Tiriyó

Family
Cariban
Region
South America
ISO 639-3
tri
Location
2.54°, -55.76°
Notes
Features
Basic Vocabulary
Flora Fauna Vocabulary
Cultural Vocabulary
Data Sources
Meira, Sérgio. 1999. A Grammar of Tiriyó. Houston: Rice University. Ann Arbor: UMI. (Doctoral disseration). Meira, Sérgio. 2000. Proto-Taranoan. Munich: Lincom Europa. Meira, Sérgio. Wordlist.


Basic Vocabulary (191)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Etymology Notes Source Created By
above encima, arriba acima location epoe epoe inheritance See Language page Becky Walker
and y e grammar See Language page Becky Walker
ash ceniza(s) cinzas environment əreinə əreinə inheritance See Language page Becky Walker
at en, a em, a location serɔ mao serɔ mao See Language page Becky Walker
back espalda costas body (mï)ka (upper back) mɨka (upper back) inheritance See Language page Becky Walker
bad mal mal quality (wï)rïpë wɨrɨpǝ (related to pejorative suffix -rɨpɨ) inheritance See Language page Becky Walker
belly barriga barriga body waku waku inheritance See Language page Becky Walker
below abajo, debajo abaixo location missing See Language page Becky Walker
big grande grande quality mono_me mono.me unique See Language page Becky Walker
black negro preto colour sikinmano sikinmano inheritance See Language page Becky Walker
blood sangre sangue body munu munu inheritance See Language page Becky Walker
boil/pimple espinilla, granos espinha, borbulha body ni-mməməə-ja-n ni-mməməə-ja-n unknown See Language page Becky Walker
bone hueso osso body jetïpë jetɨpǝ inheritance See Language page Becky Walker
breast pecho, seno peito body susu susu doutbful loan Onomatopoeic, but possibly a loan since the same form is found in a number of areal languages; Makú /tʃütʃü/; Quechua del Pastaza /tʃutʃu/; Yucuna (Arawak) tʃuʔutʃú; Proto-Chibchan See Language page Becky Walker
child niño, niña criança human mure mure inheritance See Language page Becky Walker
cloud nube nuvem environment ikapurutu ikapurutu inheritance See Language page Becky Walker
cold frío frio quality tɨno:me tɨno:me inheritance See Language page Becky Walker
correct/true verdad, de veras verdade quality aerë aerǝ inheritance See Language page Becky Walker
day día dia time missing See Language page Becky Walker
dirty sucio sujo quality tïkuije tɨkuije inheritance See Language page Becky Walker
dingo/wolf fauna See Language page Becky Walker
dry seco seco quality unna (become dry / dry) unna inheritance See Language page Becky Walker
dull/blunt sin filo, mocho, desafilado, embotado, romo maçante, desamolado, não afiado quality aera aera See Language page Becky Walker
dust polvo poeira environment missing See Language page Becky Walker
ear oreja orelha body pana pana inheritance See Language page Becky Walker
earth/soil tierra terra environment nono nono inheritance See Language page Becky Walker
egg huevo ovo fauna :mo :mo inheritance See Language page Becky Walker
eye ojo olho body enu enu inheritance See Language page Becky Walker
far lejos longe quality ma:-no (M2000) ma:-no (M2000) inheritance See Language page Becky Walker
fat/grease grasa gordura body katï katɨ inheritance See Language page Becky Walker
father padre, papá pai kinship jum-me, pa: (vocative; spanish loan), pahko jum-me, pa: (vocative; spanish loan), pahko inheritance See Language page Becky Walker
feather pluma pena fauna missing See Language page Becky Walker
fire fuego fogo environment mahto (fire; matches) mahto inheritance See Language page Becky Walker
flower flor flor environment ipëmu ipǝmu unique See Language page Becky Walker
fog niebla, neblina nevoeira, bruma, neblina environment tereine (foggy) tereine See Language page Becky Walker
fruit fruta fruta flora eperu eperu inheritance See Language page Becky Walker
good bueno bom quality kure kure inheritance See Language page Becky Walker
hair (of head) cabello cabelo body putupë putupǝ inheritance See Language page Becky Walker
hand mano mão body enja enja inheritance See Language page Becky Walker
3sg el/ella ele/ela grammar nai (3rd person form of the copula) nai inheritance See Language page Becky Walker
head cabeza cabeça body putupë putupǝ inheritance See Language page Becky Walker
heavy pesado pesado quality amïïma amɨɨma inheritance See Language page Becky Walker
how? como como grammar eeke eeke inheritance See Language page Becky Walker
1sg yo eu grammar wi[:] wi: inheritance See Language page Becky Walker
if si se grammar ahtao ahtao See Language page Becky Walker
in/inside dentro, adentro dentro location awë awǝ (inside a container) inheritance See Language page Becky Walker
intestines intestinos intestinos body missing See Language page Becky Walker
lake lago lago environment ikutupë ikutupǝ inheritance See Language page Becky Walker
leaf hoja folha environment arï arɨ inheritance See Language page Becky Walker
left/left hand izquierdo esquerdo location/body apëjano apǝjano inheritance See Language page Becky Walker
leg/foot pierna perna body (pï)repa (also shin) repa inheritance See Language page Becky Walker
lightning rayo, relámpago relampago environment manan manan inheritance See Language page Becky Walker
liver hígado figado body ere ere inheritance See Language page Becky Walker
long largo comprido, longo quality ma[:] (far, long) ma: unique See Language page Becky Walker
louse piollo, piojo piolho fauna ja:mi ja:mi inheritance See Language page Becky Walker
man/male hombre homem human kïrï kɨrɨ inheritance See Language page Becky Walker
meat/flesh carne carne fauna kupu(nu), pu(nu) kupu(nu), pu(nu) inheritance See Language page Becky Walker
moon luna lua environment nunnə nunnə inheritance See Language page Becky Walker
mother madre, mamá mãe kinship ma[:] (vocative), manko ma:, manko doubtful loan Span? See Language page Becky Walker
mouth boca boca body (mï)ta (mɨ)ta inheritance See Language page Becky Walker
name nombre nome human eka eka inheritance See Language page Becky Walker
near/close cerca de perto quality ekata(ka) (close to (directional)) ekata(ka) inheritance See Language page Becky Walker
nape base del cuello, nuca nuca body taja taja See Language page Becky Walker
neck cuello pescoço body pɨmɨ pɨmɨ inheritance See Language page Becky Walker
new nuevo novo quality kaina(no) (new one) kaina(no) inheritance See Language page Becky Walker
night noche noite time koko (at night) koko inheritance See Language page Becky Walker
no/not no não grammar owa owa inheritance See Language page Becky Walker
nose nariz nariz body oona oona inheritance See Language page Becky Walker
old viejo velho quality missing See Language page Becky Walker
