Tümpisa Shoshone

Family
Uto-Aztecan
Region
North America
ISO 639-3
par
Location
36.00°, -117.90°
Notes
Features
Basic Vocabulary
Flora Fauna Vocabulary
Cultural Vocabulary
Ethnographic Information
Data Sources
none


Basic Vocabulary (185)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Etymology Notes Source Created By
above encima, arriba acima location pa7an inheritance Dayley 1989 Jane Hill
again de nuevo, otra vez de novo grammar pinnasy inheritance Jane Hill
all todo todos other ojoonty(sy) inheritance Jane Hill
and y e grammar tynga unknown Jane Hill
ankle tobillo tornozelo body tawintsoko inheritance Jane Hill
armpit axila, sobaco axila body aha, naha unknown Jane Hill
ash ceniza(s) cinzas environment kuttuhupin, inheritance Jane Hill
at en, a em, a location ka” inheritance Jane Hill
back espalda costas body kwaimpy (of body) inheritance Jane Hill
bad mal mal quality kee tsawih inheritance Jane Hill
belly barriga barriga body puno inheritance Jane Hill
below abajo, debajo abaixo location tukkwan inheritance Jane Hill
big grande grande quality pia inheritance Jane Hill
bite morder morder body kyttsi7ah, inheritance Jane Hill
black negro preto colour tuppapi(tyn) inheritance Jane Hill
blood sangre sangue body pao”-, paoppi inheritance Jane Hill
blow soplar soprar body puuhi” inheritance Jane Hill
boil/pimple espinilla, granos espinha, borbulha body ya “sore, wound” inheritance Jane Hill
bone hueso osso body tsuhmippyh, tsunippyh inheritance Jane Hill
breast pecho, seno peito body pitsi inheritance Jane Hill
breathe respirar respirar body sumakkain inheritance Jane Hill
burn quemar queimar environment waya”, wayan, wayangkyn inheritance Jane Hill
chew masticar, mascar mastigar body kyttsohi unknown Jane Hill
child niño, niña criança human piammyttsi unique Jane Hill
climb subir subir motion tynto7eh, tonto7eh inheritance Jane Hill
cloud nube nuvem environment pakyynappyh inheritance Jane Hill
cold frío frio quality yitsy7in inheritance Jane Hill
come venir vir motion kimma inheritance Jane Hill
cook cocinar cozinhar impact tykymmahannih, inheritance Jane Hill
correct/true verdad, de veras verdade quality tokwi” loan direction unknown Jane Hill
count contar contar mental tytsyyh, tytytsyyh inheritance Jane Hill
cry llorar chorar mental yakai', yake', inheritance Jane Hill
cut/hack cortar cortar impact tsikka7ah (flexible object) inheritance Jane Hill
day día dia time tape inheritance Jane Hill
die/be dead morir morrer state tijaih (sg); inheritance Jane Hill
dig cavar cavar impact hota” inheritance Jane Hill
dingo/wolf fauna toopi, tooppi loan direction unknown Jane Hill
dirty sucio sujo quality tuttsaappyh inheritance Jane Hill
dream soñar sonhar mental napusawih, nopusawih inheritance Jane Hill
drink beber, tomar beber body hipi” inheritance Jane Hill
dry seco seco quality pasa” inheritance Jane Hill
dull/blunt sin filo, mocho, desafilado, embotado, romo maçante, desamolado, não afiado quality kee kyma(ppyh)pain inheritance Jane Hill
dust polvo poeira environment hukkumpin, hukkumpy inheritance Jane Hill
ear oreja orelha body nangki inheritance Jane Hill
earth/soil tierra terra environment sokopin inheritance Jane Hill
eat comer comer body tykkah inheritance Jane Hill
egg huevo ovo fauna noyopin inheritance Jane Hill
eye ojo olho body pui inheritance Jane Hill
faeces heces, mierda, excremento, estiércol fezes body kwitappyh inheritance Jane Hill
fall caer cair motion hapikkwan, hapikkun “fall down”; inheritance Jane Hill
far lejos longe quality manakwappyh inheritance Jane Hill
fat/grease grasa gordura body juhupin inheritance Jane Hill
father padre, papá pai kinship appy loan direction unknown Jane Hill
fear miedo medo mental ti7iwan inheritance Jane Hill
feather pluma pena fauna pyhy(ttsi), pyhyppyh; inheritance Jane Hill
fire fuego fogo environment wajantyn inheritance Jane Hill
fish xx xx fauna pangwi, pengwi inheritance Jane Hill
flow fluir fluir motion okwe”, okwai” inheritance Jane Hill
flower flor flor environment hipingkyppyh, hipingkyntyn inheritance Jane Hill
fly volar voar motion jytsy” inheritance Jane Hill
fog niebla, neblina nevoeira, bruma, neblina environment wykkyynappyh inheritance Jane Hill
foot pie body nampe inheritance Jane Hill
fruit fruta fruta flora huuppi “berry (red)” inheritance Jane Hill
good bueno bom quality tsao, tsawih, tsawyntyn inheritance Jane Hill
grow crecer crescer state hanna” “grow, get bigger” inheritance Jane Hill
hair (of head) cabello cabelo body tsoppippyhi inheritance Jane Hill
hand mano mão body mo7o, inheritance Jane Hill
3sg el/ella ele/ela grammar matyn inheritance Jane Hill
head cabeza cabeça body pampi inheritance Jane Hill
hear oír ouvir mental nangkah inheritance Jane Hill
heavy pesado pesado quality pytti(tyn) inheritance Jane Hill
hide esconder esconder motion watsikkatyh, watsittykih inheritance Jane Hill
hit golpear, pegar bater impact -tykwan inheritance Jane Hill
hold correr, asegurar, sostener segurar other jaa” (sg. obj.) inheritance Jane Hill
how? como como grammar hakani (how, what, of something done) inheritance Jane Hill
1sg yo eu grammar ny, nyy inheritance Jane Hill
if si se grammar ukkwah, unknown Jane Hill
in/inside dentro, adentro dentro location kuppan inheritance Jane Hill
intestines intestinos intestinos body koe inheritance Jane Hill
itch hormiguear, sentir comezón coçar body pihjakai” inheritance Jane Hill
kill matar matar impact pakkah inheritance Jane Hill
know/be knowledgeable saber, conecer saber, conhecer mental sumpanai inheritance Jane Hill
lake lago lago environment (paattsi) pakatytyn loan Jane Hill
laugh reír rir mental jahi”, jahe” inheritance Jane Hill
leaf hoja folha environment pisi(ttsi) inheritance Jane Hill
left/left hand izquierdo esquerdo location/body kwii inheritance Jane Hill
leg/foot pierna perna body nungkwappyh, hungkwappyh inheritance Jane Hill
lie down acostarse, echarse deitar motion hapi”, inheritance Jane Hill
lightning rayo, relámpago relampago environment kongojoppo7e(nna)m, kongojopoppa7en unique Jane Hill
live/be alive vivir viver, morar body nuwityhantysy inheritance Jane Hill
liver hígado figado body nymy(ttsi) inheritance Jane Hill
long largo comprido, longo quality kypytappi “long, tall” inheritance Jane Hill
louse piollo, piojo piolho fauna posiattsi inheritance Jane Hill
lung pulmón pulmão body somo, songwo inheritance Jane Hill
man/male hombre homem human tangummy, tangwammy loan direction unknown Jane Hill
meat/flesh carne carne fauna tukkua7ityn, inheritance Jane Hill
moon luna lua environment mya(ttsi) inheritance Jane Hill
mother madre, mamá mãe kinship pia, pii inheritance Jane Hill
mouth boca boca body tympe inheritance Jane Hill
name nombre nome human niha, niya inheritance Jane Hill
nape base del cuello, nuca nuca body katattsi inheritance Jane Hill
near/close cerca de perto quality tykynaa(ttsi) unknown Jane Hill
neck cuello pescoço body kutan inheritance Jane Hill
new nuevo novo quality yky loan direction unknown Jane Hill
night noche noite time tukwanni, tukwawani inheritance Jane Hill
