Kabiyari

Family
Arawakan
Region
South America
ISO 639-3
cbb
Location
0.16°, -71.06°
Notes
Features
Basic Vocabulary
Flora Fauna Vocabulary
Cultural Vocabulary
Data Sources
Huber, R.; Reed, R. 1992. Comparative vocabulary: selected words in indigenous languages of Colombia. Instituto Linguistico de Verano. Ramirez, Henri. 2001. Línguas Arawak da Amazônia setentrional: comparação e descrição. Manaus: Editora da Universidade. Rodriguez, José Vicente, compiler, and others. 1995. Mamíferos colombianos: sus nombres comunes e indígenas. Bogotá: Conservation International, Fundación Mario Santo Domingo.


Basic Vocabulary (191)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Etymology Notes Source Created By
above encima, arriba acima location See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
and y e grammar See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
ash ceniza(s) cinzas environment pa'ari (Ramirez, 2001) pa'ari (Ramirez, 2001) See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
at en, a em, a location See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
back espalda costas body See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
bad mal mal quality tʃíʔka tʃíʔka See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
belly barriga barriga body te[re] te[re] See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
below abajo, debajo abaixo location See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
big grande grande quality manuʔú manuʔú See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
black negro preto colour kewere-ri kewere-ri See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
blood sangre sangue body íʔira íʔiɾa See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
boil/pimple espinilla, granos espinha, borbulha body See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
bone hueso osso body japi japi See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
breast pecho, seno peito body ji (breast); ukhu(ta) (chest) ji (breast); ukhu(ta) (chest) See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
child niño, niña criança human ejí-pé ejí-pé See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
cloud nube nuvem environment t̪aamana, aakhe t̪aamana, aakhe See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
cold frío frio quality peʔe peʔe See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
correct/true verdad, de veras verdade quality See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
day día dia time wihékú wihékú See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
dirty sucio sujo quality pit̪a ('dirt') pit̪a ('dirt') See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
dingo/wolf fauna See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
dry seco seco quality iwá iwá See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
dull/blunt sin filo, mocho, desafilado, embotado, romo maçante, desamolado, não afiado quality See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
dust polvo poeira environment See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
ear oreja orelha body u'uwi uʔuwi See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
earth/soil tierra terra environment ta'ka(a)ri taʔka(a)ri See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
egg huevo ovo fauna éewhé éewhé See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
eye ojo olho body thu thu See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
far lejos longe quality téeku téeku See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
fat/grease grasa gordura body íʔit̪i íʔit̪i See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
father padre, papá pai kinship -ha nírí (hr01) -ha níɾí (hɾ01) See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
feather pluma pena fauna apána apána See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
fire fuego fogo environment kira'ari kiraʔari See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
flower flor flor environment ʔi:winási ʔi:winási See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
fog niebla, neblina nevoeira, bruma, neblina environment See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
fruit fruta fruta flora ʔahajaka ?ahajaka See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
good bueno bom quality tʃuni-ka tʃuni-ka See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
hair (of head) cabello cabelo body tʃuna tʃuna See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
hand mano mão body kaapi kaapi See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
3sg el/ella ele/ela grammar See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
head cabeza cabeça body hiwíta hiwíta See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
heavy pesado pesado quality mija (Ramirez, 2001) mija (Ramirez, 2001) See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
how? como como grammar See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
1sg yo eu grammar nhú, nu- nhú, nu- See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
if si se grammar See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
in/inside dentro, adentro dentro location liku liku See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
intestines intestinos intestinos body ihá-pia ihá-pia See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
lake lago lago environment kalita kalita See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
leaf hoja folha environment apana apana See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
left/left hand izquierdo esquerdo location/body péʔt̪u-ri péʔt̪u-ri See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
leg/foot pierna perna body nukawa nukawa See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
lightning rayo, relámpago relampago environment See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
liver hígado figado body úupana úupana See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
long largo comprido, longo quality wia (Ramirez, 2001) wia (Ramirez, 2001) See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
louse piollo, piojo piolho fauna nií nií See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
man/male hombre homem human t̪ijá-ri t̪ijá-ɾi See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
meat/flesh carne carne fauna i'i iʔi See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
moon luna lua environment kéeri kéeɾi See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
mother madre, mamá mãe kinship hanúá hanúá See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
mouth boca boca body numa numa See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
name nombre nome human íí íí See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
near/close cerca de perto quality áriní áriní See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
nape base del cuello, nuca nuca body See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
neck cuello pescoço body kanhapi kanhapi See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
new nuevo novo quality wárit̪é wáɾit̪é See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
night noche noite time néápi néápi See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
no/not no não grammar uka uka See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