one uno um number ein ein inheritance See Language page Becky Walker
other otro outro grammar akoron, akoronɨ-mpə akoron, akoronɨ-mpə inheritance See Language page Becky Walker
pain/painful/sick dolor, doloroso, enfermo dor, doloroso, doente body ëëseenë ǝǝseenǝ unique See Language page Becky Walker
person/human being persona pessoa human wɨtoto wɨtoto inheritance See Language page Becky Walker
rain lluvia chuva environment konopo konopo inheritance See Language page Becky Walker
red rojo vermelho colour taamiire taamiire inheritance See Language page Becky Walker
right/right hand derecha direita location/body apëtu(nu) apǝtu(nu) inheritance See Language page Becky Walker
road/path camino caminho manufacture ëema ǝema inheritance See Language page Becky Walker
root raíz raiz flora mu(nu) (tuberous root) mu(nu) inheritance See Language page Becky Walker
rotten podrido podre quality ti-kɔta-e (rot) ti-kɔta-e inheritance See Language page Becky Walker
sand arena areia environment samu samu inheritance See Language page Becky Walker
sharp afilado, filudo, filoso afiado quality aesa(ka) aesa(ka) inheritance See Language page Becky Walker
short corto curto quality tɨntɨ:je tɨntɨ:je inheritance See Language page Becky Walker
shoulder hombro ombro body mota mota inheritance See Language page Becky Walker
shy/ashamed tímido, vergonzoso timido, com vergonha mental missing See Language page Becky Walker
skin piel pele body pihpë pihpǝ inheritance See Language page Becky Walker
sky cielo céu environment kapu kapu inheritance See Language page Becky Walker
small pequeño pequeno quality akïï (small things) akɨɨ inheritance See Language page Becky Walker
smoke humo fumaça environment erei(nï) erei(nɨ) inheritance See Language page Becky Walker
star estrella estrela environment sirikë sirikǝ inheritance See Language page Becky Walker
stick/wood palo pau, vara flora missing See Language page Becky Walker
stone piedra pedra environment tëpu tǝpu inheritance See Language page Becky Walker
tail cola, rabo rabo body arokï arokɨ inheritance See Language page Becky Walker
that ese/esa esse grammar nërë (animate anaphoric non-collective nǝrǝ inheritance See Language page Becky Walker
3pl ellos/ellas eles/elas grammar namo (anaphoric) namo inheritance See Language page Becky Walker
thick grueso, gordo, espeso grosso quality missing See Language page Becky Walker
thin delgado fino quality missing See Language page Becky Walker
this este/esta este grammar sen, seni-mpə, serə (this one inanimate), məe (this one, animate) sen, seni-mpə, serə, məe inheritance See Language page Becky Walker
2sg xx xx grammar əmə, əmənjamo əmə, əmənjamo inheritance See Language page Becky Walker
throat garganta garganta body eena eena inheritance See Language page Becky Walker
three tres tres number əerao (three, several) əerao inheritance See Language page Becky Walker
thunder truenos trovão environment tïrïm tɨrɨm inheritance See Language page Becky Walker
bite morder morder body eeka eeka inheritance See Language page Becky Walker
blow soplar soprar body etë (flute, tube) etǝ (flute, tube) unique See Language page Becky Walker
breathe respirar respirar body missing See Language page Becky Walker
burn quemar queimar environment ja(tu) ja(tu) inheritance See Language page Becky Walker
chew masticar, mascar mastigar body missing See Language page Becky Walker
climb subir subir motion anu(ku) anu(ku) inheritance See Language page Becky Walker
come venir vir motion ëe(pï) ǝe(pɨ) inheritance See Language page Becky Walker
cook cocinar cozinhar impact [t]je (cook in water) [t]je inheritance See Language page Becky Walker
count contar contar mental kuhtuntë kuhtuntǝ inheritance See Language page Becky Walker
cry llorar chorar mental ëësena ǝǝsena unknown See Language page Becky Walker
cut/hack cortar cortar impact ahkë(të) ahkǝ(tǝ) inheritance See Language page Becky Walker
die/be dead morir morrer state ëtïhka ǝtɨhka inheritance See Language page Becky Walker
dig cavar cavar impact amika amika inheritance See Language page Becky Walker
dream soñar sonhar mental ëtamorehtë ǝtamorehtǝ inheritance See Language page Becky Walker
drink beber, tomar beber body enï(rï) enɨ(rɨ) inheritance See Language page Becky Walker
eat comer comer body ena(pï) (fruit; sweets; eggs), aku (grains, nuts) ena(pɨ), aku inheritance See Language page Becky Walker
fall caer cair motion anota anota inheritance See Language page Becky Walker
fear miedo medo mental nari ke nai (s/he is afraid) nari ke nai inheritance See Language page Becky Walker
flow fluir fluir motion missing See Language page Becky Walker
fly volar voar motion missing See Language page Becky Walker
grow crecer crescer state j-anɨhta-ne (I grew (up)) j-anɨhta-ne (I grew (up)) inheritance See Language page Becky Walker
hear oír ouvir mental eta eta inheritance See Language page Becky Walker
hide esconder esconder motion ëtona(mï) ǝtona(mɨ) inheritance See Language page Becky Walker
hit golpear, pegar bater impact taaka (to hit something hard, like bone) taaka unique See Language page Becky Walker
hold correr, asegurar, sostener segurar other missing See Language page Becky Walker
kill matar matar impact aawïrï aawɨrɨ inheritance See Language page Becky Walker
know/be knowledgeable saber, conecer saber, conhecer mental wa:rə wa:rə inheritance See Language page Becky Walker
laugh reír rir mental eerana eerana unknown See Language page Becky Walker
lie down acostarse, echarse deitar motion missing See Language page Becky Walker
live/be alive vivir viver, morar body missing See Language page Becky Walker
open/uncover abrir abrir other rowaka rowaka inheritance See Language page Becky Walker
pound/beat machacar, golpear bater impact missing See Language page Becky Walker
say decir dizer mental ka ka inheritance See Language page Becky Walker
scratch rascar rasgar impact wai wai unique See Language page Becky Walker
see ver ver mental ene ene inheritance See Language page Becky Walker
shoot tirar, disparar, balear atirar impact [t]wë [t]wǝ inheritance See Language page Becky Walker
sit sentar(se) sentar state etahpaka etahpaka inheritance See Language page Becky Walker
sleep dormir dormir body ëënï(kï) ǝǝnɨ(kɨ) inheritance See Language page Becky Walker
sniff/smell olfatear, oler cheirar body missing See Language page Becky Walker
spit escupir cuspir body missing See Language page Becky Walker
split partir, dividir rachar, dividir, partir impact missing See Language page Becky Walker
squeeze estrujar, exprimir espremer impact tënka tǝnka inheritance cognate Yukpa? See Language page Becky Walker
stab/pierce apuñalar, acuchillar apunhalar impact konka konka inheritance See Language page Becky Walker