no/not no não grammar ke(e) inheritance Jane Hill
nose nariz nariz body mupin inheritance Jane Hill
old viejo velho quality pyettympy, pyaittympy (of inanimates) inheritance Jane Hill
one uno um number symyttyn inheritance Jane Hill
open/uncover abrir abrir other tsattawin inheritance Jane Hill
other otro outro grammar missing Jane Hill
pain/painful/sick dolor, doloroso, enfermo dor, doloroso, doente body kammah inheritance Jane Hill
person/human being persona pessoa human nymy inheritance Jane Hill
pound/beat machacar, golpear bater impact tappaih, inheritance Jane Hill
rain lluvia chuva environment yma”, yngwa” inheritance Jane Hill
red rojo vermelho colour angkapi(tyn) inheritance Jane Hill
right/right hand derecha direita location/body tsaommo7o “right hand” inheritance Jane Hill
road/path camino caminho manufacture po7e inheritance Jane Hill
root raíz raiz flora tynyna(py), tytyna(py), inheritance Jane Hill
rotten podrido podre quality pisi”, inheritance Jane Hill
sand arena areia environment pasingompin, pasingwampin inheritance Jane Hill
say decir dizer mental jykwi” inheritance Jane Hill
scratch rascar rasgar impact -siiwah inheritance Jane Hill
see ver ver mental puni”, punikkan inheritance Jane Hill
sharp afilado, filudo, filoso afiado quality kyma- (of edge) inheritance Jane Hill
shoot tirar, disparar, balear atirar impact kuttih unknown Jane Hill
short corto curto quality toppottsi(ttsi) inheritance Jane Hill
shoulder hombro ombro body tsooppyh inheritance Jane Hill
shy/ashamed tímido, vergonzoso timido, com vergonha mental nasuwain, inheritance Jane Hill
sit sentar(se) sentar state katy” inheritance Jane Hill
skin piel pele body nymya (of body), unknown Jane Hill
sky cielo céu environment tukumpana(pin) inheritance Jane Hill
sleep dormir dormir body yppyih inheritance Jane Hill
small pequeño pequeno quality tytiittsittsi inheritance Jane Hill
smoke humo fumaça environment kukkwiippyh, kukkwiippi inheritance Jane Hill
sniff/smell olfatear, oler cheirar body ykwikkan loan into protolanguage Jane Hill
spit escupir cuspir body tusi” loan into protolanguage, direction unknown Jane Hill
split partir, dividir rachar, dividir, partir impact paha” unknown Jane Hill
squeeze estrujar, exprimir espremer impact -kwitunah "wring out" inheritance Jane Hill
stab/pierce apuñalar, acuchillar apunhalar impact tonna” inheritance Jane Hill
stand estar de pié ficar em pé state wyny” inheritance Jane Hill
star estrella estrela environment tatsiumpi inheritance Jane Hill
steal robar roubar other innyntykkah unique Jane Hill
stick/wood palo pau, vara flora huuppin inheritance Jane Hill
stone piedra pedra environment tympin, tyn- inheritance Jane Hill
suck chupar chupar body jungwyh, junguh inheritance Jane Hill
sweat sudar suor, suar body potso7in “to be wet, sweaty” inheritance Jane Hill
swell hincharse inchar body pakwi” inheritance Jane Hill
swim nadar nadar motion nokoitsoih inheritance Jane Hill
tail cola, rabo rabo body kwasi(ttsi) inheritance Jane Hill
that ese/esa esse grammar (s)a-, inheritance Jane Hill
3pl ellos/ellas eles/elas grammar matymmy, inheritance Jane Hill
thick grueso, gordo, espeso grosso quality tuhuntappytyn inheritance Jane Hill
thin delgado fino quality tatuttsi(ttsi) (of things, not people) inheritance Jane Hill
think pensar pensar mental mukuatu inheritance Jane Hill
this este/esta este grammar (s)i-, (s)ity inheritance Jane Hill
2sg xx xx grammar yy inheritance Jane Hill
three tres tres number pahi(ttyn), pai(ttyn) inheritance Jane Hill
throat garganta garganta body kuwi(ttsi) unknown Jane Hill
throw tirar, lanzar atirar, jogar impact -kuna" inheritance Jane Hill
thunder truenos trovão environment toojakai”, toojakaityn unique Jane Hill
tie up/fasten atar, amarrar amarrar impact wyttsamanaa (tie up animal), unknown Jane Hill
tongue lengua lingua body okon, ekon inheritance Jane Hill
tooth diente dente body taman inheritance Jane Hill
turn girar, volter, torcer virar other -munuh (around or over) inheritance Jane Hill
two dos dois number waha(ttyn) inheritance Jane Hill
vomit vomitar vomitar body moto7eh unknown Jane Hill
walk caminar, andar andar motion tattykinnaih “step, walk” unknown Jane Hill
water agua agua environment paa(ttsi) inheritance Jane Hill
1pl.excl nosotros (exclusivo) nós (exclusivo) grammar nymmy; inheritance Jane Hill
1pl.incl nosotros (inclusivo) nós (inclusivo) grammar tammy; inheritance Jane Hill
wet mojado molhado quality patso7in(tyn), potso7in(tyn) inheritance Jane Hill
what? que, qué que grammar hii inheritance Jane Hill
when? cuando quando grammar himpe inheritance Jane Hill
where? donde onde grammar hakapan inheritance Jane Hill
white blanco branco colour tosapi(tyn) inheritance Jane Hill
who? quien, quién quem grammar hakatyn inheritance Jane Hill
wife esposa esposa kinship pynnahapi(ttsi) unknown Jane Hill
wind viento vento environment nyetyn, nyaityn inheritance Jane Hill
wing ala asa body kasa(ttsi), kasappyh, kasapyta inheritance Jane Hill
woman/female mujer mulher human wa7ippy inheritance Jane Hill
work trabajar trabalhar other tytyai, tytye inheritance Jane Hill
yawn bostezar bocejar body hytawa inheritance Jane Hill
yellow amarillo amarelo colour sykympi(tyn) unknown Jane Hill
2pl ustedes vocês grammar ymmi inheritance Jane Hill


Flora Fauna Vocabulary (130)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Linnean Name Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Range of Term Word Structure Word Structure Notes Classifier Classifier Notes Hypernym Source Association with Social Categories Ritual/Mythologically Significant Ritual Notes Food Source Food Notes Medicinal Medicinal Notes How Collected Who Collects How Prepared Psychotropic Psychotropic Notes Traded Trade Notes Distribution Habitat Dangerous Ethnobiology Notes Species Notes General Notes Created By
abalone flora-fauna Haliotis spp. po'owa seashell, shell inheritance *po'owa Western & Central Numic W. Mono “olivella”; Stubbs 1907 (2008:267); is this really cognate? same underived Dayley 1989:220 2 1 0 0 1 no
ant (generic) hormiga formiga flora-fauna Formicidae tasimüü little black ant, piss ant (Merriam's generic ant) inheritance *tasi'a Proto-Numic Stubbs 49 (2008:45) Central and Southern Numic only same underived Dayley 1989:279 0 0 2 0 0 no
antelope flora-fauna Antilocapra americana wantsi antelope inheritance *wanci Proto-Numic Stubbs 53 (2008:45) same other complex is this a real DIM??? Dayley 1989:378 2 1 0 0 0 no
badger flora-fauna Taxidea taxus hunnan badger inheritance *huLa Proto-Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 132 (2008:59) same underived Dayley 1989:28 2 1 0 0 0 yes
bald eagle flora-fauna Haliaeetus leucocephalus missing missing missing 1 2 0 0 1 no
band-tail pigeon flora-fauna Patagioenas fasciata makkaitopi pigeon inheritance *ma'kawV, makahVwi Proto-Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 676 (2008:126) some problems, PNUA definitely, usually means “dove” same other complex makkai-to-pi dove-?-CL -pi Dayley 1989:92 0 1 0 0 0 no