nose nariz nariz body hitákú hitákú See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
old viejo velho quality íipe-ri íipe-ri See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
one uno um number pa[pu] (hr01) pa[pu] (hɾ01) See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
other otro outro grammar See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
pain/painful/sick dolor, doloroso, enfermo dor, doloroso, doente body See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
person/human being persona pessoa human néki-ri néki-ɾi See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
rain lluvia chuva environment peʔekhe, pehe peʔekhe, pehe See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
red rojo vermelho colour kíira kíiɾa See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
right/right hand derecha direita location/body See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
road/path camino caminho manufacture apú-há, jóopu, ajápú apú-há, jóopu, ajápú See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
root raíz raiz flora apáre apáɾe See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
rotten podrido podre quality matá matá See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
sand arena areia environment káʔa káʔa See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
sharp afilado, filudo, filoso afiado quality pu-ma-ná pu-ma-ná See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
short corto curto quality See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
shoulder hombro ombro body See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
shy/ashamed tímido, vergonzoso timido, com vergonha mental páá 'shame' páá 'shame' See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
skin piel pele body íʔa-mi íʔa-mi See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
sky cielo céu environment ʔianati ?ianati See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
small pequeño pequeno quality karitʃhũĩ karitʃhũĩ See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
smoke humo fumaça environment ít̪a-ri ít̪a-ɾi See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
star estrella estrela environment wirínhu wiɾínhu See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
stick/wood palo pau, vara flora See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
stone piedra pedra environment híipa (similar to the word "foot") híipa (similaɾ to the woɾd "foot") See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
tail cola, rabo rabo body t̪ipi, muuku t̪ipi, muuku See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
that ese/esa esse grammar ja-ta, ja-ra ja-ta, ja-ra See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
3pl ellos/ellas eles/elas grammar See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
thick grueso, gordo, espeso grosso quality matakaka matakaka See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
thin delgado fino quality tekuka tekuka See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
this este/esta este grammar ja-ri ja-ri See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
2sg xx xx grammar phé, pi- phé, pi- See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
throat garganta garganta body See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
three tres tres number See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
thunder truenos trovão environment See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
bite morder morder body amhe (Ramirez, 2001) amhe (Ramirez, 2001) See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
blow soplar soprar body (ha)kapuupua (ha)kapuupua See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
breathe respirar respirar body See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
burn quemar queimar environment kahema:, heema (Ramirez, 2001) kahema:, heema (Ramirez, 2001) See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
chew masticar, mascar mastigar body See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
climb subir subir motion irhé irhé See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
come venir vir motion mira(a)ni, anaa (arrive) mira(a)ni, anaa (arrive) See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
cook cocinar cozinhar impact See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
count contar contar mental See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
cry llorar chorar mental V́Vtʃa V́Vtʃa See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
cut/hack cortar cortar impact ta-rhú ta-rhú See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
die/be dead morir morrer state mikuu mikuu See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
dig cavar cavar impact hika hika See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
dream soñar sonhar mental tápu-ri tápu-ri See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
drink beber, tomar beber body irá iɾá See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
eat comer comer body tʃha tʃha See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
fall caer cair motion huʔá huʔá See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
fear miedo medo mental ka:lukeh ka:lukeh See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
flow fluir fluir motion See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
fly volar voar motion áara áaɾa See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
grow crecer crescer state tawána tawána See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
hear oír ouvir mental heme heme See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
hide esconder esconder motion See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
hit golpear, pegar bater impact uka:ka uka:ka See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
hold correr, asegurar, sostener segurar other See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
kill matar matar impact nua nua See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
know/be knowledgeable saber, conecer saber, conhecer mental aranhú aɾanhú See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
laugh reír rir mental iká[ha] iká[ha] See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
lie down acostarse, echarse deitar motion ku'apu, huapuku ku'apu, huapuku See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
live/be alive vivir viver, morar body See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
open/uncover abrir abrir other mée-há mée-há See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
pound/beat machacar, golpear bater impact See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
say decir dizer mental íma íma See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
scratch rascar rasgar impact See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
see ver ver mental ikhá ikhá See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
shoot tirar, disparar, balear atirar impact uʔuka (shoot w/blowgun) uʔuka (shoot w/blowgun) See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
sit sentar(se) sentar state tu(')na tu(')na See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
sleep dormir dormir body imáa imáa See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
