Semantic Field
Part of Speech
Meaning Spanish
jefe, cacique
Meaning Portuguese


Language Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Etymology Notes Word Structure Word Structure Notes General Notes Source
Cahuilla net chief of the clan, moderator of a fiesta inheritance *nyC-ta Cupan other complex Seiler & Hioki 1979
Cupeño net chief of lineage, 'captain' inheritance *nyC-ta Cupan other complex Hill & Nolasquez 1973
Luiseño noo-t chief, boss, leader, spokesman inheritance *nyC-ta Cupan other complex Elliott 1999
Gabrielino tomya:r chief unique other complex Hill Harrington notes
Serrano ke'-kah chief inheritance *kika Uto-Aztecan widespread, cf. O'odham kikitam 'residents of a village' derived Merriam 48:193
Kitanemuk ki'ka'y capitán', chief inheritance *kika Uto-Aztecan the "villager' word derived Anderton 1988
Tübatulabal timmiwwal chief unique other complex K. Hill Tb>Eng
Bankalachi Toloim te-me'-wel chief unique other complex Merriam 49:203
Kawaiisu niyaa-ga-dy chief, braggart inheritance *nija Numic Stubbs 2011 1490 derived, other complex niyaa-'name' Zigmond et al. 1990
Chemehuevi togWaintymY chief unique derived, other complex Harrington Chemehuevi Noun List (K. Hill 1969)
Southern Paiute avit:a root, has other stuff compounded e.g. tangwaavit:a-i7 "men's chief" chief unique also nia:vI 'captain, chief, war leader" simplex Sapir
Southern Ute ta7wa-a-vI chief, leader unique other complex Givon
Tümpisa Shoshone pokwinapi chief, leader unique simplex Dayley 1989
Big Smokey Valley Shoshone tekwa-ni chief, boss inheritance derived tekwa" 'to talk' Crapo 1976
Comanche paraiboo7 chief, officer, agent, chief wife among multiple wives, stepmother unique phrase paraibo 'peace chief' pa-taibo big-X (taibo='white man'??) Robinson & Armagost 1990
Western Mono pohenAby chief inheritance *pohaC Uto-Aztecan power word other complex Loether & Bethel 1993
Northern Paiute poenabe poinabi special chief inheritance *pohaC Uto-Aztecan power word other complex Yerington 1987
Southern Sierra Miwok ti7jaH- chief loan Yokuts also haja:puH, kaptan- (most consultants) simplex Broadbent 1964
Central Sierra Miwok hajá:po- chief inheritance Proto-Miwok While Callaghan 1971:18 does not propose a Pmi reconstruction, note Pmiw hójpuş 'chief' (Callaghan 1970:24), perhaps from *hoj 'first'?? JHH); má:jyngy- woman chief, chief's wife or daughter; this also in Nisenan simplex Freeland & Broadbent 1960
Northern Sierra Miwok haja:po chief, mayor inheritance Proto-Miwok While Callaghan 1971:18 does not propose a Pmi reconstruction, note Pmiw hójpuş 'chief' (Callaghan 1970:24), perhaps from *hoj 'first'?? JHH); má:jyngy- woman chief, chief's wife or daughter; this also in Nisenan simplex Callaghan 1987
Plains Miwok ceka- chief, captain, boss, head man unique see Proto-Wintun *se:qtu (Callaghan 2001:321) simplex Callaghan 1984
Lake Miwok hójpu chief, boss inheritance Proto-Miwok While Callaghan 1971:18 does not propose a Pmi reconstruction, note Pmis haja:-po- 'chief' (Callaghan 1971:18), perhaps from *hoj 'first'?? JHH); má:jyngy- woman chief, chief's wife or daughter; this also in Nisenan simplex Callaghan 1965
Maidu jepóni, jopóni important man, head man,"captain" inheritance *jep 'man' Proto-Maiduan derived jep 'man' Shipley 1963
Nisenan hu:k' chief unknown Maidu hukes 'clever, smart'??? simplex Uldall & Shipley 1966
Yokuts Yawelmani tiy'a7 leader, captain inheritance Proto-Yokutsan see Yawdanchi di:ya7 'chief' and Palewyami te'-yah derived from *de:-yi 'take the lead' Newman 156 Berman 2002