bat murciélago morcego flora-fauna Chiroptera spp honnopi large bat inheritance *ho'napi Numic Stubbs 126 (2008:58); western & central numic narrower (one kind of bat only) other complex honno-p bat-CLi -pi Dayley 1989:26 0 1 0 0 0 no
beaver flora-fauna Castor missing missing missing 2 1 0 0 0 no
beetle flora-fauna Coleoptera spp tüpisihpungki stinkbug inheritance *tɨ-*pippusi Proto-Numic Western & Central Numic only (pi”- “backside”???) Stubbs 311 (2008:83) same other complex tü- “rock”, pisi” “rot”, pungku “pet, critter” Dayley 1989:329 2 0 0 0 0 no
big round tule flora-fauna Schoenoplectus acutus saippüh tule, Scirpus sp. inheritance *sɨyi Proto-Northern Uto-Aztecan I think this goes with Stubbs 1735 (shown in reconstruction based on only Takic forms) which needs to be fixed since Numic is clearly sayi, see Kawaiisu seevibɨ same other complex sai-ppüh tule-CL ppüh Dayley 1989:234 2 1 2 0 0 no
big skunk flora-fauna Mephitis mephitis ponniattsi, pohniattsi skunk inheritance *po(C)ni Proto-Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 1983 (2008:275), problematic, may be from “stink” verb broader (any skunk) other complex pohnia-ttsi skunk-DIM Dayley 1989:218 2 2 0 0 0 no
big wolf (gray wolf) flora-fauna Canis lupus toopi, tooppi wolf inheritance *tu'apa Proto-Numic Stubbs 2503 (2008:335); I don't think this set is regular, looks like it's been loaned around same other complex too-pi wolf-CL pi Dayley 1989:295 1 2 0 0 0 yes
bighorn sheep flora-fauna Ovis canadensis wasüppin bighorn, game, Orion's Belt constellation unique Central Numic only Fowler notes regular derivation from “kill” in Numic for bighorn same other complex wasü” “kill”, ppin CL pin Dayley 1989:379 2 1 0 0 0 no
bird pajaro, ave passaro flora-fauna kasattsikantün, kasakantün bird unique *kasa is Proto-Numic “wing” (Stubbs 2008:333, unnumbered set) narrower (does not include large raptor birds) derived kasa-ttsi-kantün, wing-DIM-having Dayley 1989:47 0 0 0 0 0 no
black ant flora-fauna Camponotus pennsylvanicus/Lasius niger missing missing missing 2 0 0 0 0 no
black bear flora-fauna Ursus americanus pahamittsi (M has also mor-itch) bear loan *paha Proto-Numic unknown Stubbs 135 (2008:59); mor-itch is loan from Utian words for “black, dark” (Callaghan 2001:327); cf. Palewyami Yokuts molaj' “bear” Callaghan 2001:333 WW %paha, %mol same other complex pahami-ttsi bear-DIM (rest is probably complex too) Dayley 1989:178 1 2 0 0 0 yes
black-tail Jackrabbit flora-fauna Lepus californicus kammu jackrabbit inheritance *kaNmu Proto-Numic Stubbs 1710 (2008:243) same underived Dayley 1989:44 2 1 0 0 0 no
blackberry flora-fauna Rubus ursinus mah'-mil 60:503, 72:819 loan Tübatulabal WW %mam missing 2 1 2 0 0 no
blue grouse flora-fauna Dendrogapus? kahu grouse (sp) inheritance *kaka “quail, grouse” Numic m not sure about this -- Numic is good, but may not go with Takic (Stubbs 1702a (2008:241). Note Northfork qahɨ and wonder why different from “quail” same underived Dayley 1989:41 0 1 0 0 0 no
bobcat, lynx flora-fauna Lynx rufus tukkupittsi bobcat, wildcat inheritance *tukkuC Proto-Northern Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 1306 (2008:200) WW %tuku same other complex tukkupi-ttsi wildcat-DIM (what is -pi?) Dayley 1989:303 1 2 0 0 0 no
butterfly, moth mariposa borboleta flora-fauna Lepidoptera aasiputungkwi butterfly, moth inheritance *asipu(tonki) Proto-Numic Stubbs 326 (2008:85) Central and Southern Numic only same underived MUST be complex but no clue from Dayley Dayley 1989:2 2 0 0 0 0 no
California condor flora-fauna Gymnogyps californianus pawihnumpi condor unique *nupi “buzzard” Stubbs 334 (2008:86); why doesn't stubbs link this?? This is fancy compound *pa-*wiho-*numpi same other complex pa-wih-num-pi big-buzzard-buzzard-CL -pi Dayley 1989:198 1 2 0 0 1 no
California jay flora-fauna Aphelocoma californica? kayüntsih scrub jay loan into protolanguage Central Numic only unknown this is in Big Smokey Valley for “Pinyon Jay” WW %kaj same underived -tsih is NOT same as -ttsi diminutive Dayley 1989:50 2 1 0 0 0 no
California woodpecker flora-fauna Melanerpes formicivorus? missing missing missing Dayley 1989 2 1 0 0 1 no
chia flora-fauna Salvia columbariae missing missing missing 1 1 1 0 0 no
chipmunk flora-fauna Tamias spp. wo'aittsi, wo'ettsi Panamint chipmunk (matches Merriam's Eutamias) inheritance *wo'ta Proto-Numic (maybe PUA) Stubbs 2100 (2008:289) same other complex wo'ai-ttsi chipmunk-dim Dayley 1989:387 2 1 0 0 0 no
cliff swallow flora-fauna Petrochelidon pyrrhonota namokku(n) cliff swallow unique same derived kaimpüwakia-ttü -ttü is Agentive “one who”; kaimpüwakia must be complex but no clue in Dayley Dayley 1989:41 2 1 0 0 0 no
coot flora-fauna Fulica americana saiyappüh mud hen, coot inheritance *saya Proto-Northern Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 217:2008:69 same other complex saiya-ppüh coot-CL ppüh Dayley 1989:234 2 1 0 0 0 no
cottontail rabbit flora-fauna Sylvilagus audobonii tapun cottontail rabbit inheritance *tapuC/*taput Proto-Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 1707 (2008:242) same underived Dayley 1989:279 2 1 0 0 0 no
cottonwood flora-fauna Populus spp. sohopimpü cottonwood inheritance *sohopin Proto-Northern Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 542a (2008:111); only Numic and Hopi same other complex soho-pim-pü cottonwood-CL-CL Dayley 1989:246 2 0 2 0 0 no
coyote flora-fauna Canis latrans isa coyote, dog inheritance *isa'a(N)pa Proto-Northern Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 552 (2008:112) broader (can include dog) other complex isa-(ppü) ppü Dayley 1989:36 1 2 0 0 0 no
crow flora-fauna Corvus brachyrhynchos kaakki crow, raven inheritance *kak Proto-Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 584 (2008:117) same onomatopoeic this according to Crapo Big Smokey Valley Dayley 1989:39 2 1 0 0 0 no
datura flora-fauna Datura wrightii muippüh jimsonweed, Datura loan Central Numic only Takic may be related to “crazy, drunk” words but probably ultimately a loan from Takic “moon” word WW %moji ~ %moni same other complex muiyai “get drunk” -- which is derived from which? Might be ultimately from Takic “moon” word, -ppüh here is nominalizer/CL ppüh Dayley 1989:108 1 1 1 1 0 yes
deer, mule flora-fauna Odocoileus hemionus tühüya(n) deer inheritance *tɨkɨya Proto-Numic Stubbs 625a (2008:121) same underived probably related to “hunt”, or perhaps vice versa Dayley 1989:315 2 1 0 0 0 no
digger pine flora-fauna Pinus sabiniana missing missing missing 2 1 2 0 0 no
dog (camp, domestic) perro cachorro flora-fauna Canis familiaris isapunku dog inheritance *isa- *puNku Proto-Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 38 (2008:43); the compound here is perhaps unique same other complex compound isa-punku dog-pet Dayley 1989:371 0 0 0 0 0 no
dogbane flora-fauna Apocynum cannabinum missing missing missing 2 1 2 0 0 no