stand estar de pié ficar em pé state au(mu) au(mu) unique See Language page Becky Walker
steal robar roubar other aminë(pï) aminǝ(pɨ) inheritance See Language page Becky Walker
suck chupar chupar body missing See Language page Becky Walker
swell hincharse inchar body rokeroke rokeroke unknown See Language page Becky Walker
swim nadar nadar motion missing See Language page Becky Walker
think pensar pensar mental ekanï(pï) (suppose / believe / think) ekanɨ(pɨ) unknown See Language page Becky Walker
throw tirar, lanzar atirar, jogar impact ema ema inheritance See Language page Becky Walker
tie up/fasten atar, amarrar amarrar impact inheritance See Language page Becky Walker
turn girar, volter, torcer virar other epanama epanama unknown See Language page Becky Walker
vomit vomitar vomitar body wenahta wenahta inheritance See Language page Becky Walker
walk caminar, andar andar motion urakana urakana unknown See Language page Becky Walker
work trabajar trabalhar other (j)oroko (j)oroko unknown See Language page Becky Walker
yawn bostezar bocejar body etapo etapo inheritance See Language page Becky Walker
tongue lengua lingua body nore nore inheritance See Language page Becky Walker
tooth diente dente body je(e) je(e) inheritance See Language page Becky Walker
two dos dois number ëëkënë ǝǝkǝnǝ inheritance See Language page Becky Walker
water agua agua environment tuna tuna inheritance See Language page Becky Walker
1pl.incl nosotros (inclusivo) nós (inclusivo) grammar kïmë (you and i) kɨmǝ (you and i) inheritance See Language page Becky Walker
1pl.excl nosotros (exclusivo) nós (exclusivo) grammar anja anja inheritance See Language page Becky Walker
wet mojado molhado quality missing See Language page Becky Walker
what? que, qué que grammar eeke (more closely 'how') eeke inheritance See Language page Becky Walker
when? cuando quando grammar eekanmao eekanmao unique See Language page Becky Walker
where? donde onde grammar anpo anpo unknown See Language page Becky Walker
white blanco branco colour tïkorooje tɨkorooje inheritance See Language page Becky Walker
who? quien, quién quem grammar akï (animate interrogative pronound) akɨ (animate interrogative pronound) inheritance See Language page Becky Walker
wife esposa esposa kinship pï(tï) pɨ(tɨ) inheritance See Language page Becky Walker
wind viento vento environment pepei pepei inheritance See Language page Becky Walker
wing ala asa body apëri apǝri inheritance See Language page Becky Walker
woman/female mujer mulher human wëri wǝri inheritance See Language page Becky Walker
yellow amarillo amarelo colour kananame (also beige) kananame (also beige) inheritance See Language page Becky Walker
2pl ustedes vocês grammar ëmënjamo ǝmǝnjamo inheritance See Language page Becky Walker
foot pie body (pu)pu (pu)pu inheritance See Language page Becky Walker
again de nuevo, otra vez de novo grammar _pa _pa inheritance See Language page Becky Walker
all todo todos other ameraarë ameraarǝ inheritance See Language page Becky Walker
ankle tobillo tornozelo body manini manini inheritance See Language page Becky Walker
armpit axila, sobaco axila body jahta jahta inheritance See Language page Becky Walker
faeces heces, mierda, excremento, estiércol fezes body missing See Language page Becky Walker
lung pulmón pulmão body missing See Language page Becky Walker
sweat sudar suor, suar body rïhta rɨhta inheritance See Language page Becky Walker
itch hormiguear, sentir comezón coçar body See Language page Becky Walker
bark corteza casca environment pihpë pihpǝ inheritance See Language page Becky Walker
fingernail uña unha body amoi, omoi amoi, omoi inheritance See Language page Becky Walker
heart corazón coração body ewanë ewanǝ inheritance See Language page Becky Walker
sun sol sol time wei wei inheritance See Language page Becky Walker
mountain/hill montaña, colina, loma, cerro morro, serra environment pï(ï) pɨ(ɨ) inheritance See Language page Becky Walker
green verde verde quality missing See Language page Becky Walker
hot caliente quente quality atuma(ka) atuma(ka) inheritance See Language page Becky Walker


Flora Fauna Vocabulary (133)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Linnean Name Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Range of Term Word Structure Word Structure Notes Classifier Classifier Notes Hypernym Source Association with Social Categories Ritual/Mythologically Significant Ritual Notes Food Source Food Notes Medicinal Medicinal Notes How Collected Who Collects How Prepared Psychotropic Psychotropic Notes Traded Trade Notes Distribution Habitat Dangerous Ethnobiology Notes Species Notes General Notes Created By
bat murciélago morcego flora-fauna Chiroptera spp. nere (plural) nere inheritance See Language page Becky Walker
bird pajaro, ave passaro flora-fauna tonoro tonoro inheritance See Language page Becky Walker
curassow mitu, montete (Peru), paujil/panjuil (Peru), paujil de Salvin (Peru for Mitu salvini) mutum flora-fauna Crax sp., Nothocrax sp. o:ko o:ko inheritance See Language page Amazonia Becky Walker
toucan tucán, pinsha (Peru) tucano flora-fauna Ramphastos sp. missing See Language page Widespread Amazonia Becky Walker
gray-winged trumpeter Grulla, Trompetero Ala Gris jacamim flora-fauna Psophia crepitans missing See Language page Northern Amazonia (N of Solimões), not in northern Colombia; Dark-winged trumpeter is found south of Solimões Becky Walker
guan pava, pucacunga (Peru), pava de Spix (Peru) jacu flora-fauna Penelope sp. kuuwi (a species of guan) kuuwi (a species of guan) loan, direction unknown - WW cf. similar forms in Yabarana, Tiriyo, Piapoco (?), Guahiban, Waorani, Ashuar, Matses, Saliva, Tanimuca, Kwaza, Urarina, Quechua See Language page Different types have different localized ranges Becky Walker
tinamou tinamu, perdiz, gallineta inambu, inhambu flora-fauna family Tinamidae missing See Language page Widespread Amazonia Becky Walker
hummingbird colibrí, picaflor (Peru) beija-flor flora-fauna family Trochilidae tukui tukui inheritance See Language page Widespread Becky Walker
kingfisher martín pescador, catalan (Peru) martim-pescador flora-fauna family Alcedinidae atura (a species of kingfisher) atura inheritance See Language page Widespread Amazonia Becky Walker
owl (large) búho, lechuza corujão flora-fauna order Strigiformes missing See Language page Widespread Becky Walker
macaw ara, guacamaya Arara flora-fauna family Psittacidae; Ara sp. perei (a species of macaw) perei unknown See Language page Widespread Amazonia Becky Walker
parrot loro real, loro (Sp. form is a loan from Carib) papagaio flora-fauna Amazona amazonica meremereu (species of parrot) meremereu unique See Language page Widespread Becky Walker
