chief/leader

Semantic Field
culture-mythology
Part of Speech
Meaning Spanish
jefe, cacique
Meaning Portuguese
chefe

Languages

Language Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Word Structure Word Structure Notes General Notes Source Created By
Cahuilla net chief of the clan, moderator of a fiesta inheritance *nyC-ta Cupan other complex Seiler & Hioki 1979 Jane Hill
Cupeño net chief of lineage, 'captain' inheritance *nyC-ta Cupan other complex Hill & Nolasquez 1973 Jane Hill
Luiseño noo-t chief, boss, leader, spokesman inheritance *nyC-ta Cupan other complex Elliott 1999 Jane Hill
Gabrielino tomya:r chief unique other complex Hill Harrington notes Jane Hill
Serrano ke'-kah chief inheritance *kika Uto-Aztecan widespread, cf. O'odham kikitam 'residents of a village' derived Merriam 48:193 Jane Hill
Kitanemuk ki'ka'y capitán', chief inheritance *kika Uto-Aztecan the "villager' word derived Anderton 1988 Jane Hill
Tübatulabal timmiwwal chief unique other complex K. Hill Tb>Eng Jane Hill
Bankalachi Toloim te-me'-wel chief unique other complex Merriam 49:203 Jane Hill
Kawaiisu niyaa-ga-dy chief, braggart inheritance *nija Numic Stubbs 2011 1490 derived, other complex niyaa-'name' Zigmond et al. 1990 Jane Hill
Chemehuevi togWaintymY chief unique derived, other complex Harrington Chemehuevi Noun List (K. Hill 1969) Jane Hill
Southern Paiute avit:a root, has other stuff compounded e.g. tangwaavit:a-i7 "men's chief" chief unique also nia:vI 'captain, chief, war leader" simplex Sapir Jane Hill
Southern Ute ta7wa-a-vI chief, leader unique other complex Givon Jane Hill
Tümpisa Shoshone pokwinapi chief, leader unique simplex Dayley 1989 Jane Hill
Big Smokey Valley Shoshone tekwa-ni chief, boss inheritance derived tekwa" 'to talk' Crapo 1976 Jane Hill
Comanche paraiboo7 chief, officer, agent, chief wife among multiple wives, stepmother unique phrase paraibo 'peace chief' pa-taibo big-X (taibo='white man'??) Robinson & Armagost 1990 Jane Hill
Western Mono pohenAby chief inheritance *pohaC Uto-Aztecan power word other complex Loether & Bethel 1993 Jane Hill
Northern Paiute poenabe poinabi special chief inheritance *pohaC Uto-Aztecan power word other complex Yerington 1987 Jane Hill
Southern Sierra Miwok ti7jaH- chief loan Yokuts also haja:puH, kaptan- (most consultants) simplex Broadbent 1964 Jane Hill
Central Sierra Miwok hajá:po- chief inheritance Proto-Miwok While Callaghan 1971:18 does not propose a Pmi reconstruction, note Pmiw hójpuş 'chief' (Callaghan 1970:24), perhaps from *hoj 'first'?? JHH); má:jyngy- woman chief, chief's wife or daughter; this also in Nisenan simplex Freeland & Broadbent 1960 Jane Hill
Northern Sierra Miwok haja:po chief, mayor inheritance Proto-Miwok While Callaghan 1971:18 does not propose a Pmi reconstruction, note Pmiw hójpuş 'chief' (Callaghan 1970:24), perhaps from *hoj 'first'?? JHH); má:jyngy- woman chief, chief's wife or daughter; this also in Nisenan simplex Callaghan 1987 Jane Hill
Plains Miwok ceka- chief, captain, boss, head man unique see Proto-Wintun *se:qtu (Callaghan 2001:321) simplex Callaghan 1984 Jane Hill
Lake Miwok hójpu chief, boss inheritance Proto-Miwok While Callaghan 1971:18 does not propose a Pmi reconstruction, note Pmis haja:-po- 'chief' (Callaghan 1971:18), perhaps from *hoj 'first'?? JHH); má:jyngy- woman chief, chief's wife or daughter; this also in Nisenan simplex Callaghan 1965 Jane Hill
Maidu jepóni, jopóni important man, head man,"captain" inheritance *jep 'man' Proto-Maiduan derived jep 'man' Shipley 1963 Jane Hill
Nisenan hu:k' chief unknown Maidu hukes 'clever, smart'??? simplex Uldall & Shipley 1966 Jane Hill