dove paloma pomba flora-fauna Zenaida macrocoura heewi dove inheritance *hayɨwi Proto-Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 675 (2008:126) with problems; take out the /o/ forms and assume the occasional /o/ is by assimilation? The -wi may be from the animal classifier same underived I think -wi is old UA animal CL but isn't productive in T.Sh. Dayley 1989:20 2 1 0 0 0 no
duck pato pato, marreco flora-fauna Anatidae püyün duck, part of Pegasus constellation inheritance *picV Proto-Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 706a (2008:130) same underived Dayley 1989:233 0 1 0 0 0 no
elder flora-fauna Sambucus kunuki elderberry inheritance *kunuki Proto-Numic Stubbs 180 (2008:64) same underived Dayley 1989:69 2 1 1 0 0 no
elk flora-fauna Cervas elaphus patühüya elk, moose inheritance *pa-*tɨkɨya big-deer Proto-Numic Stubbs 625a (2008:121) unknown Dayley 1989:196 2 1 0 0 0 no
fish (generic) pez peixe flora-fauna pangwi, pengwi fish inheritance *paNkwi/pakkwi < pa:-kVyu Proto-Northern Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 865 (2008:148) same underived old pa- “water” now obscure Dayley 1989:188 0 1 0 0 0 no
flea pulga pulga flora-fauna Siphonaptera wittaattsi flea unique same other complex wittaa-ttsi flea-DIM Dayley 1989:386 2 0 0 0 0 no
flicker flora-fauna Colaptes sp. antsaapana(ppüh) flicker loan Central Numic only Gabrielino Loan into Proto-Central Numic; has the -pana element noted by Troike for this bird; same word recorded by Merriam at Round Mountain in W. Shoshoni same other complex this has to be a compound, but antsaa- is unanalyzable ppüh Dayley 1989:7 2 1 0 0 1 no
blowfly/housefly mosca mosca flora-fauna Diptera muipia fly inheritance *muwi-/*muCpi Proto-Numic Stubbs 887 (2008:151) same underived Dayley 1989:108 0 0 0 0 0 no
foothills yucca flora-fauna Yucca whipplei tattsumpi yucca sp. unique I wonder if the -umpi is related to BSVS oop' “tree yucca” same other complex tattsum-pi Yucca-CL pi Dayley 1989:284 0 1 0 0 0 no
fox flora-fauna Vulpes, Urocyon wotsia Gray fox inheritance *woci'a Proto-Numic Stubbs 557a same underived Dayley 1989:390 2 2 0 0 0 no
frog (generic) flora-fauna pookoo, pawoko frog, man's name inheritance Is this from pa-wakaN??? In which case PUA “water” plus S940 (2008:157) WW %wakat same other complex pa-po0koo water-toad Dayley 1989:198 2 2 0 0 0 no
golden eagle flora-fauna Aquila chrysaetos kwinaa eagle, large bird inheritance *kwi'na Proto-Numic Stubbs 717b (2008:131), looks almost like kwi'-says ?? which would explain why it isn't kwana as expected. This is actually only Western, Central Numic. Southern has kwana broader (can refer to other large raptors) underived Dayley 1989:83 1 2 0 0 1 no
gooseberry flora-fauna Ribes spp. missing missing missing 2 1 1 0 0 no
gopher snake, bull snake flora-fauna Pituophis catenifer kokoppüh bull snake inheritance *koNwa Proto-Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2009 (2008:279); this development is Numic same other complex koko-ppüh snake-CL ppüh Dayley 1989:59 2 2 0 0 0 no
grass hierba, pasto capim, grama flora-fauna (NA) pohmaa grass, hay, alfalfa, mat, mattress unique from ?poh- *maha “brush” (PNUA, Stubbs 1614 needs amendment) broader (includes grass products) other complex poh-maha ?-brush/grass Dayley 1989:216 0 0 0 0 0 no
grasshopper flora-fauna Caelifera aattangki grasshopper inheritance *attaNkaC Proto-Numic Stubbs 1036 (2008:167) Central & Southern Numic only narrower (I think this is a specific kind of large grasshopper, not the little green ones) unknown Dayley 1989:2 2 1 0 0 0 no
gray ground squirrel flora-fauna Sphermophilus sp. engwü squirrel sp.(with long fluffy tail and white neck) (word matches Merriam's Spermophilus form) inheritance *iCkwa/*iNkwa Proto-Numic Stubbs 2099 (2008:289) same underived Dayley 1989:13 2 1 0 0 0 no
gray tree squirrel flora-fauna Sciurus spp. missing missing missing 2 1 0 0 0 no
great horned owl flora-fauna Bubo virginianus muumpi Great horned owl inheritance *muhuN Proto-Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 1542 (2008:227), seems unproblematic although sound imitative same other complex muum-pi owl-CL -pi Dayley 1989:113 1 2 2 0 1 no
grizzly bear flora-fauna Ursus arctos horribilis pahamittsi bear inheritance *paha Proto-Numic Stubbs 135 (2008:59) WW %paha broader (can be generic for bears) other complex pahami-ttsi bear-DIM (showing DIM as “respectful” like in Nahuatl) Dayley 1989 1 2 0 0 0 yes
horned toad flora-fauna Phrynosomatidae mahittsakkaa horned toad inheritance *makaCta Proto-Uto-Aztecan Problematic etymology but clearly related to forms in Stubbs 1333 (2008:202) same underived mahittsakkaa surely a complex form -- ma- “with hand”??? Dayley 1989:90 2 2 2 0 0 no
horse caballo cavalho flora-fauna Equus caballus kapaayu horse, queen (at cards) loan Spanish WW %caballo same underived Dayley 1989:45 0 0 0 0 0 no
hummingbird colibrí, picaflor (Peru) beija-flor flora-fauna Trochilidae kammuwaya hummingbird unique same underived I think there's old derivation here; other -ya turn up in Numic. Dayley 1989:44 0 0 0 0 0 no
tobacco tabaco tabaco flora-fauna Nicotiana spp. pahompin, pahompü tobacco, cigarette loan Yokutsan, by way of Monachi?? Loan into Proto-Central Numic broader (includes plant and tobacco and tobacco products) other complex pahom-pin, tobacco-CL pin Dayley 1989:180 1 1 1 1 0 yes
insect (generic) insecto insecto flora-fauna generic missing missing missing 0 0 2 0 0 variable
junco flora-fauna Junco sppp missing missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
juniper flora-fauna Juniperus californica samapi juniper, cedar inheritance *sama Central Numic only Stubbs 416 (2008:95) same other complex sama-pi pi Dayley 1989:235 2 1 1 0 0 no
louse flora-fauna order Phtiraptera posiattsi louse inheritance *pusi'a Proto-Numic Stubbs 1358a (2008:205); etymologically, body louse same other complex posia-ttsi louse-DIM Dayley 1989:220 2 0 0 0 0 no
mallard flora-fauna Anas platyrhynchos kutopia mallard duck inheritance *kutV- Proto-Numic Note Kawaiisu kura-sɨni same underived must have some old morphology but no clue -- ku- fire?? Dayley 1989:71 2 1 0 0 0 no
manzanita flora-fauna Arctostaphylos spp. küttaappüh manzanita inheritance *kɨ(C)taC Proto-Northern Uto-Aztecan see Cupan *kɨlɨl “manzanita” same other complex küttaa “hard”-ppüh CL ppüh Dayley 1989:79 2 1 1 0 0 no
milkweed, broad leaf flora-fauna Asclepias eriocarpa missing missing missing 2 1 1 0 0 no
milkweed, narrow leaf flora-fauna Asclepias fascicularis missing missing missing 0 1 1 0 0 no
mission tule flora-fauna Juncus pe'-boomp Mission tule, Juncus unique same other complex presumably pipum-pɨ Merriam 59:355 2 1 2 0 0 no
mockingbird flora-fauna Mimus polyglottos yampa mockingbird inheritance *yampa Proto-Northern Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 216 (2008:68 same underived Dayley 1989:405 2 1 0 0 0 no
mosquito mosquito, zancudo mosquito, carapana flora-fauna Anopheles spp, Isoptera wawata, wawa'ta mosquito inheritance *wa..., or *wa'wa “wasp” Proto-Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 894 gives only southern forms (2008;152) but looks promising; also Stubbs 162 (2008:62) same underived Dayley 1989:381 0 0 0 0 0 no