sniff/smell olfatear, oler cheirar body meʔa meʔa See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
spit escupir cuspir body iwitá iwitá See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
split partir, dividir rachar, dividir, partir impact See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
squeeze estrujar, exprimir espremer impact ka:ka ka:ka See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
stab/pierce apuñalar, acuchillar apunhalar impact See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
stand estar de pié ficar em pé state patʃha patʃha See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
steal robar roubar other See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
suck chupar chupar body t̪ut̪u t̪ut̪u See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
swell hincharse inchar body hena:ka hena:ka See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
swim nadar nadar motion awápa awápa See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
think pensar pensar mental wéʔepi wéʔepi See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
throw tirar, lanzar atirar, jogar impact ka-wá ka-wá See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
tie up/fasten atar, amarrar amarrar impact See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
turn girar, volter, torcer virar other See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
vomit vomitar vomitar body See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
walk caminar, andar andar motion aa aa See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
work trabajar trabalhar other See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
yawn bostezar bocejar body See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
tongue lengua lingua body nenipá nenipá See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
tooth diente dente body ʔía ʔía See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
two dos dois number tʃumaa- (dp91) tʃumaa- (dp91) See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
water agua agua environment úuni úuni See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
1pl.incl nosotros (inclusivo) nós (inclusivo) grammar whé, wa- whé, wa- See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
1pl.excl nosotros (exclusivo) nós (exclusivo) grammar See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
wet mojado molhado quality t̪a-pée t̪a-pée See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
what? que, qué que grammar mikha, umha, arhi (who/what) mikha, umha, arhi (who/what) See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
when? cuando quando grammar See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
where? donde onde grammar See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
white blanco branco colour katare:i-ri, jarane katare:i-ri, jarane See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
who? quien, quién quem grammar mikha, umha, arhi (who/what) mikha, umha, arhi (who/what) See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
wife esposa esposa kinship íinu íinu See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
wind viento vento environment kalena kalena See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
wing ala asa body tehepa tehepa See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
woman/female mujer mulher human nanáwí nanáwí See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
yellow amarillo amarelo colour karawa-ri karawa-ri See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
2pl ustedes vocês grammar See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
foot pie body híipa híipa See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
again de nuevo, otra vez de novo grammar See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
all todo todos other put'i put'i See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
ankle tobillo tornozelo body See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
armpit axila, sobaco axila body hékúapi hékúapi See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
faeces heces, mierda, excremento, estiércol fezes body See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
lung pulmón pulmão body See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
sweat sudar suor, suar body t̪íjape t̪íjape See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
itch hormiguear, sentir comezón coçar body wée wée See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
bark corteza casca environment See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
fingernail uña unha body u'upa uʔupa See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
heart corazón coração body kareta kareta See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
sun sol sol time abe, eri abe, eri See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
mountain/hill montaña, colina, loma, cerro morro, serra environment marena, takari marena, takari See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
green verde verde quality puré puɾé See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
hot caliente quente quality muʔú muʔú See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE


Flora Fauna Vocabulary (133)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Linnean Name Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Range of Term Word Structure Word Structure Notes Classifier Classifier Notes Hypernym Source Association with Social Categories Ritual/Mythologically Significant Ritual Notes Food Source Food Notes Medicinal Medicinal Notes How Collected Who Collects How Prepared Psychotropic Psychotropic Notes Traded Trade Notes Distribution Habitat Dangerous Ethnobiology Notes Species Notes General Notes Created By
bat murciélago morcego flora-fauna Chiroptera spp. pít̪iri pít̪iɾi See Language page Ana Paula B., Aimee Lawrence, PLE
bird pajaro, ave passaro flora-fauna ʔupira, ku(' )pira (Ramirez, 2001) ʔupira, ku(' )pira (Ramirez, 2001) See Language page Ana Paula B., Aimee Lawrence, PLE
curassow mitu, montete (Peru), paujil/panjuil (Peru), paujil de Salvin (Peru for Mitu salvini) mutum flora-fauna Crax sp., Nothocrax sp. kúut̪i kúut̪i See Language page Amazonia Ana Paula B., Aimee Lawrence, PLE
toucan tucán, pinsha (Peru) tucano flora-fauna Ramphastos sp. tʃáate tʃáate See Language page Widespread Amazonia Ana Paula B., Aimee Lawrence, PLE
gray-winged trumpeter Grulla, Trompetero Ala Gris jacamim flora-fauna Psophia crepitans máatʃari máatʃaɾi See Language page Northern Amazonia (N of Solimões), not in northern Colombia; Dark-winged trumpeter is found south of Solimões Ana Paula B., Aimee Lawrence, PLE
guan pava, pucacunga (Peru), pava de Spix (Peru) jacu flora-fauna Penelope sp. mára máɾa See Language page Different types have different localized ranges Ana Paula B., Aimee Lawrence, PLE
tinamou tinamu, perdiz, gallineta inambu, inhambu flora-fauna family Tinamidae máami máami See Language page Widespread Amazonia Ana Paula B., Aimee Lawrence, PLE
hummingbird colibrí, picaflor (Peru) beija-flor flora-fauna family Trochilidae pími pími See Language page Widespread Ana Paula B., Aimee Lawrence, PLE
kingfisher martín pescador, catalan (Peru) martim-pescador flora-fauna family Alcedinidae tʃáriri tʃáɾiɾi See Language page Widespread Amazonia Ana Paula B., Aimee Lawrence, PLE