dove paloma pomba flora-fauna family Columbidae arami (a specific species) arami inheritance See Language page Becky Walker
hawk halcón, gavilán gavião flora-fauna family Accipitridae kahkakane (crane hawk) kahkakane doubtful loan, direction unknown Tupi-Guarani (see Aura kar'kara) or Wapishana: possibly onomatopoeic See Language page Becky Walker
vulture buitre, gallinazo, rinahui (Peru) urubu flora-fauna family Cathartidae watëika (black vulture) watǝika unique See Language page Widespread South America Becky Walker
duck pato pato, marreco flora-fauna Anatidae family urumaimë (an unidentified species of wild duck) urumaimǝ inheritance See Language page Becky Walker
great egret Garza Blanca, Guyratî Garça-Branca-Grande flora-fauna Ardea alba ineku apihpë ineku apihpǝ unique See Language page Widespread South America Becky Walker
woodpecker pájaro carpintero, carpintero pica-pau flora-fauna family Picidae pïmuriri pɨmuriri unique See Language page Widespread Amazonia Becky Walker
dog (camp, domestic) perro cachorro flora-fauna Canis famililaris kaikui (also means jaguar/ocelot) kaikui semantic shift from jaguar See Language page Not native; widespread Becky Walker
dog (wild; bush dog) sachaperro, Perro de Monte, Zorro Vinagre, Guanfando; Zorro Ojizarco, Zorro Negro, Perro de Orejas Corta cachorro-do-mato flora-fauna Speothos venaticus; Atelocynus microtis koikoi (wild dog) koikoi See Language page Widespread Amazonia Becky Walker
anteater oso hormiguero; tapia pelejo or pelejo chico for Cyclopes didactylus tamanduá flora-fauna Myrmecophaga tridactyla (giant anteater); Cyclopes didactylus (silky anteater) masiwë (giant anteater) masiwǝ unknown See Language page Widespread Amazonian lowlands Becky Walker
armadillo armadillo, carachupa (Peru), yangunturi (Peru for Giant armadillo) tatu flora-fauna family Dasypodidae; e.g. Priodontes maximus (Giant armadillo), Dasypus novemcinctus, Dasypus kappleri mooraimë (giant armadillo) mooraimǝ inheritance See Language page Widespread in Amazonia Becky Walker
sloth pereza, pelejo (Peru), perezoso (Peru) macaco preguica flora-fauna Choloepus sp., Bradypus sp. wirinae (pale-throated, three-toed sloth) wirinae See Language page Widespread Amazonia Becky Walker
alligator, black caiman babilla; cachirre jacaré flora-fauna Melanosuchus niger, Caiman schlerops; Paleosuchus sp. ariwe ariwe inheritance See Language page Throughout Amazonia Port term reportedly borrowed from Tupi Becky Walker
electric eel anguila eléctrica poraquê flora-fauna Electrophorus electricus arimina arimina inheritance See Language page Becky Walker
fish (generic) pez peixe flora-fauna kana kana inheritance See Language page Becky Walker
pacu fish palometa, garopita, garopa, curhuara (Peru) pacu flora-fauna Mylossoma sp. paku paku See Language page Becky Walker
pirana piraña, caribe piranha flora-fauna subfamily Serrasalmidae pəne pəne inheritance See Language page Widespread Amazonia Becky Walker
tigerfish taraira, guabina, huasaco (Peru) traíra flora-fauna Hoplias sp. See Language page Widespread Amazonia Becky Walker
mandi catfish maparate (used in Peru for some types of catfish, including Auchenipterus sp.), cunchi (used in Peru for some types of catfish), bagre (catfish) mandi flora-fauna Auchenipterus sp. See Language page Widespread Amazonia Becky Walker
speckled catfish surubí, pintadillo surubim, sorubim flora-fauna Pseudoplatystoma sp. missing See Language page Widespread Amazonia Becky Walker
toad sapo sapo flora-fauna order Anura missing See Language page Becky Walker
iguana iguana, garipiares (Colombia) camaleão flora-fauna Iguana sp. iwana iwana loan direction unknown - WW %iwana See Language page iguana' is reportedly from Arawak iwana Becky Walker
small lizard lagartija calango flora-fauna order Squamata missing See Language page Becky Walker
stingray (generic) rayas látigo, raya arraia flora-fauna Potamotrygon sp. cipari cipari doubtful loan - WW note similarity to WW spear/machete (from Span. sable?) See Language page Becky Walker
crab cangrejo caranguejo flora-fauna infraorder Brachyura missing See Language page Becky Walker
anaconda anaconda, boa, boa acuática grande sucuri flora-fauna genus Eunectes missing See Language page Widespread Amazonia Becky Walker
boa boa; mantona (red-tailed boa); boa de altura jiboia flora-fauna family Boidae, subf. Boinae missing See Language page Becky Walker
snake (generic) culebra, serpiente cobra flora-fauna əkəi əkəi inheritance See Language page Becky Walker
snake (poisonous generic) or rattlesnake víbora (Peru), jergón (Peru), yarara jararaca flora-fauna Bothrops jararaca/atrox See Language page Widespread South America Becky Walker
tortoise (red foot, yellow foot/giant) tortuga, morrocoy, motelo jabutí, tartaruga flora-fauna Yellow-footed: Geochelone denticulata; Red-footed: Geochelone carbonaria kurica (general) kurica inheritance See Language page Widespread Becky Walker
Amazon dolphin bufeo, delfín, tonina (del Orinoco) boto cor-de-rosa flora-fauna Inia geoffrensis missing See Language page Downstream of major rapids and waterfalls Becky Walker
mushroom champiñón, hongo cogumelo flora-fauna (any edible generic) missing See Language page prioritize generic term that includes any edible species Becky Walker
black palm bacaba, mapora, pusui, patabá bacaba flora-fauna Oenocarpus bacaba kumu kumu See Language page Mature forests of Rio Negro and Upper Amazon may be confused in some entries with O. bataua Becky Walker
açai palm huasí (Peru), asahi, manaca (Ven), asaí, palmiche (Colombia) açaí flora-fauna Euterpe sp. wapu wapu inheritance See Language page floodplains, swamp; esp. northern Amazonia Becky Walker
miriti palm moriche (Col, Ven), aguaje (Col, Peru), achual, miriti buriti flora-fauna Mauritia flexuosa missing See Language page Brazil, Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guyana, Peru, Venezuela; in and near swamps trunks contain sago-like starch Becky Walker
palm for roof thatch pui, irapay, hoja de irapay, caraná caraná flora-fauna Mauritiella armata OR Lepidocaryum tenue (irapay), Mauritius carana missing See Language page Mauritia carana is limited principally to the Rio Negro and Upper Orinoco regions; dry catinga forests palm Becky Walker
paxiuba palm pona, huacrapona, cashapona, macanilla, pachiuba paxiuba flora-fauna Iriartea exorrhiza OR Iriartea deltoidea missing See Language page Widespread Amazonia palm Becky Walker
peach palm, pejibaye palm chontaduro (Col, Ecuador); pipire (Col); pijuayo (Peru), pijiguao (Ven); tembe (Bol) pupunha flora-fauna Bactris gasipaes missing See Language page Becky Walker