Yokuts Yawdanchi diya7 chief inheritance Nim-Yokuts see Yawelmani derived from *de:-yi 'take the lead' Newman 156 Kroeber 1907
Yokuts Palewyami te'-yah chief inheritance Proto-Yokutsan see Yawel, Yawd forms; Kroeber diiya derived from *de:-yi 'take the lead' Newman 156 Berman 2002
Washo detúmu leader unknown may mean to lead a line derived d- nmlzr (?) Washo Project Dictionary
Wintu wih chief inheritance *wiy, *wi: Proto-Wintun Shepherd 2006:198 other complex the 'particular aspect' of "person" (wi) (Pitkin) Schlichter 1981
Yuki Ti7ul chief inheritance *Ti7ol' Proto-North Yukian S&S 1984:43 say this is Chinook Jargon. Also are other, more complex words p. 43 simplex Schlichter 1985
Wappo k'anitúč'ma chief, boss, leader unknown derived productive suffix -ma; probably also compound Sawyer 1965
Mutsun pe-ton, pe-tan chief loan Spanish WW %capitan simplex Merriam 39:113
Esselen missing missing
Salinan A aTukai lord, señor unknown maybe in religious sense? Pinart has kapitan (Heizer 1952:73 simplex Mason 1918
Salinan M missing missing
Chumash Obispeno missing missing
Chumash Ineseno wot' chief inheritance Proto-Central Chumash simplex Applegate 1972
Chumash Barbareno wot' chief, be rich inheritance Proto-Central Chumash in I and V simplex Beeler 1978
Chumash Ventureno wot' chief inheritance Proto-Southern Chumash in I & B simplex Mamet 2003
Iipay 'Aa kwaaypaay, kway'paay chief, captain, judge unknown derived kw- agentive Couro & Hutcheson 1973
Cocopa kWmšyaráy chairman, captain, leader unknown derived Crawford 1989
Mojave pi7pataahan chief, big shot unknown derived person good/real Munro et al. 1992
Yavapai màk7yō:ra chief loan Spanish WW %alcalde mayor could this be loan from mayor with some kind of infix??? simplex Shaterian 1983
Kiliwa 7ipaa=kw-t+hiy chief, headman (lit spirit, great person) unknown compound Mixco 1985
Seri (Comcaac) quihéhe chief, leader (tener palo de autoridad) unknown simplex Moser & Marlett 2005
Kakua mǎ mǎ unknown Simplex See Language page
Nheengatu tuxawa (Casas2000); kapitão (C11, Port loan) tuʃawa (Casas2000); kapitão (C11, Port loan) WW; loan %tuʃawa; Portuguese Donor: Pemon tusawa, etc.; Alternate: kapitão Simplex See Language page
Waorani awẽdẽ (IDS) unique See Language page
Yanomami kapitani (MM07) kapitani (MM07) loan Spanish also Nheengatu kapitão Simplex See Language page
Yanomam pata pata leader, elder inheritance Proto-Yanomamo? shared ninam, yanomam; doubtful inheritance Simplex See Language page
Ninam pata pata inheritance Proto-Yanomamo? Shared Ninam, Yanomam; doubtful inheritance Simplex See Language page
Kotiria pùhtoro pùhtoro inheritance shared Piratapuyo Compare Carib: Pemon eepuuruu; Makushi póotɨ-rɨ See Language page
Cubeo cõjeipõecʉ kõhɛipõkʉ unknown Also:cʉrõcacʉ, jabocʉ Compound ?-person-classifier -kɨ See Language page
Tukano sɨ'ôri niig´ɨ, wiogɨ (HR) siʔôɾi niig´ɨ, wiogɨ (HR) unique From verb 'lead'. Also: wiogɨ See Language page
Desano opʉ opʉ inheritance? cf. %apu Simplex See Language page
Maihiki ñi debɨ aguɨ, ñiacaiquɨ aguɨ ɲi debɨ agɨ, ɲiakaikɨ agɨ unknown Also: ɲiakaikɨ agɨ Derived ñi= 3sg; debɨ= legitimate; agɨ= masculine noun classifier See Language page
Hup yɔ̃ʔɔm=ʔĩh jɔ̃ʔɔm=ʔĩh unique Derived power-MSC See Language page
Dâw kapitãw, tusaàw kapitãw, tuʃâw loan; loan - WW Portuguese; %tuʃawa, via Nheengatu? See Language page
