&H 1979 Jane Hill
pain/painful/sick dolor, doloroso, enfermo dor, doloroso, doente body -qelya- (feel sore) inheritance S&H 1979 Jane Hill
person/human being persona pessoa human taxliswet inheritance S&H 1979 Jane Hill
pound/beat machacar, golpear bater impact -tula- inheritance S&H 1979 Jane Hill
rain lluvia chuva environment wewni-sh (rain, clouds) inheritance S&H 1979 Jane Hill
red rojo vermelho colour selnek-ish inheritance S&H 1979 Jane Hill
right/right hand derecha direita location/body acha-ma inheritance S&H 1979 Jane Hill
road/path camino caminho manufacture pit inheritance S&H 1979 Jane Hill
root raíz raiz flora -wala- (vb) inheritance S&H 1979 Jane Hill
rotten podrido podre quality pis'ish (that which is rotten) inheritance S&H 1979 Jane Hill
sand arena areia environment ngachi-sh unique S&H 1979 Jane Hill
say decir dizer mental -yax- H150 inheritance S&H 1979 Jane Hill
scratch rascar rasgar impact -saluk-H149 inheritance S&H 1979 Jane Hill
see ver ver mental -teew- inheritance S&H 1979 Jane Hill
sharp afilado, filudo, filoso afiado quality tama-wet (that which is sharp) inheritance S&H 1979 Jane Hill
shoot tirar, disparar, balear atirar impact -mux- inheritance S&H 1979 Jane Hill
short corto curto quality -tuqi- unknown S&H 1979 Jane Hill
shoulder hombro ombro body -sek'a inheritance S&H 1979 Jane Hill
shy/ashamed tímido, vergonzoso timido, com vergonha mental -sun-ha/man- (vb) inheritance S&H 1979 Jane Hill
sit sentar(se) sentar state -chi'a- unknown S&H 1979 Jane Hill
skin piel pele body sava-l unique S&H 1979 Jane Hill
sky cielo céu environment tukvash inheritance S&H 1979 Jane Hill
sleep dormir dormir body -kup- inheritance S&H 1979 Jane Hill
small pequeño pequeno quality inish-ily inheritance S&H 1979 Jane Hill
smoke humo fumaça environment mi'-at inheritance S&H 1979 Jane Hill
sniff/smell olfatear, oler cheirar body -huvi- inheritance S&H 1979 Jane Hill
spit escupir cuspir body -chu'an- inheritance S&H 1979 Jane Hill
split partir, dividir rachar, dividir, partir impact -chapi- unknown S&H 1979 Jane Hill
squeeze estrujar, exprimir espremer impact kwiche7an- “to wring” inheritance S&H 1979 Jane Hill
stab/pierce apuñalar, acuchillar apunhalar impact -qachin- unique S&H 1979 Jane Hill
stand estar de pié ficar em pé state -wewen- inheritance S&H 1979 Jane Hill
star estrella estrela environment su'we-t inheritance S&H 1979 Jane Hill
steal robar roubar other -'eyetu- inheritance S&H 1979 Jane Hill
stick/wood palo pau, vara flora kelaw-at inheritance S&H 1979 Jane Hill
stone piedra pedra environment qawish inheritance S&H 1979 Jane Hill
suck chupar chupar body -chung- inheritance S&H 1979 Jane Hill
sweat sudar suor, suar body e'wa'al inheritance S&H 1979 Jane Hill
swell hincharse inchar body -patish-L210I inheritance S&H 1979 Jane Hill
swim nadar nadar motion panga waye- inheritance S&H 1979 Jane Hill
tail cola, rabo rabo body -kwas inheritance S&H 1979 Jane Hill
that ese/esa esse grammar pe' inheritance S 1977 Jane Hill
3pl ellos/ellas eles/elas grammar pemem inheritance S 1977 Jane Hill
thick grueso, gordo, espeso grosso quality chiki-ma unique S&H 1979 Jane Hill
thin delgado fino quality yawi-sh (skinny one) inheritance S&H 1979 Jane Hill
think pensar pensar mental -sichu/min- unknown S&H 1979 Jane Hill
this este/esta este grammar 7i7 inheritance S&H 1979 Jane Hill
2sg xx xx grammar 7e (final 7 too but ods doesn't like) inheritance S 1977 Jane Hill
three tres tres number pah inheritance S&H 1979 Jane Hill
throat garganta garganta body kuspi-ly (outside) inheritance S&H 1979 Jane Hill
throw tirar, lanzar atirar, jogar impact 7am-in “throw away” inheritance S&H 1979 Jane Hill
thunder truenos trovão environment tawva-l inheritance S&H 1979 Jane Hill
tie up/fasten atar, amarrar amarrar impact -kawi-n- unknown S&H 1979 Jane Hill
tongue lengua lingua body -nang-ily inheritance S&H 1979 Jane Hill
tooth diente dente body tama-l inheritance S&H 1979 Jane Hill
turn girar, volter, torcer virar other -meye- inheritance S&H 1979 Jane Hill
two dos dois number wih inheritance S&H 1979 Jane Hill
vomit vomitar vomitar body -pipivis- inheritance S&H 1979 Jane Hill
walk caminar, andar andar motion -nem- inheritance S&H 1979 Jane Hill
water agua agua environment pa-l inheritance S&H 1979 Jane Hill
1pl.excl nosotros (exclusivo) nós (exclusivo) grammar chem inheritance S 1977 Jane Hill
1pl.incl nosotros (inclusivo) nós (inclusivo) grammar chem inheritance S 1977 Jane Hill
wet mojado molhado quality pal-(n)ek unique S&H 1979 Jane Hill
what? que, qué que grammar hiche'a inheritance S&H 1979 Jane Hill
when? cuando quando grammar mipa unknown S&H 1979 Jane Hill
where? donde onde grammar miva' inheritance S&H 1979 Jane Hill
white blanco branco colour tevish-nek inheritance S&H 1979 Jane Hill
who? quien, quién quem grammar hax'i inheritance S&H 1979 Jane Hill
wife esposa esposa kinship kinang-ily unique S&H 1979 Jane Hill
wind viento vento environment ya'i unique S&H 1979 Jane Hill
wing ala asa body waka-t unique S&H 1979 Jane Hill
woman/female mujer mulher human nyichily inheritance S&H 1979 Jane Hill
work trabajar trabalhar other -tuvxa/- (Sp.) loan S&H 1979 Jane Hill
yawn bostezar bocejar body -kakape- inheritance S&H 1979 Jane Hill
yellow amarillo amarelo colour tesnek-ish unknown S&H 1979 Jane Hill
2pl ustedes vocês grammar et inheritance S&H 1979 Jane Hill


Flora Fauna Vocabulary (127)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Linnean Name Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Range of Term Word Structure Word Structure Notes Classifier Classifier Notes Hypernym Source Association with Social Categories Ritual/Mythologically Significant Ritual Notes Food Source Food Notes Medicinal Medicinal Notes How Collected Who Collects How Prepared Psychotropic Psychotropic Notes Traded Trade Notes Distribution Habitat Dangerous Ethnobiology Notes Species Notes General Notes Created By
ant (generic) hormiga formiga flora-fauna Formicidae ʔánet ˈʔanet ant, big ant inheritance *ʔalɨn- Uto-Aztecan S44 (Stubbs 2009:44) narrower (Seiler and Hioki 1979:16 say is “big ant”, while kuvishnily, the black ant, is generic for “small ant”. This word also means “red ant”. other complex 7ane-t -7aʃ "pet" probably possessive classifier -7ash Seiler&Hioki 1979:16 no info 0 Ant ceremony, in Cupeno and Luiseno, is not recorded even for Mountain Cahuilla 0 ants and larvae eaten no info gathered (wild) All anthill swarms with larvae pushed into pits with hot rocks and roasted, also boiled 0 0 All Americas Diverse habitats no
antelope flora-fauna Antilocapra americana ténilʸ ˈteniʎ antelope inheritance *tɨn(nV)- Northern Uto-Aztecan S52 (Stubbs 2009:45), the *tɨm(V)nV- possibility is worth considering. May be a loan into PNUA from Proto-Kiowa-Tanoan. same other complex teni-ly -7aʃ "pet" animal is -7ash; the meat is with a meat classifier, usually -sex7a “cooked item” or -wa7 “roasted item” (Seiler 1977:304-5) suqtam “game” (literally, deer-plural) Seiler & Hioki 1979:2009 no info 2 1 no info hunted Men boiled, roasted 0 0 Western North America open areas no
badger flora-fauna Taxidea taxus húnal ˈhunal badger inheritance *hula- Uto-Aztecan S105 (Stubbs 2009:53) same other complex huna-l -7aʃ "pet" animal is -7ash; the meat is with a meat classifier, usually -sex7a “cooked item” or -wa7 “roasted item” (Seiler 1977:304-5) Seiler & Hioki 1979:60 Badger is a Wildcat Moiety Animal (Strong 1929:109) 2 1 considered especially palatable, but dangerous to hunt (Bean 1972:63) no info hunted Men boiled, roasted 0 0 North America chaparral, woodlands yes
bald eagle flora-fauna Haliaeetus leucocephalus pah-moos ˈpamuɁiʃ Bald eagle inheritance *pamu7- Cupan Luiseño pam7ush “bald eagle”, Cupeño pa7mush “bird sp., a water bird”; not in Stubbs same derived May have the pa- prefix. Merriam gives pahmoos for Palm Springs dialect, but pah'-mo-is for all others (Cahuilla does not have /o/) -7aʃ “pet” Possessive classifier -7aʃ wikikmal (?) http://www.archive.org/stream/bancroft_chartmerriam_1556_60#page/n155/mode/2up, p. 163 Bald Eagle is a Wildcat Moiety animal (Strong 1929:109) 1 Eagles ceremonially raised and killed at Eagle Dance (see Strong 1929:83-4); feathers used in dance skirts, headdressed 2 Bean 1972:60 says eagles not eaten. Killed eagles were buried ceremonially after feathers were collected. 1 feathers used for shaman's wands, fans hunted Men eaglets captured and kept alive, raised to maturity for the dance. Feathers used for eagle-feather ceremonial skirts. 0 1 feathered skirts were traded North America Prefers habitat with large areas of water; this is a fishing bird no
band-tail pigeon flora-fauna Patagioenas fasciata máxiwet ˈmaxiwet Band-tail pigeon, Patagioenas fasciata inheritance *makahVwi Uto-Aztecan S676 (Stubbs 2009:126). The augmentative -wɨ suffix is not part of the protoform. same derived Probably ˈmaxi-wet “dove-augmentative” (although S&H give a word tax-max-i-wet “one who gives things away”) -7aʃ “pet” Possessive classifier -7aʃ wikikmal http://www.archive.org/stream/bancroft_chartmerriam_1556_60#page/n155/mode/2up p. 165 no info 0 1 no info hunted All roasted, stewed, eggs eaten 0 0 All Americas Oak and pine forests, feeds on acorns no
bat murciélago morcego flora-fauna Chiroptera spp pálil ˈpalil bat (the animal) inheritance *pati7a/*paCti7a “bat”; *pata “fly” Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2009:56-57 derives from *pati7a/*paCti7a “bat” (S124). But Numic and Cora all have pa[c/ch]a, which should reflect *paCtsV. -Cts- regularly yields Cahuilla /s/, not /l/. A problematic set. Note *pata “fly” S902, p. 153. same other complex pali (simplex root)-l (non-possessed noun suffix) -7aʃ “pet” takes possessive classifier -7aʃ (Seiler 1977:305 Seiler&Hioki 1979:140 no info 0 Bats are often associated with mediation with underworld, but I find no information for Cahuilla. Bat was defeated by Coyote in a gambling game (Seiler 1970:58) 1 no info N/A N/A N/A 0 0 Ubiquitous, since species is not known all habitats no
beaver flora-fauna Castor missing missing missing 2 1 0 0 0 no
beetle flora-fauna Coleoptera spp sískiŋilʸ ˈsiskiŋiʎ stinkbug inheritance *sisiko(ŋi) Californian S312 (Stubbs 2009:83); surely Tubatulabal shikkol “lizard sp.” is also in this set same (for “stinkbug”); Luiseño cognate /sisqila/ is generic for “beetle” (Elliott 1999:1225) other complex ˈsiskiŋi-ʎ; long root may be derived; I've always wondered about si-si “repeatedly urinate” (this beetle sprays from tail); Luiseño is /sisqila/ -7aʃ "pet" possibly possessive classifier -7ash Seiler&Hioki 1979:186 no info 2 0 no info no info no info no info 0 0 Global Diverse habitats no
big round tule flora-fauna Schoenoplectus acutus páʔul ˈpaʔul tule unique same other complex pa7u-l -m-exan-7a "inanimate" -m-exan-7a Seiler&Hioki 1979:146 no info 2 images at Burning, sacred bundle made of tule 1 “people used to eat the root, tasted like celery”, seeds, pollen also eaten 0 gathered (wild) women roots ground into a sweet flour, seeds eaten raw or cooked in mush, pollen used for cakes 0 0 California and southern US into Mexico wet areas throughout territory no
big skunk flora-fauna Mephitis mephitis tékʷel ˈtekʷel skunk inheritance * -tɨkʷɨ Cupan S1984 (Stubbs 2009:275); Luiseño paalukut “big skunk” and tukyaspal “spotted skunk” should be included here. This may be a Yuman loan: Proto-Yuman *xwiw (*kłʸikʷ) “skunk” with te- “earth” unclear other complex tekwe-l -7aʃ "pet" animal is -7ash; the meat is with a meat classifier, usually -sex7a “cooked item” or -wa7 “roasted item” (Seiler 1977:304-5) Seiler & Hioki 1979:207 no info 2 2 not a preferred game animal no info hunted Men boiled, roasted (cleaned VERY carefully, I imagine) 0 0 North America Diverse habitats no
big wolf (gray wolf) flora-fauna Canis lupus ʔíswet ˈʔiswet wolf inheritance *ʔisa-wɨ- Northern Uto-Aztecan S552 (Stubbs 2009:112); this particular derivation for “Wolf” restricted to Takic same derived 7is-wet coyote-augmentative -7aʃ “pet” Possessive classifier -7aʃ Seiler&Hioki 1979:66 Wolf is a Coyote Moiety animal (Strong 1929:109) 1 shamanic animal 2 meat restricted to very old people, powerful shamans (Bean 1972:63) no info hunted Men for skin, but very rarely hunted 0 0 Americas Diverse habitats yes
bighorn sheep flora-fauna Ovis canadensis páʔat ˈpaʔat mountain sheep inheritance *paʔaC- Northern Uto-Aztecan S204 (Stubbs 2009:67); may be a Proto-Kiowa-tanoan loan into Proto NUA same other complex pa7a-t -7aʃ "pet" animal is -7ash; the meat is with a meat classifier, usually -sex7a “cooked item” or -wa7 “roasted item” (Seiler 1977:304-5) suqtam “game” (literally, deer-plural) Seiler & Hioki 1979:145 no info 2 1 hunting rules uncertain, but these are very hard to hunt no info hunted Men boiled, roasted 0 0 I'll bet horn sets were traded Western North America Steep slopes no
bird pajaro, ave passaro flora-fauna wíkikmal ˈwikikmal bird inheritance *wiCtiki Uto-Aztecan S205, with consonant assimilation *tVk > kVk. (Stubbs 2009:67) same derived wikik (root) -mal (diminutive; always shows non-possessed -l) -7aʃ “pet” takes possessive classifier -7aʃ (Seiler 1977:305 Seiler&Hioki 1979:241 no info 0 see individual birds 0 no info hunted All roasted, stewed, eggs eaten 0 0 feathers and featherwork were trade items Ubiquitous, since species is not known all habitats no
black ant flora-fauna Camponotus pennsylvanicus/Lasius niger kúvišnilʸ ˈkuviʃniʎ small ant inheritance *kusin(pa) Cupan Also in Cupeño. S48 (Stubbs 2009:44) suggests O'odham 7uhimal “large velvet-covered ant”, which seems unlikely. Cahuilla has a metathesis broader (while this is the word for a small black ant, it is also the generic for “small ant” derived In Cupeño, word is ku$ín-ve-l “take.away-er”; Cahuilla ˈkuviʃni-ʎ must have similar derivation in the long root. Has there been metathesis? Which way? -7aʃ "pet" possibly possessive classifier -7ash Seiler&Hioki 1979:87 no info 2 0 ants and larvae eaten no info gathered (wild) All anthill swarms with larvae pushed into pits with hot rocks and roasted, also boiled 0 0 All Americas Diverse habitats no
black bear flora-fauna Ursus americanus húnwet ˈhunwet bear inheritance *huna-wɨ-ta Californian S132 (Stubbs 2009:59). This is “big badger”; badger, *hura(p), is UA etymon. But only means “bear” in California. broader (includes any bear) derived hun-wet “badger-augmentative” (presumably a euphemism) -7aʃ "pet" possesive classifier -7aʃ "pet" Seiler & Hioki 1979:60 no info 1 shamanism 2 only old people, shamans could eat (Bean 1972:63) no info hunted Men for skins,teeth, claws, for shamanic use, but very rarely hunted 0 0 Cahuillas consistently report that black bears didn't occur in their area chaparral, woodlands yes
black-tail Jackrabbit flora-fauna Lepus californicus súʔiš ˈsuʔiʃ jack rabbit, rabbit (gener.) inheritance *suuʔit Uto-Aztecan S1713 (Stubbs 2009:243); I give Manaster-Ramer's reconstruction broader (generic for “rabbit” according to Seiler & Hioki) other complex súʔi-š -7aʃ "pet" animal is -7ash; the meat is with a meat classifier, usually -sex7a “cooked item” or -wa7 “roasted item” (Seiler 1977:304-5) Seiler & Hioki 1979:195 no info 2 1 unmarried boys could not eat their own small game; they gave it to another family (often the mother's family) (Strong 1929:78) no info hunted Men boiled, roasted 0 0 North America Flat open areas no
blackberry flora-fauna Rubus ursinus píklʸam ˈpikʎam strawberry, any kind of berries inheritance *pikwa- Takic S182 (Stubbs 2009:64); I don't like Stubbs' Chemehuevi form pipikura, probably a loan broader (this is a generic for “berry”) other complex Bean & Saubel 1972:134 give pikw-lya-m, which I heard Saubel say too. -m is plural suffix. -7ay-'a "picking-possessed.noun" -7ay-'a "picking-possessed.noun" (probably; this is classifier for fresh fruits plucked from plant) Seiler&Hioki 1979:152 no info 2 1 usually eaten fresh, but dried berries also used 1 roots boiled into tea for mild diarrhea gathered (wild) women dried berries boiled in a small quantity of water (to rehydrate?) Occasionally half-ripe berries soaked in water to make beverage 0 0 Western North America Upper Sonoran and transitional life-zones no