Yokuts Yawelmani tiy'a7 leader, captain inheritance Proto-Yokutsan see Yawdanchi di:ya7 'chief' and Palewyami te'-yah derived from *de:-yi 'take the lead' Newman 156 Berman 2002 Jane Hill
Yokuts Yawdanchi diya7 chief inheritance Nim-Yokuts see Yawelmani derived from *de:-yi 'take the lead' Newman 156 Kroeber 1907 Jane Hill
Yokuts Palewyami te'-yah chief inheritance Proto-Yokutsan see Yawel, Yawd forms; Kroeber diiya derived from *de:-yi 'take the lead' Newman 156 Berman 2002 Jane Hill
Washo detúmu leader unknown may mean to lead a line derived d- nmlzr (?) Washo Project Dictionary Jane Hill
Wintu wih chief inheritance *wiy, *wi: Proto-Wintun Shepherd 2006:198 other complex the 'particular aspect' of "person" (wi) (Pitkin) Schlichter 1981 Jane Hill
Yuki Ti7ul chief inheritance *Ti7ol' Proto-North Yukian S&S 1984:43 say this is Chinook Jargon. Also are other, more complex words p. 43 simplex Schlichter 1985 Jane Hill
Wappo k'anitúč'ma chief, boss, leader unknown derived productive suffix -ma; probably also compound Sawyer 1965 Jane Hill
Mutsun pe-ton, pe-tan chief loan Spanish WW %capitan simplex Merriam 39:113 Jane Hill
Esselen missing missing Jane Hill
Salinan A aTukai lord, señor unknown maybe in religious sense? Pinart has kapitan (Heizer 1952:73 simplex Mason 1918 Jane Hill
Salinan M missing missing Jane Hill
Chumash Obispeno missing missing Jane Hill
Chumash Ineseno wot' chief inheritance Proto-Central Chumash simplex Applegate 1972 Jane Hill
Chumash Barbareno wot' chief, be rich inheritance Proto-Central Chumash in I and V simplex Beeler 1978 Jane Hill
Chumash Ventureno wot' chief inheritance Proto-Southern Chumash in I & B simplex Mamet 2003 Jane Hill
Iipay 'Aa kwaaypaay, kway'paay chief, captain, judge unknown derived kw- agentive Couro & Hutcheson 1973 Jane Hill
Cocopa kWmšyaráy chairman, captain, leader unknown derived Crawford 1989 Jane Hill
Mojave pi7pataahan chief, big shot unknown derived person good/real Munro et al. 1992 Jane Hill
Yavapai màk7yō:ra chief loan Spanish could this be loan from mayor with some kind of infix??? WW %alcalde mayor simplex Shaterian 1983 Jane Hill
Kiliwa 7ipaa=kw-t+hiy chief, headman (lit spirit, great person) unknown compound Mixco 1985 Jane Hill
Seri (Comcaac) quihéhe chief, leader (tener palo de autoridad) unknown simplex Moser & Marlett 2005 Jane Hill
Kakua mǎ mǎ unknown Simplex See Language page Katherine Bolaños
Nheengatu tuxawa (Casas2000); kapitão (C11, Port loan) tuʃawa (Casas2000); kapitão (C11, Port loan) WW; loan %tuʃawa; Portuguese Donor: Pemon tusawa, etc.; Alternate: kapitão Simplex See Language page John Blaha, Lauren Franklin, PLE, Alyssa Wadley
Waorani awẽdẽ (IDS) unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez, PLE
Yanomami kapitani (MM07) kapitani (MM07) loan Spanish also Nheengatu kapitão Simplex See Language page Kelsey Neely
Yanomam pata pata leader, elder inheritance Proto-Yanomamo? shared ninam, yanomam; doubtful inheritance Simplex See Language page Kelsey Neely
Ninam pata pata inheritance Proto-Yanomamo? Shared Ninam, Yanomam; doubtful inheritance Simplex See Language page Kelsey Neely
Kotiria pùhtoro pùhtoro inheritance shared Piratapuyo Compare Carib: Pemon eepuuruu; Makushi póotɨ-rɨ See Language page Tanja Baeuerlein
Cubeo cõjeipõecʉ kõhɛipõkʉ unknown Also:cʉrõcacʉ, jabocʉ Compound ?-person-classifier -kɨ See Language page Tanja Baeuerlein; Alyssa Wadley
Tukano sɨ'ôri niig´ɨ, wiogɨ (HR) siʔôɾi niig´ɨ, wiogɨ (HR) unique From verb 'lead'. Also: wiogɨ See Language page Ana Paula, Amanda Novak