seje palm ungurahui (Peru), palma de seje, milpesos, patabá patoá, patuá flora-fauna Jessenia bataua, aka Oenocarpus bataua missing See Language page mostly north of Equator; common in Amazonia may be confused with O. bacaba - compare entries Becky Walker
coca coca coca flora-fauna Erythroxylum coca missing See Language page secondary scrub vegetation. lower alt. of eastern Andes plant Becky Walker
cotton algodón algodão flora-fauna Gossypium (barbadense: long fibers; hirsutum: short fibers) mauru mauru inheritance See Language page secondary scrub vegetation plant; some sources may confound with kapok Ceiba pentandra (esp. if a single gloss for 'cotton' is given') Becky Walker
kapok ceiba, huimba, lupuna (Peru for Ceiba sp.) sumaumeira flora-fauna Ceiba pentandra See Language page northern South America and central America; common in disturbed areas tree Becky Walker
hot pepper ají, pimentón/pimiento rojo, pucunucho (Peru), charapilla (Peru) pimenta flora-fauna Capsicum sp., principally chinensis and frutescens pǝmǝi (M2000), aima[ka] pǝmǝi, aima[ka] inheritance See Language page secondary scrub vegetation, indigenous garden plant Becky Walker
peanut maní (may be loan from Taino Arawak), cacahuete amendoim flora-fauna Arachis hypogaea See Language page plant Becky Walker
pineapple piña abacaxi flora-fauna Ananas comosus missing See Language page plant Becky Walker
arrow cane, wildcane caña flecha, caña brava, caña isana cana para flechas, frecheira, Cana-do-rio flora-fauna Gynerium sagittatum pirəu pirəu See Language page tropical regions, especially river banks plant Becky Walker
banana, plantain banano, banana, cambur, bellaco, variedad de plátano banana flora-fauna Musa sp. paːru(ru) paːru(ru) inheritance? See Language page Names for banana/plantain may be derived from bastard plantain by semantic shift. Becky Walker
beans frijoles, frejol, caraotas (negras, rojas, blancas) feijão flora-fauna Phaseolus spp. missing See Language page plant Becky Walker
grass hierba, pasto capim, grama flora-fauna (generic) woji woji inheritance See Language page Becky Walker
maize, corn mazorca, maiz milho flora-fauna Zea mays aːnaci aːnaci inheritance? possible loan into proto-Carib, cf. Arawak mariki and TG aBati See Language page widespread, esp. in river floodplains plant Becky Walker
tobacco tabaco tabaco flora-fauna Nicotiana tabacum támue támue inheritance See Language page plant Becky Walker
tree árbol arvore flora-fauna wewe wewe inheritance See Language page Becky Walker
achiote, anatto achiote urucum flora-fauna Bixa orellana (w)ɨpuce (w)ɨpuce inheritance See Language page secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens shrub Becky Walker
inga guaba, guamo, guama, shimbillo (Peru) inga flora-fauna Inga spp. karau karau inheritance See Language page Secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens. North and South America (Brazil, Peru, Bolivia, Suriname, Colombia) Becky Walker
avocado palta, aguacate abacate flora-fauna Persea americana See Language page secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens tree Becky Walker
bitterwood tortuga caspi, pretina (Peru for tree and tumpline); carahuasca (Peru) envira flora-fauna Duguetia sp. OR Fusaea longifolia OR Guatteria chrysopetala See Language page secondary forests, native to Brazil tree Becky Walker
brazil nut castaña castanha do para (B. excelsa); castanha de cutia (C. edulis) flora-fauna Bertholletia excelsa [cf. Couepia edulis 'castanha do cutia'] tuːka tuːka See Language page 1) Couepia: restricted area within Brazil, Rio Purus basin and middle Solimões. 2) Bertholletia: elev: consistently about 200m; mature forests. Widely distributed from Peru, E. Colombia, Brazil to Nicaragua. tree Becky Walker
cashew anarcado, castaña de cajú, nuez de la India, marañon, cajú, merey (Venezuela) caju flora-fauna Anacardium occidentale / giganteum oroci oroci inheritance - WW %eroi See Language page secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens tree; most sources will not distinguish between occidentale and other varieties Becky Walker
genipap jagua, majagua - Colombia, caruto, xagua - Venezuela, bigrande - Bolivia, huito, yaguayagua - Peru, ygualti - Nicaragua, maluco - Mexico genipapo, jenipapo flora-fauna Genipapa americana menu menu inheritance See Language page widespread lowland SA shrub Becky Walker
japurá oreja de murcielago japurá flora-fauna Erisma japura See Language page large tree Becky Walker
rubber tree (sorva) caucho, siringa, shiringa seringa, borracha flora-fauna Hevea sp. See Language page Widespread Amazonia tree Becky Walker
ucuqui yugo, caimitillo del monte (Peru) ucuqui flora-fauna Pouteria ucuqui See Language page native to NW Amazonia, found primarily in Vaupes and Caqueta regions other species of Pouteria exist and have much-used edible fruit; these can be subsituted where relevant Becky Walker
Amazon tree-grape uva de monte, uvilla (Peru), puruma, caime, caimarona (and variants; Col.) cucura flora-fauna Pourouma cecropiifolia missing See Language page grows wild in Western Amazon basin; cultivated in Colombia since pre-Colombian times a tree; not a true grape Becky Walker
manioc (bitter or generic) yuca brava mandioca flora-fauna Manihot esculenta wɨi wɨi inheritance See Language page not generally cultivated in western (subAndean) Amazon. Arroyo-Kalin (2010) argues for a correlation with distribution of dark earths, mostly formed after 1AD, and the modeled-incised pottery tradition. Provides more starch and is more pest-resistant than the sweet variety, but requires much processing. Arroyo-Kalin (2010) proposes that bitter type was developed from sweet through post-ceremic agricultural intensification (motivated by high starch yield Becky Walker
manioc (sweet) yuca, caribe macaxeira flora-fauna Manihot esculenta missing See Language page Primary staple in western/subAndean Amazonia, less important elsewhere No processing required, but lower starch yield and pest resistance than bitter variety Becky Walker
potato papa batata flora-fauna Solanum tuberosum napi napi See Language page secondary scrub vegetation compare entries for sweet potato Becky Walker
potato, sweet potato camote, batata dulce, batata, cumara batata-doce flora-fauna Ipomoea batatas napi napi inheritance See Language page plant Becky Walker
cará tuber, purple or white camote, sachapapa cará roxo, branco flora-fauna Dioscorea sp. missing See Language page secondary scrub vegetation; forest clearings plant Becky Walker
tannia, yautia huitina (Peru), ñame taioba branca flora-fauna Xanthosoma spp. See Language page Becky Walker