owl (large) búho, lechuza corujão flora-fauna order Strigiformes púpuri púpuɾi See Language page Widespread Ana Paula B., Aimee Lawrence, PLE
macaw ara, guacamaya Arara flora-fauna family Psittacidae; Ara sp. narú naɾú See Language page Widespread Amazonia Ana Paula B., Aimee Lawrence, PLE
parrot loro real, loro (Sp. form is a loan from Carib) papagaio flora-fauna Amazona amazonica wáaru wáaɾu See Language page Widespread Ana Paula B., Aimee Lawrence, PLE
dove paloma pomba flora-fauna family Columbidae húritu húritu See Language page Ana Paula B., Aimee Lawrence, PLE
hawk halcón, gavilán gavião flora-fauna family Accipitridae péeri péeɾi See Language page Ana Paula B., Aimee Lawrence, PLE
vulture buitre, gallinazo, rinahui (Peru) urubu flora-fauna family Cathartidae wátʃuri wátʃuɾi See Language page Widespread South America Ana Paula B., Aimee Lawrence, PLE
duck pato pato, marreco flora-fauna Anatidae family kúmana kúmana See Language page Ana Paula B., Aimee Lawrence, PLE
great egret Garza Blanca, Guyratî Garça-Branca-Grande flora-fauna Ardea alba máari máari See Language page Widespread South America Ana Paula B., Aimee Lawrence, PLE
woodpecker pájaro carpintero, carpintero pica-pau flora-fauna family Picidae See Language page Widespread Amazonia Ana Paula B., Aimee Lawrence, PLE
dog (camp, domestic) perro cachorro flora-fauna Canis famililaris t∫aawi (H&R) t∫aawi (H&R) See Language page Not native; widespread Ana Paula B., Aimee Lawrence, PLE
dog (wild; bush dog) sachaperro, Perro de Monte, Zorro Vinagre, Guanfando; Zorro Ojizarco, Zorro Negro, Perro de Orejas Corta cachorro-do-mato flora-fauna Speothos venaticus; Atelocynus microtis See Language page Widespread Amazonia Ana Paula B., Aimee Lawrence, PLE
anteater oso hormiguero; tapia pelejo or pelejo chico for Cyclopes didactylus tamanduá flora-fauna Myrmecophaga tridactyla (giant anteater); Cyclopes didactylus (silky anteater) t̪áaru, páapari (Cyclopes) t̪áaɾu, páapaɾi (Cyclopes) See Language page Widespread Amazonian lowlands Ana Paula B., Aimee Lawrence, PLE
armadillo armadillo, carachupa (Peru), yangunturi (Peru for Giant armadillo) tatu flora-fauna family Dasypodidae; e.g. Priodontes maximus (Giant armadillo), Dasypus novemcinctus, Dasypus kappleri tʃéʔe (hr01) tʃéʔe (hɾ01) See Language page Widespread in Amazonia Ana Paula B., Aimee Lawrence, PLE
sloth pereza, pelejo (Peru), perezoso (Peru) macaco preguica flora-fauna Choloepus sp., Bradypus sp. pút̪aru pút̪aɾu See Language page Widespread Amazonia Ana Paula B., Aimee Lawrence, PLE
alligator, black caiman babilla; cachirre jacaré flora-fauna Melanosuchus niger, Caiman schlerops; Paleosuchus sp. ka:tʃu[ri] (dp91), kátʃhuri ka:tʃu[ɾi] (dp91), kátʃhuɾi See Language page Throughout Amazonia Port term reportedly borrowed from Tupi Ana Paula B., Aimee Lawrence, PLE
electric eel anguila eléctrica poraquê flora-fauna Electrophorus electricus kápi kápi See Language page Ana Paula B., Aimee Lawrence, PLE
fish (generic) pez peixe flora-fauna kúpha; ʔulle (H&R92) kúpha See Language page Ana Paula B., Aimee Lawrence, PLE
pacu fish palometa, garopita, garopa, curhuara (Peru) pacu flora-fauna Mylossoma sp. kát̪ama, áneri, ketʃapúkuri, íwitu kát̪ama, áneɾi, ketʃapúkuɾi, íwitu See Language page Ana Paula B., Aimee Lawrence, PLE
pirana piraña, caribe piranha flora-fauna subfamily Serrasalmidae máa máa See Language page Widespread Amazonia Ana Paula B., Aimee Lawrence, PLE
tigerfish taraira, guabina, huasaco (Peru) traíra flora-fauna Hoplias sp. See Language page Widespread Amazonia Ana Paula B., Aimee Lawrence, PLE
mandi catfish maparate (used in Peru for some types of catfish, including Auchenipterus sp.), cunchi (used in Peru for some types of catfish), bagre (catfish) mandi flora-fauna Auchenipterus sp. káwetí káwetí See Language page Widespread Amazonia Ana Paula B., Aimee Lawrence, PLE
speckled catfish surubí, pintadillo surubim, sorubim flora-fauna Pseudoplatystoma sp. kúriri kúɾiɾi See Language page Widespread Amazonia Ana Paula B., Aimee Lawrence, PLE
toad sapo sapo flora-fauna order Anura ruurú ɾuuɾú See Language page Ana Paula B., Aimee Lawrence, PLE
iguana iguana, garipiares (Colombia) camaleão flora-fauna Iguana sp. See Language page iguana' is reportedly from Arawak iwana Ana Paula B., Aimee Lawrence, PLE
small lizard lagartija calango flora-fauna order Squamata núupu núupu See Language page Ana Paula B., Aimee Lawrence, PLE
stingray (generic) rayas látigo, raya arraia flora-fauna Potamotrygon sp. jatúrí jatúɾí See Language page Ana Paula B., Aimee Lawrence, PLE
crab cangrejo caranguejo flora-fauna infraorder Brachyura See Language page Ana Paula B., Aimee Lawrence, PLE
anaconda anaconda, boa, boa acuática grande sucuri flora-fauna genus Eunectes See Language page Widespread Amazonia Ana Paula B., Aimee Lawrence, PLE
boa boa; mantona (red-tailed boa); boa de altura jiboia flora-fauna family Boidae, subf. Boinae púkuru púkuɾu See Language page Ana Paula B., Aimee Lawrence, PLE
snake (generic) culebra, serpiente cobra flora-fauna apí (dp91) apí (dp91) See Language page Ana Paula B., Aimee Lawrence, PLE
snake (poisonous generic) or rattlesnake víbora (Peru), jergón (Peru), yarara jararaca flora-fauna Bothrops jararaca/atrox See Language page Widespread South America Ana Paula B., Aimee Lawrence, PLE
tortoise (red foot, yellow foot/giant) tortuga, morrocoy, motelo jabutí, tartaruga flora-fauna Yellow-footed: Geochelone denticulata; Red-footed: Geochelone carbonaria tʃúri, áaara tʃúɾi, áaaɾa See Language page Widespread Ana Paula B., Aimee Lawrence, PLE
Amazon dolphin bufeo, delfín, tonina (del Orinoco) boto cor-de-rosa flora-fauna Inia geoffrensis ámana ámana See Language page Downstream of major rapids and waterfalls Ana Paula B., Aimee Lawrence, PLE
mushroom champiñón, hongo cogumelo flora-fauna (any edible generic) See Language page prioritize generic term that includes any edible species Ana Paula B., Aimee Lawrence, PLE
black palm bacaba, mapora, pusui, patabá bacaba flora-fauna Oenocarpus bacaba púperi púperi See Language page Mature forests of Rio Negro and Upper Amazon may be confused in some entries with O. bataua Ana Paula B., Aimee Lawrence, PLE
açai palm huasí (Peru), asahi, manaca (Ven), asaí, palmiche (Colombia) açaí flora-fauna Euterpe sp. mánakhá mánakhá See Language page floodplains, swamp; esp. northern Amazonia Ana Paula B., Aimee Lawrence, PLE
miriti palm moriche (Col, Ven), aguaje (Col, Peru), achual, miriti buriti flora-fauna Mauritia flexuosa téwi téwi See Language page Brazil, Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guyana, Peru, Venezuela; in and near swamps trunks contain sago-like starch Ana Paula B., Aimee Lawrence, PLE
palm for roof thatch pui, irapay, hoja de irapay, caraná caraná flora-fauna Mauritiella armata OR Lepidocaryum tenue (irapay), Mauritius carana t̪íija t̪íija See Language page Mauritia carana is limited principally to the Rio Negro and Upper Orinoco regions; dry catinga forests palm Ana Paula B., Aimee Lawrence, PLE
paxiuba palm pona, huacrapona, cashapona, macanilla, pachiuba paxiuba flora-fauna Iriartea exorrhiza OR Iriartea deltoidea púupa púupa See Language page Widespread Amazonia palm Ana Paula B., Aimee Lawrence, PLE
