California woodpecker

Semantic Field
flora-fauna
Part of Speech
Meaning Spanish
Meaning Portuguese

Languages

Language Linnean Name Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Range of Term Word Structure Word Structure Notes Classifier Classifier Notes Hypernym Source Association with Social Categories Ritual/Mythologically Significant Ritual Notes Food Source Food Notes Medicinal Medicinal Notes How Collected Who Collects How Prepared Psychotropic Psychotropic Notes Traded Trade Notes Distribution Habitat Dangerous Ethnobiology Notes Species Notes General Notes Created By
Bankalachi Toloim Melanerpes formicivorus? pă-lă'-tuk California woodpecker loan Unknown arealism (see Troike n.d.); possible origin on coast, but origin obscure WW %palaka ~ %pana(k) same underived C. H. Merriam 72-77, 60-455 2 1 0 0 1 no
Big Smokey Valley Shoshone Melanerpes formicivorus? putumpittsi; wampuni, wopin tottontaki, woppimpono 295 “type of woodpecker” woodpecker inheritance unknown Crum & Dayley 1993:281 2 1 0 0 1 no
Cahuilla Melanerpes formicivorus? kúpanilʸ ˈkupaniʎ woodpecker unique May be related to Cupeño tukupuwet “woodpecker” (tu-kupa-we-t “acorns-woodpecker-augmentative-npn”??? (tu from tu'ish “crop”??) WW %palaka ~ %pana(k) same other complex ˈkupani-ʎ no obvious etymology for root -7aʃ “pet” Possessive classifier -7aʃ wikikmal Seiler&Hioki 1979:85 A bird of the Coyote moiety (Strong 1929:71) 2 Woodpecker feathers often important in ritual, no info for Cahuilla. Woodpecker could never learn to dance at creation time, which is why he jumps up and down (Seiler 1970:44). Woodpecker still says “Piam!” “bewitch him” (Op.cit. p.48) 1 This bird caches acorns one by one, but no mention of Indians taking advantage of these no info hunted All roasted, stewed, eggs eaten 0 1 Southern Oregon, California, south to Colombia Oak woodlands no
Central Sierra Miwok Melanerpes formicivorus? palát:ata- woodpecker, red breasted (Lewis?) NO JHH loan into protolanguage *palaT:a-? Miwokan unknown Note Pyokuts *pHala:tah; “There are peculiiar developments in both Miwok and Yokuts” (Callaghan 1997:61); see Troike ms for this very widespread form WW %palaka ~ %pana(k) reduplicated Freeland & Broadbent 1960 2 1 0 0 1 no
Chemehuevi Melanerpes formicivorus? po-pa'-po-wunz; pe-pe'-poo-wants pipípuŋɂŋwatsI JPH California woodpecker (Melanerpes formicivorus bairdi) unique Colorado River Numic; same as Southern Paiute same other complex pipípuŋɂŋ-watsI DUP-knock??-ngwa??-tsi Merriam 59:527 2 1 0 0 1 no
Chumash Barbareno Melanerpes formicivorus? pulak'ak acorn woodpecker (this confirms ID) loan into protolanguage *pVlak'a(k') Proto-Chumash unknown Klar 1977:116 (may be a loan, widespread arealism) reduplicated Applegate 194; Beeler 1978:182 2 nephew of the sun, only one who did not die in the first flood (Applegate 531) 1 0 0 1 no
Chumash Ineseno Melanerpes formicivorus? pulak'ak' (I) on p. 201 maqutikok “woodpecker” red-headed woodpecker (I); acorn woodpecker (B) (this confirms ID); Merriam confirms (55:9) loan into protolanguage *pVlak'a(k') Proto-Chumash unknown Klar 1977;116 (may be a loan, actually) WW %palaka ~ %pana(k) reduplicated Applegate 194 2 nephew of the sun, only one who did not die in the first flood (Applegate 531) 1 0 0 1 no
Chumash Obispeno Melanerpes formicivorus? (t)pilak'a woodpecker loan into protolanguage *pVlak'a(k') Proto-Chumash unknown Klar 1977;116; somewhat irregular and perhaps a loan, a widespread arealism WW %palaka ~ %pana(k) other complex t- Klar 1977:116 2 1 0 0 1 no