blue grouse flora-fauna Dendrogapus? missing in all sources missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 Map at http://www.allaboutbirds.org/guide/Sooty_Grouse/id suggests this species does not come as far south as Cahuilla. I don't know why it's in Merriam's list for California, mainly a Rocky Mountain bird scrublands, woodlands (Habitats from Wikipedia unless otherwise noted) no
bobcat, lynx flora-fauna Lynx rufus túkut ˈtukut wild cat inheritance *tuCkuC- Northern Uto-Aztecan S1306 (Stubbs 2009:200). This is a California Wanderwort; Great Basin forms giving NUA are surely loans. But loan may be early because Hopi has regular vocalism. WW %tuku same other complex tuku-t -'kiʎiw “partner” Possessive classifier -'kiʎiw “partner” (because is moiety animal) (Seiler 1977:306) Seiler & Hioki 1979:219 totem of Wildcat Moiety 1 lineage-associated ritual, enemy songs 2 Only very old people would eat this animal (Strong 1929:77) no info hunted Men skins 0 0 North America Diverse habitats no
butterfly, moth mariposa borboleta flora-fauna Lepidoptera málmal ˈmalmal butterfly inheritance *mal- Cupan Note Cupeño malval “butterfly” unclear; Merriam has several words for butterfly, does not get this one for Desert Cahuilla, does not list as generic other complex malma-l (may have reduplication but this is not clear) -7aʃ "pet" possibly possessive classifier -7ash Seiler&Hioki 1979:100 no info 2 0 caterpillars of many species eaten no info no info no info no info 0 0 Americas Diverse habitats no
California condor flora-fauna Gymnogyps californianus yúŋaviwet ˈjuŋaviwet eagle with white circular stripes on the wings inheritance *juŋa:pi- Takic S336 (Stubbs 2009:87). This is probably juŋ -a-pi where *a is the ablaut vowel induced by -pi. But I don't know what *juŋ- means! Elliott 1999 has junga “archaic word for “to dance”) same derived ˈjuŋavi-wet “vulture-augmentative” -7aʃ “pet” Possessive classifier -7aʃ wikikmal (?) Seiler&Hioki 1979:256 Condor is a Coyote Moiety animal (Strong 1929:109) 1 Merriam says “this and eagle buried with people” at 60-163 2 If they were buried, seems unlikely they were eaten. Bean 1972:60 says ceremonially important birds were not eaten. no info hunted Men no info 0 1 U. S. Southwest Rocky scrubland, woodland (they like cliffs) no
California jay flora-fauna Aphelocoma californica? čáʔiš ˈʧaʔiʃ bluejay without a crest loan into protolanguage *cha7i- Northern Uto-Aztecan unknown S209, Central Numic, Chemehuevi, Tubatulabal, Takic, always “blue jay” (Stubbs 2009:68). Note similar words in Yokutsan, Chumash ch'ay' WW %chaj same other complex ʹʧaɂi (simplex root)-ʃ (non-possessed noun) -7aʃ “pet” takes possessive classifier -7aʃ (Seiler 1977:305 wikikmal Seiler&Hioki 1979:75 no info 2 1 Jays cache food; owners of trees collected tree caches for human use no info hunted All roasted, stewed, eggs eaten 0 0 I have not seen jay feathers mentioned as trade items throughout western North America (distributions from Wikipedia unless otherwise noted) scrublands, woodlands (Habitats from Wikipedia unless otherwise noted) no
California woodpecker flora-fauna Melanerpes formicivorus? kúpanilʸ ˈkupaniʎ woodpecker unique May be related to Cupeño tukupuwet “woodpecker” (tu-kupa-we-t “acorns-woodpecker-augmentative-npn”??? (tu from tu'ish “crop”??) WW %palaka ~ %pana(k) same other complex ˈkupani-ʎ no obvious etymology for root -7aʃ “pet” Possessive classifier -7aʃ wikikmal Seiler&Hioki 1979:85 A bird of the Coyote moiety (Strong 1929:71) 2 Woodpecker feathers often important in ritual, no info for Cahuilla. Woodpecker could never learn to dance at creation time, which is why he jumps up and down (Seiler 1970:44). Woodpecker still says “Piam!” “bewitch him” (Op.cit. p.48) 1 This bird caches acorns one by one, but no mention of Indians taking advantage of these no info hunted All roasted, stewed, eggs eaten 0 1 Southern Oregon, California, south to Colombia Oak woodlands no
chia flora-fauna Salvia columbariae pásal ˈpasal columbariae, ground wheat, chia inheritance *pasa/i Californian S1599 (Stubbs 2009:233). Only Numic is Tumpisa Shoshone, almost certainly a loan from Tubatulabal. This shows up in Chumash, itepesh(Ventureno), Salinan, may be an old Californianism. WW %pasv same other complex pasa-l -kíɂiw-ɂa “my waiting, my claim” possessive classifier -kíɂiw-ɂa “my waiting, my claim” (Seiler 1977:301) Seiler&Hioki 1979:141 no info 1 1 most important seed source 1 chia mush used as poultice for infections Gathered (wild but closely managed) women seeds hulled, parched, ground into flour, mixed with other wild seeds in mush 0 0 California and Southwest Below 6000 feet in dry open areas, extensive stands in chaparral no
chipmunk flora-fauna Tamias spp. wis'-koo 72-11, 60-161 ˈwiskun (note Luiseño wiskun “chipmunk”, Elliott 1999:1283), and Merriam has final /n/ in other dialects Tamias spp., chipmunk inheritance *wiskun Takic In several languages and non-correspondent; loan into Proto-Takic?? unclear underived note absence of NPN suffix; presumably a loan -7aʃ "pet" animal is -7ash; the meat is with a meat classifier, usually -sex7a “cooked item” or -wa7 “roasted item” (Seiler 1977:304-5) http://www.archive.org/stream/bancroft_chartmerriam_1556_60#page/n155/mode/2up; p. 161 no info 2 1 no info hunted Men boiled, roasted 0 0 North America woodlands no
cliff swallow flora-fauna Petrochelidon pyrrhonota yūn-ning-mo'-nil no Luiseno form to help Cliff swallow unique same derived Word is too long to have simplex root, has final -l -7aʃ “pet” takes possessive classifier -7aʃ (Seiler 1977:305 wikikmal http://www.archive.org/stream/bancroft_chartmerriam_1556_60#page/n155/mode/2up; p. 167 no info 2 1 no info hunted All roasted, stewed, eggs eaten 0 0 Breed in North America Cliffs (and now in/on buildings) no
coot flora-fauna Fulica americana tan'-no-mal no Luiseno form to help Coot, Fulica unique same derived ends in -mal “diminutive”; Merriam recorded tanu-wet in other dialects. Meaning of root unknown tanu? tanew? -7aʃ “pet” Possessive classifier -7aʃ sásaymalʸem? http://www.archive.org/stream/bancroft_chartmerriam_1556_60#page/n155/mode/2up; p. 171 no info 2 Bird songs are all about water birds, but I don't know if this bird is mentioned 1 Water birds are an important food source. no info hunted Men roasted, stewed, eggs eaten 0 0 West coastal and southern North America to Central America Wetlands, open water no
cottontail rabbit flora-fauna Sylvilagus audobonii távut ˈtavut cottontail inheritance *tapuC Uto-Aztecan S1707 (Stubbs 2009:242) same other complex tavu-t -7aʃ "pet" animal is -7ash; the meat is with a meat classifier, usually -sex7a “cooked item” or -wa7 “roasted item” (Seiler 1977:304-5) Seiler & Hioki 1979:200 no info 2 1 unmarried boys could not eat their own small game; they gave it to another family (often the mother's family) (Strong 1929:78) no info hunted Men boiled, roasted 0 0 North America Diverse habitats no
cottonwood flora-fauna Populus spp. lávalvanet ˈlavalvanet cottonwood tree loan Yokuts Note Bankalachi lap-pah 72-79, 60-467; Yowlumne lah'-pah (Merriam 58:565) WW %pat ~ %lapat same other complex lavalvane-t (root must be derived somehow) -m-exan-7a "inanimate" -m-exan-7a (inanimate classifier) Seiler&Hioki 1979:95 no info 2 0 Bean & Saubel 1972:106 note that edible mushrooms were found on dead cottonwood brances 1 leaves and bark boiled for poultices for muscle strain, headaches, cuts, saddle sores and swollen legs of horses. gathered (wild) women Boil water, bark, and leaves and use for soaking injured limb or for poultice 0 0 Southern Canada south to northern Mexico Moist places below 6,500 feet no
coyote flora-fauna Canis latrans ʔísilʸ ˈʔisiʎ coyote inheritance *ʔisa- Northern Uto-Aztecan S552 (Stubbs 2009:112) same other complex 7is(i)-ʎ simplex root-non.possessed.noun suffix. Has irregular plural 7is-ta-m. -'kiʎiw “partner” Possessive classifier -'kiʎiw “partner” (because is moiety animal) (Seiler 1977:306) Seiler&Hioki 1979:66 totem of Coyote Moiety 1 One of the original four animals, a great shaman, but created by Temayewet, not Mukat, so 7istam (Strong 1929:72). Skins used as ceremonial objects (Bean 1972:63) Coyote gave first Burning (Image festival) (Seiler 1970:58) 2 Only very old people would eat this animal (Strong 1929:77) no info hunted Men skins 0 0 North and Central America Diverse habitats no
crow flora-fauna Corvus brachyrhynchos ʔálwet ʹɂalwet crow loan into protolanguage *ʔata-wɨ-ta Northern Uto-Aztecan Yokuts S582 (Stubbs 2009:116); Loaned into Yokuts, or maybe from Yokuts?? Is it really NUA? WW %alwut same derived ʹɂal-wet mock-augmentative (probably, if this is of Takic origin) -7aʃ “pet” Possessive classifier -7aʃ wikikmal Seiler&Hioki 1979:14 Crow is a Wildcat Moiety Animal (Strong 1929:109) 2 1 no info hunted All roasted, stewed, eggs eaten 0 0 All Americas Diverse habitats no
datura flora-fauna Datura wrightii kíkesewvaʔal ˈkikesewvaʔal Jimsonweed unique same derived ˈkikesew-vaʔa-l “to.get.drunk-agentive-non.possessed.noun” unknown This really should have a special classifier but none is reported Seiler&Hioki 1979:78 no info 1 drunk for hallucinations; to boys at initiation ceremony, occasional in shamanism and for stamina in hunting, dancing, singing (including by women), and for keen senses in gambling (Bean and Saubel 1972:60-65) 1 1 paste of leaves as painkiller for bone injuries, insect bites; steam from leaf infusion as inhaler (contains atropine); shamans may use in diagnosis (Bean and Saubel 1972:61-2) gathered (wild) Men for ceremonies, preparation is by /net/: roots are dried, ground in special ceremonial mortar, mixed with water, and drunk. For steaming, leaves are boiled in water. For paste, leaves are ground with other plant parts. 1 hallucinations 0 US Southwest, California, Mexico “sandy, gravelly, open areas below 4000 feet throughout Southern California” (Bean & Saubel 1972:60) yes
deer, mule flora-fauna Odocoileus hemionus súkat ˈsukat deer inheritance *suCkaC- Uto-Aztecan S621 (Stubbs 2009:121) WW %sok narrower (refers only to mule deer; where found, white-tail has a different name) other complex suka-t (Seiler & Hioki segment as suk-at) -7aʃ "pet" animal is -7ash; the meat is with a meat classifier, usually -sex7a “cooked item” or -wa7 “roasted item” (Seiler 1977:304-5) suqtam “game” (literally, deer-plural) Seiler & Hioki 1979:188 no info 2 deer hooves used in ceremonial costumes 1 Deer taken to net's house and distributed. First kill of a young man was given to his mother's clan (Strong 1929:77) no info hunted Men roasted, stewed 0 0 Western North America Diverse habitats no
digger pine flora-fauna Pinus sabiniana yúyivaš ˈjujivaʃ pines with long needles unique contains “snow” element broader (any long-needled pine that isn't wexet, tall pine) derived ˈjuji-va-ʃ juj(i) “snow”; -va ? - nominalizer -ki7iw7a "waiting, claim" ?? I don't think this gets -ki7iw7a, “Digger Pines” not noted by Seiler 1977 or Bean and Saubel in this connection Seiler&Hioki 1979:257 no info 2 1 no info no info no info no info 0 0 Southern California and Baja California Pinus coulteri is generally above 4000 feet no
dog (camp, domestic) perro cachorro flora-fauna Canis familiaris ʔáwal ˈʔawal dog inheritance *awa:-la Takic S670 (Stubbs 2009:125) same other complex ˈʔawa-l -7aʃ “pet” Possessive classifier -7aʃ Seiler&Hioki 1979:18 7a7walem, a lineage at Martinez (Seiler and Hioki 1979:18) 0 dogs have souls and understand human speech so can be messengers for shamans (Bean 1972:64) 0 only for famine times (Bean 1972:64) no info N/A N/A treated respectfully, fed 0 0 All Americas with humans no
dogbane flora-fauna Apocynum cannabinum missing missing missing Bean & Saubel 1972:39 no info 2 1 2 0 0 no
dove paloma pomba flora-fauna Zenaida macrocoura máxayilʸ ˈmaxajiʎ dove inheritance *makahVwi Uto-Aztecan S676 (Stubbs 2009:126); presumably in this word Cahuilla lost -w- from the Protoform. same other complex ˈmaxaji-ʎ; root looks possibly complex but no obvious source -7aʃ “pet” Possessive classifier -7aʃ wikikmal Seiler&Hioki 1979:103 no info 2 Lightfoot & Parrish 2009:360 say Kumeyaay, adjacent to Cahuilla, believed doves to be reincarnated souls. It seems likely Cahuilla shared this idea. 1 no info hunted All roasted, stewed, eggs eaten 0 0 Southern Canada to Mexico Prefers open areas, avoids dense forests no
duck pato pato, marreco flora-fauna Anatidae sásaymalʸem ˈsasajmaʎem wild ducks inheritance *saya(C) Northern Uto-Aztecan S217 (and 710) Stubbs 2009:69, very consistently for “coot, mud-hen” except in Cahuilla, Cupeño narrower (apparently does not include domestic ducks, paatu7um) derived contains -mal “diminutive” and is reduplicated from saji-ʎ (see below). Seiler & Hioki's form is a plural but Merriam gives sah-si-mal, a singular. -7aʃ “pet” Possessive classifier -7aʃ wikikmal ? Seiler and Hioki 1979:177; Merriam confirms “all ducks” at http://www.archive.org/stream/bancroft_chartmerriam_1556_60#page/n189/mode/2up p. 201 no info 0 bird songs are all about water birds and have to do with Cahuilla history 1 Water birds are an important food source. no info hunted Men roasted, stewed, eggs eaten 0 0 Americas Wetlands, open water no
elder flora-fauna Sambucus húnkat ˈhunkat elderberry, elder inheritance *ku'u, kuhu Californian This really looks like Numic *kunuki; is there a loan going around here? Other Cupan have ku7ut, which in Ca is Typha sp.. See Gab huka:t, perhaps in S179 same other complex hunka-t (Bean & Saubel 1972:138 give hunqwa-t) -m-exan-7a "inanimate" -m-exan-7a (inanimate classifier) for plants, -7ay'a "picking" for berries Seiler&Hioki 1979:60 no info 2 1 elderberry sauce from dried berries, berries eaten fresh 1 blossoms in tea for fever, upset stomach, colds, flu. Roots boiled for constipation. Can be poisonous. Gathered (wild but closely managed) All berries dried on drying floor and preserved for sweet sauce; today used for jams and jellies 0 0 North America Below 4500 feet in moist areas no
elk flora-fauna Cervas elaphus missing missing missing 2 1 0 0 0 no
fish (generic) pez peixe flora-fauna kíyul ˈkijul fish inheritance <*kïcuC> fish (Manaster Ramer 1992: 257) Uto-Aztecan S864 (Stubbs 2009;147) same other complex ˈkiju-l simplex root -non.possessed.noun suffix -7aʃ “pet” possessed with possessive suffix -ki (perhaps as meat?), but also with possessie classifier -7ash (Seiler 1977:305) Seiler&Hioki 1979:82 no info 0 1 0 hunted All boiled, roasted 0 0 Bean 1972:62 says fish were obtained in trade, and that some Cahuilla had Pacific coast fishing rights in Diegueño territory All Americas lakes, streams (and apparently near-shore ocean fish used by Cahuilla) no
flea pulga pulga flora-fauna Siphonaptera múkaš ˈmukaʃ flea inheritance *mu-ku'a: Cupan S892 (Stubbs 2009:152); looks like nose-fly narrower (Seiler and Hioki 1979:113 say that their Mountain Cahuilla consultant says this word refers to fleas of animals, and ku7a to those of people). machily “tick” also given as “flea”. other complex muka-ʃ (etymologically, mu-ku7a: “nose-fly”) no info Seiler & Hioki 1979:113 no info 2 0 no info N/A N/A N/A 0 0 Global Diverse habitats no