moth mariposa nocturna, polilla mariposa flora-fauna Heterocera aasiputungkwittsi moth (on English-TS side); butterfly, moth in TS-English inheritance *asipu(tonki) Proto-Numic Stubbs 326 (2008:85) Central and Southern Numic only same other complex aasiputungkwi-ttsi butterfly-DIM Dayley 1989:2 2 0 0 0 0 no
mountain lion flora-fauna Puma concolor tukkummüüntsi mountain lion inheritance *tukkuC- Proto-Northern Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 1306 (2008:200) with derivationl Kawaiisu has same compound (tukuu-mɨɨ-ci) WW %tuku same other complex tukku-mmüün-tsi wildcat-?-DIM Dayley 1989:303 1 2 0 0 0 yes
mountain quail flora-fauna Oreortyx pictus tu'ukwittan mountain quail loan Gabrielino direction unknown, see Walker River N. Paiute took-tah; too'-hoo-tah same underived tu'ukwittan; this must have some morphology but Dayley offers no clues Dayley 1989:312 2 1 0 0 0 no
mussel flora-fauna Mytilus spp. kwiyoto, koyoto mussel, clam, seashell inheritance *koyo Proto-Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 1905 has only as SUA (2008:267); and note Chumash q'oy “olivella” broader (bivalve shells and turtle shells?) underived but what is -to? Dayley 1989:87 2 1 0 0 1 no
olivella (olive snail) flora-fauna Callianax biplicata namokku(n) money inheritance *namɨkɨ Proto-Language Hmm. Note Northern Paiute namakoo “old kind of beads”, which strengthens choice of this etymon for “Olivella”. Perhaps from Stubbs 2333 “buy, sell, pay” where na- is reciprocal broader (extendable to modern money as well as shell money) underived But I think this is from verb for “to trade” Dayley 1989:125 2 2 0 0 1 no
pinyon jay flora-fauna Cyanocitta stelleri? tsaippittsi pinyon jay loan into protolanguage *ca'i Proto-Northern Uto-Aztecan unknown Stubbs 209 (2008:68); I think this is an arealism; it's in Yokutsan WW %chaj same other complex tsai-ppi-ttsi flicker-CL-DIM ppi Dayley 1989:339 2 1 0 0 0 no
pinyon pine flora-fauna Pinus monophylla wahappin Pinyon pine tree semantic shift *wa'aC Proto-Northern Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 414 , usually “cedar, juniper” (shift in the biome) same other complex waha-ppin pinyon-CL ppin Dayley 1989:375 2 1 2 0 1 no
pismo clam flora-fauna Tivella stultorum kwiyoto, koyoto mussel, clam, seashell inheritance *koyo Proto-Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 1905 has only as SUA (2008:267); and note Chumash q'oy “olivella) broader (bivalve shells and turtle shells?) underived but what is -to? Dayley 1989:87 2 1 0 0 1 no
pocket gopher flora-fauna Thomomys yüapittsi gopher unique Central Numic only Note Northern Paiute yɨngngaciba “gopher” same other complex yüapi-ttsi gopher-DIM Dayley 1989:413 2 1 0 0 0 no
poison oak flora-fauna Toxicodendron diversilobum missing missing missing 2 2 2 0 0 yes
rattlesnake flora-fauna Crotalus spp. tokowa snake, rattlesnake inheritance *tɨ-*koNwa Proto-Numic Stubbs 2009; with this prefix only in Numic broader (also can be generic for “snake”) underived obviously to-kowa “rock-snake” but I doubt if this is accessible to speakers Dayley 1989:291 1 2 0 0 0 yes
red ant flora-fauna Solenopsis spp tongkwaapi red ant inheritance *toni- Proto-Uto-Aztecan Goes with Stubbs SUA 46 *totoni, and with “sting” same other complex tong-kwaa-pi sting-?-CL pi Dayley 1989:294 1 0 1 0 0 no
red-shouldered blackbird flora-fauna Agelaius phoeniceus pokkotoppe, pakkwatoppe red-winged blackbird inheritance *paCkwa Proto-Northern Uto-Aztecan Note *paakonga (Cupan *paaxingish, Kit. pakongyat. Big Smokey Valley is pakkancukkwi same other complex pakkwa-to-ppe blackbird-?-CL ppe Dayley 1989:186 2 1 0 0 0 no
red-tailed hawk flora-fauna Buteo jamaicensis kwiyoo red-tailed hawk (Buteo borealis) inheritance *kwayo/kwayu Proto-Northern Uto-Aztecan Stubbs links to Hopi kwaayo “small eagle”, with argument -- but I suspect a loan. Stubbs 718 (2008:131) same underived maybe onomatopoeia but an old word Dayley:87 1989 2 2 0 0 0 no
roadrunner flora-fauna Geococcyx californianus üngüppi road runner inheritance Central Numic only Recorded at Round Mountain for W. Shoshoni same other complex üngü-ppi ppi Dayley 1989:371 2 1 0 0 0 no
ruddy duck flora-fauna Oxyura jamaicensis missing missing missing 2 1 0 0 0 no
sage herb flora-fauna Artemisia californica missing missing missing 2 2 1 0 0 no
salmon/steelhead flora-fauna Oncorhynchus mykiss missing missing missing 2 1 0 0 0 no
scaly lizard flora-fauna Pygopus lepidopodus? awappo'i desert spring lizard, Sceloporus magister unique same underived Dayley 1989:11 2 2 0 0 0 no
small bird flora-fauna huttui small bird inheritance *hutti/huttu Proto-Numic Stubbs 205c (2008:69) same (hard to say, probably songbirds) underived Dayley 1989:29 2 1 0 0 0 no
small brown lizard flora-fauna pokowaittsi side-blotched lizard, Uta stansburiana inheritance *poko Proto-Northern Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 1338 (2008:203); distribution looks areal,Western & Central Numic, Tubatulabal check Yokuts, Miwok same other complex pokowai-ttsi lizard-DIM Dayley 1989:217 2 2 0 0 0 no
snake (generic) culebra, serpiente cobra flora-fauna tokowa snake, rattlesnake inheritance *tɨ-*koNwa Proto-Numic Stubbs 2009; with this prefix only in Numic same underived obviously to-kowa “rock-snake” but I doubt if this is accessible to speakers Dayley 1989:291 0 1 0 0 0 no
soaproot flora-fauna Chlorogalum missing missing missing 2 1 1 0 0 no
sour berry flora-fauna Rhus trilobata missing missing missing 2 1 1 0 0 no
sparrow hawk flora-fauna Falco pikkitikittsi sparrow hawk inheritance *pik- Proto-Northern Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 727 (2008:132); (Mono, Timbisa Shoshone, Round Mountain, Hopi piikwa “lesser nighthawk” ???. This form in Central, Western Numic same other complex pikkitiki-ttsi onomatopoeia?-DIM Dayley 1989:206 2 2 0 0 0 no
spider araña aranha flora-fauna Arachnida, Araneae soomattsi spider unique Note *mari-soka “tarantula” in TrC ... and so element in *tokoso (Stubbs 2061, 2062 (2008:285)) same other complex ma- IP “with hand”, according to Dayley, also -tsi DIM Dayley 1989:248 0 0 2 0 0 variable
spotted skunk flora-fauna Spilogale gracilis ponniattsi “same name OK” (Merriam) inheritance *po(C)ni Proto-Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 1983 (2008:275), see above broader (any skunk) other complex skunk-dim Merriam 59:329 2 2 0 0 0 no
toad sapo sapo flora-fauna Bufonidae wakatta toad inheritance *wakatta/*wakaN-ta Proto-Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 940 (2008:157) WW %wakat same underived Dayley 1989:378 2 2 0 0 0 no
tree árbol arvore flora-fauna (NA) sohopin tree, cottonwood inheritance *sohopin Proto-Northern Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 542a (2008:111); only Numic and Hopi same other complex soho-pin cottonwood(tree)-CL pin Dayley 1989:246 0 0 2 0 0 no