Desano opʉ opʉ inheritance? cf. %apu Simplex See Language page Addison M; Tanja Baeuerlein
Maihiki ñi debɨ aguɨ, ñiacaiquɨ aguɨ ɲi debɨ agɨ, ɲiakaikɨ agɨ unknown Also: ɲiakaikɨ agɨ Derived ñi= 3sg; debɨ= legitimate; agɨ= masculine noun classifier See Language page Daniel Valle
Hup yɔ̃ʔɔm=ʔĩh jɔ̃ʔɔm=ʔĩh unique Derived power-MSC See Language page Pattie Epps
Dâw kapitãw, tusaàw kapitãw, tuʃâw loan; loan - WW Portuguese; %tuʃawa, via Nheengatu? See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
Sikuani pematakanukaenü (sedentary group); pematakaponaenü (nomadic group); both from pemata- 'old person' pematakanukaenɨ (sedentary group); pematakaponaenɨ (nomadic group); both from pemata- 'old person' unique See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, Brittany Weinstein
Pemon eepuuruu (E1980); epuru, tusawa (A1981) epuru (E1980) (A1981) inheritance; loan - WW Akawaio-Pemon shared Akawaio; %tuʃawa See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza; Alyssa Wadley
Akawaio eebuuruu (E1980) eburu inheritance Akawaio-Pemon See Language page Melody Ann Ross
Makushi póotɨ-rɨ unique See Language page Melody Ann Ross; Alyssa Wadley
Eñepa iʔyan iʔjan doubtful loan Arawak; cf. Trinitario iyaraʔo See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin; Alyssa Wadley
Yukuna wakára'ajeri wakáraʔahe-ri inheritance? shared Achagua Derived command' + masculine marker -ri See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
Tariana é:ni é:ni unique Simplex See Language page Ana Paula B.
Wapishana tʰuʃau tʰuʃau loan - WW %tuʃawa compare Pemón tusawa Simplex See Language page Ana Paula B.
Baniwa #NAME? #NAME? unique Simplex -li is masculine gender marker See Language page Ana Paula B.
Resígaro keʔví- keʔví- unique Simplex But found in dictionaries with gender markers, e.g. -gí See Language page Ana Paula B.
Achagua wákaliʃi; wákali 'dueño' wákaliʃi; wákali 'dueño' inheritance? shared Yucuna See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
Warekena tuʃaua tuʃaua See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
Yavitero minaľi minaľi See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
Paresi kalorexe (kalore=big) kaloreʃe (kalore=big) unique See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
Baure rom rom unknown See Language page Anissa Capuccino
Waurá amu- amu- unknown See Language page Joyce McCormick, PLE
Bora ávyéjuúbe (ávyéju - cf. power, respect) áβjéxɯɯ́pe inheritance/calque See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
Muinane áivojɨɨbo (W97) áiβoxɨɨbo See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
Apalai tuisa, ipãnary tuisa, ipãnarɨ loan - WW; unique %tuʃawa, via Nheengatu? See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
Wayana umïtïn umɨtɨn unique See Language page PLE
Tiriyó kapiten kapiten loan Portuguese See Language page Becky Walker
Makiritare ədāhə(IDS), ëda:hë(KH) əda:hə unique See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza; Alyssa Wadley
Wai Wai kayaritomo kajaritomo unknown See Language page Melody Ann Ross
Waimiri Atroari taha 'big, leader' taha 'big, leader' See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
Yukpa yubatpue jubatpue See Language page Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross
Muisca psihipqua psihipkua See Language page Daniel Valle
Cofán coen ('old one, chief'; from 'adult') koen ('old one, chief'; from 'adult') phonemic transcriptions are ESTIMATIONS See Language page Daniel Valle
Páez n-piic̷-thẽʔh (Lit.'prefix (personal relationship)-man-mature'); saʔt 'Indian chieftain'. n-piic̷-thẽʔh (Lit.'prefix (personal relationship)-man-mature'); saʔt 'Indian chieftain'. See Language page Daniel Valle