peach palm, pejibaye palm chontaduro (Col, Ecuador); pipire (Col); pijuayo (Peru), pijiguao (Ven); tembe (Bol) pupunha flora-fauna Bactris gasipaes pípiri pípiri See Language page Ana Paula B., Aimee Lawrence, PLE
seje palm ungurahui (Peru), palma de seje, milpesos, patabá patoá, patuá flora-fauna Jessenia bataua, aka Oenocarpus bataua púnama púnama See Language page mostly north of Equator; common in Amazonia may be confused with O. bacaba - compare entries Ana Paula B., Aimee Lawrence, PLE
coca coca coca flora-fauna Erythroxylum coca pátú pátú See Language page secondary scrub vegetation. lower alt. of eastern Andes plant Ana Paula B., Aimee Lawrence, PLE
cotton algodón algodão flora-fauna Gossypium (barbadense: long fibers; hirsutum: short fibers) t̪awá-rí t̪awá-ɾí See Language page secondary scrub vegetation plant; some sources may confound with kapok Ceiba pentandra (esp. if a single gloss for 'cotton' is given') Ana Paula B., Aimee Lawrence, PLE
kapok ceiba, huimba, lupuna (Peru for Ceiba sp.) sumaumeira flora-fauna Ceiba pentandra wéjiti wéjiti See Language page northern South America and central America; common in disturbed areas tree Ana Paula B., Aimee Lawrence, PLE
hot pepper ají, pimentón/pimiento rojo, pucunucho (Peru), charapilla (Peru) pimenta flora-fauna Capsicum sp., principally chinensis and frutescens át̪i át̪i See Language page secondary scrub vegetation, indigenous garden plant Ana Paula B., Aimee Lawrence, PLE
peanut maní (may be loan from Taino Arawak), cacahuete amendoim flora-fauna Arachis hypogaea See Language page plant Ana Paula B., Aimee Lawrence, PLE
pineapple piña abacaxi flora-fauna Ananas comosus máwiru máwiɾu See Language page plant Ana Paula B., Aimee Lawrence, PLE
arrow cane, wildcane caña flecha, caña brava, caña isana cana para flechas, frecheira, Cana-do-rio flora-fauna Gynerium sagittatum See Language page tropical regions, especially river banks plant Ana Paula B., Aimee Lawrence, PLE
banana, plantain banano, banana, cambur, bellaco, variedad de plátano banana flora-fauna Musa sp. néripana néɾipana See Language page Names for banana/plantain may be derived from bastard plantain by semantic shift. Ana Paula B., Aimee Lawrence, PLE
beans frijoles, frejol, caraotas (negras, rojas, blancas) feijão flora-fauna Phaseolus spp. kumana kumana See Language page plant Ana Paula B., Aimee Lawrence, PLE
grass hierba, pasto capim, grama flora-fauna (generic) ka:na:phiri ka:na:phiri See Language page Ana Paula B., Aimee Lawrence, PLE
maize, corn mazorca, maiz milho flora-fauna Zea mays kanha (h) kanha (h) See Language page widespread, esp. in river floodplains plant Ana Paula B., Aimee Lawrence, PLE
tobacco tabaco tabaco flora-fauna Nicotiana tabacum tʃéema tʃéema See Language page plant Ana Paula B., Aimee Lawrence, PLE
tree árbol arvore flora-fauna ʔahaa (H&R) ʔahaa (H&R) See Language page Ana Paula B., Aimee Lawrence, PLE
achiote, anatto achiote urucum flora-fauna Bixa orellana 'pʰiri 'pʰiɾi See Language page secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens shrub Ana Paula B., Aimee Lawrence, PLE
inga guaba, guamo, guama, shimbillo (Peru) inga flora-fauna Inga spp. wiirúá wiiɾúá See Language page Secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens. North and South America (Brazil, Peru, Bolivia, Suriname, Colombia) Ana Paula B., Aimee Lawrence, PLE
avocado palta, aguacate abacate flora-fauna Persea americana píritʃa píɾitʃa See Language page secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens tree Ana Paula B., Aimee Lawrence, PLE
bitterwood tortuga caspi, pretina (Peru for tree and tumpline); carahuasca (Peru) envira flora-fauna Duguetia sp. OR Fusaea longifolia OR Guatteria chrysopetala wéeri wéeɾi See Language page secondary forests, native to Brazil tree Ana Paula B., Aimee Lawrence, PLE
brazil nut castaña castanha do para (B. excelsa); castanha de cutia (C. edulis) flora-fauna Bertholletia excelsa [cf. Couepia edulis 'castanha do cutia'] See Language page 1) Couepia: restricted area within Brazil, Rio Purus basin and middle Solimões. 2) Bertholletia: elev: consistently about 200m; mature forests. Widely distributed from Peru, E. Colombia, Brazil to Nicaragua. tree Ana Paula B., Aimee Lawrence, PLE
cashew anarcado, castaña de cajú, nuez de la India, marañon, cajú, merey (Venezuela) caju flora-fauna Anacardium occidentale / giganteum íinu íinu See Language page secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens tree; most sources will not distinguish between occidentale and other varieties Ana Paula B., Aimee Lawrence, PLE
genipap jagua, majagua - Colombia, caruto, xagua - Venezuela, bigrande - Bolivia, huito, yaguayagua - Peru, ygualti - Nicaragua, maluco - Mexico genipapo, jenipapo flora-fauna Genipapa americana náana náana See Language page widespread lowland SA shrub Ana Paula B., Aimee Lawrence, PLE
japurá oreja de murcielago japurá flora-fauna Erisma japura See Language page large tree Ana Paula B., Aimee Lawrence, PLE
rubber tree (sorva) caucho, siringa, shiringa seringa, borracha flora-fauna Hevea sp. tʃúʔu-t̪i tʃúʔu-t̪i See Language page Widespread Amazonia tree Ana Paula B., Aimee Lawrence, PLE
ucuqui yugo, caimitillo del monte (Peru) ucuqui flora-fauna Pouteria ucuqui jírí jíɾí See Language page native to NW Amazonia, found primarily in Vaupes and Caqueta regions other species of Pouteria exist and have much-used edible fruit; these can be subsituted where relevant Ana Paula B., Aimee Lawrence, PLE
Amazon tree-grape uva de monte, uvilla (Peru), puruma, caime, caimarona (and variants; Col.) cucura flora-fauna Pourouma cecropiifolia kamhu-ru kamhu-ru See Language page grows wild in Western Amazon basin; cultivated in Colombia since pre-Colombian times a tree; not a true grape Ana Paula B., Aimee Lawrence, PLE
manioc (bitter or generic) yuca brava mandioca flora-fauna Manihot esculenta káaji káaji See Language page not generally cultivated in western (subAndean) Amazon. Arroyo-Kalin (2010) argues for a correlation with distribution of dark earths, mostly formed after 1AD, and the modeled-incised pottery tradition. Provides more starch and is more pest-resistant than the sweet variety, but requires much processing. Arroyo-Kalin (2010) proposes that bitter type was developed from sweet through post-ceremic agricultural intensification (motivated by high starch yield Ana Paula B., Aimee Lawrence, PLE
manioc (sweet) yuca, caribe macaxeira flora-fauna Manihot esculenta See Language page Primary staple in western/subAndean Amazonia, less important elsewhere No processing required, but lower starch yield and pest resistance than bitter variety Ana Paula B., Aimee Lawrence, PLE
potato papa batata flora-fauna Solanum tuberosum See Language page secondary scrub vegetation compare entries for sweet potato Ana Paula B., Aimee Lawrence, PLE
potato, sweet potato camote, batata dulce, batata, cumara batata-doce flora-fauna Ipomoea batatas káriri káɾiɾi See Language page plant Ana Paula B., Aimee Lawrence, PLE
cará tuber, purple or white camote, sachapapa cará roxo, branco flora-fauna Dioscorea sp. jáku jáku See Language page secondary scrub vegetation; forest clearings plant Ana Paula B., Aimee Lawrence, PLE
tannia, yautia huitina (Peru), ñame taioba branca flora-fauna Xanthosoma spp. See Language page Ana Paula B., Aimee Lawrence, PLE