tree yucca flora-fauna Yucca schidegera muuppüh Joshua tree, tree yucca inheritance *amu(wV) Proto-Uto-Aztecan Probably one of the etyma in Stubbs (4); a specifically Central Numic development, see Comanche mumutsi? same other complex muu-ppüh Joshua.tree-CL ppüh Dayley 1989:113 2 1 0 0 0 no
turkey buzzard flora-fauna Cathartes aura wihnumpi buzzard, turkey vulture inheritance *wiLhukuN Proto-Uto-Aztecan I think Stubbs 335 is absurd, but there is something going on here, note Hopi wisoko, Serrano wirokt, wiru in southern languages, etc. But wiho is only Western Numic. same other complex wih-num-pi buzzard-buzzard-CL pi Dayley 1989:384 2 2 0 0 0 no
turtle (generic) flora-fauna Testudines ainna, enna turtle, tortoise inheritance *ayaC Proto-Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2539 (2008:316) broader (includes water turtles and land tortoises) other complex ai-nna tortoise -ING ??? Dayley 1989:312 2 2 0 0 1 no
valley live oak flora-fauna Quercus agrifolia wiyampippüh oak (Merriam's Q. kelloggii “Black Oak” inheritance *wiya Proto-Northern Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 1507b (2008:224) same other complex wiyam-pi-ppüh ppüh wiyampi “acorn”, wiyampi-ppüh “acorn-tree” Dayley 1989:387 2 1 2 0 1 no
valley oak flora-fauna Quercus lobata missing missing missing 2 1 2 0 1 no
valley quail flora-fauna Callipepla californica kakkaatattsi, takkaakattsi valley quail inheritance *takkaka/kakkata Proto-Northern Uto-Aztecan Possibly also Tepiman kakaicu, but this is loaned around in California: Stubbs 1702 (2008:241) WW %kaka same other complex kakkaata-ttsi quail-DIM Dayley 1989:42 2 1 0 0 0 no
Washington clam flora-fauna Saxidomus nuttalli missing missing missing 2 1 0 0 1 no
Western Canada goose flora-fauna Branta canadensis nükünta goose inheritance *nakɨ Proto-Numic Stubbs 711(2008:130); looks like only Western and Central Numic same underived Dayley 1989:165 0 1 0 0 0 no
whale flora-fauna Eschrichtius robustus missing missing missing 2 1 2 0 1 no
white pelican flora-fauna Pelicanus erythrorhynchos missing missing missing 0 2 0 0 0 no
wild grapevine flora-fauna Vitis californica isampu wild grapes inheritance *isawanawa Proto-Northern Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 188 (200:65); this form requires fixing that etymology same underived Dayley 1989:371 2 1 2 0 0 no
wild oats flora-fauna Avena (introduction) missing missing missing 2 1 2 0 0 no
wild rose flora-fauna Rosa californica tsiapippüh rose bush inheritance *ci'aN Proto-Numic Stubbs 190 (2008:65) same other complex tsia-pi-ppüh wild.rose-CL-CL ppüh Dayley 1989:351 0 1 2 0 0 no
wild sunflower flora-fauna Helianthus (and other genera) akkü sunflower inheritance *(pa)-'akka(C) Proto-Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2191 (2008:299) same underived Dayley 1989:4 0 1 0 0 0 no
willow flora-fauna Salix spp. süüpin willow, wicker inheritance *sɨhɨ Proto-Numic S2486 (2008:332) same other complex süü-pin willow-CL pin Dayley 1989:262 2 2 1 0 0 no
wood rat, round-tail flora-fauna Neotoma spp. kawan rat inheritance *kawa Proto-Northern Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 1423 (2008:213) same underived Dayley 1989:49 2 1 0 0 0 no
worm, hairy caterpillar flora-fauna Arctiidae (many species) missing missing missing 2 2 0 0 0 no
worm, smooth caterpillar flora-fauna Trichoplusia ni (?) cabbage looper piakün caterpillar, grub inheritance *pi'akɨC Proto-Northern Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2527 (2008:338) narrower (this is a specific type of edible smooth caterpillar) underived Dayley 1989:200 2 2 0 0 0 no
yellow jacket flora-fauna Vespula spp., Dolichovespula spp. totongkwaa(n)tün yellowjacket wasp inheritance *totoni Proto-Uto-Aztecan Goes with Stubbs 46 (2008:44) from “sting” same other complex tongkwan “to sting” -tün AGENTIVE Dayley 1989:298 2 0 0 0 0 no
yellowbird flora-fauna Dendroica petechia missing missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
yerba santa flora-fauna Eriodictyon californicum missing missing missing 2 1 1 0 0 no
ant (generic) hormiga formiga flora-fauna tongkwaapi(ttsi) “red ant” unknown Jane Hill
bird pajaro, ave passaro flora-fauna kasattsikantyn inheritance Jane Hill
blowfly/housefly mosca mosca flora-fauna angipi inheritance Jane Hill
dog (camp, domestic) perro cachorro flora-fauna isapungku inheritance Jane Hill
grass hierba, pasto capim, grama flora-fauna pohmaa(ppyh) unique Jane Hill
deer venado veado, cariacu flora-fauna tyhyja(n) inheritance Jane Hill
snake (generic) culebra, serpiente cobra flora-fauna tokowa (rattlesnake) inheritance Jane Hill
spider araña aranha flora-fauna soomattsi unknown Jane Hill


Cultural Vocabulary (115)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Word Structure Word Structure Notes General Notes Source Created By
acorn mush food missing missing Jane Hill
ball game food missing missing Jane Hill
afterworld, land of dead, Heaven tierra do los muertos terra dos mortos culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
feather headband dress missing missing Jane Hill
arrow flecha flecha subsistence tool pakampotsa arrow, bullet, cartridge; constellation of Orio's sword inheritance *pakaN- Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2011 1778; in meaning "arrow" only in Numic compound pakaN "reed" potsa "shaft of arrow" Dayley 1989 Jane Hill
arrow straightener other tympipettun arrow straightener unique compound, derived rock - Dayley 1989 Jane Hill
bait for fishing cebo, carnada para pescar, empate (Peru) isca subsistence tool pangwi tykkannympy fish bait (lit. fish dining-table) unique phrase fish food-walk-ABS Dayley 1989 Jane Hill
school escuela escola acculturation natiingwanna school unique derived natiingwa" learn, study, go to school, be taught (na-?) Dayley 1989 Jane Hill
stone bowl culture-material appo7otsi cup, bowl, dishes, Big Dipper inheritance *apo Northern Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2011 1711 other complex Dayley 1989 Jane Hill
basket (general) canasta, canasto, cesta cesto culture-material nyhakka basket inheritance *nyhaC Northern Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2011 120 has only as Takic but see this form and Kawaiisu, Chemehuevi simplex Daylely 1989 Jane Hill
basket, small canasta, canasto, cesta cesto pequeno, tampado culture-material ponottsi round basket with a neck inheritance *poLa Numic Stubbs 2011 430b 'ball-shaped' other complex poono 'round, sphere, balloon' Dayley 1989 Jane Hill
basketry hat culture-material syytsappo7o basket hat, wicker hat inheritance *cappo Northern Uto-Aztecan Numic and Tub Stubbs 2011 1152l perhaps a loan into UA in this area compound Dayley 1989 Jane Hill
bead abalorio, mostacilla, cuenta, gota, puca; necklace=collar miçanga culture-material namokkuttsi beads loan *nammakku Numic unknown See also T. sho namokku(n) 'money', Comanche 'clothes'; W. Mono naawakU 'string of shell money', N. Paiute namakko 'old kind of beads; also hoi-yah, ahts-ă-kan-nah red & blue beads, probably Hudson Bay Merriam 45:303 WW %waku other complex Dayley 1989 Jane Hill