flicker flora-fauna Colaptes sp. táviš ˈtaviʃ big woodpecker inheritance *tapi- Uto-Aztecan S210, for large bird (Southern reflexes are for “hawk”) (Stubbs 2009:68) same other complex ʹtavi (simplex root) -ʃ non-possessed noun” -7aʃ “pet” Possessive classifier -7aʃ wikikmal Seiler&Hioki 1979:200 no info 2 Flicker feathers used in dance costumes 1 no info hunted Men roasted, stewed, eggs eaten 0 1 flicker feathers, especially scalp feathers, definitely traded, sometimes as completed headbands, etc. throughout the Americas Diverse habitats no
blowfly/housefly mosca mosca flora-fauna Diptera ʔáʔawet ˈʔaʔawet fly unique narrower (does not include “horsefly”, pi7pish) derived ˈʔaʔa-wet root - augmentative no info Seiler & Hioki 1979:21 no info 0 one of Temayewet's creatures (Seiler 1970:44) 0 no info no info no info no info 0 0 All Americas All habitats no
foothills yucca flora-fauna Yucca whipplei pánuʔul ˈpanuʔul Yucca whipplei inheritance *panaa- Cupan S2547 (Stubbs 2009:340). Cahuilla form may be a compound from panaa plus u7u, of unknown meaning; note Cupeño 7uwet “Yucca head” same other complex panu7u-l -m-exan-7a "inanimate" -m-exan-7a (for inanimates; literally "somehow - doing.thus- possessed.noun") Seiler&Hioki 1979:141 no info 0 1 flower stalks, blossoms eaten through several stages of growth no info gathered (wild) All stalks roasted, ground, made into cakes, or boiled like squash. Blossoms boiled. 0 0 Southern California and Baja California chaparral and oak woodlands, 300-2500 m. no
fox flora-fauna Vulpes, Urocyon qáwisiš ˈqawisiʃ fox inheritance *kawosi- Uto-Aztecan S556 (Stubbs 2009:113) WW %kaw narrower (Merriam records this only for Urocyon, “Gray Fox”, contrasting with wilyily “Desert Fox”, Vulpes macrotis other complex ˈqawisi-ʃ (root looks long for simplex -- this may be loan into Takic) -7aʃ “pet” Possessive classifier -7aʃ Seiler&Hioki 1979:168 Fox is a Wildcat Moiety animal (Strong 1929:109) 2 skins used for ceremonial objects (Bean 1972:63) 2 no info hunted Men mainly for skins 0 0 All Americas Diverse habitats no
frog (generic) flora-fauna wáxačilʸ ˈwaxaʧiʎ frog inheritance *wakaC-ta Uto-Aztecan S940 (Stubbs 2009:157); Tarahumara 7awaka seems OK in this set WW %wakat broader (includes “toad” according to Merriam notes) other complex ˈwaxaʧi-ʎ (-ʧi-ʎ is cognate with Numic diminutives, but frozen and non-productive in Takic) -7aʃ “pet” possessive classifier --7aʃ (probably) Seiler&Hioki 1979:233 no info 2 Instrumental in death of creator (Seiler 1970:50-51) 2 Bean 1972 does not include frogs in his list of animals eaten no info no info no info no info 0 0 All Americas Wetlands, lakes and streams no
golden eagle flora-fauna Aquila chrysaetos ʔáswet ˈʔaswet eagle inheritance *ʔasa-wɨ-ta Californian S719 (Stubbs 2009:131);l note Yuman forms like ?aspa, ?ashpa, a possible source? Check cognacy on this form. Old, if a loan, since Kitanemuk has /h/ for *s same derived -wet is surely the augmentative. I've always thought this was from -7ash "pet", with this being the prototypical human-associated animal. Bill Bright did not agree. -7aʃ “pet” Possessive classifier -7aʃ wikikmal ? Seiler&Hioki 1979:16 Golden Eagle is a Coyote Moiety animal (Strong 1929:109) 1 Eagles ceremonially raised and killed at Eagle Dance (see Strong 1929:83-4); feathers used in dance skirts, headdresses. Buried with people, according to Merriam's informants. 2 Bean 1972:60 says eagles not eaten. 1 feathers used for shaman's wands, fans hunted Men eaglets captured and kept alive, raised to maturity for the dance. Feathers used for eagle-feather ceremonial skirts. 0 1 Eagle-feather skirts were traded All North America They like cliffs, tall trees for nesting no
gooseberry flora-fauna Ribes spp. no name ever recorded missing missing no info 2 1 1 0 0 no
gopher snake, bull snake flora-fauna Pituophis catenifer po'-kow-wit 72-11, or -wut 60-173 ??, but note Luiseno pikawut “snake species”, should yield Ca. pikawet, but Merriam is consistent about po-. Gopher snake, bull snake (Pityophus) inheritance *paxa-wɨ-ta Cupan plus Gabrielino This cannot be S2013 (Stubbs 2009:280), because that yields Cahuilla /paxa/, not /paka/. Something of a mystery. same derived has augmentative suffix -wet. po-ka is NOT /paxa/ “red racer” -7aʃ "pet" possessive classifier -7aʃ (probably) sewet (Bean 1972:61) http://www.archive.org/stream/bancroft_chartmerriam_1556_60#page/n155/mode/2up; p. 173 no info 2 Moon gaves snakes their colors; they are her paintings (Seiler 1970:44) 2 no info hunted All roasted or boiled 0 0 Southern Canada to Mexico “A habitat generalist” http://www.desertmuseum.org/books/nhsd_gopher_snake.php no
grass hierba, pasto capim, grama flora-fauna (NA) sámat ˈsamat brush, herb, grass inheritance *sama/u- Northern Uto-Aztecan S1025a (Stubbs 2009:166 broader (extended to mean herbs in general, and the chaparral community with grass) other complex sama-t -m-exan-7a "inanimate" -m-exan-7a (for inanimates; literally "somehow - doing.thus- possessed.noun") Seiler&Hioki 1979:176 no info 0 0 seeds eaten no info gathered (wild) women seeds ground with other seeds as source of flour for porridges, etc. 0 0 All Americas Diverse habitats no
grasshopper flora-fauna Caelifera wíʔit ˈwiʔit grass hopper inheritance *woʔV- Uto-Aztecan S1034 (Stubbs 2009:167) narrower (Merriam gives sah'-kah-kah-wah “red-winged” 60-143 for Wanikik Cahuilla other complex wi7i-t no info Seiler & Hioki 1979:244 wi7item is the name of a clan (Seiler & Hioki 1979:244) 2 1 no info gathered (wild) All long trenches dug and filled with hot rocks, grasshopper swarms pushed into these 0 0 All Americas All habitats no
gray ground squirrel flora-fauna Sphermophilus sp. sísilʸ ˈsisiʎ chipmunk (see species notes) inheritance Proto-Takic *soso > Chumash ʃoʃo “chipmunk, flying squirrel” WW %sik unclear other complex sisi-ly -7aʃ "pet" animal is -7ash; the meat is with a meat classifier, usually -sex7a “cooked item” or -wa7 “roasted item” (Seiler 1977:304-5) Seiler & Hioki 1979:186 no info 2 1 no info hunted Men boiled, roasted 0 0 North America woodlands no
gray tree squirrel flora-fauna Sciurus spp. síkawet ˈsikawet tree squirrel loan into protolanguage *sika-(wV) Northern Uto-Aztecan Wintun S2094 (Stubbs 2009:288); may be very early loan into NUA WW %sik unclear derived sika-wet (with augmentative) -- although this may be false etymology -7aʃ "pet" animal is -7ash; the meat is with a meat classifier, usually -sex7a “cooked item” or -wa7 “roasted item” (Seiler 1977:304-5) Seiler & Hioki 1979:185 Gray Tree Squirrel (“Flying squirrel”) is a Wildcat Moiety animal (Strong 1929:109) 2 1 no info hunted Men boiled, roasted 0 0 Western North America woodlands no
great horned owl flora-fauna Bubo virginianus múut ˈmu:t owl inheritance *muhuN Uto-Aztecan S1542 (Stubbs 2009:227), do NOT include Raramuri form with mo- same other complex muhu-t owl.sound-non-possessed-noun -7aʃ “pet” Possessive classifier -7aʃ wikikmal Seiler&Hioki 1979:115 no info 1 S&H 115 report of muh-lu-sh (n): talks like a human being, calls the names of those people who are going to die (of a being who turned into the owl); Hooper (1920:330) reports owl feathers in ceremonial headdress, wands, as shamanic feathers 2 1 feathers used for shaman's wands, fans hunted Men roasted, stewed, eggs eaten 0 1 feathered costume elements, wands, etc. All Americas Diverse habitats (less common in extreme deserts) no
grizzly bear flora-fauna Ursus arctos horribilis húnwet ˈhunwet bear inheritance *huna-wɨ-ta Californian S132 (Stubbs 2009:59). This is “big badger”; badger, *hura(p), is UA etymon. But only means “bear” in California. broader (includes any bear) derived hun-wet “badger-augmentative” (presumably a euphemism) -7aʃ "pet" Seiler & Hioki 1979:60 Grizzly a relative of humans, called “Great-grandfather” (Strong 1929:76) 1 One of the four oldest animals created by Mukat. Grizzly was a great shaman (Strong 1979:72). 2 only old people, shamans could eat (Bean 1972:63) no info hunted Men skins, claws, teeth used 0 0 Western North America chaparral, woodlands yes
horned toad flora-fauna Phrynosomatidae čálaka ˈʧalaka horned toad inheritance *ˈʧalaka Cupan S1332(Stubbs 2009;202). This may be a loan word. Serrano chilyaaqu “lizard sp.” and Kitanemuk ciruku' are clearly resemblant but not regularly so. Not a Yuman, Yokuts, or Chumash word. same underived non-possessed noun suffix is absent. -7aʃ “pet” possessive classifier -7aʃ (probably) Seiler&Hioki 1979:22 no info 2 Moon gaves lizards their colors; they are her paintings (Seiler 1970:44) 2 no info hunted women boiled, roasted 0 0 Western US and Mexico Hot, dry, sandy areas no
horse caballo cavalho flora-fauna Equus caballus pásukat ˈpasukat horse semantic shift *pa-suka- Takic S788:139 “elk”; horse only in Cahuilla, Gabrielino same derived pa-suka-t big-deer-non.possessed.noun (Seiler & Hioki gloss pa- as “water” but they didn't know about homophonous “big” with good UA etymologies) -7aʃ "pet" -7ash for animals Seiler & Hioki 1979:141 no info 0 0 at least not lately no info Not collected N/A N/A 0 0 surely bought and sold Global with humans no
hummingbird colibrí, picaflor (Peru) beija-flor flora-fauna Trochilidae túčilʸ ˈtuʧiʎ humming bird inheritance *tuʔca Uto-Aztecan S1180 (p. 185). I agree with Stubbs 2009:185 that the Cora word is cognate. same other complex ˈtuʧi-ʎ simplex.root-non-possessed noun -7aʃ “pet” Possessive classifier -7aʃ wikikmal Seiler&Hioki 1979:218 no info 0 Hummingbird wanted to play Eagle's mediating role, but was too small (Strong 1929) 0 I'm assuming birds and eggs were eaten no info hunted All roasted, stewed, eggs eaten 0 0 Americas Diverse habitats no
tobacco tabaco tabaco flora-fauna Nicotiana spp. pívat ˈpivat tobacco, smoking inheritance *pipaC (*pipat?) Uto-Aztecan S2290 (Stubbs 2009:310) same other complex piva-t -m-exan-7a "inanimate" -m-exan-7a (inanimate classifier) Seiler&Hioki 1979:156 no info 1 innumerable ritual uses 1 1 water solution as vomiturge, leaves as poultices, steam inhaled for colds, etc. Gathered (wild but closely managed) All smoked in pipe, chewed with lime, drunk as decoction depending on use 1 associated with “ecstatic experience”, shamanic journeys 0 All Americas Diverse habitats yes
insect (generic) insecto insecto flora-fauna generic missing missing missing 0 0 2 0 0 variable
junco flora-fauna Junco sppp yúynivaš ˈjujnivaʃ snowbird unique *juja is Proto-Uto-Aztecan; the morphology is in all Cupan languages, but the other languages do not have this word. But it's about snow, as usual. same derived ʹjuj-ni-va-ʃ “snow-cause-agent-Nonpossessed.noun -7aʃ “pet” Possessive classifier -7aʃ wikikmal Seiler&Hioki 1979:256 no info 0 1 no info hunted All roasted, stewed, eggs eaten 0 0 throughout North America coniferous and mixed forests, often forage in flocks in winter no
juniper flora-fauna Juniperus californica yúyilʸ ˈjujiʎ California Juniper inheritance *juwiN- Northern Uto-Aztecan S1580 (Stubbs 2009:231) same other complex looks like juj(i) “snow” -ʎ, but this is probably spurious given the etymology -m-exan-7a "inanimate" -m-exan-7a (inanimate classifier) for plants, -7ay7a "picking" for berries Seiler&Hioki 1979:257 no info 2 1 berries eaten fresh or dried. Berries called /iswat/. Not a major food. 1 berries in tea or chewed for fevers and colds gathered (wild) All dried berries ground into flour and made into mush or bread 0 0 North America Abundant at about 3000 feet in Santa Rosa Mountains no
louse flora-fauna order Phtiraptera sáʔwal ˈsaʔwal louse (of hair) inheritance *saʔwa- Takic S1360 (Stubbs 2009:205); a possible Tepiman form narrower (head louse only) other complex ˈsaʔwa-l no info Seiler & Hioki 1979:179 no info 2 0 no info N/A N/A N/A 0 0 Global in people's hair no
mallard flora-fauna Anas platyrhynchos si'-yil ˈsajiʎ (based on Luiseño $ayla, Cahuilla sasaymalem “ducks” mallard, Anas boschas inheritance *saya(C) Northern Uto-Aztecan S217 (and 710) Stubbs 2009:69, very consistently for “coot, mud-hen” except in Cahuilla unclear other complex saji-ʎ (simplex root with non-possessed-noun suffix) -7aʃ “pet” Possessive classifier -7aʃ wikikmal (?) http://www.archive.org/stream/bancroft_chartmerriam_1556_60#page/n155/mode/2up; p. 169 no info 2 bird songs are all about water birds 1 Water birds are an important food source. no info hunted Men roasted, stewed, eggs eaten 0 0 Global Wetlands, open water no
manzanita flora-fauna Arctostaphylos spp. kélel ˈkelel manzanita, wild apple inheritance *kɨta Takic S1635 (Stubbs 2009:235), revised to accomodate Kitanemuk ˈkɨʧraʧr; note Chumash V tsqoqo'n same other complex kele-l -m-exan-7a "inanimate" -m-exan-7a (inanimate classifer) for plants, -7ay7a "picking" for berries Seiler&Hioki 1979:75 no info 2 1 berries in beverage or jelly, or dried. Seeds for mush. a major food source. A. glandulosa and A. pungens preferred 1 leaves mixed with tobacco or boiled in water to treat diarrhea or poison oak rash gathered (wild) women early-season berries pulped, mixed with water, strained for beverage. Fully ripe berries used for “aspic”. Also sundried and stored. 0 0 Western North America In chaparral, oak chaparral, in lower canyons where villages were located no
milkweed, broad leaf flora-fauna Asclepias eriocarpa kíyal ˈkijal Asclepias sp. inheritance *kɨya- Takic See also Serrano ky7at “gum plant”; not likely a loan (Serrano has lost /y/ as usual) unclear other complex kija-l -m-exan-7a "inanimate" -m-exan-7a (for inanimates; literally "somehow - doing.thus- possessed.noun") Bean & Saubel 1972:43 no info 2 1 for chewing gum. One type eaten as greens, and seeds used, although most are poisonous. Mainly a fiber plant no info gathered (wild) women gum collected in cup and kept overnight or cooked for chewing gum 0 0 California, Baja California, Nevada “Especially dry areas” (Wikipedia) no
milkweed, narrow leaf flora-fauna Asclepias fascicularis see notes missing missing 0 1 1 0 0 no
mission tule flora-fauna Juncus séilʸ ˈse(j)iʎ Juncus; Rush, wire-grass inheritance *sɨji- Takic S1735 (Stubbs 2009:246); Note Chumash V syɨt “Juncus” same other complex ˈse(j)i-ʎ -m-exan-7a "inanimate" -m-exan-7a (inanimate classifier) Bean & Saubel 1972:80 no info 2 Apparently it has been claimed that this was used for sacred bundles; Bean & Saubel 1972 disagree 1 0 gathered (wild) women Scape split into three withes with teeth. Can be dyed, but color variation exploited by basketmakers 0 0 All Americas Moist areas no
mockingbird flora-fauna Mimus polyglottos támawet ˈtamawet mockingbird inheritance *tama-wɨ-ta Cupan S215 (Stubbs 2009:68); Gabrielino tamávut “hechicera” is same word same derived S&H give tamaw-et “mock-nominalizer”; everybody else thinks it is tama-wet “mouth-augmentative” -7aʃ “pet” Possessive classifier -7aʃ wikikmal Seiler&Hioki 1979:197 no info 2 1 no info hunted All roasted, stewed, eggs eaten 0 0 North America, Mexico diverse habitats (they like habitats with high places to perch, and don't like pine trees) no
mosquito mosquito, zancudo mosquito, carapana flora-fauna Anopheles spp, Isoptera muhúlilʸ muˈhuliʎ mosquito inheritance *muhu... NUA Perhaps S889, but not really a good correspondence. Probably loans and regionalisms going on. same other complex muˈhuli-ʎ; root may be sound imitative, see *muhu-t “great horned owl”. But mu- may have to do with “nose”. no info Seiler & Hioki 1979:112 no info 0 0 no info no info no info no info 0 0 All Americas Cahuilla villages tended to be in canyon bottoms near water sources, favorable for mosquitoes no
moth mariposa nocturna, polilla mariposa flora-fauna Heterocera héveveqalet ˈheveveqalet big butterfly inheritance *hɨvɨviqal Cupan S324 (Stubbs 2009:85); very similar form in Luiseño. S's own reconstruction with *p is an anachronism since this is just Cupan unclear relative clause heveve-qale-t soft-sg.impf.-nominalizer “the one who is soft”, but probably a false etymology given Luiseño xuvooviqat from xuvoovi “to drag on ground”. Lu. form is also a relative clause. -7aʃ "pet" possibly possessive classifier -7ash Seiler & Hioki 1979:53 no info 2 0 moth larvae eaten (Bean 1972:62) no info no info no info no info 0 0 All Americas Diverse habitats no