Tikuna aéngakê (Alv44) aéŋakɨ unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
Urarina kʉraanaa kʉraanaa unique See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
Andoke po'so-ʌ (from po'so 'beat drum') poʔso-ʌ (from poʔso 'beat drum') unique See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
Pumé tʰamõ kʰɔ̃rɔ̃-mẽ; bɛ kʰɔ̃rɔ-mẽ See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
Puinave -hɨi-wãi-dɨk -hɨi-wãi-dɨk unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
Ashuar ápu (Quechua) ápu (Quechua) See Language page Daniel Valle
Huambisa uuntri uuntri See Language page Daniel Valle
Aguaruna apu-hi (Quechua loan) apu-hi loan - WW %apu See Language page Daniel Valle
Matses chuiquid tʃuikid unknown See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
Chácobo taita taita unknown See Language page Joyce McCormick
Yagua jntityũ xntitjũ unique See Language page Daniel Valle
Ingá iaia iaia See Language page Daniel Valle
Napo Lowland Quichua apu, mandaj apu, mandax See Language page Daniel Valle
Quechua Ayacuchano qullana, uma [apu 'earth deity'] (CP94) quʎana, uma [apu 'earth deity'] See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
Piaroa u'rú'wa', ru'wá' uɁrúɁwaɁ, ruɁwáɁ unique See Language page Amanda Novak, Becky Walker
Sáliva aixohdi aixoʔdi unique See Language page Becky Walker
Barasano ɨh-ɨ́ ɨh-ɨ́ See Language page Addison Martinez, Tanja Baeuerlein
Carapana quetiupaʉ ketiupaʉ See Language page Amanda Novak, Tanja Baeuerlein
Makuna ʉjʉ ʉjʉ inheritance? cf. %apu See Language page Amanda Novak, Tanja Baeuerlein
Yuruti dĩ'rṹpɨ̃ dĩ'rṹpɨ̃ See Language page Ana Paula; Tanja Baeuerlein
Waikhana pɨʔ'to-ro pɨʔ'to-ro See Language page Ana Paula; Tanja Baeuerlein
Siriano o'pɨ́ o'pɨ́ See Language page Ana Paula B.
Tanimuca ĩ'pi ĩ'pi inheritance? cf. %apu See Language page Kelsey Neely
Tatuyo u'pa-i u'pa-i See Language page
Tuyuka dutigʉ́ dutigʉ́ See Language page D. Jagannathan, Ana Paula B.
Waimaja wí'ó-gɨ, ka do'tí-gɨ wí'ó-gɨ, ka do'tí-gɨ See Language page Kelsey Neely
Koreguaje pãi chʉ̃'ʉkʉ pãi dʒʉ̃'ʉkʉ loan Tupi-Guarani pai 'respected man' See Language page Daniel Valle
Siona ɨhakˀɨ; ʔɨha pˀaĩ ɨhakˀɨ; ʔɨha pˀaĩ loan Tupi-Guarani pai 'respected man' See Language page Kelsey Neely
Secoya pãĩ 'ɨ'haɨ pãĩ 'ɨ'haɨ See Language page Amanda Novak
Karitiana myj mɨj unknown cf. TG pai See Language page Daniel Valle
Kokama apu apu loan - WW %apu See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
Wayampi -l-uwiyã -l-uwiyã inheritance See Language page PLE
Sirionó e-čoa pohi; ekʷai e-čoa pohi; ekʷai unknown; inheritance? See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
Kamayurá morerekwat morerekwat unknown See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
Ocaina farááhfum̈a ɸarááʔɸum:a unique See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
Murui Witoto illaɨ̀ idʒaɯ̀ (B83) unique See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
Iquito áapu áapu loan - WW %apu See Language page Cynthia Hansen
Wari taramaʃikon (Sousa2009) taramaʃikon (Sousa2009) See Language page PLE
Cavineña wara-hi; ekʷari wara-hi; ekʷari unknown; loan TG - Siriono? also in Shipibo See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
Kwazá tãjã tãjã See Language page Joyce McCormick
Movima en-ona en-ona See Language page Anissa Capuccino, Becky Walker
Trumai aek aek unique See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
Kaingang pãʔi; pãʔe (loan Tupi?) (IDS) pãʔi; pãʔe See Language page PLE
Djeoromitxi nĩrü nĩrø See Language page PLE