ochre culture-mythology pisappyh, pisappin red ochre, rouge, lipstick, red (face) paint inheritance *pisa, *paisa Numic not in Stubbs other complex Dayley 1989 Jane Hill
bow arco arco subsistence tool (huu)7etyn bow inheritance *aCta Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2011 275 compound Dayley 1998 Jane Hill
canoe canoa canoa transport missing missing Jane Hill
carrying net subsistence tool tappa carrying net unique simplex Dayley 1989 Jane Hill
bottle botella garrafa acculturation osa(ttsi) water jug, water basket inheritance *hoCca Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2011 118 simplex Dayley 1989 Jane Hill
paper papel papel acculturation pappenni(ppyh) paper loan Spanish WW %papel simplex Dayley 1989 Jane Hill
chief/leader jefe, cacique chefe culture-mythology pokwinapi chief, leader unique simplex Dayley 1989 Jane Hill
club garrote, cachiporra clava, porrete subsistence tool poton, potottsi cane, staff, digging stuck, club, crutches, stick used as tool inheritance *potto Numic Hill/Miller po-12 'pound' simplex Dayley 1989 Jane Hill
loincloth taparrabos, guayuco, pampanilla tanga, tapa-sexo dress pisoni loin cloth unique compound buttocks-grass Dayley 1989 Jane Hill
cook food food tukummahannih to cook unique compound ty-do.with.fire-make Dayley 1989 Jane Hill
corpse food tijaitaippyh nymya corpse, dead body inheritance *ja7ay Numic Stubbs 2011 656 phrase tiyaih die Dayley 1989 Jane Hill
dance (generic) culture-mythology nykka(n) dance inheritance *nykkaC Numic Stubbs 2011 633 simplex Dayley 1989 Jane Hill
deity/powerful spirit/culture figure dios(es), deidad divinidade, figura mítica culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
digging stick subsistence tool poton, potottsi cane, staff, digging stuck, club, crutches, stick used as tool inheritance *poto Numic Stubbs 2011 673 simplex Dayley 1989 Jane Hill
dipper subsistence tool (na)jungwannympy scoop, dipper unique derived, other complex Dayley 1989 Jane Hill
dream sueño, soñar sonho, sonhar culture-mythology nopusama dream unknown Central Numic only, Stubbs 718 compound no- as IP?? Incorp? Dayley 1989 Jane Hill
drone pipe culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
drum tambor tambor culture-mythology wyppo7okwinnympy drum unique derived, other complex wuppo7okwi 'pound a drum' Dayley 1989 Jane Hill
chicken gallina galinha acculturation tsikkinni(ttsi), tsikkyna chicken loan English WW %chicken simplex Dayley 1989 Jane Hill
earring other nangkisimmoo earring unique compound Dayley 1989 Jane Hill
ghost (of dead person)/evil spirit espíritu malo, espíritu maligno, fantasma, demonio espirito culture-mythology tsoapittsi ghost, spirit. Devil, whirlwind inheritance *co7aC Numic Stubbs 2011 2114 W. and Central Numic, a loaN?? other complex Dayley 1989 Jane Hill
fire drill subsistence tool kunnatsi fire drill unique other complex wood-dim Dayley 1989 Jane Hill
fire-tender culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
fireplace hogar lareira other kottoonnympy hearth, fireplace, stove, heater unique derived, other complex kotto start a fire Dayley 1989 Jane Hill
firewood leña lenha other kunna" firewood, fire, firedrill, matches, something to burn inheritance *kunnaC Numic Stubbs 2011 884 simplex Dayley 1989 Jane Hill
fish (with fish-poison) pescar con barbasco, barbasquear pescar com timbó; tinguijar food missing missing Jane Hill
fish (with line) anzuelear, pescar con linea pescar (com linha) food pangwiyukwi" to fish, go fishing unique example S has "fishing pole" in it compound fish-X Dayley 1989 Jane Hill
fish poison barbasco, matapez (Colombia) timbó subsistence tool missing missing Jane Hill
fishing line cordel/cuerda p/ pescar, sedal, tanze linha de pesca subsistence tool wisipin string, thread, fish line inheritance *wika Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2011 1843; we need a story about this /s/! other complex Dayley 1989 Jane Hill
fish hook subsistence tool pangwi tsangku(ttsi) fish hook unique phrase Dayley 1989 Jane Hill
acorn bread food missing missing Jane Hill
wheat food tatiiwaittsi wheat loan Spanish WW %trigo other complex maybe influenced by wai 'grass seed'?? Dayley 1989 Jane Hill
flute flauta, quena (Peru) flauta culture-mythology wooino flute inheritance *wiLu PNUA Stubbs 912 -- this is from *woyo, clearly a Proto Numic form, plus -no formative simplex Dayley 1989 Jane Hill
gambling sticks other missing missing Jane Hill
game animal caza, animal de caza caça, animal de caça food wasyppin mountain sheep, game, Orion's belt constellation unknown other complex see'hunt' Dayley 1989 Jane Hill
ghost (of dead person)/evil spirit espíritu malo, espíritu maligno, fantasma, demonio espirito culture-mythology tsoapittsi ghost, spirit. Devil, whirlwind inheritance *co7aC Numic Stubbs 2011 2114 W. and Central Numic, a loaN?? other complex Dayley 1989 Jane Hill
glue subsistence tool tynsana, tyntsapana creosote gum or pitch, glue inheritance *salaC Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2011 1634 copound Dayley 1989 Jane Hill
grave tumba, sepultura, sepulcro sepultura, sepulcro, cova culture-mythology nakuuttyah grave inheritance *ku7way Northern Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2011 322 derived nakuuh 'be buried' Dayley 1989 Jane Hill
alcohol food wisikki whiskey loan English WW %whiskey simplex Dayley 1989 Jane Hill
Datura wrightii narcotics muippyh Jimsonweed, Datura loan Tubatulabal Takic or Chumash, probably by way of Tubatulabal, reshaped to look more like "crazy" J. Hill 2011, uncertain, area form WW %moji ~ %moni other complex Dayley 1989 Jane Hill
shaman, healer chamán, brujo xaman, pajé, feiticeiro culture-mythology puhakantyn medicine man, shaman, traditional doctor inheritance *puha Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2011 1160a derived, other complex Dayley 1989 Jane Hill
honey miel mel food pihnaapin, pihyaapin honey, sugar, sweets inheritance *pisa(L) Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2011 2259 other complex pihnaa, pihyaa 'sweet' Dayley 1989 Jane Hill
house other kahni house, home, building inheritance *kaNLi Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2011 1213 simplex Dayley 1989 Jane Hill
hunt cazar caçar food wasywykki hunt (for) unknown root is *wasywy, can't find derived Dayley 1989 Jane Hill
initiate boy culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
initiate girl culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
knife cuchillo faca culture-material wihin knife inheritance *wikiC Northern Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2011 1267 simplex Dayley 1989 Jane Hill
mat culture-material pohmaa(ppyh) grass, hay, alfalfa, mat, mattress semantic shift *maha Northern Uto-Aztecan could this possibly be associated with Hill/Miller ma-32?? simplex maa 'grass'?? Dayley 1989 Jane Hill
mortar mortero pilão subsistence tool paha mortar inheritance *paha Northern Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2011 1085 simplex Dayley 1989 Jane Hill