mountain lion flora-fauna Puma concolor túkwet ˈtukwet mountain lion inheritance *tuCkuC-wɨ Californian S1306b (Stubbs 2009;200); note Chumash tuk'em' WW %tuku same derived tuku-wet (with augmentative suffix from tukut “wild cat”) -7aʃ "pet" Possessive classifier -7aʃ Seiler & Hioki 1979:220 A relative of humans “of uncertain degree” (Strong 1929:76). A Wildcat Moiety animal (Strong 1929:109) 1 One of the four oldest animals created by Mukat. Tukwet was a great shaman (Strong 1929:72) 2 only old people, shamans could eat (Bean 1972:63) no info hunted Men skins 0 0 North America, Mexico Diverse habitats (prefers uplands) yes
mountain quail flora-fauna Oreortyx pictus xáwet ˈxawet mountain quail inheritance *kakaC- Uto-Aztecan S1702a (Stubbs 2009:241); 1702b is a different word, a Californianism. Proto-form does not include augmentative suffix same derived Merriam consistently for all dialects gives this as káxa-wet “quail-augmentative”. S&H's form is a clipping. -7aʃ “pet” Possessive classifier -7aʃ wikikmal Seiler&Hioki 1979:245 no info 2 1 yum yum no info hunted All roasted, stewed, eggs eaten 0 0 US west of Rockies and Baja California Chaparral no
mussel flora-fauna Mytilus spp. missing missing
olivella (olive snail) flora-fauna Callianax biplicata hīssavel ˈhajsaval (note saval “shell”) shell money inheritance *sa(w)pV Cupan S1911 (Stubbs 2009:267); does not include hay-, , which is Takic (S765) and MAYBE UA (Yecora Pima had “finish”). Note Luiseño $awvish “univalve shell”, Harrington “topshell of snail” (Olivella is snail-like) broader (means “money”) derived hay-”shore, edge” (and also a “magic” word in haytu); saval “shell” -m-7exan-7a (inanimate) posessive classifier -m-7exan-7a (inanimate) Strong 1929:94) Net dealt with shell money; had measuring point for values tattooed on his forearm. 2 exchanged between villages, lineages at Mourning Ceremony (Strong 1929:98-99) 2 no info N/A N/A N/A 0 1 Pass Cahuilla received from Serrano, who got it from Gabrielino, who got it from Santa Catalina Island Pacific coast Canada to Baja California sandy substrates in tidal and intertidal zones, bays no
pinyon jay flora-fauna Cyanocitta stelleri? káyval ˈkajval bluejay with a crest loan Yokuts? (by way of Serrano?) Only in Cupeño, Cahuilla; Similar forms in Gab., Kit.: Kitanemuk ˈhajhaʔj, no Serrano form found. Proto-NimYokuts *xay “Crested Jay” (Golla 1964:61); Southern Sierra Miwok kayka'jahnt, so Yok-Utian word, perhaps. WW %kaj same other complex ʹkajva-l (perhaps kaj-va “swing-er, dangl-er” but not so given by S&H 1977 -7aʃ “pet” Possessive classifier -7aʃ wikikmal Seiler&Hioki 1979:140 no info 2 1 Birds' caches owned if in individually owned trees (see California Jay) no info hunted All roasted, stewed, eggs eaten 0 0 Western North America Foothills where pinyon groves occur no
pinyon pine flora-fauna Pinus monophylla tévat ˈtevat pine-nut, pinyon inheritance *tɨpat Northern Uto-Aztecan S1583 (Stubbs 2009:231). This is probably a loan into Proto-NUA from Proto-Kiowa-Tanoan (Hill 2008) broader (includes both tree and nuts) other complex ˈteva-t -ki7iw7a "waiting, claim" -ki7iw7a "waiting, claim" Seiler&Hioki 1979:212 Groves owned by local groups 2 1 Very important food source no information Gathered (wild but closely managed) All See Bean & Saubel 1972:103-104 0 1 Wanikik paid Serrano to gather in their groves. An important trade item. Southwestern North America and Mexico In pinyon-juniper woodland, 3500-9000 feet (for P. monophylla), 2500-8000 feet (for P. quadrifolia). Rocky hills and slopes. no
pocket gopher flora-fauna Thomomys mĕt' 72-11, 60-161 ˈme:t Pocket gopher inheritance *mɨjɨN- Northern Uto-Aztecan S1009 (Stubbs 2009:164) same other complex me:-t -7aʃ "pet" animal is -7ash; the meat is with a meat classifier, usually -sex7a “cooked item” or -wa7 “roasted item” (Seiler 1977:304-5) http://www.archive.org/stream/bancroft_chartmerriam_1556_60#page/n155/mode/2up; p. 161 no info 2 1 no info hunted Men boiled, roasted 0 0 North America Diverse habitats no
poison oak flora-fauna Toxicodendron diversilobum ā'-yah-lem ˈʔijal (note Luiseño 7iyaala (Elliott 1999:1628) Poison oak, Toxicodendron diversiloba inheritance *ʔɨjaa-la Californian S1506 (Stubbs 2009:224) Huasteca Nahuatl iyatl “tobacco”is ridiculous. Kitanemuk ʔɨycič, Gab. o:ar attest to first vowel. Note Chumash V. yasis same other complex ˈʔija-l -m-exan-7a "inanimate" -m-exan7a inanimate (but who would want to own it??) http://www.archive.org/stream/bancroft_chartmerriam_1556_60#page/n155/mode/2up; p. 181 no info 2 2 1 Bean and Saubel 1972:132 cite a source that says tea from dried roots could be taken in small quantities for immunity from poison oak; their consultants couldn't confirm this gathered (wild) women roots made into tea, maybe 0 0 Pacific coast Canada to Baja California Likes damp, shady areas, chaparral yes
rattlesnake flora-fauna Crotalus spp. séwet ˈsewet rattlesnake inheritance *sɨwɨ Takic S2011a (Stubbs 2009:280) broader (Bean 1972:61 states that this is generic “snake”, and gives mesa7a as “rattlesnake”; also given by S&H other complex sewe-t -7aʃ "pet" possessive classifier -7aʃ (probably) Seiler&Hioki 1979:183 no info 1 Moon gaves snakes their colors; they are her paintings (Seiler 1970:44) 2 “Rattlesnakes were eaten, at least among the Cahuilla” (Lightfoot and Parrish 2009:359) “A particular favorite” (Bean 1972:61) no info hunted Men boiled, roasted 0 0 Southern Canada south Diverse habitats yes
red ant flora-fauna Solenopsis spp ʔánet ˈʔanet ant, big ant inheritance *ʔalɨn- Uto-Aztecan S44 (Stubbs 2009:44) broader; also generic for “ant” at least in Mountain and Wanikik; unclear for Desert Cahuilla but generic for “big ant” there; Merriam confirms “red ant” other complex 7ane-t -7aʃ "pet" possibly possessive classifier -7ash Seiler&Hioki 1979:16 no info 1 0 ants and larvae eaten no info gathered (wild) All anthill swarms with larvae pushed into pits with hot rocks and roasted, also boiled 0 0 All Americas Diverse habitats no
red-shouldered blackbird flora-fauna Agelaius phoeniceus páxaniš ˈpaxaniʃ Red-shouldered blackbird, Agelaius phoeniceus, male inheritance *paaka- Northern Uto-Aztecan Cupan *paaxiŋi-sh, Kitanemuk ˈpakoŋjat; Southern Paiute pagatcaqapI; Tumpisa Shoshone pakkwatoppe narrower (male bird only; Merriam quite consistent on this), but also broader, also recorded for Brewer Blackbird derived ʹpaxan-iʃ , looks like a nominalization, but root unclear given that this is from *paxing, not *paxan -7aʃ “pet” Possessive classifier -7aʃ wikikmal http://www.archive.org/stream/bancroft_chartmerriam_1556_60#page/n155/mode/2up p. 165 no info 2 1 no info hunted All roasted, stewed, eggs eaten 0 0 North and Central America Open grassy areas, prefers wetlands, but also found in dry upland meadows no
red-tailed hawk flora-fauna Buteo jamaicensis kʷáʔal ˈkʷaʔal chicken hawk (smaller than kisily) inheritance *kwaʔa- Uto-Aztecan S716 (Stubbs 2009:131) same other complex ˈkʷaʔa-l possibly onomatopoeic root, plus non.possessed.noun -7aʃ “pet” Possessive classifier -7aʃ wikikmal (?) Seiler&Hioki 1979:91 no info 2 2 “Hawks were usually not eaten” (Lightfoot & Parrish 2009:360) no info hunted Men feathers used for fletching arrows 0 0 Widespread in Americas Mixed forest and field no
roadrunner flora-fauna Geococcyx californianus púuiš ʹpu:iʃ road-runner (who allegedly sounds like púu) inheritance *puhi/*puʔi/*puwi (all proposed) Uto-Aztecan I agree with Stubbs 2009:250 that Yecora Piman pu7i “roadrunner” fits here. S1776. In all Takic. WW %pu: same derived puhu-iʃ “go.puhu-nominalizer” (note that plural is puh-ʧem) -7aʃ “pet” Possessive classifier -7aʃ wikikmal Seiler&Hioki 1979:158 no info 2 For Luiseno, roadrunner cut hair in mourning for Creator 1 no info hunted All roasted, stewed, eggs eaten 0 0 Southwestern US to Central America desert areas no
ruddy duck flora-fauna Oxyura jamaicensis missing missing missing 2 1 0 0 0 no
sage herb flora-fauna Artemisia californica húulvel ˈhu:lvel California sagebrush inheritance *hulupa- Northern Uto-Aztecan S1597 (Stubbs 2009:233) same other complex hu:lve-l (root might be complex; might be from hu-hulve-l) -m-exan-7a "inanimate" -m-exan-7a (for inanimates; literally "somehow - doing.thus- possessed.noun") Seiler&Hioki 1979:59 no info 2 tea from boiled plant given to girls to drink at initiation, to ensure “the proper maturation of girls into womanhood” 2 1 to induce menstruation,tea taken before each menstrual period; given to newborn babies one day after birth “to flush out their system”. For colds, leaves chewed fresh or dried, or mixed with tobacco and other leaves and smoked. Used in sweathouse “for var gathered (wild) women leaves boiled into tea 0 0 California, Baja California Chaparral and “dry foothills communities” no
salmon/steelhead flora-fauna Oncorhynchus mykiss missing missing missing 2 1 0 0 0 no
scaly lizard flora-fauna Pygopus lepidopodus? múlʸak ˈmuʎak lizard (generic term) inheritance Only in Cupeño and Cahuila. Because of odd word shape, a potential loan; not obviously Yuman. same (according to S&H) underived no non-possessed noun suffix -7aʃ “pet” possessive classifier -7aʃ (probably) Seiler & Hioki 1979:114 no info 2 Moon gaves lizards their colors; they are her paintings (Seiler 1970:44). Mulyak still looks at sun because he was assigned to watch an evil-doer at Creation Time (Seiler 1970:48) 2 no info hunted women boiled, roasted 0 0 All Americas Diverse habitats no
small bird flora-fauna missing missing missing 2 1 0 0 0 no
small brown lizard flora-fauna missing missing
snake (generic) culebra, serpiente cobra flora-fauna séwet ˈsewet snakes inheritance *sɨwɨn- Takic S2011a (Stubbs 2009:280); not Stubbs' reconstruction, but Kitanemuk, Serrano are conservative in retaining these nasals. same other complex sewe-t -7aʃ "pet" possessive classifier -7aʃ (probably) Bean 1972:61 no info 0 Moon gaves snakes their colors; they are her paintings (Seiler 1970:44) 1 no info hunted Men boiled, roasted 0 0 Americas Diverse habitats yes
soaproot flora-fauna Chlorogalum kĕ'-ko-waht 60-245 Soaproot, Chlorogalum unique same other complex A Merriam word, attested nowhere else, probably kikuwa-t. Root is a bit long for simplex. wa-t is NOT augmentative for which Merriam always has wit, wut. -m-exan-7a "inanimate" -m-exan-7a (for inanimates; literally "somehow - doing.thus- possessed.noun") http://www.archive.org/stream/bancroft_chartmerriam_1556_60#page/n189/mode/2up; p. 245 no info 2 1 as pot herb (Bean & Saubel 1972:54) no info gathered (wild) women bulb crushed and particles rubbed in water for lather, bulb fibers for brushes, young spring shoots as pot herb 0 0 Southwest Oregon, California rock bluffs, grasslands, chaparral no
sour berry flora-fauna Rhus trilobata sélet ˈselet sumac (basket-weed), rhus trilobata inheritance *sɨ(ta) Californian Gabrielino sorat, Kitanemuk. hɨč, Tubatulabal shyl; note Chumash V shuna'y same other complex sele-t -m-exan-7a "inanimate" -m-exan-7a (for inanimates; literally "somehow - doing.thus- possessed.noun") Seiler&Hioki 1979:179 no info 2 1 edible berries 1 berries “as restorative for inactive stomachs” (Bean & Saubel 1972:132 gathered (wild) women berries eaten fresh, ground for soup, or soaked for beverage 0 0 Western North America “common to chaparral regions up to 3,500 feet” (Bean & Saubel 1972:132) no
sparrow hawk flora-fauna Falco kel-lek'-le-mal keˈleklemal (note Luiseño kolókolomay “red-breasted hawk, small red hawk” (Elliott 1999:1462) Sparrow hawk (Falco) inheritance *kɨlɨ- Uto-Aztecan S721 (Stubbs 2009:131); Note: Guarijío keleti̱ | kereti̱ (?) <kelecí (¿kerecí?)> ‘kind of a hawk’ (Miller 1996: 345); correspondence of medial /l/ is off, perhaps loan. Hopi kyeele “Sparrow Hawk” definitely not regular, perhaps sound-imitation is affec WW %kili same derived keˈlekle-mal kele-kele (a call) - diminutive -7aʃ “pet” Possessive classifier -7aʃ wikikmal (?) http://www.archive.org/stream/bancroft_chartmerriam_1556_60#page/n155/mode/2up; p. 163 no info 2 2 0 0 0 All Americas Diverse habitats no
spider araña aranha flora-fauna Arachnida, Araneae xʷálxʷal ˈxʷalxʷal spider inheritance probably a Yuman loan, given xw-. Also in Cupeno. But I can't find a Yuman equivalent. narrower (while this is given as “generic”, it does NOT include Black Widow) reduplicated xwal-xwal; final -l is NOT the non-possessed noun suffix no info Seiler & Hioki 1979:247 no info 0 Spiders helped creator build the world 0 no info no info no info no info 0 0 All Americas Diverse habitats no
spotted skunk flora-fauna Spilogale gracilis tékʷel tévišnekiš ˈtekʷel ˈteviʃnekiʃ Little Spotted skunk, Spilogale gracilis unique same phrase means “skunk white”. Merriam collected /tekwemal/ at Whitewater. I'm suspicious of both of these, may be on-the-spot coinages -7aʃ "pet" animal is -7ash; the meat is with a meat classifier, usually -sex7a “cooked item” or -wa7 “roasted item” (Seiler 1977:304-5) http://www.archive.org/stream/bancroft_chartmerriam_1556_60#page/n155/mode/2up; p. 159 no info 2 2 not a preferred game animal no info hunted Men boiled, roasted 0 0 Western United States Diverse habitats no
toad sapo sapo flora-fauna Bufonidae wáxačilʸ ˈwaxaʧiʎ toad inheritance *wakaC-ta Uto-Aztecan S940 (Stubbs 2009:157); Tarahumara 7awaka seems OK in this set broader (includes “frog”) other complex ˈwaxaʧi-ʎ (-ʧi-ʎ is cognate with Numic diminutives, but frozen and non-productive in Takic) -7aʃ “pet” possessive classifier -7aʃ (probably) no info http://www.archive.org/stream/bancroft_chartmerriam_1556_60#page/n155/mode/2up; p. 173 no info 2 waxaawut, Calif. red-legged frog) is shaman who bewitches Wuyot (White 1963:141) 2 not eaten no info N/A N/A N/A 0 Colorado River toad, Bufo Alvarius, may have been known (range extends into Desert Cahuilla territory). Skin exudes hallucinogenic substance. 0 All Americas Diverse habitats no
tree árbol arvore flora-fauna (NA) kélawat ˈkelawat wood; woods: tree inheritance *kutawɨ/kɨtawɨ Takic S2346a (Stubbs 2009:315) Note -- Hopi is NOT part of set! broader (also means firewood, woods (bosque)) derived kelaw “to gather wood” -at nominalizing suffix -m-exan-7a "inanimate";-kelaw7a "wood thing" -m-exan-7a (inanimate classifier) for tree; possessed "wood" is -kelaw7a Seiler&Hioki 1979:75 no info 0 0 depends on which tree 1 depends gathered (wild) All depends 0 0 Global Diverse habitats no
tree yucca flora-fauna Yucca schidegera húnuvat ˈhunuvat Yucca inheritance *hɨnuva- Cupan plus Gabrielino S2548 (Stubbs 2009:340) same other complex hunuva-t (root may be complex) -m-exan-7a "inanimate" -m-exan-7a (for inanimates; literally "somehow - doing.thus- possessed.noun") Seiler&Hioki 1979:60 no info 2 1 fruit pods eaten no info gathered (wild) women pods roasted in coals (mainly plant was for soap, fiber) 0 0 Mojave and Sonoran Deserts rocky slopes, creosote flats, 300-1200m (rarely up to 2500m) no
turkey buzzard flora-fauna Cathartes aura yúŋaviš ˈjuŋaviʃ turkey buzzard inheritance *juŋa:pi- Takic S336 (Stubbs 2009:87). This is probably juŋ -a-pi where *a is the ablaut vowel induced by -pi. But I don't know what *juŋ- means! Elliott 1999 has junga “archaic word for “to dance”) same other complex ˈjuŋavi-ʃ with non-possessed noun suffix; root may be complex but no etymological evidence -7aʃ “pet” Possessive classifier -7aʃ wikikmal (?) Seiler&Hioki 1979:256 Vulture is a Coyote Moiety animal (Strong 1929:109) 2 2 I doubt that they were eaten. no info hunted Men Eggs? Feathers? 0 0 All Americas Diverse habitats no
