dog (camp, domestic)

Semantic Field
flora-fauna
Part of Speech
Meaning Spanish
perro
Meaning Portuguese
cachorro

Languages

Language Linnean Name Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Range of Term Word Structure Word Structure Notes Classifier Classifier Notes Hypernym Source Association with Social Categories Ritual/Mythologically Significant Ritual Notes Food Source Food Notes Medicinal Medicinal Notes How Collected Who Collects How Prepared Psychotropic Psychotropic Notes Traded Trade Notes Distribution Habitat Dangerous Ethnobiology Notes Species Notes General Notes Created By
Bankalachi Toloim Canis familiaris poo-oos', poos Dog loan Yokuts Yowlumne poo'-oos “wild dogs found in holes in bank” (?Atrocyon?) (Merriam), Proto-NimYokuts *pu'us (Golla 1964:61) same underived C. H. Merriam 72-77, 60-451, 453 0 0 0 0 0 no
Big Smokey Valley Shoshone Canis familiaris isa-punku, ica satii (Cherry Creek); satee Duckwater 282 dog inheritance *isa'a(N)pa *puNku Northern Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 552 (2008:112) compounded with the “pet” word; apparently satii not used in BSVS proper same phrase coyote-pet (canine-pet?) Crapo 1976:125 0 0 0 0 0 no
Cahuilla Canis familiaris ʔáwal ˈʔawal dog inheritance *awa:-la Takic S670 (Stubbs 2009:125) same other complex ˈʔawa-l -7aʃ “pet” Possessive classifier -7aʃ Seiler&Hioki 1979:18 7a7walem, a lineage at Martinez (Seiler and Hioki 1979:18) 0 dogs have souls and understand human speech so can be messengers for shamans (Bean 1972:64) 0 only for famine times (Bean 1972:64) no info N/A N/A treated respectfully, fed 0 0 All Americas with humans no
Central Sierra Miwok Canis familiaris čukú:- dog, pet inheritance *chuku- Sierra Miwokan only Callaghan 2001:325; In all Mis WW %suku underived Freeland & Broadbent 1960 0 0 0 0 0 no
Chemehuevi Canis familiaris poon'-goots', pun'-goots puŋkútsI JPH Dog (small, “ears up”) inheritance *puNku Proto-Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 38 (2008:43) same other complex puŋkú-tsI dog/peg-ABS Merriam 59:525 0 0 0 0 0 no
Chumash Barbareno Canis familiaris ʧtɨn dog, pet inheritance Also in Ventureno underived Beeler 1978:174 0 0 0 0 0 no
Chumash Ineseno Canis familiaris -qoʔ dog, pet inheritance *qo' Proto-Chumash Klar 1977:104 underived Applegate 65 0 0 0 0 0 no
Chumash Obispeno Canis familiaris qoqo'; tkawə pet, animal; dog inheritance *qo' Proto-Chumash Klar 1977:104; qo is the “pet” word -- you can't possess tqawə7 direction, it's the “real word for dog” reduplicated Klar 1977:104; Harrington III:1:0088 0 0 0 0 0 no
Chumash Ventureno Canis familiaris ʧtɨn (same in B., also “pet”) Merriam steh-un, stā-un; JPH tšə7əniwaš dog inheritance Also in Barbareno underived Mamet 2008:36, Merriam 55:39; JPH III:91:0326 0 0 0 0 0 no
Cocopa Canis familiaris xaţ dog inheritance *(č)-xat “dog” Proto-Yuman Mixco 1978:83 same underived Crawford 1989 0 0 0 0 0 no
Comanche Canis familiaris sarii? dog inheritance *sati Numic may be an arealism; Stubbs 674 (2008:126) in N. Paiute, C. Numic, S. Numic, Hopi same underived Robinson & Armagost 1990:162 0 0 0 0 0 no
Cupeño Canis familiaris awal ʔaˈwal dog inheritance *awa:-la Takic S670 (Stubbs 2009:125) same other complex ʔaˈwa-l dog-npn -ʔaʃ "pet" possessive classifier for animals (oddly, missing in Hill & Nolasquez1973 dictionary; see p. 71, sentence 9) 0 0 probably eaten as famine food no info no info no info no info 0 0 Americas with humans no
Esselen Canis familiaris šošo dog unique Esselen Shaul 1988:699 notes various “chuku” forms reduplicated (Pinart form); 0 0 0 0 0 no
Gabrielino Canis familiaris wo$i' woˈşiʔ perro inheritance *woCtsi Uto-Aztecan note O'odham gogs “dog” < wo-wosi; S 672 (Stubbs 2009:126) same underived no npn -ʔaʧ “pet possessive classifier for animals Harrington 425 no info 0 0 McC p. 116 no info N/A N/A N/A 0 0 Americas with humans no
Iipay 'Aa Canis familiaris ɂehatt dog, pet, horse, domestic 4-legged animal inheritance *(č)-xat “dog” Proto-Yuman Mixco 1978:83 broader (“pet”, includes horse) underived Couro & Hutcheson 1973 0 0 0 0 0 no
Kawaiisu Canis familiaris pugu-zi dog inheritance *puNku Proto-Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 38 (2008:43) broader (means “domestic animal”) other complex pugu-zi pet-ABS Zigmond et al. 0 0 0 0 0 no
Kiliwa Canis familiaris ?+that dog inheritance *(č)-xat “dog” Proto-Yuman Mixco 1978:83 same other complex ɂ- “dummy nominal prefix”; “from *?-c+xat pet-thing) Mixco 1985 0 0 0 0 0 no
Kitanemuk Canis familiaris kuciʔ ˈkuʦiʔ dog loan no information *ku- words for dog are areal, oriented northward; loan into Serran, since also in Serrano same underived -ʔacit "pet" possessive classifier for animals Anderton 1988:362 no info 0 0 “Tejoneños [Yokuts] used to eat [badger] and dog” (I assume this implies “but we did not”) no info N/A N/A N/A 0 0 Americas with humans no
Lake Miwok Canis familiaris háju dog (et) inheritance Miwokan similar forms in Patwin, Wappo, nearly all Pomo; but Pmi; see Bodega Dic, C2001:325 WW %kaju underived Callaghan 1965 0 0 0 0 0 no