bottle-gourd (vine) or calabash (tree) calabazo, calabaza; auyama (Dominican Republic and Venezuela), ayote (parts of Central America), zapallo (parts of South America), tutumo/totumo/totuma (Cresc tree), huingo (Peru for Crescentia cujete), tapara cabaça flora-fauna Crescentia cujete (round variety - tree); (Cucurbita) Lagenaria siceraria (bottle variety - vine) carigua carigua See Language page indigenous gardens plant; tree Becky Walker
squash calabaza, calabacines, auyamas, zapallos, huingo (Peru) abóbora flora-fauna Cucurbita sp. missing See Language page plant Becky Walker
cipó vine tamishi, bejuco, yare cipó flora-fauna Heteropsis spp. See Language page secondary forest, floodplain vine Becky Walker
fish poison, barbasco barbasco, matapez (Colombia) timbó flora-fauna Lonchocarpus spp. ineku ineku inheritance See Language page secondary forests and secondary srcrub vegetation shrub/tree Becky Walker
hallucinogenic vine, banisterium, ayahuasca ayahuasca, yage ayahuasca, caapi flora-fauna Banisteriopsis caapi missing See Language page semi-domesticated, native to Amazonian basin, esp. NW vine Becky Walker
hallucinogenic snuff vilca, cebil, yopo paricá, yopo flora-fauna Anadenanthera sp. or virola See Language page Becky Walker
insect (generic) insecto insecto flora-fauna generic akii (plural) akii (plural) See Language page Becky Walker
ant (generic) hormiga formiga flora-fauna Formicidae See Language page Becky Walker
bullet ant, lesser giant hunter ant conga, hormiga yanabe (Colombia), isula (Peru), Hormiga Veinticuatro tocandira flora-fauna Paraponera clavata irakə ('very large ant sp.') irakə inheritance See Language page Becky Walker
leaf-cutter ant Colombia: zampopo, hormiga arriera; Venezuela: bachaco; Peru: curuhuinse saúva flora-fauna Atta sp. missing See Language page Becky Walker
honeybee abeja abelha flora-fauna Apis mellifera; Tetragonisca angustula; Trigona amazonensis arama arama inheritance See Language page Becky Walker
cockroach cucaracha barata-do-mato flora-fauna order Blattaria missing See Language page Becky Walker
firefly, lightning bug lampírido, luciérnaga (Peru), añañahui (Peru), cocuyo (attributed Taino origin) vagalume flora-fauna fam: Elateridae, Fengodidae, Lampyridae missing See Language page Becky Walker
butterfly, moth mariposa borboleta flora-fauna order Lepidoptera missing See Language page Becky Walker
moth mariposa nocturna, polilla mariposa flora-fauna order Lepidoptera See Language page Becky Walker
angleworm lombriz minhoca flora-fauna order Opisthopora missing See Language page Becky Walker
centipede ciempiés centopéia flora-fauna class Chilopoda See Language page Becky Walker
scorpion escorpión; alacran escorpião flora-fauna order Scorpiones minətə minətə inheritance See Language page Becky Walker
cicada cigarra, chicharra cigarra flora-fauna super fam. Cicadoidea missing See Language page Becky Walker
flea pulga pulga flora-fauna order Siphonaptera cikə cikə inheritance See Language page Becky Walker
blowfly/housefly mosca mosca flora-fauna Diptera werewere werewere inheritance cf. Tacanan *we(ře)we(ře), West Tuk were See Language page Becky Walker
cricket saltón, grillo grilo flora-fauna family Gryllidae virichi virichi inheritance See Language page Becky Walker
edible palm-dwelling larva (palm weevil) suri, mojojoy larva, broca-do-coqueiro, aramandaiá flora-fauna Rhynchophorus sp. ərukə ərukə inheritance See Language page Becky Walker
praying mantis, stick insects mantis religiosa louva-a-deus flora-fauna order Mantodea, family Mantidae See Language page Becky Walker
mosquito mosquito, zancudo mosquito, carapana flora-fauna Anopheles sp. macakə, mapiri macakə, mapiri inheritance See Language page Becky Walker
termites, white-ants comején (Peru), termitas cupim flora-fauna order Isoptera missing See Language page Becky Walker
tick garrapata carrapato flora-fauna superfam Ixodoidea missing See Language page Becky Walker
wasp avispa; specific type: ronzapa/ronsapa caba flora-fauna order Hymenoptera, sub: Apocrita okomo okomo inheritance See Language page Becky Walker
snail caracol, churo (Peru) caracol flora-fauna class Gastropoda missing See Language page Becky Walker
spider araña aranha flora-fauna Arachnidae, Araneae mojoci mojoci inheritance See Language page Becky Walker
jaguar yaguar, yaguareté, jaguar, otorongo (Peru), tigre (Peru) onca flora-fauna Panthera onca kaikuci (jaguar/dog) kaikuci (jaguar/dog) inheritance See Language page Becky Walker
manatee vaca marina, manatí peixe-boi flora-fauna Trichechus sp. See Language page Becky Walker
brown woolly monkey Mono Lanudo Común, Choro, Churucu, mono choro (Peru), mono lanudo cafe, barrigudo de Humboldt macaco barrigudo flora-fauna Lagothrix lagothricha missing See Language page Becky Walker
howler monkey (red-handed) mono aullador, mono coto (Peru) guariba flora-fauna Alouatta belzebul [or other Alouatta sp.] arawata arawata inheritance See Language page Becky Walker
tufted capuchin monkey mono negro (Peru), Machín Negro, Maicero Cachón, mono maicero macaco prego flora-fauna Cebus apella missing See Language page Becky Walker
white-fronted capuchin Machín Blanco, mono blanco, Maicero Cariblanco, mono blanco (Peru) Caiarara flora-fauna Cebus albifrons missing See Language page Becky Walker
white-fronted spider monkey Machin Blanco, Mono Araña de Vientre Amarillo, maquisapa (Peru), braceadora (Colombia) macaco aranha, coatá, quatá flora-fauna Ateles belzebuth/paniscus arimi arimi inheritance See Language page Becky Walker
opossum zarigüeya, rabipelado, zorro, zorrillo mucura flora-fauna family Didelphidae aware aware inheritance - WW %jawari See Language page Becky Walker
giant otter Lobo Grande de Río, nutria gigante, lutria ariranha flora-fauna Pteronura brasiliensis jawi jawi See Language page Becky Walker
neotropical otter (small) Nutria, Lobo de Agua, lobito de rio, perro de agua (Colombia) lontra flora-fauna Lontra longicaudis caro caro inheritance See Language page Becky Walker
collared peccary sajino, pecarí de collar, jabalf, Javelina, Saíno, Pecarí de Collar caititu, caetitu flora-fauna Pecari tajacu, Tayassu tajacu pakira pakira inheritance See Language page Becky Walker
white-lipped peccary Chancho de Monte, Cariblanco, Huangana queixada flora-fauna Tayassu pecari p(ə/o)ineke p(ə/o)ineke inheritance See Language page Becky Walker
porcupine puerco espín, erizo (Peru), casha cushillo (Peru) cuandu, porco-espinho flora-fauna family Erethizontidae missing See Language page Becky Walker
cotamundi, coatimundi Coatí, Tejón, Achuni, zorro guache quati flora-fauna genus Nasua missing See Language page Becky Walker