turtle (generic) flora-fauna Testudines ʔáyilʸ ˈʔajiʎ turtle inheritance *ʔayaC Uto-Aztecan S2359 (Stubbs 2009:316) narrower (this is land tortoise, not water turtle. Generally in UA it is Desert Tortoise (Gopherus agassizii) other complex ˈʔaji-ʎ -7aʃ "pet" possessive classifier -7aʃ (probably) Seiler&Hioki 1979:200 no info 2 shells used for rattles 2 no info hunted All roasted 0 1 Mojave Desert and Sonoran Desert Strong preference for alluvial fans, washes, canyons where they can dig dens in soft soil no
valley live oak flora-fauna Quercus agrifolia wíʔasilʸ ˈwiʔasiʎ coast live oak, Quercus agrifolia inheritance *wiʔaN-si Northern Uto-Aztecan S1507b (Stubbs 2009:224). Cupeno also has this -si increment. broader (also used for the acorn) derived ˈwiʔa-si-ʎ ˈwiʔa-t is Q. chrysolepsis. -si may be frozen diminutive (it is not a productive element) -ki7iw7a "waiting, claim" possessive classifier -ki7iw7a "grove of trees growing wild that is assigned to a lineage" (literally, "waiting", "claim" (Seiler and Hioki 1979:300)). Acorns are -chi-7a "gathering". Seiler&Hioki 1979:243 Oak groves were lineage properties. Individual trees belonged to families within the lineage. 2 A “first crop” ceremony held by net; one could not eat the new acorns before this event, on pain of death or sickness. Myths hold acorns were not always bitter, but were poisoned by a shaman, or perhaps by creator when he got angry at people. 1 Very elaborate steps in preparation yields bread (sawish), mush (wiwish), and soup (B&S give no name). Q. agrifolia was a “secondary source” with Q. kelloggii and Q. chrysolepsis preferred. 1 ashes of wood and bark in antiseptic wash Gathered (wild but closely managed) All acorns dried, ground, flour prepared through several stages of leaching, grinding in diverse utensils (see Bean & Saubel 1972:127) 0 1 Desert Cahuilla traded for acorns with Wanikik and Mountain Cahuilla groups, although they did have their own groves in upper Murray Canyon California west of Sierra Nevada from Mendocino County to Baja California; only coastal live oak Concentrated in valleys and on lower hills below 3000 feet no
valley oak flora-fauna Quercus lobata kʷíñil ˈkʷiɲil acorn, California black oak inheritance *kwini/*kwiyi- Northern Uto-Aztecan S1507a (Stubbs 2009:224). This is probably a loan into PNUA from Proto-Kiowa-Tanoan broader (also used for the acorn) other complex ˈkʷiɲi-l -ki7iw7a "waiting, claim" possessive classifier -ki7iw7a "grove of trees growing wild that is assigned to a lineage" (literally, "waiting", "claim" (Seiler and Hioki 1979:300)). Acorns are -chi-7a "gathering". Seiler&Hioki 1979:93 Oak groves were lineage properties. Individual trees belonged to families within the lineage. 2 A “first crop” ceremony held by net; one could not eat the new acorns before this event, on pain of death or sickness. Myths hold acorns were not always bitter, but were changed by a vengeful shaman or perphas by Mukat, angry at his people poisoned by a 1 Very elaborate steps in preparation yields bread (sawish), mush (wiwish), and soup (B&S give no name). 1 ashes of wood and bark in antiseptic wash Gathered (wild but closely managed) All acorns dried, ground, flour prepared through several stages of leaching, grinding in diverse utensils (see Bean & Saubel 1972:127) 0 1 Desert Cahuilla traded for acorns with Wanikik and Mountain Cahuilla groups, although they did have their own groves in upper Murray Canyon Southwest Oregon and California except in deserts Found in high hills up to 8,000 feet, especially on slopes facing away from the desert no
valley quail flora-fauna Callipepla californica qáxal ˈqaxal quail inheritance *kakaC- Uto-Aztecan S1702a (Stubbs 2009:241) WW %kaka same other complex qaxa-l root-non.possessed.noun (root may be sound imitative ultimately) -7aʃ “pet” Possessive classifier -7aʃ wikikmal Seiler&Hioki 1979:169 no info 2 1 yum yum no info hunted All roasted, stewed, eggs eaten 0 0 Far west North America to British Columbia open woodlands, chaparral no
Western Canada goose flora-fauna Branta canadensis ɂálukul ˈʔalukul wild goose unique Might this be linked to S566b *kaLu “sandhll crane”??? with metathesis? Note 'Iipay Aa lă'-lok e-yow' laluk duck broader (Merriam says this is “all geese”) other complex ˈʔaluku-l -7aʃ “pet” Possessive classifier -7aʃ Seiler&Hioki 1979:13 no info 0 bird songs are all about water birds and have to do with Cahuilla history 1 Water birds are an important food source. no info hunted Men roasted, stewed, eggs eaten 0 0 North America Wetlands, open fields no
whale flora-fauna Eschrichtius robustus missing missing missing 2 1 2 0 1 no
white pelican flora-fauna Pelicanus erythrorhynchos sovalivil ˈsuvalivel (?) Pelican unique broader (both White and Brown Pelican, apparently, although uncertain) other complex suvalive-l pelican-non.possessed.noun (may be derivation in root) -ʔaʃ "pet" possessive classifier; Seiler & Hioki 1979 give only possessed state wikikmal Hooper 1920:376 no info 0 2 no info no info no info no info 0 0 North America breed inland (perhaps Lake Cahuilla) and are on coasts in winter (White Pelicans) no
wild grapevine flora-fauna Vitis californica suwánawet suˈwanawet wild grape loan Chumash S188 (Stubbs 2009:65) has this in Cahuilla, Cupeño, Mono seenowa “elderberries”, and Tumpisa Shoshone isawana “plant sp.”. I like Chumash /suwan/ “hanging, earrings” (Ineseno: Note su-wayan- “to cause to hang” A. 221 , “earring” (A.236) (grapes?); ma-s-s WW %sonot same derived suˈwana-wet looks like it has an augmentative. This odd form is one of very few Cahuilla words with second syllable stress, suggesting it's a loan. -7ay7a “picking” fruit is -7ay7a “picking” Seiler&Hioki 1979:193 no info 2 1 grapes eaten fresh, cooked in stews, dried as raisins, could be used in mush no info gathered (wild ) women, children dried raisins boiled in water before eating 0 0 Southwest Oregon and California common along streams and in canyon bottoms below 4000 feet, often near villages. no
wild oats flora-fauna Avena (introduction) ʔavéena ʔaˈve:na Avena fatua, Wild Oat loan Spanish WW %avena same underived unassimilated loan -m-exan-7a "inanimate", -m-exan-7a, perhaps -chi7a "picking up" Bean & Saubel 1972:46 no info 2 1 seeds eaten 0 gathered (wild) women seeds parched, ground into flour, mixed with other wild seeds in mush 0 0 All Americas Common in upper and lower Sonoran life zones, abundant since at least 1835 no
wild rose flora-fauna Rosa californica ʔúšal ˈʔuʃal Rosa californica inheritance *ʔusa-la Takic Not in Stubbs; note Luiseño 7ush-la, Kitanemuk ʔucuč, also in Gab ochu:r same other complex ˈʔuʃa-l (sibilant should be retroflex; Merriam recorded oo'-choo-lem (probably for the fruits) -7ay-'a "picking-possessed.noun" -7ay-'a "picking-possessed.noun" (probably; this is possessive classifier for fresh fruits plucked from plant) Bean & Saubel 1972:133 no info 0 1 buds eaten just before blossoming, flowers brewed into tea 1 tea from flowers to ease pain in infants, “unclog” stomach gathered (wild) women leaves boiled into tea (no mention of hips which I think were eaten) 0 0 Oregon, California, northern Baja California “commonly found in moist places such as cienegas or swamps and along streams” Bean and Saubel 1972:133 no
wild sunflower flora-fauna Helianthus (and other genera) páʔakal ˈpaɁaqal Helianthus annuus, Sunflower inheritance *(pa)ʔaʔka Uto-Aztecan S2191 (Stubbs 2009:299) same other complex ˈpaɁaka-l; actually historically pa- Ɂaqa-l “big- (water?-) sunflower” but has this form in all Takic with no 7aqa form, so simplex root for Cahuilla -7ay-'a "picking-possessed.noun" -7ay-'a "picking-possessed.noun" (probably; this is classifier for fresh fruits plucked from plant) Bean & Saubel 1972:76 no info 0 1 eaten in dishes made from ground seeds, such as pinole 0 gathered (wild) women seeds ground with other seeds as source of flour for porridges, etc. 0 0 North America Diverse habitats no
willow flora-fauna Salix spp. ɂávasilʸ ˈʔavasiʎ willow, black willow unique Lu. wat “black willow”, and note Cora waseh “sauce”. Could use some work. narrower (Bean & Saubel 1972:135 record only as Salix Gooddingii, noting that another species (for which they give no information, is /saxat/. Seiler & Hioki give /saxat/ as Mountain Cahuilla; here I am using Palm Springs dialect. other complex ˈʔavasi-ʎ Root may be complex -m-exan-7a "inanimate" -m-exan-7a (inanimate classifier) Seiler&Hioki 1979:17 no info 2 2 1 leaves ground for medicinal tea gathered (wild) women leaves ground in mortar and pulp steeped for several hours 0 0 Southwestern US and presumably Mexico (plants.usda.gov) Along streams and in wet places below 2000 feet no
wood rat, round-tail flora-fauna Neotoma spp. qáwal ˈqawal rat inheritance *kawa- Northern Uto-Aztecan S1423 (Stubbs 2009:242) same other complex qawa-l -7aʃ "pet" animal is -7ash; the meat is with a meat classifier, usually -sex7a “cooked item” or -wa7 “roasted item” (Seiler 1977:304-5) Seiler & Hioki 1979:167 no info 2 1 unmarried boys could not eat their own small game; they gave it to another family (often the mother's family) (Strong 1929:78) no info hunted All special stick to dig out of holes; boiled, roasted 0 0 Western US, Northern Mexico Diverse habitats no
worm, hairy caterpillar flora-fauna Arctiidae (many species) sívuyal ˈsivujal worm inheritance *sipuri Uto-Aztecan S2529 (Stubbs 2009:338) unclear derived sivuy-a-l (sivuyish means “wormy, full of worms” no info Seiler and Hioki 1979:187 no info 2 2 no info gathered (wild) All parching in basket 0 0 Americas Diverse habitats no
worm, smooth caterpillar flora-fauna Trichoplusia ni (?) cabbage looper píyaxat ˈpijaxat 1. rainbow. 2. worm with two horns (“they drop from the sky once a year near Fish Traps and the Indians used to cook and eat them” inheritance *piʔakɨC Northern Uto-Aztecan S2527 (Stubbs 2009:338) unclear other complex pijaxa-t; might be complex root no info Seiler & Hioki 1979:156 no info 2 2 “a favorite treat” (Bean 1972:62) no info gathered (wild) All parching in basket, stored for later use 0 0 Mojave and Colorado Deserts (?) appeared on surface of ground after warm spring rains no
yellow jacket flora-fauna Vespula spp., Dolichovespula spp. muxáavikat muˈxa:vikat Desert Cahuilla yellowjacket unique Might be a loan but looks like a construction from unknown verb same relative clause muˈxa:vi-kat “the one who does X (muxa:vi, of unknown meaning; mu- may be nose prefix no info Seiler & Hioki 1979:116 no info 2 0 no info no info no info no info 0 0 All Americas Prefers to be near water no
yellowbird flora-fauna Dendroica petechia kah-nav'-ve 60-167 ʹkanaviʎ (from Cahuilla “to play, have fun”) Yellowbird, Astragalinus inheritance *kanavily Cupan Only in Cupeño, Cahuilla same derived ʹkanav-iʎ “play-nominalizer” “player, fun-haver” -7aʃ “pet” Possessive classifier -7aʃ wikikmal http://www.archive.org/stream/bancroft_chartmerriam_1556_60#page/n155/mode/2up p. 167 no info 0 1 no info hunted All roasted, stewed, eggs eaten 0 0 North America; the relevant subspecies is west of Sierras and in deserts and Baja California in winter open country no
yerba santa flora-fauna Eriodictyon californicum tánwivel ˈtanwivel yerba santa (used as tea for cold) unique same derived tanwi-ve-l; root meaning unknown but -ve looks derivational -m-exan-7a "inanimate" -m-exan-7a (for inanimates; literally "somehow - doing.thus- possessed.noun") Seiler&Hioki 1979:198 no info 2 1 1 blood purifier, cure for coughs, colds, catarrh, rheumatism, tuberculosis, paste to reduce fever gathered (wild) women diverse preparations: leaves boiled into tea, or crushed as paste for liniment. Fresh leaves chewed to alleviate thirst 0 0 Oregon, California -- USDA, oddly, doesn't show it in southern California deserts (http://plants.usda.gov/java/county?state_name=California&statefips=06&symbol=ERCA6) plants from mountainous areas thought to be most efficacious no
ant (generic) hormiga formiga flora-fauna anet inheritance S&H 1979 Jane Hill
bird pajaro, ave passaro flora-fauna wikikmal inheritance S&H 1979 Jane Hill
blowfly/housefly mosca mosca flora-fauna a'awet unique S&H 1979 Jane Hill
dog (camp, domestic) perro cachorro flora-fauna awal inheritance S&H 1979 Jane Hill
grass hierba, pasto capim, grama flora-fauna samat inheritance S&H 1979 Jane Hill
deer venado veado, cariacu flora-fauna suk-at inheritance S&H 1979 Jane Hill
snake (generic) culebra, serpiente cobra flora-fauna sewet (rattlesnake) inheritance S&H 1979 Jane Hill
spider araña aranha flora-fauna xwalxwal unique S&H 1979 Jane Hill


Cultural Vocabulary (116)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Word Structure Word Structure Notes General Notes Source Created By
acorn mush food wiw-iš acorn mush inheritance *wiw Takic Stubbs 2011,1557. Gab, Serr, Kit forms suggest this is simply *wi, reduplicated other complex Seiler & Hioki 1979:242 Jane Hill
ball game food qawpi-at ball game unknown in Cahuilla, Cupeno only, look for source for elements other complex Seiler & Hioki 1979:168 Jane Hill
afterworld, land of dead, Heaven tierra do los muertos terra dos mortos culture-mythology telmekiš place where dead people live, hell inheritance *tyL-mukki Cupan Stubbs 2113 other complex derivation is only accessible etymologically Seiler & Hioki 1979:207 Jane Hill
feather headband dress pahCH-ah pax7a headband unknown the pah or pax element in Cupan, but otherwise Cupeno -lut, Gab -mut. A loan from somewhere? simplex Merriam 48:335 Jane Hill
arrow flecha flecha subsistence tool huya-l arrow, bow & arrow inheritance *huca Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 63 other complex Seiler & Hioki 1979:62 Jane Hill
arrow straightener other patávniva'al arrowshaft straightener inheritance *pata Uto-Aztecan Hill/Miller pa-32; where is the /v/ from? derived instrumental on causative verb Seiler & Hioki 1979:142 Jane Hill
bait for fishing cebo, carnada para pescar, empate (Peru) isca subsistence tool missing missing Jane Hill
school escuela escola acculturation sqeela school loan Spanish WW %escuela simplex Sauvel and Munro 1981:133 Jane Hill
stone bowl culture-material missing missing Jane Hill
basket (general) canasta, canasto, cesta cesto culture-material ne-at basket inheritance *nyhaC Northern Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2011 120 has only as Takic but see T. Shoshone form other complex Seiler & Hioki 1979:125 Jane Hill
basket, small canasta, canasto, cesta cesto pequeno, tampado culture-material teviŋił small globular basket unknown Cupeno, Cahuilla only other complex Seiler & Hioki 1979:213 Jane Hill
basketry hat culture-material yumu7-vel hat inheritance *jumu- Cupan Hill/Miller ju-13; Merriam confirms as 'basket hat' 48:343 derived instrumental on verb Seiler & Hioki 1979:255 Jane Hill
bead abalorio, mostacilla, cuenta, gota, puca; necklace=collar miçanga culture-material missing missing Jane Hill
ochre culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
bow arco arco subsistence tool hul bow inheritance *huca Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 63 other complex Seiler & Hioki 1979:58 Jane Hill
canoe canoa canoa transport missing missing Jane Hill
carrying net subsistence tool ikat carrying net inheritance *iCkaC Cupan Stubbs 2011 1519 other complex Seiler & Hioki 1979 Jane Hill
bottle botella garrafa acculturation vuteeya7 bottle loan Spanish WW %botella simplex Sauvel and Munro 1981 Jane Hill
paper papel papel acculturation pepéel paper, newspaper loan Spanish WW %papel simplex Seiler & Hioki 1979 Jane Hill
chief/leader jefe, cacique chefe culture-mythology net chief of the clan, moderator of a fiesta inheritance *nyC-ta Cupan other complex Seiler & Hioki 1979 Jane Hill
club garrote, cachiporra clava, porrete subsistence tool naxat club inheritance *naka-ta Californian (Takic plus Tubatulabal) Mountain Cahuilla (Cahuilla Valley) other complex Merriam 48:421 Jane Hill