bottle-gourd (vine) or calabash (tree) calabazo, calabaza; auyama (Dominican Republic and Venezuela), ayote (parts of Central America), zapallo (parts of South America), tutumo/totumo/totuma (Cresc tree), huingo (Peru for Crescentia cujete), tapara cabaça flora-fauna Crescentia cujete (round variety - tree); (Cucurbita) Lagenaria siceraria (bottle variety - vine) kaʔrú ('cuia') kaʔrú ('cuia') See Language page indigenous gardens plant; tree Ana Paula B., Aimee Lawrence, PLE
squash calabaza, calabacines, auyamas, zapallos, huingo (Peru) abóbora flora-fauna Cucurbita sp. See Language page plant Ana Paula B., Aimee Lawrence, PLE
cipó vine tamishi, bejuco, yare cipó flora-fauna Heteropsis spp. pepí pepí See Language page secondary forest, floodplain vine Ana Paula B., Aimee Lawrence, PLE
fish poison, barbasco barbasco, matapez (Colombia) timbó flora-fauna Lonchocarpus spp. jáame jáame See Language page secondary forests and secondary srcrub vegetation shrub/tree Ana Paula B., Aimee Lawrence, PLE
hallucinogenic vine, banisterium, ayahuasca ayahuasca, yage ayahuasca, caapi flora-fauna Banisteriopsis caapi káapi (hr01) káapi (hɾ01) See Language page semi-domesticated, native to Amazonian basin, esp. NW vine Ana Paula B., Aimee Lawrence, PLE
hallucinogenic snuff vilca, cebil, yopo paricá, yopo flora-fauna Anadenanthera sp. or virola See Language page Ana Paula B., Aimee Lawrence, PLE
insect (generic) insecto insecto flora-fauna generic See Language page Ana Paula B., Aimee Lawrence, PLE
ant (generic) hormiga formiga flora-fauna Formicidae See Language page Ana Paula B., Aimee Lawrence, PLE
bullet ant, lesser giant hunter ant conga, hormiga yanabe (Colombia), isula (Peru), Hormiga Veinticuatro tocandira flora-fauna Paraponera clavata máne máne See Language page Ana Paula B., Aimee Lawrence, PLE
leaf-cutter ant Colombia: zampopo, hormiga arriera; Venezuela: bachaco; Peru: curuhuinse saúva flora-fauna Atta sp. kúuhe kúuhe See Language page Ana Paula B., Aimee Lawrence, PLE
honeybee abeja abelha flora-fauna Apis mellifera; Tetragonisca angustula; Trigona amazonensis máapa máapa See Language page Ana Paula B., Aimee Lawrence, PLE
cockroach cucaracha barata-do-mato flora-fauna order Blattaria See Language page Ana Paula B., Aimee Lawrence, PLE
firefly, lightning bug lampírido, luciérnaga (Peru), añañahui (Peru), cocuyo (attributed Taino origin) vagalume flora-fauna fam: Elateridae, Fengodidae, Lampyridae kúute kúute See Language page Ana Paula B., Aimee Lawrence, PLE
butterfly, moth mariposa borboleta flora-fauna order Lepidoptera káawi káawi See Language page Ana Paula B., Aimee Lawrence, PLE
moth mariposa nocturna, polilla mariposa flora-fauna order Lepidoptera See Language page Ana Paula B., Aimee Lawrence, PLE
angleworm lombriz minhoca flora-fauna order Opisthopora mápi mápi See Language page Ana Paula B., Aimee Lawrence, PLE
centipede ciempiés centopéia flora-fauna class Chilopoda See Language page Ana Paula B., Aimee Lawrence, PLE
scorpion escorpión; alacran escorpião flora-fauna order Scorpiones tʃáre tʃáɾe See Language page Ana Paula B., Aimee Lawrence, PLE
cicada cigarra, chicharra cigarra flora-fauna super fam. Cicadoidea See Language page Ana Paula B., Aimee Lawrence, PLE
flea pulga pulga flora-fauna order Siphonaptera t̪itú, kawá t̪itú, kawá See Language page Ana Paula B., Aimee Lawrence, PLE
blowfly/housefly mosca mosca flora-fauna Diptera See Language page Ana Paula B., Aimee Lawrence, PLE
cricket saltón, grillo grilo flora-fauna family Gryllidae pitú pitú See Language page Ana Paula B., Aimee Lawrence, PLE
edible palm-dwelling larva (palm weevil) suri, mojojoy larva, broca-do-coqueiro, aramandaiá flora-fauna Rhynchophorus sp. See Language page Ana Paula B., Aimee Lawrence, PLE
praying mantis, stick insects mantis religiosa louva-a-deus flora-fauna order Mantodea, family Mantidae See Language page Ana Paula B., Aimee Lawrence, PLE
mosquito mosquito, zancudo mosquito, carapana flora-fauna Anopheles sp. nitʃú nitʃú See Language page Ana Paula B., Aimee Lawrence, PLE
termites, white-ants comején (Peru), termitas cupim flora-fauna order Isoptera kámara kámaɾa See Language page Ana Paula B., Aimee Lawrence, PLE
tick garrapata carrapato flora-fauna superfam Ixodoidea kúpa-ri kúpa-ri See Language page Ana Paula B., Aimee Lawrence, PLE
wasp avispa; specific type: ronzapa/ronsapa caba flora-fauna order Hymenoptera, sub: Apocrita áaji áaji See Language page Ana Paula B., Aimee Lawrence, PLE
snail caracol, churo (Peru) caracol flora-fauna class Gastropoda See Language page Ana Paula B., Aimee Lawrence, PLE
spider araña aranha flora-fauna Arachnidae, Araneae éeji éeji See Language page Ana Paula B., Aimee Lawrence, PLE
jaguar yaguar, yaguareté, jaguar, otorongo (Peru), tigre (Peru) onca flora-fauna Panthera onca tʃáawi (hr01) tʃáawi (hɾ01) See Language page Ana Paula B., Aimee Lawrence, PLE
manatee vaca marina, manatí peixe-boi flora-fauna Trichechus sp. See Language page Ana Paula B., Aimee Lawrence, PLE
brown woolly monkey Mono Lanudo Común, Choro, Churucu, mono choro (Peru), mono lanudo cafe, barrigudo de Humboldt macaco barrigudo flora-fauna Lagothrix lagothricha káparu kápaɾu See Language page Ana Paula B., Aimee Lawrence, PLE
howler monkey (red-handed) mono aullador, mono coto (Peru) guariba flora-fauna Alouatta belzebul [or other Alouatta sp.] íit̪i íit̪i See Language page Ana Paula B., Aimee Lawrence, PLE
tufted capuchin monkey mono negro (Peru), Machín Negro, Maicero Cachón, mono maicero macaco prego flora-fauna Cebus apella See Language page Ana Paula B., Aimee Lawrence, PLE
white-fronted capuchin Machín Blanco, mono blanco, Maicero Cariblanco, mono blanco (Peru) Caiarara flora-fauna Cebus albifrons kánapit̪i kánapit̪i See Language page Ana Paula B., Aimee Lawrence, PLE
white-fronted spider monkey Machin Blanco, Mono Araña de Vientre Amarillo, maquisapa (Peru), braceadora (Colombia) macaco aranha, coatá, quatá flora-fauna Ateles belzebuth/paniscus See Language page Ana Paula B., Aimee Lawrence, PLE
opossum zarigüeya, rabipelado, zorro, zorrillo mucura flora-fauna family Didelphidae t̪iírí t̪iíɾí See Language page Ana Paula B., Aimee Lawrence, PLE
giant otter Lobo Grande de Río, nutria gigante, lutria ariranha flora-fauna Pteronura brasiliensis jéewi jéewi See Language page Ana Paula B., Aimee Lawrence, PLE
neotropical otter (small) Nutria, Lobo de Agua, lobito de rio, perro de agua (Colombia) lontra flora-fauna Lontra longicaudis píinu píinu See Language page Ana Paula B., Aimee Lawrence, PLE
collared peccary sajino, pecarí de collar, jabalf, Javelina, Saíno, Pecarí de Collar caititu, caetitu flora-fauna Pecari tajacu, Tayassu tajacu See Language page Ana Paula B., Aimee Lawrence, PLE
white-lipped peccary Chancho de Monte, Cariblanco, Huangana queixada flora-fauna Tayassu pecari pitʃá (hr01) pitʃá (hɾ01) See Language page Ana Paula B., Aimee Lawrence, PLE
porcupine puerco espín, erizo (Peru), casha cushillo (Peru) cuandu, porco-espinho flora-fauna family Erethizontidae tʃáara tʃáara See Language page Ana Paula B., Aimee Lawrence, PLE
cotamundi, coatimundi Coatí, Tejón, Achuni, zorro guache quati flora-fauna genus Nasua kápit̪i (hr01) kápit̪i (hɾ01) See Language page Ana Paula B., Aimee Lawrence, PLE
agouti (black agouti, black-rumped agouti) Guatusa Negra, Añuje, Agutí (black-rumped), picure, jochi colorado cutia flora-fauna Dasyprocta spp. phíit̪i phíit̪i See Language page Ana Paula B., Aimee Lawrence, PLE