agouti (black agouti, black-rumped agouti) Guatusa Negra, Añuje, Agutí (black-rumped), picure, jochi colorado cutia flora-fauna Dasyprocta spp. akuri akuri loan into protolg, direction unknown Tupi-Guarani See Language page Becky Walker
capybara Capibara, Carpincho, Ronsoco capivara flora-fauna Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris iwiri iwiri inheritance See Language page Becky Walker
green acouchi Guatín, Punchana, curi, picurito rabudo, picurito rabilargo cutiara flora-fauna Myoprocta pratti missing See Language page Becky Walker
paca (lowland) Guanta, Paca, Majaz, majás (Peru), labba (Guyana) paca flora-fauna Cuniculus paca (Agouti paca is sometimes used as well although cuniculus is the correct term.) kurimau kurimau inheritance See Language page Becky Walker
mouse, rat ratón camundongo, rata flora-fauna Mus musculus missing See Language page Becky Walker
squirrel ardilla, danta (Ven) serelepe, quatipuru, esquilo flora-fauna family Sciuridae mere mere inheritance See Language page Becky Walker
tapir sachavaca, danta anta flora-fauna Tapirus terrestris machijuri machijuri inheritance See Language page Becky Walker
deer venado veado, cariacu flora-fauna family Cervidae, esp. Odocoileus virginianus (wi)kapau (wi)kapau inheritance See Language page Becky Walker
horse caballo cavalho flora-fauna Equus caballus See Language page Becky Walker


Cultural Vocabulary (97)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Word Structure Word Structure Notes General Notes Source Created By
basket (general) canasta, canasto, cesta cesto culture-material kataari (basket w/ a strap, worn around forehead, used for transporting heavier items) kataari unique See Language page Becky Walker
basket, small canasta, canasto, cesta cesto pequeno, tampado culture-material See Language page Becky Walker
bead abalorio, mostacilla, cuenta, gota, puca; necklace=collar miçanga culture-material missing See Language page Becky Walker
bed cama cama culture-material missing See Language page Becky Walker
hammock hamaca, chinchorro rede culture-material ehke(tï) ehke(tɨ) unknown See Language page Becky Walker
bench, seat banco, silla, asiento banco culture-material apëi apǝi inheritance See Language page Becky Walker
canoe canoa canoa transport kanawa kanawa doubtful loan (into protolg?) - WW %kanawa See Language page Becky Walker
drum (large signal) tambor, manguaré, maguaré (Colombia) tambor culture missing Used to be used by Tukanoan peoples (and others?), sound carried for long distances See Language page Becky Walker
drum tambor tambor culture-mythology missing See Language page Becky Walker
shaman, healer chamán, brujo xaman, pajé, feiticeiro culture-mythology (pï)jai (pɨ)jai inheritance In RN region, there is typically one person per village (if that) who is a full-fledged 'shaman'. He is very much a specialist and has considerable power to cure, as well as power to curse. He is respected and feared. Shamans are thought to turn themselv See Language page Becky Walker
healer curandero benzador, curandeiro, kumu (Tukano) culture-mythology Refers to a lower-level healer; in RN region, most older men in a village have this capacity, and command a repertoire of healing spells. Power is primarily for good, whereas the true shaman is capable of malignant acts as well. See Language page Becky Walker
broom escoba vassoura culture-material missing See Language page Becky Walker
clothing ropa roupa culture-mythology i-po i-po inheritance See Language page Becky Walker
fence, palisade cerco cerca other missing may be related to defense/warfare? See Language page Becky Walker
firewood leña lenha other missing See Language page Becky Walker
Curupira (spirit type) Curupira, Madremonte Curupira culture-mythology malignant forest spirit, covered with long hair, feet turned backward; in Upper Rio Negro region See Language page Becky Walker
ghost (of dead person)/evil spirit espíritu malo, espíritu maligno, fantasma, demonio espirito culture-mythology (wï)rïpë (wɨ)rɨpǝ unknown See Language page Becky Walker
deity/powerful spirit/culture figure dios(es), deidad divinidade, figura mítica culture-mythology missing In RN region, frequently translates as 'Bone-Son', 'One on the bone', etc. See Language page Becky Walker
flute flauta, quena (Peru) flauta culture-mythology missing multiple types? japurutu, deer-bone, etc. See Language page Becky Walker
panpipe carrizo, zampoñas, flautas de pan, rondadora caniço, flauta de pã culture-mythology See Language page Becky Walker
hollow log/trough for beer-making canoa para chicha cocho de caxiri narcotics See Language page Becky Walker
ritual song cycle (kapiwaya) kapiwaya capiwaya culture-mythology See Language page Becky Walker
knife cuchillo faca culture-material maja maja loan (into protolg?), direction unknown - WW %marije See Language page Becky Walker
machete machete facão culture-material kasihpara kasihpara loan - WW %sipara/sapere See Language page Becky Walker
axe/stone axe hacha (de piedra) machado (de pedra) subsistence tool wɨwɨ wɨwɨ inheritance especially for clearing fields See Language page Becky Walker
arrow flecha flecha subsistence tool (pï)rëu (pɨ)rǝu inheritance hunting, warfare See Language page Becky Walker
spear lanza lança subsistence tool missing See Language page Becky Walker
bow arco arco subsistence tool (wï)raapa (wɨ)raapa inheritance arco See Language page Becky Walker
paddle/oar remo remo transport missing See Language page Becky Walker
plate plato prato culture-material missing See Language page Becky Walker
pot olla, pote panela, vasilha subsistence tool missing See Language page Becky Walker
basin/bowl tazón, plato hondo, taza tijela culture-material erepa enï erepa enɨ (food container, enɨ = container of something) unique See Language page Becky Walker
griddle for cooking flatbread tiesto (Colombia), budare (Venezuela), tortera (Peru) forno para beiju subsistence tool missing agriculture? See Language page Becky Walker
rattle matraca, maraca marico, chocalho culture-mythology maraka maraka loan (into protolg?), direction unknown Tupi-Guarani See Language page Becky Walker
resin resina, brea, copal resina, brea, breu subsistence tool missing See Language page Becky Walker
wax cera cera other (j)orontï (j)orontɨ unknown See Language page Becky Walker
honey miel mel food missing only gathered in wild throughout Amazonia? See Language page Becky Walker
stone for lighting fires piedra para hacer fuego pedra para acender fogo culture-material See Language page Becky Walker
rope/string mecate, cuerda, soga corda culture ewa ewa inheritance See Language page Becky Walker
tattoo tatuaje, tatu tatuagem culture-mythology See Language page Becky Walker
thatch/roof crisneja palha, caraná culture-material pakoro (roof of a house) pakoro unknown See Language page Becky Walker
yurupari, jurupari (or any flutes forbidden to women) yurupari jurupari culture-mythology a ritual complex in various parts of Amazonia involving sacred flutes/trumpets, forbidden to women. See Language page Becky Walker
fetish, charm fetiche, encanto, filtro de amor, pusanga feitiço, puçanga culture-mythology See Language page Becky Walker
feather headdress plumaje, corona de plumas enfeite/capacete de penas culture-mythology See Language page Becky Walker
paint body, body paint pintura corporal pintura corporal culture-mythology See Language page Becky Walker
afterworld, land of dead, Heaven tierra do los muertos terra dos mortos culture-mythology See Language page Becky Walker
school escuela escola acculturation See Language page Becky Walker
bottle botella garrafa acculturation kutei kutei See Language page Becky Walker
paper papel papel acculturation missing See Language page Becky Walker
dream sueño, soñar sonho, sonhar culture-mythology ëtamorehtë ǝtamorehtǝ See Language page Becky Walker
chicken gallina galinha acculturation kurairu kurairu loan - WW %kara See Language page Becky Walker
grave tumba, sepultura, sepulcro sepultura, sepulcro, cova culture-mythology See Language page Becky Walker
pipe for tobacco pipa cachimbo other See Language page Becky Walker
sugarcane/sugar azúcar, caña de azúcar açucar (de cana) acculturation pïreimë pɨreimǝ See Language page Becky Walker
skirt falda, saya, fustan, pollera saia culture-material missing See Language page Becky Walker
shoes zapatos sapatos dress (pï)tai (probably related to (pï)ta, sole of foot) (pɨ)tai See Language page Becky Walker
policeman polícia policía acculturation See Language page Becky Walker
soldier soldado soldado acculturation missing See Language page Becky Walker
cat gato gato acculturation miki miki loan - WW %miʃi See Language page Becky Walker
gun arma, escopeta espingarda, fusil acculturation missing See Language page Becky Walker
hat sombero chapéu dress missing See Language page Becky Walker
chief/leader jefe, cacique chefe culture-mythology kapiten kapiten loan Portuguese See Language page Becky Walker
club garrote, cachiporra clava, porrete subsistence tool (si)warapa (si)warapa See Language page Becky Walker
loincloth taparrabos, guayuco, pampanilla tanga, tapa-sexo dress kamisa kamisa See Language page Becky Walker
fireplace hogar lareira other See Language page Becky Walker
fishing line cordel/cuerda p/ pescar, sedal, tanze linha de pesca subsistence tool kewei (fishhook) kewei See Language page Becky Walker
salt sal sal food missing See Language page Becky Walker
song (generic) canción, canto canção culture-mythology eremi eremi inheritance See Language page Becky Walker
blowgun cerbatana, pucuna (Peru) zarabatana subsistence tool missing currently limited to certain groups (favoring h-g orientation, e.g. Nadahup) within RN region See Language page Becky Walker
dart (blowgun) dardo, birote (Peru), bala (Peru) dardo, seta subsistence tool hunting and warfare See Language page Becky Walker
fan abanico abanador, abano subsistence tool missing esp. for fanning a cooking fire See Language page Becky Walker
fish (with line) anzuelear, pescar con linea pescar (com linha) food missing See Language page Becky Walker
fish (with fish-poison) pescar con barbasco, barbasquear pescar com timbó; tinguijar food (tï)mï (tɨ)mɨ inheritance See Language page Becky Walker
hunt cazar caçar food ëiwa ǝiwa See Language page Becky Walker
game animal caza, animal de caza caça, animal de caça food oto oto inheritance Interesting correlation to 'fish' in Tukanoan languages See Language page Becky Walker
gourd (dipper/bowl) cucharón, pate (Peru), totomo, totuma, totumo cuia subsistence tool carigua carigua inheritance See Language page Becky Walker
grater rallador, rallo ralador, ralo subsistence tool simari simari inheritance esp. for grating manioc, but can be used for other things as well See Language page Becky Walker
grid of sticks for smoking meat or placing objects (shelf) barbacoa jirau subsistence tool missing See Language page Becky Walker
mortar mortero pilão subsistence tool ako ako inheritance See Language page Becky Walker
pestle pilón, mano de mortero, mazo, moledor mão de pilão subsistence tool See Language page Becky Walker
fermented drink masato, chicha caxiri, chicha culture kasiri kasiri inheritance prioritizes manioc beer where distinction is made See Language page Becky Walker
flour/meal from manioc fariña, mañoco (Venezuela); harina farinha food j-uru (manioc food; manioc bread) j-uru inheritance agriculture See Language page Becky Walker
flat bread, cassava bread pan de yuca, casabe/cazabe beiju food missing usually manioc; agriculture, but also can be made from certain wild seeds/fruits See Language page Becky Walker
starch (tapioca, other) almidón goma de tapioca food missing See Language page Becky Walker
tapioca drink, mingau cahuana, caguana mingau food missing agriculture See Language page Becky Walker
tipiti (manioc squeezer) tipiti, matafrio, sebucán, exprimador, prensa para yuca tipiti food missing word of Tupi origin; agriculture: specifically for squeezing poison out of manioc See Language page Becky Walker
tripod for washing manioc trípode tripé subsistence tool agriculture See Language page Becky Walker
venom for darts, poison veneno curare subsistence tool missing hunting, currently is falling out of use in Vaupés region, associated primarily with h-g groups (but this may be recent?) See Language page Becky Walker
woven strainer/sieve colador tejido, cedazo (Peru), cernedor (Peru) peneira, cumatá subsistence tool manare (peneira) manare inheritance agriculture? commonly used for sifting dry manioc flour See Language page Becky Walker
bait for fishing cebo, carnada para pescar, empate (Peru) isca subsistence tool muunu muunu can refer to worms; more generic See Language page Becky Walker
fishtrap trampa de peces, trampa matapi, cacuri subsistence tool See Language page Becky Walker
bottom grinding stone manufacture if different word from top grinding stone See Language page Becky Walker
digging stick subsistence tool See Language page Becky Walker
top grinding stone metate, mano; piedra de moler metate, mano manufacture use word for top grinding stone if different from bottom stone See Language page Becky Walker
boomerang/throwing stick (generic) subsistence tool See Language page Becky Walker
spearthrower subsistence tool See Language page Becky Walker
house other pakoro pakoro doubtful loan into protolanguage Arawak; cf. Piro-Apurinã *poko See Language page Becky Walker