loincloth taparrabos, guayuco, pampanilla tanga, tapa-sexo dress čeqivel diapers unique Merriam has tah-prow-wuk 48:315 other complex Seiler & Hioki 1979, Seiler 1970:151(7)) Jane Hill
cook food food sex to cook (food in water) inheritance *soka Takic Stubbs 2011 525, might be loan from Lu, more likely just misheard simplex root Seiler & Hioki 1979 Jane Hill
corpse food tewka(t) deceased person inheritance *tywi- Takic Stubbs 1799 other complex tew- see evil spirit, ghost Seiler & Hioki 1979 Jane Hill
dance (generic) culture-mythology čeŋen to dance inheritance *cyngy Takic Stubbs 1254 usually 'to kick' simplex root Seiler & Hioki 1979 Jane Hill
deity/powerful spirit/culture figure dios(es), deidad divinidade, figura mítica culture-mythology kivasaw (inal) great spirit, god unique does this have /kiva/ in it? compound, other complex Seiler & Hioki 1979 Jane Hill
digging stick subsistence tool naxat cane, stick inheritance *naka-ta Californian (Takic plus Tubatulabal) Merriam has koo-nahCH-ah 48:341 other complex Seiler & Hioki 1979 Jane Hill
dipper subsistence tool missing missing Jane Hill
dream sueño, soñar sonho, sonhar culture-mythology tet'ayaw to dream inheritance *ty7a Northern Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2011 1798 simplex root Seiler & Hioki 1979 Jane Hill
drone pipe culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
drum tambor tambor culture-mythology missing missing No drums in aboriginal California except foot drum in Kuksu Cult areas Jane Hill
chicken gallina galinha acculturation xanemúu chicken loan unknown Mojave is kwaloyaw, what could source be? Surely Yuman simplex Seiler & Hioli 1979 Jane Hill
earring other čayu-l earring inheritance *cVLu Takic Cahuilla & Cupeno, Serrano cha-hoom (CHM), Kit. chahuch, not regular, perhaps a loan from somewhere other complex Seiler & Hioki 1979 Jane Hill
ghost (of dead person)/evil spirit espíritu malo, espíritu maligno, fantasma, demonio espirito culture-mythology tewlavel spirit of the dead, deceased person inheritance *tywi- Takic Stubbs 1799 other complex tew- see corpse Seiler & Hioki 1979 Jane Hill
fire drill subsistence tool koot'-mŭ kutma (with Merriam, ['] is stress, not glottal stop) fire drill (Morongo) unique Palm springs koot-mōp Merriam 48:341 derived Merriam 48:261 Jane Hill
fire-tender culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
fireplace hogar lareira other na'ani-vel fire place inheritance *na7aya Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2011 878 derived instrumental on verb Seiler & Hioki 1979 Jane Hill
firewood leña lenha other kelawat wood; woods; tree inheritance *kutawi Northern Uto-Azteca Stubbs 2011 2409a other complex Seiler & Hioki 1979 Jane Hill
fish (with fish-poison) pescar con barbasco, barbasquear pescar com timbó; tinguijar food missing missing Jane Hill
fish (with line) anzuelear, pescar con linea pescar (com linha) food missing missing Jane Hill
fish poison barbasco, matapez (Colombia) timbó subsistence tool missing missing Jane Hill
fishing line cordel/cuerda p/ pescar, sedal, tanze linha de pesca subsistence tool missing missing Jane Hill
fish hook subsistence tool missing missing Jane Hill
acorn bread food saw-iš tortilla inheritance *saw- Takic Stubbs 2011 266c; there are similar words in northern and central CA languages, a loan into Proto-Takic from somewhere WW %saw other complex Seiler & Hioki 1979 Jane Hill
wheat food triiwa7a wheat loan Spanish WW %trigo simplex Jane Hill
flute flauta, quena (Peru) flauta culture-mythology wiiru-piš flute inheritance *wiLu PNUA Stubbs 912 derived, other complex Seiler & Hioki 1979 Jane Hill
gambling sticks other piš tax-nenng-iva'al-em little things used for peon game unique phrase Seiler & Hioki 1979:126 Jane Hill
game animal caza, animal de caza caça, animal de caça food missing missing Jane Hill
ghost (of dead person)/evil spirit espíritu malo, espíritu maligno, fantasma, demonio espirito culture-mythology tewlavel spirit of the dead, deceased person inheritance *tywi- Takic Stubbs 1799 other complex Seiler & Hioki 1979 Jane Hill
glue subsistence tool is-ne-pish for arrow points unique derived, other complex Merriam 48:341 Jane Hill
grave tumba, sepultura, sepulcro sepultura, sepulcro, cova culture-mythology kuyva7al graveyard inheritance *ku7way Northern Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2011 322 derived, other complex Seiler & Hioki 1979 Jane Hill
alcohol food pa7va7 alcohol unique includes *pa 'water' but a unique formation derived Sauvel & Elliott 2004 Jane Hill
Datura wrightii narcotics kikesew-va'al Jimsonweed unique no etymology in Hill/Miller derived, other complex Seiler & Hioki 1979 Jane Hill
shaman, healer chamán, brujo xaman, pajé, feiticeiro culture-mythology puul witch doctor, medicine man inheritance *puha Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2011 1160a other complex Seiler & Hioki 1979 Jane Hill
honey miel mel food miyeł honey loan Spanish WW %miel simplex Seiler & Hioki 1979 Jane Hill
house other ki-š house inheritance *ki: Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2011 1214 other complex Seiler & Hioki 1979 Jane Hill
hunt cazar caçar food amu to hunt inheritance *7amu Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2011 1233 simplex root Seiler & Hioki 1979 Jane Hill
initiate boy culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
initiate girl culture-mythology 7ew-lu-ni to do puberty rites for, to initiate girls unknown Cahuilla, Cupeno only -- this is blood-do-caus, all good UA material, but unique formation derived blood-inchoative-cause Seiler & Hioki 1979 Jane Hill
knife cuchillo faca culture-material pasivat knife, sword inheritance *sipaC Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2011 799 compound, other complex big-arrowhead Seiler & Hioki Jane Hill
mat culture-material missing missing Jane Hill
mortar mortero pilão subsistence tool qawuvaxal mortar (stone), mortar & Pestle unique vaxal is probably the *paha word Stubbs 1085, qaw is 'rock' compound, other complex rock-mortar Seiler & Hioki 1979 Jane Hill
necklace other qenxa-t beads (anything that one hangs around the neck) inheritance *koLoka Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2011 1505 WW %xene other complex Seiler & Hioki 1979 Jane Hill
needle/awl subsistence tool ivi-š awl, needle-like thing inheritance *7opi Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2011 92 other complex Seiler & Hioki 1979 Jane Hill
paddle/oar remo remo transport missing missing Jane Hill
pestle pilón, mano de mortero, mazo, moledor mão de pilão subsistence tool pawul pestle inheritance *paha Northern Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2011 1085 with increment -wul; I am making this %pah to give it 3 segments. Half the California words for mortar and/or pestle have this in them. Again, very early loan into or from NUA other complex Seiler & Hioki 1979 Jane Hill
pinole food missing missing Jane Hill
pipe for tobacco pipa cachimbo other yulił pipe unique other complex Seiler & Hioki 1979 Jane Hill
pitch food pasnat tar, pitch inheritance *salaC Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2011 1634 other complex Seiler & Hioki 1979 Jane Hill
pot olla, pote panela, vasilha subsistence tool kava'mal olla, water jar, pot, cup inheritance *ka-pam Uto-Aztecan Hill 2012 other complex Seiler & Hioki 1979 Jane Hill
quiver subsistence tool hoo-kish huki-š quiver (of dog or coyote skin unknown *huk(w)i only Cu, Ca; contains hu 'arrow' other complex Merriam 48:339 Jane Hill
rattle matraca, maraca marico, chocalho culture-mythology pa'aya-l rattle inheritance *(pa)-7aya-la Cupan Stubbs 2422 but in 'rattle' meaning onlyTakic other complex Jane Hill
red paint culture-mythology kaal red clay (used for painting) unique Merriam has selnekish 'red' 48:257, ispish 'red paint'48:337 (means 'thing to make stripes') other complex Seiler & Hioki 1979 Jane Hill
salt sal sal food iŋ-ił salt inheritance *omCa Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2011 1865 other complex Seiler & Hioki 1979 Jane Hill
seed beater subsistence tool missing missing Jane Hill
clothing ropa roupa culture-mythology xelyal clothes unknown Cupeno has a hel- root in 'old raggedy clothes' other complex Seiler & Hioki 1979 Jane Hill
sinew-backed bow subsistence tool čukinapi-š bow, gun unknown Cupeno and Cahuilla only; uncertain as to meaning here but the hul is the ordinary bow derived, other complex Seiler & Hioki 1979 Jane Hill
skirt falda, saya, fustan, pollera saia culture-material wiyavel apron, skirt unique I think this is "string skirt' but am not sure other complex Seiler & Hioki 1979 Jane Hill
snare subsistence tool hew'a (inal) web inheritance *hywaC Northern Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2011 2406; clearly extended to snare as per dictionary entries' Merriam has lah-me-ah 'any kind of trap' 48:339 other complex Seiler & Hioki 1979 Jane Hill
song (generic) canción, canto canção culture-mythology taxmu'at song unique other complex Seiler & Hioki 1979 Jane Hill
spear lanza lança subsistence tool missing missing Jane Hill
stirring stick food ko-mahl stirring stick inheritance *kumal Cupan Hill/Miller ku-13 other complex Merriam 48:341 Jane Hill
rope/string mecate, cuerda, soga corda culture kawi-ve string, cord unknown This may have the *wi root; Merriam has witch-oot 'thread of plant fiber' 48:341 derived Seiler & Hioki 1979 Jane Hill
bag, sack culture-material kunily sack inheritance *kuna Northern Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2011 114a other complex Seiler & Hioki 1979 Jane Hill
string of shell money other qičił nepaane H&N 166 money inheritance *koCti/a Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2011 2016; Merriam has he-sahCH-wel (hisaxvel 'belongings', abalone) 48:335 other complex Seiler & Hioki 1979 Jane Hill
sugarcane/sugar azúcar, caña de azúcar açucar (de cana) acculturation pisily sugar semantic shift *pisa(L) Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2011 2259 other complex Seiler & Hioki 1979 Jane Hill
sweathouse other hašla'-il sweat house inheritance *hashla Cupan Stubbs 2011 2252; also huwiačet derived, other complex Seiler & Hioki 1979 Jane Hill
tell history culture-mythology a'alxe to tell a true story inheritance *7a7al Californian (Takic plus Tubatulabal) Stubbs 2011 1873b simplex root Seiler & Hioki 1979 Jane Hill
cremate culture-mythology čut to burn, to cremate unique looks vaguely like Lu, Gab tui words simplex root Seiler & Hioki 1979, Seiler 1970:55(212) Jane Hill
tobacco (native) narcotics piva-t tobacco; smoking inheritance *pipaC Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2011 2348 other complex Seiler & Hioki 1979 Jane Hill
tule boat transport missing missing Jane Hill
white paint culture-mythology teviš white, (white clay CHM) inheritance *typiC Takic Stubbs 2011 758; I'm pretty sure this is also the white clay word; Merriam confirms at 48(257, 337) other complex Seiler & Hioki 1979 Jane Hill
winnowing basket culture-material čipatmal open basket for sifting inheritance *cippat Takic Stubbs 2011 122; Merriam has tek-ne-wahl 48:265 for Morongo but confirms chipatmal for Palm Springs 48:343 derived, other complex has diminutive suffix Seiler & Hioki 1979 Jane Hill
wood tray subsistence tool wayismal plate, dish unique Merriam has ka-poos'-mal (Palm Springs) 48:343 derived, other complex has diminutive suffix Seiler & Hioki 1979 Jane Hill
shoes zapatos sapatos dress waqa-t shoes inheritance waCci(kaC0 Northern Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2011 1955 has parens around the first C, curse excel other complex Seiler & Hioki 1979 Jane Hill
medicine narcotics ting7ay-piš medicine inheritance *tonga Cupan Stubbs 2011 1161 derived, other complex Seiler & Hioki 1979 Jane Hill
cradleboard culture-material siat cradle unique Merriam says is 'not a basket, but a stick bent around' (48:343) other complex Seiler & Hioki 1979 Jane Hill
policeman polícia policía acculturation missing missing Jane Hill
soldier soldado soldado acculturation missing missing Jane Hill
corn food maays corn loan Spanish WW %maiz simplex Seiler & Hioki 1979 Jane Hill
beans food xuuly beans loan Spanish WW %frijol simplex Seiler & Hioki 1979 Jane Hill
cat gato gato acculturation gaatu7 cat loan Spanish WW %gato simplex Sauvel and Munro 1981 Jane Hill
gun arma, escopeta espingarda, fusil acculturation čukinapi-š bow, gun semantic shift uncertain as to meaning here but the hul is the ordinary bow derived, other complex Seiler & Hioki 1979 Jane Hill
hat sombero chapéu dress yumuvel hat inheritance *yumu Cupan Stubbs 2011 1148 derived, other complex Sauvel and Munro 1981 Jane Hill
clapper acculturation missing missing Jane Hill
rope/string mecate, cuerda, soga corda culture 7uwish inheritance Mamet 08 Jane Hill
rope/string mecate, cuerda, soga corda culture 7uwish inheritance Mamet 08 Jane Hill
thatch/roof crisneja palha, caraná culture-material kis-vaxat unique S&H 1979 Jane Hill
bottom grinding stone manufacture mala-l inheritance S&H 1979 Jane Hill
digging stick subsistence tool naxat ? inheritance S&H 1979 Jane Hill
winnow aventar, tirar (sementes) joeirar manufacture -wepin- inheritance S&H 1979 Jane Hill
top grinding stone metate, mano; piedra de moler metate, mano manufacture paxwal loan direction unknown S&H 1979 Jane Hill
boomerang/throwing stick (generic) subsistence tool missing Jane Hill
spearthrower subsistence tool hul (bow) inheritance S&H 1979 Jane Hill
spear lanza lança subsistence tool huyal (arrow) inheritance S&H 1979 Jane Hill
house other ki-sh inheritance S&H 1979 Jane Hill


Grammatical Data (226)
Category Grammatical Feature Grammatical Feature: Notes Feature Status Phonemicized Form Orthographic Form Grammatical Notes Source Created By Etymology Notes General Notes Phylogenetic Code
Phonology - Segmental Pre-/post-nasalized stops Analysis posits that the stop is the most relevant underlying phoneme. Comment in notes on whether the nasal contour is understood as a phonetic (allophonic) effect, or is phonologically contrastive. Jane Hill
Phonology - Segmental Glottalized/ejective consonants Phonemic contrast [NOT counting glottal stop/fricative] no Jane Hill
Phonology - Segmental Palatalized stops Phonemic contrast Jane Hill
Phonology - Segmental Phonemic vowel length Does the language have long and short vowels? Jane Hill
Phonology - Segmental Phonemic glottalization/laryngealization of vowels Jane Hill
Phonology - Segmental Complex onsets Onset consists of more than one consonant phoneme Jane Hill
Phonology - Segmental No codas *(C)VC [no also equals highly constrained] Jane Hill
Phonology - Segmental Word-final coda required Do all syllables end in a consonant? Jane Hill
Phonology - Suprasegmental Contrastive tones Note how many contrastive tones no Jane Hill
Phonology - Suprasegmental Contrastive stress Does stress occur on different syllables with meaning difference? Jane Hill
Phonology - Suprasegmental Nasalization property of morpheme or syllable In contrast to nasalization as a property of segments Jane Hill
Phonology - Suprasegmental Nasal spreading across some morpheme boundaries Do some affixes or other morphemes take the nasal/oral properties of the root they attach to? Jane Hill
Phonology - Suprasegmental Vowel harmony Jane Hill
Morphology - General Verbal fusion (2+ categories marked by portmanteau morphemes on verb) Verb combines two or more categories (tense, aspect, mood, person, number, etc.) in portmanteau morphemes{ [ignore proclitics unless they are fused with values other than person/number] Jane Hill
Morphology - General Inflection manifested by replacement of segmental or suprasegmental phonemes Stem change, tone no Jane Hill