necklace other kotoho(ttsi) necklace, neckpiece unknown is this *koLoka 'necklace' or *kuta 'neck?? Or both? simplex Dayley 1989 Jane Hill
needle/awl subsistence tool winnu(pi) needle, awl for making baskets; spine on cactus or porcupine unknown simplex Dayley 1989 Jane Hill
paddle/oar remo remo transport missing missing Jane Hill
pestle pilón, mano de mortero, mazo, moledor mão de pilão subsistence tool pakkun pestle (large), "long pestle" inheritance *paha Northern Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2011 1085 simplex Dayley 1989 Jane Hill
pinole food kottsappi Gravy, soup, gruel, mush unique other complex Dayley 1989 Jane Hill
pipe for tobacco pipa cachimbo other pahonto7i, to7i pipe loan *to7i Yokuts, Sierra Miwok pahon is Yokuts loan but headword is C, W Numic WW %pa7mo, %to7i simplex Dayley 1989 Jane Hill
pitch food sanappin pitch, gum, wax, sap inheritance *salaC Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2011 1634 other complex Dayley 1989 Jane Hill
pot olla, pote panela, vasilha subsistence tool wittu7a kettle, pot inheritance *wiC-tuhuwa Numic Stubbs 2011 1713 simplex Dayley 1989 Jane Hill
quiver subsistence tool huukuna quiver, knoll on Grapevine Mountain inheritance *hu-kunnaC Numic arrow-sack compound Dayley 1989 Jane Hill
rattle matraca, maraca marico, chocalho culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
red paint culture-mythology pisappyh, pisappin red ochre, rouge, lipstick, red (face) paint inheritance *pisa, *paisa Numic not in Stubbs other complex Dayley 1989 Jane Hill
salt sal sal food ongwapi, omapi salt inheritance *omCa Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2011 1865 other complex Dayley 1989 Jane Hill
seed beater subsistence tool tanehun, tanaihun seed paddle, seed beater, racket inheritance *taniku Numic see Kawaiisu simplex Dayley 1989 Jane Hill
clothing ropa roupa culture-mythology summo7a clothes unique simplex Dayley 1989 Jane Hill
sinew-backed bow subsistence tool missing missing Jane Hill
skirt falda, saya, fustan, pollera saia culture-material nangwe skirt, eagle down skirt(?) inheritance *nawi Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2011 385; Merriam gives as "breechclout" 48:495; I suspect this is woman's apron simplex Dayley 1989 Jane Hill
snare subsistence tool (na)kwisi(ngky)nnympy, net, snare inheritance *kwysyC Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2011 396a derived, other complex Dayley 1989 Jane Hill
song (generic) canción, canto canção culture-mythology hupiapin song inheritance *hupiya Numic Stubbs 2011 1985 other complex Dayley 1989 Jane Hill
spear lanza lança subsistence tool poyo kuyyinnympy spear unique phrase Dayley 1989 Jane Hill
stirring stick food missing missing Jane Hill
rope/string mecate, cuerda, soga corda culture wisipin string, thread, fish line inheritance *wika Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2011 1843; we need a story about this /s/! other complex Dayley 1989 Jane Hill
bag, sack culture-material mokottsi sack, bag, pouch, briefcase, pocket, purse inheritance *maku… Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2011 115a; but see Yawel mo-got 'quiver' WW %mok other complex Dayley 1989 Jane Hill
string of shell money other namokku(n) money loan *nammakku Numic unknown See also T. sho namokku(n) 'money', Comanche 'clothes'; W. Mono naawakU 'string of shell money', N. Paiute namakko 'old kind of beads; also hoi-yah, ahts-ă-kan-nah red & blue beads, probably Hudson Bay Merriam 45:303 WW %waku simplex with -ttsi, "beads" Dayley 1989 Jane Hill
sugarcane/sugar azúcar, caña de azúcar açucar (de cana) acculturation pihnaapin, pihyaapin honey, sugar, sweets semantic shift *pisa(L) Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2011 2259 other complex pihnaa, pihyaa 'sweet' Dayley 1989 Jane Hill
sweathouse other muusa sweathouse loan Yokuts by way of Tubatulabal? WW %mosh simplex Dayley 1989 Jane Hill
tell history culture-mythology natymui tell a story inheritance *ty(N)wa Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2011 1489, probably, although not noted there derived Dayley 1989 Jane Hill
cremate culture-mythology kottoo make a fire, start a fire, set on fire, cremate inheritance *kut-ta Northern Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2011 883 simplex etymologically < 'fire-make' Dayley 1989 Jane Hill
tobacco (native) narcotics pahompin, pahompy tobacco, cigarette loan Yokuts thru Tub? WW %pa7mo other complex Dayley 1989 Jane Hill
tule boat transport missing missing Jane Hill
white paint culture-mythology epimpi(ppyh), aipimpi(ppyh) white paint inheritance *apiN Numic Stubbs 2011 2544 other complex Dayley 1989 Jane Hill
winnowing basket culture-material tynattsi winnowing basket unique other complex Dayley 1989 Jane Hill
wood tray subsistence tool missing missing Jane Hill
shoes zapatos sapatos dress pantsan shoe, moccasin inheritance *paNca Numic Stubbs 2011 1957 simplex Dayley 1989 Jane Hill
medicine narcotics nattusu7jmpi, nattasu7umpi medicine (espeially pills and herbs) inheritance *natysuC Numic can't find in Stubbs derived, other complex Dayley 1989 Jane Hill
cradleboard culture-material kohnon, kohnottsi cradle board inheritance *kono Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2011 142 simplex Dayley 1989 Jane Hill
policeman polícia policía acculturation potongkwantyn policeman, cop (one characterized by a club) unique compound Dayley 1989 Jane Hill
soldier soldado soldado acculturation sojysi, sojysy soldier loan English Dayley not sure it's English -- intermediate language? WW %soldier simplex Dayley 1989 Jane Hill
corn food maisi corn loan Spanish WW %maiz simplex Dayley 1989 Jane Hill
beans food nihytta beans unique also piintsi, pihjoni < frijoles simplex Dayley 1989 Jane Hill
cat gato gato acculturation naatty cat, kitty loan Spanish intermediate lg? Kawaiisu? WW %gato simplex Dayley 1989 Jane Hill
gun arma, escopeta espingarda, fusil acculturation etyn, aityn gun, bow semantic shift *aCta Uto-Aztecan simplex Dayley 1989 Jane Hill
hat sombero chapéu dress tsappo7o hat, cap inheritance *cappo Numic Stubbs 2011 1152 simplex Dayley 1989 Jane Hill
clapper acculturation missing missing Jane Hill
thatch/roof crisneja palha, caraná culture-material missing Jane Hill
rope/string mecate, cuerda, soga corda culture tymuhuh, tymohun unknown Jane Hill
bottom grinding stone manufacture potton inheritance Jane Hill
digging stick subsistence tool poton inheritance Jane Hill
winnow aventar, tirar (sementes) joeirar manufacture wyppu7ah inheritance Jane Hill
top grinding stone metate, mano; piedra de moler metate, mano manufacture tusu(ttsih) inheritance Jane Hill
boomerang/throwing stick (generic) subsistence tool missing Jane Hill
spearthrower subsistence tool huu7etyn (atlatl, bow) inheritance Jane Hill
spear lanza lança subsistence tool pakan “arrow”, loan direction unknown Jane Hill
house other kahni inheritance Jane Hill


Ethnographic Information
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