Luiseño Canis familiaris 7awáal Ɂaʹwa:l dog inheritance *awa:-la Takic S670 (Stubbs 2009:125) same other complex Ɂaʹwa:-l dog-non.possessed.noun -ʔaʃ "pet" possessive classifier; NPN form of noun is ʔaʃla Elliott 1999:146 Also refers to residents of Aguanga (a joke, because Aguanga doesn't mean “in the dog” 0 0 not eaten (Kroeber 1925:652) no info N/A N/A N/A 0 0 Americas with humans no
Maidu Canis familiaris sy/ dog, pet unique underived Shipley 1963 0 0 0 0 0 no
Mojave Canis familiaris hatchoq dog inheritance *(č)-xat “dog” Proto-Yuman Mixco 1978:83 (this has some kind of post-increment); Maricopa hat same underived diachronically complex, but “choq” only in this item Munro et al.1992 0 0 0 0 0 no
Mutsun Canis familiaris hučeknişʸ dog loan Salinan Note Salinan A xutc, Salinan M xutca:i; this Mu item unique in Kroeber 1910 other complex knişʸ prob. diminutive (O p. 139) Okrand 1977;14 0 0 0 0 0 no
Nisenan Canis familiaris sukku dog loan Wintu (or Northern Sierra Miwok) Compare Sierra Miwokan *chuku, Wintun *sukku WW %suku underived Uldall & Shipley 1966 0 0 0 0 0 no
Northern Paiute Canis familiaris sadɨɂɨ Dog inheritance *sati Numic may be an arealism; Stubbs 674 (2008:126) in NP, C. Numic, S. Numic, Hopi unknown Thornes 2003:111 0 0 0 0 0 no
Northern Sierra Miwok Canis familiaris cuku- dog inheritance *chuku- Sierra Miwokan only Callaghan 2001:325 WW %suku underived Callaghan 1987 0 0 0 0 0 no
Plains Miwok Canis familiaris cu:cu- dog loan Spanish This looks like other California “dog” words but this form is usually said to be from Spanish chucho. reduplicated Callaghan 1984 0 0 0 0 0 no
Salinan A Canis familiaris xoč dog unique Salinan underived Mason 1918:126; Turner 1980:72 0 0 0 0 0 no
Salinan M Canis familiaris xutca:i dog unique Salinan underived Mason 1918:126 0 0 0 0 0 no
Seri (Comcaac) Canis familiaris haxz dog unique same underived Comcaac Dictionary 363 0 0 0 0 0 no
Serrano Canis familiaris kuci7 dog loan no information *ku- words for dog are areal, oriented northward; this loan into Serran as also in Kitanemuk underived KCHill ms 2001:23 0 0 0 0 0 no
Southern Paiute Canis familiaris sari:tsI dog inheritance *sati Proto-Northern Uto-Aztecan may be an arealism; Stubbs 674 (2008:126) in NP, C. Numic, S. Numic, Hopi unknown Sapir 1930:654 0 0 0 0 0 no
Southern Sierra Miwok Canis familiaris cukuH-; haju- (Yos) dog inheritance *chuku- Sierra Miwokan only cukuH in Mins, widespread form; See Bodega Dic, Callaghan 2001:325 (haju- is Pmi and its presence is really interesting since it's loaned around in Clear Lake languages) WW %kaju, %suku underived Broadbent 1964: 0 0 0 0 0 no
Southern Ute Canis familiaris sarí-cI dog inheritance *sati Northern Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 674 (2008:126): In NP, C. Numic, S. Numic, Hopi -- may be areal, not inherited same other complex has -ci ABS Givon 1979 0 0 0 0 0 no
Tübatulabal Canis familiaris pukkupisht pukuˈbiʃt dog loan Western Numic pukku links with Western Numic same derived puku-ˈbiʃ-t domestic.animal-ind-npn Hill 2010:74 no info 0 0 “A difference of opinion” (Voegelin 1938:12) no info N/A N/A N/A 0 0 Americas with humans no
Tümpisa Shoshone Canis familiaris isapunku dog inheritance *isa- *puNku Proto-Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 38 (2008:43); the compound here is perhaps unique same other complex compound isa-punku dog-pet Dayley 1989:371 0 0 0 0 0 no
Wappo Canis familiaris háyu dog unique similar forms in Patwin, Lake Miwok, nearly all Pomo; but Pmi; see Bodega Dic, C2001:325 WW %kaju underived Sawyer 1965 0 0 0 0 0 no
Washo Canis familiaris súku7 dog loan Maidu Note Nisenan sukku; Compare Sierra Miwokan *chuku, Wintun *sukku. Maidu only has recorded /sy/ “pet”, but probably has this too WW %suku underived Merriam 55:231; WPD 0 0 0 0 0 no
Western Mono Canis familiaris pukU pet; totem (moiety symbol or personal spirit helper); dog inheritance *puNku Proto-Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 38 (2008:43) broader (includes spirit helpers of all kinds, pets in general) underived Bethel et al.:156 no info 0 0 no info not collected no info no info 0 0 no
Wintu Canis familiaris suku, sukuh dog, horse inheritance *suku Wintun Nisenan has identical form, as does Yana, Mis; areal form WW %suku underived Schlichter 1981 0 0 0 0 0 no
Yavapai Canis familiaris kθár dog inheritance Proto-Yuman This isn't xaT. It's from kθā·ri “left (direction)”; same metaphor is in Mojave hukthar “coyote” unknown Shaterian 1983 0 0 0 0 0 no
Yokuts Palewyami Canis familiaris č'i·sas dog inheritance *c'y:sys Yokutsan Callaghan 1997:58 suspects may be borrowed, compare Pmis *chuku same underived is -as a suffix? See Newman 1944:160. Probably not. Gamble 1991 from Harrington 0 0 0 0 0 no
Yokuts Yawdanchi Canis familiaris tcèjej dog inheritance *če:- Yokutsan Golla 1964:61 same underived Kroeber 1961:199 0 0 0 0 0 no
Yokuts Yowlumne Canis familiaris bu'us dog inheritance Southern Valley Yokuts Also in Chawchilla in Kroeber, adjacent to Ysv so perhaps a loan. Almost certainly a loan from somewhere. same underived Newman 1944:18 0 0 0 0 0 no
Yuki Canis familiaris 7a(:)Twošet dog inheritance *hə7wəšit' Yukian Schlichter 1985 compound lit. image of a bear, like bear (wošet); Schlichter diss says is “house-grizzly” Sawyer & Schlichter 1984 0 0 0 0 0 no
Yuma Canis familiaris a-haht' tsuk-tsuk' Dog (old time, nose blunt) inheritance **(č)-xat “dog” Proto-Yuman Mixco 1978:83 (this has a modifier) unknown Merriam 61:453 0 0 0 0 0 no
Akawaio Canis famililaris peeroo (general; Sp. loan), ookpoogong (hunting dog) pero, okpogɔŋ loan Spanish Also: okpogɔŋ 'hunting dog' See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 Not native; widespread no Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin
Baniwa Canis famililaris tsíino tsíino semantic shift North Arawak from Proto-Arawak jaguar Probably derived (historically) from Proto-Arawak 'jaguar' uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 Not native; widespread no Ana Paula B., Aimee Lawrence
Carijona Canis famililaris kaikutʃi (also jaguar) kai’kutʃi e’kɯnɯ(H&R) dog, jaguar' semantic shift from jaguar Original meaning was presumably 'jaguar'. Also kai’kutʃi e’kɯnɯ (H&R) See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 Not native; widespread no Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
Cubeo Canis famililaris yavimi ja'wíbĩ, javimi semantic shift/calque from jaguar + ? May be formed from 'jaguar' uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 Not native; widespread no Amanda Meeks
Dâw Canis famililaris yãm jãm semantic shift from jaguar from 'jaguar' underived See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 Not native; widespread no Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
Desano Canis famililaris diaye dia'jɨ́, dia'jé, diaye semantic shift/calque/loan w/in ET? East Tukanoan from jaguar + ? uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 Not native; widespread no Amanda Meeks
Eñepa Canis famililaris kərənəpən kərənəpən unique See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 Not native; widespread no Melody Ann Ross
Guayabero Canis famililaris wɨr wɨr loan (into protolanguage?) Arawak: Achagua/Piapoco Achagua áuli uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 Not native; widespread no Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram, Aimee Lawrence, Amanda Meeks
Hodï Canis famililaris yiwi yewi loan North Arawak, from forms originally meaning 'jaguar' Arawak Yucuna yawi; Piaroa "yæwi"; Wanderwort? See also Tukanoan jai (jaguar/dog), Tupi-Guarani yawara (jaguar/dog) WW %jawi uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 Not native; widespread no Amanda Meeks
Waorani Canis famililaris gĩta unique NOT the same as 'jaguar' uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 Not native; widespread no Amanda Meeks
Hup Canis famililaris yãʔamhóʔ jãʔamhóʔ semantic shift Hup-Yuhup-Daw from jaguar + ? jaguar' + ? compound jaguar-? See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 dogs are prized for hunting Not native; widespread no Pattie Epps
Kakua Canis famililaris ~bʉ-~hiw [house-jaguar] ~bɨ-hiw [house-jaguar] semantic shift/calque from jaguar + ? house-jaguar compound See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 Not native; widespread no Katherine Bolaños
Macaguan Canis famililaris awíl awíl loan (into protolanguage?) Arawak: Achagua/Piapoco Achagua áuli uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 Not native; widespread no Rebecca Khorram, Amanda Meeks
Makushi Canis famililaris areimaraaká areimaraaká unknown shared Pemon; prob. loan into Wapishana Probably a loan into Arawak Wapishana: aɽimaɽak; similar form occurs in Pemon, Akawaiao; Simpson 1941 claims that these words are of Carib origin. See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 Not native; widespread no Melody Ann Ross
Nheengatu Canis famililaris yawara jawara (once used a generic term for felines?) semantic shift jaguar Similar shift in many languages underived See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 Not native; widespread no John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
Ninam Canis famililaris okoro (gom) okoɾo (gom) unique uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 Not native; widespread no Kelsey Neely
Nukak Canis famililaris nɨ2 jɨp4 ʧeI hooˀ2 ʤi4 unique uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 Not native; widespread no
Maihiki Canis famililaris yai joyi aguɨ (yai=tigre) jai hoji, jai xoji agɨ semantic shift/calque West Tukanoan domesticated jaguar' Or may be common innovation compound jaguar + ? agɨ agɨ = masculine animate See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 Not native; widespread no Daniel Valle
Pemon Canis famililaris arimaraka (A1981); arinmaraka (M2000) aɾimaɾaka (A1981); aɻimmaɻ a:'ka (M2000) unknown shared Makushi; prob. loan into Wapishana Probably a loan into Arawak Wapishana: aɽimaɽak; similar form occurs in Pemon, Akawaiao; Simpson 1941 claims that these words are of Carib origin. Also pero (from Spanish) Broader (wild and domesticated) See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 Not native; widespread no Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
Resígaro Canis famililaris íiní íiní semantic shift from Proto-Arawak jaguar Also means 'jaguar' Broader (dog and jaguar) uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 Not native; widespread no Ana Paula B.
Sanumá Canis famililaris poie (EM72) poie (EM72) unique uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 Not native; widespread no Kelsey Neely
Sikuani Canis famililaris awiri (2)(borrowing from Arawak?), kotsito (2) (puppy), daiubi (2)(over all domisticated animal) awíri, daiúbi loan (into protolanguage?) Arawak: Achagua/Piapoco e.g. Achagua áuli; alternative word daiúbi uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 Not native; widespread no Amanda Meeks
Tariana Canis famililaris čínu tʃínu semantic shift North Arawak from Proto-Arawak jaguar Probably derived (historically) from Proto-Arawak 'jaguar' uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 Not native; widespread no Ana Paula B.
Tukano Canis famililaris diâyɨ diáji, diâjɨ semantic shift/calque/loan w/in ET? East Tukanoan from jaguar + ? uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 Not native; widespread no Ana Paula, Amanda Novak, Aimee Lawrence
Kotiria Canis famililaris die di'e-ro, d`ié (i lo tone) (stenz) semantic shift/calque/loan w/in ET? East Tukanoan from jaguar + ? uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 Not native; widespread no Amanda Meeks
Wapishana Canis famililaris arimarakʰa arimarakʰa loan Carib (Pemon/Makushi) Pemon aɾimaɾaka See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 Not native; widespread no Ana Paula B.
Yanomam Canis famililaris hiem (EM72) hiem (EM72) unknown shared Yan-Yanmi uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 Not native; widespread no Kelsey Neely
Yanomami Canis famililaris thãri, hiima (EM72) tʰãɾi (affectionate term), hi:ma unique (shared Yan-Yanmi) also tʰãɾi (affectionate term), Broader (generic 'dog') underived See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 Not native; widespread no Kelsey Neely
Yukuna Canis famililaris walú, yahui (also jaguar; rk83); huerateyaniminami (R95) walú unknown/sem shift? - WW Also yahui (also means jaguar; rk83); huerateyaniminami (R95) uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 Not native; widespread no Ana Paula B., Aimee L., PLE
Yuhup Canis famililaris yaʔambéh yaʔambéh semantic shift jaguar + ?' compound See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 Not native; widespread no Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
Bardi Canis familiaris e:la, iila e:la, iila inheritance underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
Bunuba Canis familiaris tharra tharra inheritance tharra Bunuban underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
Burarra Canis familiaris gulukula gulukula unknown simplex 0 0 0 0 0 no
Dhangu Canis familiaris wuŋgan nhaṉa inheritance nhana also means him/her simplex 0 0 0 0 0 no
Dhay’yi Canis familiaris missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
Dhuwal Canis familiaris waṯu waṯu inheritance simplex 0 0 0 0 0 no
Djinang Canis familiaris missing missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
Gajirrabeng Canis familiaris joolang tyulang inheritance tyula Jarragan cf. Worrorran dela underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
Gooniyandi Canis familiaris thadda thadda inheritance tharra Bunuban underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
Gumatj Canis familiaris waṯu waṯu inheritance underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
Gupapuyngu Canis familiaris wuŋgan wathu inheritance simplex 0 0 0 0 0 no
Gurindji Canis familiaris warlaku warlaku semantic shift cf. Warlpiri warlaki 'own' but could be loan < Jarragan walaki 'young, puppy' underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
Guugu Yimidhirr Canis familiaris gudaa & ngaatharr gudaa & ngaatharr inheritance Poss. (as *kuta) more widespread. underived 0 0 0 0 0
Jaminjung Canis familiaris wirip wirip unknown underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
Jaru Canis familiaris gunyarr gunyarr inheritance kunyarr Ngumpin-Yapa uncoded 0 0 0 0 0 no
Jingulu Canis familiaris kunyarrpa kunyarrpa unknown underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
Karajarri Canis familiaris nalja nalja loan Walmajarri altnerative word in Walma underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
Kija Canis familiaris jula(ny) jula(ny) inheritance tyula Jarragan also ngarriyanytyi underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
Koko-Bera Canis familiaris kutéw kutéw dog inheritance *kutaka pPaman Poss. Eastern; poss. < 'koala'. Also 'horse' simplex
Kuku-Thaypan Canis familiaris ato ato inheritance *kuta(ka) pPaman Poss. pEastern underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
Kuku-Yalanji Canis familiaris kaya kaya inheritance *kaya Local KYal to Yiningayi; identical forms in Dyirbal and Martuthunira sre kin terms (a plausible semantic shift) underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
Kurtjar Canis familiaris ruaak ruaak inheritance *kutaka pPaman Poss. pPNy underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
Kuuk Thaayorre Canis familiaris kuta kuta inheritance *kutaka pPaman Poss. (as *kuta) Eastern underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
Mangala Canis familiaris kunyarr kunyarr loan Walmajarri underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
Mbabaram Canis familiaris dog dog inheritance *kutaka pPaman Forms in /kuta/ are more widespread. underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
Miriwung Canis familiaris djulang djulang inheritance tyula Jarragan underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
Ngandi Canis familiaris watu watu loan Yolngu simplex 0 0 0 0 0 no
Ngarinyin Canis familiaris gananggurr, gananggut gananggurr, gananggut inheritance *kanangkurr proto-Worrorran also dula cf Jarragan tyula uncoded 0 0 0 0 0 no
Ngumbarl Canis familiaris yeela meeda yeela meeda inheritance underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
Nimanburru Canis familiaris yēl yēl inheritance underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
Nyangumarta Canis familiaris yukurru yukurru loan Pilbara underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
Nyikina Canis familiaris yila yila inheritance underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
Nyulnyul Canis familiaris iil, yi(r)l iil, yi(r)l inheritance underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
Pakanh Canis familiaris ku'a ku'a inheritance *kuta(ka) pPaman underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
Rembarrnga Canis familiaris djamu tyamu unknown simplex 0 0 0 0 0 no
Ritharrngu Canis familiaris waṯu wartu inheritance simplex 0 0 0 0 0 no
Tjaapukay Canis familiaris gurra: kurra: tame dog inheritance *kutaka pPaman underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
Uw-Olkol Canis familiaris uta uta dog inheritance *kuta(ka) pPaman underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
Uw-Oykangand Canis familiaris ud ud dog inheritance *kuta(ka) pPaman underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
Walmajarri Canis familiaris kunyarr kunyarr inheritance kunyarr Ngumpin-Yapa underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
Wardaman Canis familiaris minini minini unknown uncoded 0 0 0 0 0 no
Warlpiri Canis familiaris maliki maliki loan maliki Yapa Arandic WD maliki 'stranger' underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
Wik Ngathan Canis familiaris ku' & thoonth pu'-punh-pipeyn ku' & thoonth pu'punhpipvñ dog & dog (Rsp) & dingo, dog inheritance *kuta(ka) pPaman, poss. pPama-Nyungan underived 2nd form is compound 0 0 0 0 0 no
Worrorra Canis familiaris gananggurri gananggurri inheritance *kanangkurr proto-Worrorran uncoded 0 0 0 0 0 no
Wunambal Canis familiaris dila dila unique proto-Worrorran cf Jarragan tyula underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
Yan-nhangu Canis familiaris botji botyi loan English ‘pussy’ simplex 0 0 0 0 0 no
Yawuru Canis familiaris yila yila inheritance underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
Yidiny Canis familiaris guda:ga (TCGW; <gudaga>) guda:ga (TCGW; <gudaga>) inheritance *kutaka pPaman underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
Yir-Yoront Canis familiaris kurta kurta inheritance *kutaka pPaman; poss. wider; poss. < 'koala' /kurta/ is used as a generic for a number of domesticated animals of European origin underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
Achagua Canis famililaris áuli áuli unknown/sem shift? - WW See Language page Not native; widespread Ana Paula B., Aimee Lawrence, PLE
Piapoco Canis famililaris áuli yéenibe wàlisài áuli jé:nibe wàlisài See Language page Not native; widespread Ana Paula B., PLE
Kabiyari Canis famililaris t∫aawi (H&R) t∫aawi (H&R) See Language page Not native; widespread Ana Paula B., Aimee Lawrence, PLE
Warekena Canis famililaris tʃinu tʃinu See Language page Not native; widespread Ana Paula B., PLE
Yavitero Canis famililaris ku'aiľ̥i ku'aiľ̥i See Language page Not native; widespread Ana Paula B., PLE
Bare Canis famililaris tʃinu tʃinu See Language page Not native; widespread Ana Paula B.
Mandawaka Canis famililaris tʃíːnu tʃíːnu See Language page Not native; widespread Ana Paula B.
Paresi Canis famililaris katxolo katʃolo loan Portuguese See Language page Not native; widespread Ana Paula B., PLE
Baure Canis famililaris kove kove unique See Language page Not native; widespread Anissa Capuccino
Waurá Canis famililaris awaulu-ku'ma (generic dog) awaulu-ku'ma (generic dog) doubtful loan - WW? %auli; cf. TG jawara See Language page Not native; widespread Joyce McCormick, PLE
Bora Canis famililaris ooʔíípʸe {= jaguar} ooʔíípʲɛ {= jaguar} semantic shift from jaguar See Language page Not native; widespread Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
Muinane Canis famililaris xɨ́kku {see jaguar/puma} xɨ́kku {see jaguar/puma} See Language page Not native; widespread Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
Apalai Canis famililaris kaikuxi kaikuxi semantic shift from jaguar See Language page Not native; widespread Rebekah L. Evans
Wayana Canis famililaris kaikui kaikui semantic shift from jaguar See Language page Not native; widespread PLE
Tiriyó Canis famililaris kaikui (also means jaguar/ocelot) kaikui semantic shift from jaguar See Language page Not native; widespread Becky Walker
Makiritare Canis famililaris sɨ̄ʔna (IDS); sü:'na (KH) (also means 'wolf') sɨ:ʔna loan Arawak See Language page Not native; widespread Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
Mapoyo Canis famililaris weeroro weeroro See Language page Not native; widespread Melody Ann Ross
Wai Wai Canis famililaris šaΦari šaΦari unique See Language page Not native; widespread Melody Ann Ross
Waimiri Atroari Canis famililaris naminja namiɲa See Language page Not native; widespread Melody Ann Ross, PLE
Yukpa Canis famililaris peru pets̺u See Language page Not native; widespread Phon only in source Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross, Aimee Lawrence
Kalapalo Canis famililaris katsogo katsogo loan Portuguese See Language page Not native; widespread Joyce McCormick
Muisca Canis famililaris to to See Language page Not native; widespread Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
Northern Emberá Canis famililaris usá bérrako usá bérrako; usá(H&R) See Language page Not native; widespread Jonathan Quintanilla, PLE
Cuiva Canis famililaris auri (rk83) áudi, áuri See Language page Not native; widespread Rebecca Khorram, Amanda Meeks
Cofán Canis famililaris ain ai̡ See Language page Not native; widespread phonemic transcriptions are ESTIMATIONS Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
Candoshi-Shapra Canis famililaris tomoozi tomooʂi semantic shift from jaguar See Language page Not native; widespread Daniel Valle
Taushiro Canis famililaris onanta onanta See Language page Not native; widespread Daniel Valle
Páez Canis famililaris alco (Quechua loan) alko; alku(QU loan, H&R) See Language page Not native; widespread Daniel Valle
Tikuna Canis famililaris airu (Quechua loan)? aiɾu doubtful loan Quechua; cf. %auli See Language page Not native; widespread Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
Urarina Canis famililaris reemae ɽe:mae unique See Language page Not native; widespread Daniel Valle, PLE
Camsa Canis famililaris kes; kéɕe kes; kéɕe See Language page Not native; widespread Daniel Valle
Andoke Canis famililaris ĩño (also 'jaguar') ĩɲo (also 'jaguar') semantic shift from jaguar See Language page Not native; widespread Kelsey Neely, PLE
Pumé Canis famililaris oré aoré See Language page Not native; widespread Paulina Franco, PLE
Puinave Canis famililaris yot jot semantic shift from jaguar (markedness shift?) See Language page Not native; widespread Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
Warao Canis famililaris beɾoɾo (possible loan fɾom Spanish?) beroro (possible loan from Spanish?) See Language page Not native; widespread John Blaha
Ashuar Canis famililaris yawaa, tangkú yãwãã, áinmin (hunter dog), jãwã:, taŋku jãwã:, ainmin See Language page Not native; widespread Daniel Valle
Huambisa Canis famililaris yawa jawa See Language page Not native; widespread Daniel Valle
Aguaruna Canis famililaris yawá jawá loan (into Protolg?) Tupi-Guarani? See Language page Not native; widespread Daniel Valle
Matses Canis famililaris opa opa unknown See Language page Not native; widespread Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
Chácobo Canis famililaris ina; ina-ka ina; ina-ka ina; ina-ka ina; ina-ka (generic dog) ina; ina-ka ina; ina-ka ina; ina-ka ina; ina-ka (generic dog) unknown See Language page Not native; widespread Joyce McCormick
Yagua Canis famililaris nibi nimbi semantic shift from jaguar See Language page Not native; widespread Daniel Valle
Southern Pastaza Quechua Canis famililaris allcu aʎku See Language page Not native; widespread Daniel Valle
Ingá Canis famililaris alku álku (H&R) See Language page Not native; widespread Daniel Valle
Napo Lowland Quichua Canis famililaris allcu aʎku See Language page Not native; widespread Daniel Valle
Quechua Ayacuchano Canis famililaris allqo aʎqo See Language page Not native; widespread Daniel Valle, PLE
Piaroa Canis famililaris ɨ'wɨrɨh ɨɁwɨrɨh unknown See Language page Not native; widespread Paulina Franco, Becky Walker
Sáliva Canis famililaris oli oli loan - WW %auli See Language page Not native; widespread Becky Walker
Barasano Canis famililaris yai; eká-ri jáí (H&R) eká-ri jáí See Language page Not native; widespread Amanda Meeks
Carapana Canis famililaris wii yai, yai wíi 'jai, 'jai See Language page Not native; widespread Amanda Meeks
Makuna Canis famililaris ecarʉ yai, yai eka-rɨ jai, ɛcaɾɨ yai, yai semantic shift/calque from jaguar + ? See Language page Not native; widespread Amanda Meeks
Yuruti Canis famililaris díaji díaji See Language page Not native; widespread Amanda Meeks
Waikhana Canis famililaris di'e-ro di'e-ro See Language page Not native; widespread Amanda Meeks
Siriano Canis famililaris diayee di.á-'jée, diajee See Language page Not native; widespread Amanda Meeks
Tanimuca Canis famililaris wi'o pa'ki, dya'i 'we ko'a (dya'i 'tigre') wi'o pa'ki semantic shift/calque/loan w/in ET? from jaguar + ? See Language page Not native; widespread Kelsey Neely, Aimee Lawrence
Tatuyo Canis famililaris wíi 'ja'i wíi 'ja'i See Language page Not native; widespread Emily Buell, Paulina Franco
Tuyuka Canis famililaris díayi díaji See Language page Not native; widespread D. Jagannathan, Paulina Franco, Ana Paula B.
Waimaja Canis famililaris ekʰáľikʰɨ́ džáì ekʰárikʰɨ́ dʒáì See Language page Not native; widespread Kelsey Neely
Koreguaje Canis famililaris jamuchai hamu 'ʤai, xamudʒai semantic shift/calque domesticated jaguar'? See Language page Not native; widespread Daniel Valle
Siona Canis famililaris jo'ya yai hoʔja jai semantic shift/calque domesticated jaguar' See Language page Not native; widespread Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
Secoya Canis famililaris jo'ya yai, yai ho'ja'jai See Language page Not native; widespread Amanda Meeks
Karitiana Canis famililaris omãkymy´em (lit. onca mimada) omãkɨmɨʔem semantic shift jaguar See Language page Not native; widespread Daniel Valle
Kokama Canis famililaris yahuara (the same word used for "tiger" jawaɾa semantic shift jaguar See Language page Not native; widespread Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
Wayampi Canis famililaris yawa jawa semantic shift jaguar See Language page Not native; widespread PLE
Sirionó Canis famililaris nyacua, ñaoñao (P85) njakuaˌ ñaoñao semantic shift jaguar See Language page Not native; widespread Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
Kamayurá Canis famililaris wararuwijap wararuwijap doubtful loan TG jawara + ? See Language page Not native; widespread Rebekah L. Evans
Ocaina Canis famililaris hõʔxo {see jaguar} hõʔxo {see jaguar} semantic shift jaguar See Language page Not native; widespread Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
Nɨpode Witoto Canis famililaris hḯko hɯ́ko See Language page Not native; widespread Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
Minica Witoto Canis famililaris hḯko hɯ́ko See Language page Not native; widespread Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
Murui Witoto Canis famililaris hïko hɯko semantic shift jaguar See Language page Not native; widespread Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
Iquito Canis famililaris mɨyaára mɨjaára unique See Language page Not native; widespread Cjnthia Hansen
Záparo Canis famililaris aryawku arjawku See Language page Not native; widespread Becky Walker
Wari Canis famililaris oromiyak oromijak See Language page Not native; widespread PLE
Ese Ejja/Huarayo Canis famililaris iɲa wewa (generic dog) iɲa wewa See Language page Not native; widespread Joyce McCormick
Cavineña Canis famililaris čapa (generic dog) čapa See Language page Not native; widespread Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
Central Aymara Canis famililaris anu anu See Language page Not native; widespread PLE
Kwazá Canis famililaris jerexwa jerexwa See Language page Not native; widespread Joyce McCormick
Movima Canis famililaris paco (J62) pako See Language page Not native; widespread Anissa Capuccino, Becky Walker
Trumai Canis famililaris kasoro (Pt loan) kasoro (Pt loan) See Language page Not native; widespread Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
Kaingang Canis famililaris hoghog hoŋhoŋ See Language page Not native; widespread PLE
Suyá Canis famililaris rɔpkasɔyre rɔpkasɔjre See Language page Not native; widespread Rebekah Evans
Djeoromitxi Canis famililaris wa wa See Language page Not native; widespread PLE
Bankalachi Toloim poo-kung nŭ-ŭ “my dog” 225; min' poos' your dog 225; bungul (K1907) inheritance Jane Hill
Big Smokey Valley Shoshone isa-punku inheritance Jane Hill
Cahuilla awal inheritance S&H 1979 Jane Hill
Central Sierra Miwok chuku:/- loan direction unknown Jane Hill
Chemehuevi punkuu/-c(i) inheritance Jane Hill
Chumash Barbareno tshti/n'; Beeler 76:258 has chtyn', cht'in' B78 unknown Ono 1996:21 Jane Hill
Chumash Cruzeno wuchu unknown JPH Jane Hill
Chumash Ineseno -qo7 “dog, pet” inheritance A 64 Jane Hill
Chumash Obispeno qoqo tqawy7 “pet (dog”) unknown Klar 1977:49 Jane Hill
Chumash Ventureno 7ishty7yniwash unknown JPH Jane Hill
Cocopa xaT, xa:T (plural) inheritance Jane Hill
Comanche sarii7 inheritance Jane Hill
Cupeño 'awa-l [Ɂəˈwal] inheritance Jane Hill
Esselen shosho S. Voc loan direction unknown Shaul 1995 Jane Hill
Gabrielino wo$i7 (sg), wowo:$e7 inheritance Jane Hill
Iipay 'Aa 'ehatt [Ɂəˈxat] inheritance Jane Hill
Kawaiisu pugu-zi inheritance Jane Hill
Kiliwa 7-that inheritance Jane Hill
Kitanemuk kuci7 loan direction unknown Jane Hill
Lake Miwok haju loan direction unknown Jane Hill
Luiseño 7awa:-l unknown Jane Hill
Maidu sy/ inheritance Jane Hill
Mojave hatchoq inheritance Jane Hill
Mutsun huchekniSY Y is sup-srpt y loan O77:14 Jane Hill
Nisenan sukku loan direction unknown Jane Hill
Northern Paiute sady7y inheritance Thornes 03:111 Jane Hill
Northern Sierra Miwok cuku- loan direction unknown Jane Hill
Plains Miwok cu:cu- loan Jane Hill
Salinan A xutc (A), unknown Jane Hill
Salinan M xutca:i unknown Mason 1918:126 Jane Hill