Morphology - General Verbal synthesis (1+ inflectional categories marked by verbal affixes) Morphological complexity in verbs - multiple inflectional affixes in a single verb word yes Jane Hill
Morphology - General Prefixing/suffixing inflectional morph: strongly prefixing There are many more prefixes than suffixes no Jane Hill
Morphology - General Prefixing/suffixing inflectional morph: strongly suffixing There are many more suffixes than prefixes no Jane Hill
Morphology - General Prefixing/suffixing inflectional morph: roughly equal or one weakly preferred The numbers of suffixes and prefixes are not notably different yes Jane Hill
Morphology - General Reduplication: full The full morpheme is reduplicated yes Jane Hill
Morphology - General Reduplication: partial Only part of the morpheme is reduplicated yes Jane Hill
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Productive NN compounding Noun compounds created from two noun phrases are common and systematically produced Jane Hill
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Productive VV serialization (without compounding) Verb roots can be combined in a single predicate without markers of subordination (distinct from subordinating construction) or distinct inflection Jane Hill
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Productive VV compounding Serial verb constructions involve chaining of roots together in one morphophonological word Jane Hill
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Verb-adjunct (aka light verb) constructions There is a set of semantically weak verbs used in complex verbal constructions, e.g. 'take a nap' Jane Hill
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Auxiliary verb(s) There are verbs that accompany main verbs of clauses and take grammatical marking not expressed by main verbs Jane Hill
Morphology - Incorporation Incorporation of nouns into verbs is a productive intransitivizing process Verb contains nominal segment Jane Hill
Morphology - Incorporation Productive incorporation of other elements (adjectives, locatives, etc.) into verbs Like noun incorporation, but incorporated elements are not nouns Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Noun classes/genders Nouns are organized into sets with distinct morphological treatment; usually affects all nouns and involves agreement within the NP no Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Number of noun classes/genders Note the (approximate) total number of noun classes/genders 0 Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Noun classifiers (distinct from noun classes/genders) Nouns are organized into sets, but only a limited set of nouns may be implicated, with no or limited agreement marking. If only numeral classifiers exist, indicate yes but explain. Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Sex is a relevant category in noun class(ification) system for animates Masculine, feminine, neuter Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Sex is a relevant category in noun class(ification) system for inanimates Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Animacy (w/o reference to sex) is a relevant category in the noun class(ification) system Animate/inanimate, human/non-human Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Sex/gender distinction only in 3rd person pronouns add in notes section whether gender is present in other PNs or not in any PNs; consider with reference to pronouns and person marking only Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Shape is a relevant category in the noun class(ification) system for animates Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Shape is a relevant category in the noun class(ification) system for inanimates Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification "Repeater" classifiers Where no distinct classifier exists, a copy of the noun itself may function in the morphosyntactic classifier "slot" Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Numeral classifiers (specific to numerals) Special classifier forms that occur only with numerals no Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Classifiers used as derivational suffixes to derive nouns Verb + classifier = 'thing for doing V, thing that does V, etc.' Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Number Singular number may be marked on the noun Often occurs in a small subset of nouns if a single entity is referred to, e.g. insects that normally occur in groups Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Number Plural affix on noun yes Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Number Plural marked by stem change or tone on noun no Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Number Plural marked by reduplication of noun no Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Number Plural word/clitic no Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Number Plural marked on human or animate nouns only no Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Number Pronominal plural: stem + nominal plural affix Pronouns use a nominal plural affix not specific to pronouns yes Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Number Unique associative plural marker e.g. 'John and his associates', 'John and them' yes Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Definite or specific articles Definite = particular referent known to both speaker and addressee; specific = particular referent known to speaker only yes Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Marker of definiteness distinct from demonstratives Focus on articles/markers whose primary function is to mark definiteness no Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Indefinite or non-specific article or marker no Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Inclusive/exclusive: in free pronominals Inclusive =us + you, exclusive = us but not you no Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Inclusive/exclusive: in verbal inflection (bound) no Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Distance contrasts in demonstratives (number) Note the number of distances in the demonstrative system 3 Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Other contrasts in demonstratives (visibility, elevation, etc.) Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Gender in 3sg pronouns no Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Gender in 3pl pronouns no Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Gender in 1st and/or 2nd person pronouns no Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Formal/informal distinction in pronouns Polite pronominal variants or differential avoidance of pronouns no Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Reflexive pronouns e.g. English 'himself', Spanish 'se'; distinct form(s) from basic (non-reflexive) pronominals; distinct from reflexive verbal affix Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Adpositions mark core NPs Prepositions or postpositions mark subjects, objects, beneficiaries/recipients Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: number of cases Note the number of grammatical relations that may be morphologically marked on the noun 5 Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: only non-core arguments morphologically marked Subjects, objects, beneficiaries/recipients NOT marked, but other grammatical relations are Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: symmetrical All NPs marked if in appropriate syntactic relation; no distinction in marking based on semantics (type of entity) yes Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: asymmetrical Semantically defined subset of NPs marked for case, e.g. animates no Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: suffix or postpositional clitic yes Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: prefix or prepositional clitic Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: infix or inpositional clitic Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: stem change Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: tone Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: comitative = instrumental Same marking for 'with a person' and 'with an instrument' no Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Numerals Base-2 At least some part of the system involves base-2 no Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Numerals Base-5 At least some part of the system involves base-5 no Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Numerals Base-10 At least some part of the system involves base-10 yes Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Numerals Other base (specify) 4, 20, etc. no Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Numerals Etymological transparency in any numerals under 5 e.g. two = 'eye-quantity' Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Numerals Numerals do not go above 5 'Many' or some other non-exact term used no Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Numerals Numerals do not go above 10 'Many' or some other non-exact term used no Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Other nominal Tense or aspect inflection on non-verbal predicates i.e. nominal or adjectival Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Other nominal Person inflection on non-verbal predicates i.e. nominal or adjectival Jane Hill
Nominal Syntax - Possession Pronominal possessive affixes: prefix on N alienable/inalienable? yes Jane Hill
Nominal Syntax - Possession Pronominal possessive affixes: suffix on N alienable/inalienable? no Jane Hill
Nominal Syntax - Possession Head/dependent marking in possessive NP: dependent e.g. 'the boy-'s dog' no Jane Hill
Nominal Syntax - Possession Head/dependent marking in possessive NP: head e.g. 'the boy his-dog' yes Jane Hill
Nominal Syntax - Possession Possessive classifiers There are special classifiers that occur with possessed entities Jane Hill
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Morphological marking of inalienable possession Where inalienable possession differs from alienable, the former takes a morphological marker (may include an associated free particle/pronoun) Jane Hill
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Morphological marking of alienable possession Where inalienable possession differs from alienable, the latter takes a morphological marker (may include an associated free particle/pronoun) Jane Hill
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Default marker for inalienably possessed nouns if unpossessed An inalienable noun that is in an unpossessed state must have a derivational affix or associated form Jane Hill
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Inalienable possession of kin terms 'my-father' but *father Jane Hill
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Inalienable possession of body parts (human/animal) 'my-leg' but *leg Jane Hill
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Generic human nouns are obligatorily bound/possessed Human nouns must co-occur with another noun (e.g. Hup-man, NonIndian-woman, but *man) Jane Hill
Nominal Syntax - Adjectives Underived adjectives There are underived adjectives which do not have counterparts in other word classes Jane Hill
Nominal Syntax - Adjectives Gender inflection on adjectives within the NP There is gender agreement/concord (animate/inanimate or masc/fem, etc.) within the NP, e.g. la casa blanca, el perro blanco Jane Hill
Nominal Syntax - Derivation Productive nominalizing morphology: action/state (arrive/arrival) There is a morpheme which derives an event from a verb Jane Hill
Nominal Syntax - Derivation Productive nominalizing morphology: agentive (sing/singer) There is a morpheme which derives an agent or subject from a verb Jane Hill
Nominal Syntax - Derivation Productive nominalizing morphology: object (sing/song) There is a morpheme which derives a patient or object from a verb Jane Hill
Nominal Syntax - Derivation Productive verbalizing morphology There is a morpheme which derives a verb from a noun or adjective Jane Hill
Nominal Syntax - Other NP coordination and comitative phrases marked differently 'John and Mary went to market' is marked differently from 'John went to market with Mary' no Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Dedicated past marker(s) Past tense is regularly morphologically marked on the verb or elsewhere Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Multiple past tenses, distinguishing distance from time of reference e.g. distant vs. recent past no Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Multiple future tenses, distinguishing distance from time of reference e.g. imminent vs. distant future Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Dedicated future or non-past marker(s) Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Tense-aspect affixes: prefix no Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Tense-aspect affixes: suffix yes Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Tense-aspect affixes: tone or ablaut no Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Tense-aspect suppletion no Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Mood Dedicated imperative morpheme or verb form There is a special morpheme (or morphemes, or a bare verb root where inflection is normally expected) used to signal imperative (command) mood yes Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Mood Polite imperative morpheme There is a distinct morpheme for polite imperative constructions (specify if it has other functions in the language) Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Mood Difference between negation in imperative (prohibitive) and declarative clauses There are different strategies for marking negation in imperative and declarative clauses no Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Mood Dedicated hortative morpheme or verb form (1pl or 3rd person imperative) as opposed to imperative; the person in control of desired state of affairs is not the addressee; ex: 'Let's sing' / 'Let him sing' Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Mood Situational possibility: affix on verb Inflectional marking of capacity to do something yes Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Mood Situational possibility: verbal construction Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Mood Situational possibility: other marking Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Mood Epistemic possibility: affix on verb Modal expressing hypothesis Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Mood Epistemic possibility: verbal construction Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Mood Epistemic possibility: other marking yes Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Mood Marking of expected/unexpected action or result There is inflectional marking of expected/unexpected Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Mood Verbal frustrative Modal expressing frustration ("in vain") Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Mood Verbal habitual Modal expressing habituality Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Mood Apprehensive construction There is a single morpheme or verb form to mean '(be careful lest) X happens' Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Mood Reality status marking on verbs There are dedicated morpheme(s) for realis/irrealis 'actualized/unactualized events' Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Mood Affect markers (positive/negative) Note whether these inflectional markers are positive or negative Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Directionals Directional elements affixed to the verb There are grammaticalized elements indicating movement away, toward, there and back, etc. Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized visual Indicates information has been witnessed visually - indicate only if an overt marker Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized nonvisual Indicates information has been sensed firsthand but not visually (usually heard; also smelled, tasted, felt) Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized inferential Indicates information has not been experienced firsthand, but inferred from some kind of evidence - indicate only if an overt marker. Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized reportive Indicates speaker is not responsible for veracity of statement, merely reporting; 'allegedly' Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized quotative Indicate presence of adjacent representation of repeated discourse Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Other evidential Any other evidential values not represented above Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Evidentiality: verb affix or clitic yes Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Evidentiality: part of tense system Includes portmanteau morphs no Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Evidentiality: separate particle no Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Evidentiality: modal morpheme no Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Verbal number Verbal number suppletion yes Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Other Social interaction markers Note the type of interaction Jane Hill
Word Order No fixed basic constituent order no Jane Hill
Word Order VS in intransitive clauses Verb precedes subject no Jane Hill
Word Order VS in transitive clauses no Jane Hill
Word Order VO in transitive clauses Verb precedes object no Jane Hill
Word Order OS in transitive clauses Object precedes subject no Jane Hill
Word Order Preposition-Noun no Jane Hill
Word Order Noun-Postposition or case suffix yes Jane Hill
Word Order Gen-Noun Possessive phrase composed of a free possessor and its possessum has possessor first (e.g. John's book) yes Jane Hill
Word Order Noun-Gen Possessive phrase composed of a free possessor and its possessum has possessum first (e.g. 'book of John') no Jane Hill
Word Order Adj-Noun Adjective precedes the noun yes Jane Hill
Word Order Noun-Adj Adjective follows the noun no Jane Hill
Word Order Dem-Noun yes Jane Hill
Word Order Noun-Dem no Jane Hill
Word Order Num-Noun yes Jane Hill
Word Order Noun-Num no Jane Hill
Word Order Noun-Rel Relative clause follows noun that it modifies yes Jane Hill
Word Order Rel-Noun Relative clause precedes noun that it modifies no Jane Hill
Word Order Re<Noun>l (internally headed relative) e.g. 'the dog cat chased-NMZR got away' ('the cat that the dog chased got away') no Jane Hill
Word Order Relative clause is correlative or adjoined e.g. 'what is running, the dog chased that cat' no Jane Hill
Word Order Question word is clause initial 'what', 'who', etc. come first in interrogative clause no Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: nominative-accusative w/ marked accusative Objects of transitive clauses ('P') have a unique marker, while subjects of transitive ('A') and intransitive ('S') clauses are unmarked or share a different marker from that occurring on objects yes Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: nominative-accusative w/ marked nominative Subjects of transitive and intransitive clauses share a marker, while objects of transitives are unmarked no Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: ergative-absolutive Subjects of intransitive clauses and objects of transitives share a unique marker, while subjects of transitive clauses are unmarked or have a different marker no Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: tripartite Intransitive subjects, transitive subjects, and transitive objects all receive distinct case markers no Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: active-inactive Subjects of intransitive clauses are treated two different ways: like subjects of transitives if they are more agent-like (e.g. he jumped), and like objects of transitives if they are more patient-like (e.g. he fell asleep) no Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: marked accusative yes Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: marked nominative no Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: ergative-absolutive yes, no, mixed, other no Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: tripartite no Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: active-inactive no Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: nominative-accusative Same as above, for pronominal affixes/clitics on verbs yes Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: ergative-absolutive yes, no, mixed, other no Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: active-inactive no Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: hierarchical Marking of A and P depends on their relative ranking on a hierarchy (usually 1>2>3 or 2>1>3) no Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: split More than one of the above systems is represented in person marking, depending on e.g. person (e.g. 1/2 vs. 3), tense-aspect value, main vs. subordinate clause type, etc. no Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: pronouns in subject position Pronominal subjects are free pronouns that occur in the same position as full NP subjects no Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: prefixes on verb Pronominal subjects are marked as verbal prefixes (free pronouns may be another option) Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: suffixes on verb Pronominal subjects are marked as verbal suffixes (free pronouns may be another option) Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: clitics on variable host Pronominal subjects are clitics that can attach to verbs, nominal constituents, etc. no Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: pronouns in non-subject position Pronominal subjects are free pronouns but do not normally occur in the position expected for full NP subjects no Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Person marking on intransitive verbs Intransitive verbs take person-marking clitics/affixes yes Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Person marking (of agents) on transitive verbs Transitive verbs take subject (A) markers yes Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Person-marking (of objects) on transitive verbs Transitive verbs take object (P) markers yes Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking 3rd person zero in verbal person marking: subjects 3rd person subjects are not overtly marked within the verbal person-marking system yes Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking 3rd person zero in verbal person marking: objects 3rd person objects are not overtly marked within the verbal person-marking system Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Number can be marked separately from person on the verb Verbal person marking exists, but number is (or can) be marked separately Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Possessive affixes/clitics on nouns are same as verbal person markers Where nouns take possessive affixes, these are the same as the person-marking affixes Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Gender distinguished in verbal person markers For any person, verbal person markers exhibit different forms depending on the gender (masc/fem, animate/inanimate, etc.) of the referent Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice Ditransitive constructions: indirect object In ditransitives (e.g. 'John gives a book to Bill'), the theme (book) is treated in the same way as are objects of transitives, while the recipient/beneficiary (Bill) is treated differently Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice Ditransitive constructions: double object In ditransitives (e.g. 'John gives Bill a book'), both the theme (book) and the recipient/beneficiary (Bill) is treated in the same way as are objects of transitives Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice Ditransitive constructions: secondary object In ditransitives, the recipient/beneficiary is treated in the same way as are objects of transitives, while the theme (book) is treated differently Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Reciprocal: dedicated morpheme Verb becomes reciprocal through use of reciprocal morpheme associated with the verb (may be attached to the verb root). This morpheme is only used to mean reciprocal. no Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Reflexive: dedicated morpheme Verb becomes reflexive through use of reflexive morpheme associated with the verb (may be attached to the verb root). This morpheme is used only to mean reflexive. no Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Reciprocal/reflexive: same morpheme Verb becomes reciprocal or reflexive through use of a morpheme that means either reciprocal or reflexive which attaches to the root of the verb yes Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Passive Passive voice usually involves a change to the verb, while the object of the active voice verb is promoted to subject in the passive voice, and the former subject is deleted/demoted no Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Antipassive Like passive, but deletes or demotes the object of a transitive verb; usually found in ergative languages yes Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Other intransitivizing morphology There is/are some other mechanism(s) for reducing valency Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Applicative: benefactive Applicative adds a beneficiary/maleficiary object argument to the verb yes Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Applicative: other Applicative adds some other object argument to the verb yes Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: prefix Causative is morphological and is attached before the root of the verb Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: suffix Causative is morphological and is attached after the root of the verb Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative marked by circumfix, stem change, or tone Morphological causative other than simple prefix/suffix Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: serial verb or analytical construction Causative construction that involves periphrasis or serialization Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: dedicated 'make do by proxy' Indicates that the causer does not directly cause the action of the verb to be realized, but does so by inducing someone else to carry out the action, e.g. 'John had the house painted.' Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: dedicated sociative Indicates that causer participates in event Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Other transitivizing morphology (adds valence) There is/are some other mechanism(s) for increasing valency Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Negation Clausal negator is a preposed element Clausal negator is a preposed element Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Negation Clausal negator is a postposed element Clausal negator is a postposed element Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Negation Negatives: affix Negatives: affix Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Negation Negatives: particle Negatives: particle yes Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Negation Negatives: auxiliary verb Negatives: auxiliary verb Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Negation Negatives: double Standard (non-emphatic) negation typically requires two morphemes, e.g. French 'ne V pas' Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Negation Distinct negative form for 'NP does not exist' Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Negation Distinct negative expression 'I don't know' Lexical expression or highly idiomatic phrase Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Polar questions: interrogative particle Yes/no questions distinguished from declaratives by interrogative particle no Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Polar questions: verb morphology Yes/no questions distinguished from declaratives by interrogative verb morphology no Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Polar questions: word order Yes/no questions distinguished from declaratives by word order (esp. subject-verb inversion) no Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Polar questions: intonation only Yes/no questions distinguished from declaratives by intonation only yes Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Content questions: word order differs from declaratives Content questions distinguished from declaratives by word order (esp. subject-verb inversion) as well as by presence of Q-word (who, what, etc.) Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Predication Predicate adjectives: verbal Adjectives act like verbs in predicative position yes Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Predication Predicate adjectives: nominal Adjectives act like nouns in predicative position yes Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Predication Zero copula for predicate nominals is possible Predicate nominals may occur without a copula (i.e. grammatical in some circumstances, if not all) no Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Predication Headless relative clauses Compare Eng 'the one that fell' (but in Eng 'one' could be considered a head) Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Predication Headless relative clauses are the dominant or only form of relative clause Relative clauses that form a constituent with a head noun (in a single noun phrase) are rare or nonexistent; some descriptions may refer to adjoined or correlative clauses. Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Predication Relative clause may occur with a noun classifier/class marker It may be unclear whether the classifier is the nominal head of the construction or is an agreement marker on the relative clause Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Predication Relativizer is a verbal affix Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Predication Morphological relativizer is homophonous with nominalizer The same morpheme marks a relative clause and is a nominalizer on verbs (and/or other word classes) Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Desiderative expressions Grammaticalized verbal desiderative Indicates that the subject desires to carry out the action denoted by the verb (distinct from verb 'want', but may be grammaticalized from it) Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Other Clause chaining Clauses can be grouped such that only one bears most of the verb morphology, and the others are marked as to whether they share a subject with this reference clause. Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Other Morphologically marked switch-reference system There are special markers to indicate same vs. different subject when two clauses are combined Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Other Morphologically marked distinction between simultaneous and sequential clauses Morphology (usually on verb) distinguishes between clauses denoting events that occur at the same time or in sequence Jane Hill


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