Chumash Ventureno Melanerpes formicivorus? čulakak woodpecker loan into protolanguage *pVlak'a(k') Proto-Chumash unknown Klar 1977:116; this is NOT a regular reflex and argues that this is a loan through the family WW %palaka ~ %pana(k) underived Klar 1977:116 2 nephew of the sun, only one who did not die in the first flood (Applegate 531) 1 0 0 1 no
Cocopa Melanerpes formicivorus? šcɂu·ny Gila woodpecker inheritance Proto-Yuman Note Mojave ɂisɂuun same underived Crawford 1989 2 1 0 0 1 no
Comanche Melanerpes formicivorus? pitusɨ nu?ye?; wobi tohtaraki woodpecker unique Central Numic These are identical to Crum & Dayley's Duckwater forms: putumpittsi; wopin tottontaki, actualy “Shoshone” only as I can't find similar forms in T. Shoshone broader (any woodpeckers, source is vague) phrase wopin tottontaki means wood pecker -- I would say calque except Duckwater has identical formj. pitusi? is “backwards” -- nu?ye? crawls??? Robinson & Armagost 1990:163 2 1 0 0 1 no
Cupeño Melanerpes formicivorus? toRɛkikim toˈɾɛkikim Yellowhammer (see species notes) loan Luiseño or Gabrielino loan because of /o/, /r/; word not recorded for Lu. Note Gabrielino teroki “to break, romper”; see Kawaiisu word same underived note no npn -ʔaʃ "pet" possessive classifier for animals mukikmal Hill & Nolasquez 1973:176 no info 2 woodpecker at “Bird's Church” (Creator's funeral) 1 eggs surely eaten, acorn caches used no info no info no info no info 0 1 Southern Oregon, California, south to Colombia oak woodlands no
Esselen Melanerpes formicivorus? missing missing missing 2 1 0 0 1 no
Gabrielino Melanerpes formicivorus? pe-var” 72-77, 60-423 piˈva:r (?) California Woodpecker inheritance *piva- Takic Kitanemuk pivanach; see note with “Bat” same other complex piˈva:-r woodpecker-npn -ʔaʧ “pet possessive classifier for animals chi:ya http://www.archive.org/stream/bancroft_chartmerriam_1556_60#page/n415/mode/2up; p. 423 no info 2 1 all birds eaten (McC 116) no info hunted all roasted (also, this bird caches acorns and caches are eaten) 0 1 Southern Oregon, California, south to Colombia oak woodlands no
Iipay 'Aa Melanerpes formicivorus? hatepull woodpecker; Merriam confirms California Woodpeckker, Melanerpes formicivorus inheritance Proto-Yuman Note Kiliwa t?lphuu same underived Couro & Hutcheson 1973 2 1 0 0 1 no
Kawaiisu Melanerpes formicivorus? taataraage'e-bɨ woodpecker loan Takic see Cupeno toRɛkikim probably from Gabrielino word for 'to break' same other complex taataraa-ge'e-bɨ onomatopoeia-?-ABS Zigmond et al.:274 2 1 0 0 1 no
Kiliwa Melanerpes formicivorus? t?lphuu woodpecker inheritance Proto-Yuman Note 'Iipay Aa hatepull broader (is this generic for woodpeckers? Mixco gives no genus or species. Gila woodpecker? underived Mixco 1985 2 1 0 0 1 no
Kitanemuk Melanerpes formicivorus? pivanač ˈpivanaʧr woodpecker sp: smaller than šɨč inheritance Takic Note Gabrielino pe-var” 72-77, 60-423, but the derivation is not the same same derived ˈpi-ivana-ʧr peck-instrumental-npn (usually with final ʔ as possessed form; Anderton 1988:475 regards as “frozen form”) -ʔacit "pet" possessive classifier for animals wicitat Anderton 1988:475 no info 2 often figures importantly, but no info 1 especially handy as acorn-storing bird no info hunted men roasted, boiled, eggs eaten 0 1 woodpecker scalp feathers often traded, but no info Southern Oregon, California, south to Colombia oak woodlands no
Lake Miwok Melanerpes formicivorus? panáak woodpecker (et) loan unknown Note Clear Lake Wappo panak “woodpecker” 106; see Troike ms. on this very widespread form; Pmi is *palaT:a-?, Pynim is *pHala:tatH Callaghan 1997:61, who notes “there are peculiar developments in both Miwok and Yokuts” WW %palaka ~ %pana(k) underived Callaghan 1965 2 1 0 0 1 no