Seri (Comcaac) haxz unknown Jane Hill
Serrano kuci7 inheritance Jane Hill
Southern Paiute sari:-S inheritance Jane Hill
Southern Sierra Miwok cukuH-, loan direction unknown Jane Hill
Southern Ute sarichI inheritance Jane Hill
Tübatulabal pukkupisht, loan Jane Hill
Tümpisa Shoshone isapungku inheritance Jane Hill
Wappo ha/yu loan Jane Hill
Washo su/ku7 loan direction unknown J174 Jane Hill
Western Mono pu/kU inheritance Jane Hill
Wintu se-cila, unknown Jane Hill
Yavapai ktha/r inheritance Jane Hill
Yokuts Palewyami ch'i:sas doubtful loan into protolanguage JPH Gamble 91 Jane Hill
Yokuts Yawdanchi che:jej j is zh inheritance K07:241,G64 Jane Hill
Yokuts Yowlumne pu'us loan direction unknown G1964 Jane Hill
Yuki 7a(:)Twoshet inheritance S&S1984 Jane Hill
Baniwa tsíino tsíino semantic shift See Language page Epps Research Team
Carijona kaikutʃi semantic shift See Language page Epps Research Team
Cubeo yavimi javimi inheritance See Language page Epps Research Team
Desano diaye diaye inheritance See Language page Epps Research Team
Eñepa kərənəpən kərənəpən semantic shift See Language page Epps Research Team
Hodï yiwi jewi doubtful loan Jivaro See Language page Epps Research Team
Waorani gĩta unique See Language page Epps Research Team
Hup yaʔamhóʔ jãʔamhóʔ inheritance See Language page Epps Research Team
Makushi areimaraaká areimaraaká loan direction unknown Arawak See Language page Epps Research Team
Nheengatu yawara jawara semantic shift See Language page Epps Research Team
Ninam okoro okoro unique See Language page Epps Research Team
Maihiki yai joyi aguɨ (yai=tigre) jai xoji agɨ inheritance See Language page Epps Research Team
Resígaro íiní íiní semantic shift See Language page Epps Research Team
Sanumá poie poie unique See Language page Epps Research Team
Sikuani awiri (2)(borrowing from Arawak), kotsito (2) (puppy), daiubi (2)(over all domisticated animal) awíri, daiúbi loan into protolanguage Arawak See Language page Epps Research Team
Tariana čínu tʃínu semantic shift See Language page Epps Research Team
Tukano diâyɨ diâjɨ inheritance See Language page Epps Research Team
Kotiria dìé dìé inheritance See Language page Epps Research Team
Yanomam hiem hiem inheritance See Language page Epps Research Team
Yanomami thãri, hiima tʰãri, hiima inheritance See Language page Epps Research Team
Yukuna walú walú inheritance See Language page Epps Research Team
Yuhup yaʔambéh yaʔambéh inheritance See Language page Epps Research Team
Arabana madla inheritance Claire Bowern
Bardi e:la, iila e:la, iila inheritance Claire Bowern
Bunuba tharra inheritance Claire Bowern
Burarra gulukula loan Yan-nhangu Claire Bowern
Dhangu 1757 unknown Claire Bowern
Dhuwal 1757 Claire Bowern
Dhuwala wuŋgan inheritance Claire Bowern
Diyari kinhthala unique Claire Bowern
DiyariREU kintala unique Claire Bowern
Djambarrpuyngu waṯu unknown Claire Bowern
Djapu waṯu unknown Claire Bowern
Djinang butjiy loan English Claire Bowern
Gajirrabeng joolang inheritance ?old loan from Worrorran Claire Bowern
Gooniyandi tharra inheritance Claire Bowern
Gupapuyngu 1757 unknown Claire Bowern
Gurindji warlaku loan Miriwung Claire Bowern
Jabirr-Jabirr gambur kambur inheritance Claire Bowern
Jaru gunyarr inheritance Claire Bowern
Jawi ella iila inheritance Claire Bowern
Karajarri 4873 inheritance Claire Bowern
Kija jula-ny inheritance Claire Bowern
Malyangapa kun:u semantic shift Claire Bowern
Mangala kunyarr unknown Claire Bowern
Miriwung joolang inheritance ?old loan from Worrorran Claire Bowern
Mithaka tirita inheritance Claire Bowern
Mudburra warlaku Claire Bowern
Mudburra warlaku loan Claire Bowern
Ngamini tirita inheritance Claire Bowern
Ngandi a-wartu loan Claire Bowern
Ngarluma wanyja Claire Bowern
Ngumbarl yeela yeela meeda inheritance Claire Bowern
Nhirrpi pandi loan direction unknown Claire Bowern
Nimanburru yēl yiil inheritance Claire Bowern
Northern Mangarla kunyarr Claire Bowern
Northern Nyangumarta yukurru inheritance Claire Bowern
Nyangumarta yukurru inheritance Claire Bowern
Nyikina gambura XXngl allusive kambura inheritance Claire Bowern
Nyulnyul iil, yi(r)l iil, yi(r)l inheritance Claire Bowern
Paakantyi gali inheritance Claire Bowern
Pirriya thithi Claire Bowern
Pitta-Pitta piyawarli unique Claire Bowern
Rirratjingu wuŋgan, waṯu Claire Bowern
Ritharrngu wartu loan direction unknown Claire Bowern
Walmajarri kunyarr inheritance Claire Bowern
Wangkayutyuru mayamaya unique Claire Bowern
Warrwa yiila yiila inheritance Claire Bowern
Wubuy rlanduug inheritance Claire Bowern
Yan-nhangu 1757 loan Djinang Claire Bowern
Yandruwandha pandi, thutjutju inheritance Claire Bowern
Yarluyandi thirita inheritance Claire Bowern
Yawarrawarrka pandi loan direction unknown Claire Bowern
Yawuru yila yila inheritance Claire Bowern