capybara Capibara, Carpincho, Ronsoco capivara flora-fauna Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris kéet̪u kéet̪u See Language page Ana Paula B., Aimee Lawrence, PLE
green acouchi Guatín, Punchana, curi, picurito rabudo, picurito rabilargo cutiara flora-fauna Myoprocta pratti púut̪u púut̪u See Language page Ana Paula B., Aimee Lawrence, PLE
paca (lowland) Guanta, Paca, Majaz, majás (Peru), labba (Guyana) paca flora-fauna Cuniculus paca (Agouti paca is sometimes used as well although cuniculus is the correct term.) náapa náapa See Language page Ana Paula B., Aimee Lawrence, PLE
mouse, rat ratón camundongo, rata flora-fauna Mus musculus híiri (hr01) híiɾi (hɾ01) See Language page Ana Paula B., Aimee Lawrence, PLE
squirrel ardilla, danta (Ven) serelepe, quatipuru, esquilo flora-fauna family Sciuridae máane-ri, hítʃhe máane-ɾi, hítʃhe See Language page Ana Paula B., Aimee Lawrence, PLE
tapir sachavaca, danta anta flora-fauna Tapirus terrestris héema (hr01), ʔeema (dp91) héema (hɾ01), ʔeema (dp91) See Language page Ana Paula B., Aimee Lawrence, PLE
deer venado veado, cariacu flora-fauna family Cervidae, esp. Odocoileus virginianus néeri néeɾi See Language page Ana Paula B., Aimee Lawrence, PLE
horse caballo cavalho flora-fauna Equus caballus See Language page Ana Paula B., Aimee Lawrence, PLE


Cultural Vocabulary (97)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Word Structure Word Structure Notes General Notes Source Created By
basket (general) canasta, canasto, cesta cesto culture-material See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
basket, small canasta, canasto, cesta cesto pequeno, tampado culture-material See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
bead abalorio, mostacilla, cuenta, gota, puca; necklace=collar miçanga culture-material See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
bed cama cama culture-material See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
hammock hamaca, chinchorro rede culture-material héeta héeta See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
bench, seat banco, silla, asiento banco culture-material nápe nápe See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
canoe canoa canoa transport híita híita See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
drum (large signal) tambor, manguaré, maguaré (Colombia) tambor culture Used to be used by Tukanoan peoples (and others?), sound carried for long distances See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
drum tambor tambor culture-mythology See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
shaman, healer chamán, brujo xaman, pajé, feiticeiro culture-mythology máritʃú máɾitʃú In RN region, there is typically one person per village (if that) who is a full-fledged 'shaman'. He is very much a specialist and has considerable power to cure, as well as power to curse. He is respected and feared. Shamans are thought to turn themselv See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
healer curandero benzador, curandeiro, kumu (Tukano) culture-mythology Refers to a lower-level healer; in RN region, most older men in a village have this capacity, and command a repertoire of healing spells. Power is primarily for good, whereas the true shaman is capable of malignant acts as well. See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
broom escoba vassoura culture-material See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
clothing ropa roupa culture-mythology See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
fence, palisade cerco cerca other may be related to defense/warfare? See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
firewood leña lenha other See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
Curupira (spirit type) Curupira, Madremonte Curupira culture-mythology malignant forest spirit, covered with long hair, feet turned backward; in Upper Rio Negro region See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
ghost (of dead person)/evil spirit espíritu malo, espíritu maligno, fantasma, demonio espirito culture-mythology See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
deity/powerful spirit/culture figure dios(es), deidad divinidade, figura mítica culture-mythology In RN region, frequently translates as 'Bone-Son', 'One on the bone', etc. See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
flute flauta, quena (Peru) flauta culture-mythology multiple types? japurutu, deer-bone, etc. See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
panpipe carrizo, zampoñas, flautas de pan, rondadora caniço, flauta de pã culture-mythology See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
hollow log/trough for beer-making canoa para chicha cocho de caxiri narcotics See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
ritual song cycle (kapiwaya) kapiwaya capiwaya culture-mythology See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
knife cuchillo faca culture-material See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
machete machete facão culture-material See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
axe/stone axe hacha (de piedra) machado (de pedra) subsistence tool especially for clearing fields See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
arrow flecha flecha subsistence tool t̪inúá t̪inúá hunting, warfare See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
spear lanza lança subsistence tool See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
bow arco arco subsistence tool arco See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
paddle/oar remo remo transport jejía jejía See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
plate plato prato culture-material See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
pot olla, pote panela, vasilha subsistence tool See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
basin/bowl tazón, plato hondo, taza tijela culture-material See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
griddle for cooking flatbread tiesto (Colombia), budare (Venezuela), tortera (Peru) forno para beiju subsistence tool puri puɾi agriculture? See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
rattle matraca, maraca marico, chocalho culture-mythology See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
resin resina, brea, copal resina, brea, breu subsistence tool See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
wax cera cera other See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
honey miel mel food only gathered in wild throughout Amazonia? See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
stone for lighting fires piedra para hacer fuego pedra para acender fogo culture-material See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
rope/string mecate, cuerda, soga corda culture See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
tattoo tatuaje, tatu tatuagem culture-mythology See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
thatch/roof crisneja palha, caraná culture-material t̪íija t̪íija See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
yurupari, jurupari (or any flutes forbidden to women) yurupari jurupari culture-mythology a ritual complex in various parts of Amazonia involving sacred flutes/trumpets, forbidden to women. See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