Luiseño Melanerpes formicivorus? $óola ʹşo:la woodpecker; Bright, California woodpecker, Sparkman, This woodpecker stores acorns in the bark of trees doubtful loan *cutu Uto-Aztecan no information S206 (Stubbs 2009:67), but Lu. form has inexplicably non-corresponding vowels, as does Mono. same other complex ʹşo:-la California.woodpecker-non.possessed.noun -ʔaʃ "pet" possessive classifier; NPN form of noun is ʔaʃla 7ehéngmal Elliott 1999:870 no info 2 1 acorn caches eaten, owners even felled trees to retrieve no info no info no info no info 0 1 Southern Oregon, California, south to Colombia Oak woodlands no
Maidu Melanerpes formicivorus? pan-nă-kah California woodpecker loan into protolanguage Maiduan unknown WW %palaka ~ %pana(k) underived Shipley 1963 2 1 0 0 1 no
Mojave Melanerpes formicivorus? ɂisɂuun woodpecker inheritance Proto-Yuman Note C šcɂu·ny; Yuma kwakxó· “woodpecker” Halpern1:26 same other complex 7 + sa'uun “fork” ?? Munro et al.1992 2 1 0 0 1 no
Mutsun Melanerpes formicivorus? paratu woodpecker (Merriam confirms Merriam 55:409) loan *para:tak ? Costanoan unknown Areal word, see Troike ms.; Pmi *pala-Ta ? Callaghan 1997:61; Pco Callaghan 1992:40 WW %palaka ~ %pana(k) reduplicated from {parut}? Mason 1916:428 2 1 0 0 1 no
Nisenan Melanerpes formicivorus? panaka California woodpecker loan into protolanguage Maiduan unknown California form WW %palaka ~ %pana(k) underived Uldall & Shipley 1966 2 1 0 0 1 no
Northern Paiute Melanerpes formicivorus? ă-sahk-kwi-yu wah'-pe pan-nă atsa kwoyu waape panna California woodpecker (Melanerpes formicivorus bairdi) loan unknown at the core of this is the panna loan word (see “Flicker” same phrase and what a phrase! atsa kwo-yu waape panna red head-nom juniper woodpecker ?? Merriam 61:139 2 1 0 0 1 no
Northern Sierra Miwok Melanerpes formicivorus? palat:ata- woodpecker loan into protolanguage *palaT:a- ? Miwokan unknown Note Pynim *pHala:tah “There are peculiar developments in both Miwok and Yokuts” (Callaghan 1997:61); see Troike ms. on this widespread areal form WW %palaka ~ %pana(k) reduplicated Callaghan 1987 2 1 0 0 1 no
Plains Miwok Melanerpes formicivorus? palat:ata-?, palti7na-? woodpecker (CHM has palti7na- for Melanerpes) loan *pala:T:a-? Miwokan unknown A widespread early loan, note Pynim *pHala:taH. “There are peculiar develpments in both Miwok and Yokuts” Callaghan 1997:61 WW %palaka ~ %pana(k) reduplicated Callaghan 1984 2 1 0 0 1 no
Salinan A Melanerpes formicivorus? palá:k:a7 California woodpecker loan Salinan unknown widespread areal form of unknown origin WW %palaka ~ %pana(k) underived Mason 1918:124; Turner 1980:87 2 1 0 0 1 no
Salinan M Melanerpes formicivorus? palá:kak' California woodpecker loan Salinan unknown widespread areal form of unknown origin WW %palaka ~ %pana(k) underived Mason 1918:124 2 1 0 0 1 no
Seri (Comcaac) Melanerpes formicivorus? hatnáacoj Gila woodpecker (Melanerpes uropygialis) unique same phrase hatni aacoj woodpecker big Comcaac Dictionary 358 2 This bird held onto the sky during the flood 1 0 0 1 no
Serrano Melanerpes formicivorus? pe'-vahnts California woodpecker inheritance Takic In Kitanemuk, also Gab. pe-var” (CHM 72-77, 60-423) other complex -t NPN Merriam 72-27, 60-103 2 1 0 0 1 no
Southern Paiute Melanerpes formicivorus? pipung'wantsI red-headed woodpecker (Merriam for Kai-va-vits says “all woodpeckers” 61:361 unique Colorado River Numic, same as Harrington's Chemehuevi same other complex has -tsi ABS; derivation in stem unclear Sapir 1930:612 2 1 0 0 1 no
Southern Sierra Miwok Melanerpes formicivorus? palaT:aTa- woodpecker loan into protolanguage *pala:T:a- ? Miwokan unknown Callaghan 1997:61 “There are peculiar developments in both Miwok and Yokuts” C1997:61; Pynim *pHala:tatH; see Troike ms on this widespread arealism WW %palaka ~ %pana(k) reduplicated Broadbent 1964: 2 1 0 0 1 no
Southern Ute Melanerpes formicivorus? píipų?ą-cI woodpecker unique resembles Southern Paiute pipung'wantsI same other complex has -ci ABS ; looks phrasal but elements have no analysis, don't occur elsewhere obviously Givon 1979 2 1 0 0 1 no
Tübatulabal Melanerpes formicivorus? tă-lah-gawk't (k written over w) 72-77, 60-489;tă-lah'-gahkt' 60-489 ta:laˈgohkt California woodpecker loan Gabrielino UA etyma, unique formation WW %palaka ~ %pana(k) same derived ta:la-ˈkohk-t morning-repeatedly.pounds-nominalizer chikkīt http://www.archive.org/stream/bancroft_chartmerriam_1556_60#page/n479/mode/2up; p. 489 no info 2 1 Voegelin 1938:12 no info N/A N/A N/A 0 1 Southern Oregon, California, south to Colombia oak woodlands no
Tümpisa Shoshone Melanerpes formicivorus? missing missing missing Dayley 1989 2 1 0 0 1 no
Wappo Melanerpes formicivorus? pálič' red-headed woodpecker (CHM confirms California woodpecker 52:571) loan unknown areal form, see Troike ms. WW %palaka ~ %pana(k) underived Sawyer 1965 2 1 0 0 1 no
Washo Melanerpes formicivorus? dic'em woodpecker unique underived WPD 2 1 0 0 1 no
Western Mono Melanerpes formicivorus? panaatada' woodpecker (Merriam's “California woodpecker”) loan unknown words of this shape for this bird very widespread in Central California (see Troike 2010 ms.) WW %palaka ~ %pana(k) same underived Bethel et al.:127 no info 2 scalp powerful feathers 1 old people ate (Gayton 2:223) no info hunted men no info 0 1 woodpecker scalp dance costumes sold? no
Wintu Melanerpes formicivorus? č'ura:t California woodpecker (CHM confirms 56:9) loan Yana same word is in Yana c'uraadu (Sapir & Swadesh 1960); W word is NOT cognate with other Wintun forms so loan probable, although system is probably wider underived Schlichter 1981 2 1 0 0 1 no
Yavapai Melanerpes formicivorus? missing missing missing 2 1 0 0 1 no
Yokuts Palewyami Melanerpes formicivorus? tal-lă'-kuk California woodpecker loan Yowlumne Yokuts Yawelmani has palâgak (Kroeber 1961:203), this is closest match, probably a loan; Golla 1964:66 has *phala:tath; Callaghan 1997:61 compares Pmi *palaT:a, noting “there are peculiar developments in both Miwok and Yokuts” WW %palaka ~ %pana(k) same underived Merriam 58:521 2 1 0 0 1 no
Yokuts Yawdanchi Melanerpes formicivorus? palâdat woodpecker (Merriam confirms 58:363) loan *phala:tath Nim-Yokuts unknown Golla 1964:66; Callaghan 1997:61 compares Pmi *palaT:a, noting “there are peculiar developments in both Miwok and Yokuts”; Costanoan has *para:Ta, CHECK WW %palaka ~ %pana(k) same underived Kroeber 1961:203 2 1 0 0 1 no
Yokuts Yowlumne Melanerpes formicivorus? pala:k'ak' woodpecker (Merriam confirms Melanerpes) loan *phala:tath Nim-Yokuts unknown Golla 1964:66 (but this is NOT regular in Nim-Yokuts???); Callaghan 1997:61 compares Pmi *palaT:a, noting “there are peculiar developments in both Miwok and Yokuts”; given irregular T, k' match perhaps this should be coded as a loan; Troike discusses thi WW %palaka ~ %pana(k) same underived Kroeber 1961:203 2 1 0 0 1 no
Yuki Melanerpes formicivorus? aw-se'-um MWO, ûNsīam B, áN-sĭn CS California woodpecker inheritance *7əsiyam Yukian Schlichter 1985 derived 7əs “blood” Sawyer & Schlichter 1984 2 1 0 0 1 no
Yuma Melanerpes formicivorus? missing missing missing 2 1 0 0 1 no