Sikuani pematakanukaenü (sedentary group); pematakaponaenü (nomadic group); both from pemata- 'old person' pematakanukaenɨ (sedentary group); pematakaponaenɨ (nomadic group); both from pemata- 'old person' unique See Language page
Pemon eepuuruu (E1980); epuru, tusawa (A1981) epuru (E1980) (A1981) inheritance; loan - WW Akawaio-Pemon shared Akawaio; %tuʃawa See Language page
Akawaio eebuuruu (E1980) eburu inheritance Akawaio-Pemon See Language page
Makushi póotɨ-rɨ unique See Language page
Eñepa iʔyan iʔjan doubtful loan Arawak; cf. Trinitario iyaraʔo See Language page
Yukuna wakára'ajeri wakáraʔahe-ri inheritance? shared Achagua Derived command' + masculine marker -ri See Language page
Tariana é:ni é:ni unique Simplex See Language page
Wapishana tʰuʃau tʰuʃau loan - WW %tuʃawa compare Pemón tusawa Simplex See Language page
Baniwa #NAME? #NAME? unique Simplex -li is masculine gender marker See Language page
Resígaro keʔví- keʔví- unique Simplex But found in dictionaries with gender markers, e.g. -gí See Language page
Achagua wákaliʃi; wákali 'dueño' wákaliʃi; wákali 'dueño' inheritance? shared Yucuna See Language page
Yavitero minaľi minaľi See Language page
Paresi kalorexe (kalore=big) kaloreʃe (kalore=big) unique See Language page
Ignaciano akenuka; -'a'kenumuri See Language page
Trinitario iyaraʔo See Language page
Baure rom rom unknown See Language page
Waurá amu- amu- unknown See Language page
Cha'palaa 'uɲi See Language page
Bora ávyéjuúbe (ávyéju - cf. power, respect) áβjéxɯɯ́pe inheritance/calque See Language page
Muinane áivojɨɨbo (W97) áiβoxɨɨbo See Language page
Apalai tuisa, ipãnary tuisa, ipãnarɨ loan - WW; unique %tuʃawa, via Nheengatu? See Language page
Wayana umïtïn umɨtɨn unique See Language page
Tiriyó kapiten kapiten loan Portuguese See Language page
Makiritare ədāhə(IDS), ëda:hë(KH) əda:hə unique See Language page
Wai Wai kayaritomo kajaritomo unknown See Language page
Waimiri Atroari taha 'big, leader' taha 'big, leader' See Language page
Yabarana kampara, koŋtomo See Language page
Yukpa yubatpue jubatpue See Language page
Muisca psihipqua psihipkua See Language page
Epena 'tači 'poro Lit. 'our head'. Also 'tači wai'bɨa, 'our great'. The spiritual shaman leader (female) is 'tači 'nawe 'our mother'; (male) 'tači a'kʰõre 'our father'. See Language page
Cofán coen ('old one, chief'; from 'adult') koen ('old one, chief'; from 'adult') phonemic transcriptions are ESTIMATIONS See Language page
Páez n-piic̷-thẽʔh (Lit.'prefix (personal relationship)-man-mature'); saʔt 'Indian chieftain'. n-piic̷-thẽʔh (Lit.'prefix (personal relationship)-man-mature'); saʔt 'Indian chieftain'. See Language page
Tikuna aéngakê (Alv44) aéŋakɨ unique See Language page
Urarina kʉraanaa kʉraanaa unique See Language page
Andoke po'so-ʌ (from po'so 'beat drum') poʔso-ʌ (from poʔso 'beat drum') unique See Language page
Pumé tʰamõ kʰɔ̃rɔ̃-mẽ; bɛ kʰɔ̃rɔ-mẽ See Language page
Puinave -hɨi-wãi-dɨk -hɨi-wãi-dɨk unique See Language page
Ashuar ápu (Quechua) ápu (Quechua) See Language page
Huambisa uuntri uuntri See Language page
Aguaruna apu-hi (Quechua loan) apu-hi loan - WW %apu See Language page
Matses chuiquid tʃuikid unknown See Language page
Kakataibo ʔapu [Quechua loan] See Language page
Katukina nokɨ iβoʔa-i See Language page
Shipibo-Konibo ererekʷa See Language page
Yaminahua tʰamõ kʰɔ̃rɔ̃-mẽ Also bɛ kʰɔ̃rɔ-mẽ. See Language page
Chácobo taita taita unknown See Language page
Yagua jntityũ xntitjũ unique See Language page
Ingá iaia iaia See Language page
Napo Lowland Quichua apu, mandaj apu, mandax See Language page
Quechua Ayacuchano qullana, uma [apu 'earth deity'] (CP94) quʎana, uma [apu 'earth deity'] See Language page
Piaroa u'rú'wa', ru'wá' uɁrúɁwaɁ, ruɁwáɁ unique See Language page
Sáliva aixohdi aixoʔdi unique See Language page
Bará duti-'gɨ́ See Language page
Barasano ɨh-ɨ́ ɨh-ɨ́ See Language page
Carapana quetiupaʉ ketiupaʉ See Language page
Makuna ʉjʉ ʉjʉ inheritance? cf. %apu See Language page
Yuruti dĩ'rṹpɨ̃ dĩ'rṹpɨ̃ See Language page
Waikhana pɨʔ'to-ro pɨʔ'to-ro See Language page
Siriano o'pɨ́ o'pɨ́ See Language page
Tanimuca ĩ'pi ĩ'pi inheritance? cf. %apu See Language page
Tatuyo u'pa-i u'pa-i See Language page
Tuyuka dutigʉ́ dutigʉ́ See Language page
Waimaja wí'ó-gɨ, ka do'tí-gɨ wí'ó-gɨ, ka do'tí-gɨ See Language page
Koreguaje pãi chʉ̃'ʉkʉ pãi dʒʉ̃'ʉkʉ loan Tupi-Guarani pai 'respected man' See Language page
Siona ɨhakˀɨ; ʔɨha pˀaĩ ɨhakˀɨ; ʔɨha pˀaĩ loan Tupi-Guarani pai 'respected man' See Language page
Secoya pãĩ 'ɨ'haɨ pãĩ 'ɨ'haɨ See Language page
Karitiana myj mɨj unknown cf. TG pai See Language page
Kokama apu apu loan - WW %apu See Language page
Wayampi -l-uwiyã -l-uwiyã inheritance See Language page
Aché ɨma čiǰa unknown See Language page
Chiriguano huwiča; uwiča inheritance? shared Guarani See Language page
Paraguayan Guaraní ᵐburuviča See Language page
Sirionó e-čoa pohi; ekʷai e-čoa pohi; ekʷai unknown; inheritance? See Language page
Kamayurá morerekwat morerekwat unknown See Language page
Ocaina farááhfum̈a ɸarááʔɸum:a unique See Language page
Murui Witoto illaɨ̀ idʒaɯ̀ (B83) unique See Language page
Iquito áapu áapu loan - WW %apu See Language page
Wari taramaʃikon (Sousa2009) taramaʃikon (Sousa2009) See Language page
Araona dohoi See Language page
Cavineña wara-hi; ekʷari wara-hi; ekʷari unknown; loan TG - Siriono? also in Shipibo See Language page
Central Aymara kuraka See Language page
Cayuvava [kasiki]; 'tedede From 'cacique'. See Language page
Itonama manačobo; miyayčumaʔna See Language page
Kwazá tãjã tãjã See Language page
Mosetén-Chimané ['hefe] From Span. 'jefe'. Also [ka'siki], from Span. (?) 'cacique'. Also ko[ka'sik]č (m.), from 'cacique'. See Language page
Movima en-ona en-ona See Language page
Trumai aek aek unique See Language page
Kaingang pãʔi; pãʔe (loan Tupi?) (IDS) pãʔi; pãʔe See Language page
Djeoromitxi nĩrü nĩrø See Language page
Chipaya xiliri See Language page
Mocoví l-aši; l-aʔg-aʁalaʔ The latter is '3p possessor-follow-agent (masc)'. See Language page
Pilagá akwiski [from Mascoyan?] See Language page
Toba iyaraʔo See Language page
Lengua wiši See Language page
Sanapaná/Dialect Angaité apweskeʔ; apkemha-pmamyeʔ See Language page
Sanapaná/Dialect Enlhet koraka; apo; koši See Language page
Wichí Lhamtés Güisnay -ka-ni'yat See Language page
Chorote, Iyojwa'ja nakiʔ (m.) Cf. 18.222. See Language page
Maca ɬeḳisil (m.) See Language page
Nivaclé anwakle See Language page
Ayoreo dai'n̥ai; dai'n̥ee See 04.870. See Language page
Mapudungun loŋko; [kasike] First form also means 'head' 04.200. Ranquel form is loŋko. See Language page
Qawasqar c̷efteyxor Also yerwose, which also means 'give orders'. Sk, Bo record sefteyor for Central QWS. See Language page
Selknam haʔxe-nn Means 'the old man'. See Language page
Tehuelche 'ew 'eynk; 'ōʔypˀnk Respectively: lit. 'before standing'; chief. See Language page
Lokono baihosen baihosen chief Pet 1987:353
Kariña jopoto jopoto chief; boat Yamada 2010:745