fetish, charm fetiche, encanto, filtro de amor, pusanga feitiço, puçanga culture-mythology See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
feather headdress plumaje, corona de plumas enfeite/capacete de penas culture-mythology See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
paint body, body paint pintura corporal pintura corporal culture-mythology See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
afterworld, land of dead, Heaven tierra do los muertos terra dos mortos culture-mythology See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
school escuela escola acculturation See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
bottle botella garrafa acculturation See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
paper papel papel acculturation See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
dream sueño, soñar sonho, sonhar culture-mythology tápu-ri (R01) tápu-ri (R01) See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
chicken gallina galinha acculturation See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
grave tumba, sepultura, sepulcro sepultura, sepulcro, cova culture-mythology rííri (R01) rííri (R01) See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
pipe for tobacco pipa cachimbo other See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
sugarcane/sugar azúcar, caña de azúcar açucar (de cana) acculturation See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
skirt falda, saya, fustan, pollera saia culture-material See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
shoes zapatos sapatos dress See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
policeman polícia policía acculturation See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
soldier soldado soldado acculturation See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
cat gato gato acculturation See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
gun arma, escopeta espingarda, fusil acculturation See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
hat sombero chapéu dress See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
chief/leader jefe, cacique chefe culture-mythology See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
club garrote, cachiporra clava, porrete subsistence tool See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
loincloth taparrabos, guayuco, pampanilla tanga, tapa-sexo dress See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
fireplace hogar lareira other See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
fishing line cordel/cuerda p/ pescar, sedal, tanze linha de pesca subsistence tool See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
salt sal sal food íiwi íiwi See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
song (generic) canción, canto canção culture-mythology pua 'sing' pua 'sing' See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
blowgun cerbatana, pucuna (Peru) zarabatana subsistence tool wápaʔna wápaʔna currently limited to certain groups (favoring h-g orientation, e.g. Nadahup) within RN region See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
dart (blowgun) dardo, birote (Peru), bala (Peru) dardo, seta subsistence tool kápit̪iri kápit̪iri hunting and warfare See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
fan abanico abanador, abano subsistence tool esp. for fanning a cooking fire See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
fish (with line) anzuelear, pescar con linea pescar (com linha) food See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
fish (with fish-poison) pescar con barbasco, barbasquear pescar com timbó; tinguijar food See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
hunt cazar caçar food See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
game animal caza, animal de caza caça, animal de caça food Interesting correlation to 'fish' in Tukanoan languages See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
gourd (dipper/bowl) cucharón, pate (Peru), totomo, totuma, totumo cuia subsistence tool kaʔrú kaʔɾú See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
grater rallador, rallo ralador, ralo subsistence tool áana áana esp. for grating manioc, but can be used for other things as well See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
grid of sticks for smoking meat or placing objects (shelf) barbacoa jirau subsistence tool See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
mortar mortero pilão subsistence tool See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
pestle pilón, mano de mortero, mazo, moledor mão de pilão subsistence tool See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
fermented drink masato, chicha caxiri, chicha culture prioritizes manioc beer where distinction is made See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
flour/meal from manioc fariña, mañoco (Venezuela); harina farinha food agriculture See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
flat bread, cassava bread pan de yuca, casabe/cazabe beiju food kúnhu kúnhu usually manioc; agriculture, but also can be made from certain wild seeds/fruits See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
starch (tapioca, other) almidón goma de tapioca food See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
tapioca drink, mingau cahuana, caguana mingau food agriculture See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
tipiti (manioc squeezer) tipiti, matafrio, sebucán, exprimador, prensa para yuca tipiti food word of Tupi origin; agriculture: specifically for squeezing poison out of manioc See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
tripod for washing manioc trípode tripé subsistence tool agriculture See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
venom for darts, poison veneno curare subsistence tool apári; manhé[t̪i] (R01) apári; manhé[t̪i] (R01) hunting, currently is falling out of use in Vaupés region, associated primarily with h-g groups (but this may be recent?) See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
woven strainer/sieve colador tejido, cedazo (Peru), cernedor (Peru) peneira, cumatá subsistence tool t̪íruri t̪íɾuɾi agriculture? commonly used for sifting dry manioc flour See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
bait for fishing cebo, carnada para pescar, empate (Peru) isca subsistence tool can refer to worms; more generic See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
fishtrap trampa de peces, trampa matapi, cacuri subsistence tool See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
bottom grinding stone manufacture if different word from top grinding stone See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
digging stick subsistence tool See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
top grinding stone metate, mano; piedra de moler metate, mano manufacture use word for top grinding stone if different from bottom stone See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
boomerang/throwing stick (generic) subsistence tool See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
spearthrower subsistence tool See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
house other paná paná See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE