smoke

Semantic Field
environment
Part of Speech
Meaning Spanish
humo
Meaning Portuguese
fumaça

Languages

Language Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Etymology Notes Source Created By General Notes
Bankalachi Toloim oo'-yet' 187 (suggests Yokuts “fire”) unknown Jane Hill
Big Smokey Valley Shoshone ku-kkwi-ppyh “smoke, ashes” inheritance Jane Hill
Cahuilla mi'-at inheritance S&H 1979 Jane Hill
Central Sierra Miwok hak:isa- inheritance Jane Hill
Chemehuevi kwihi/p(y) inheritance Jane Hill
Chumash Barbareno tow' inheritance Klar 1977:108 Jane Hill
Chumash Cruzeno loxkHsho unknown JPH Jane Hill
Chumash Ineseno tow' inheritance Klar 1977:108 Jane Hill
Chumash Obispeno (ch)tuwo7 inheritance Klar 1977:108 Jane Hill
Chumash Ventureno itow inheritance Klar 1977:108 Jane Hill
Cocopa xyay unknown Jane Hill
Comanche kwipY inheritance Jane Hill
Cupeño mi'a-t [miɁət] inheritance Jane Hill
Esselen tca-ha loan T&S 1981:117 Jane Hill
Gabrielino 7acya:n unknown Jane Hill
Iipay 'Aa 'uuhuy [Ɂuˑ˅ˈxʊi] unknown Jane Hill
Kawaiisu kwihi- “to be smokey” inheritance Jane Hill
Kiliwa 7-7aaw=phuuy unique Jane Hill
Kitanemuk mwa7t inheritance Jane Hill
Lake Miwok ka/al inheritance Jane Hill
Luiseño ku:mi-t inheritance Jane Hill
Maidu su\k'u/ inheritance Jane Hill
Mojave 7ahwaa unknown Jane Hill
Mutsun kaare-s (N) nom. of “to be smokey” inheritance NW (JPH) Jane Hill
Nisenan suk' inheritance Jane Hill
Northern Paiute kwii- (vb) inheritance Thornes 03:431 Jane Hill
Northern Sierra Miwok haksi- inheritance Jane Hill
Plains Miwok ka:lih, ka:lis inheritance Jane Hill
Salinan A Ta/te:t (A), ; unknown Jane Hill
Salinan M TatetH unknown Mason 1918:133 Jane Hill
Seri (Comcaac) hamca/axat unknown Jane Hill
Serrano mOa:-7t inheritance Jane Hill
Southern Paiute qwi:-G inheritance Jane Hill
Southern Sierra Miwok hak:is-aH- inheritance Jane Hill
Southern Ute kwiivY inheritance Jane Hill
Tübatulabal uujit unknown Jane Hill
Tümpisa Shoshone kukkwiippyh, kukkwiippi inheritance Jane Hill
Wappo cHi/n unknown Jane Hill
Washo dawya/c'im 112 unknown J112 Jane Hill
Western Mono kuhita7i- “to be smokey” inheritance Jane Hill
Wintu nu:q inheritance Jane Hill
Yavapai 7o\hWa/ya unique Jane Hill
Yokuts Palewyami muTka inheritance K 1963 Jane Hill
Yokuts Yawdanchi mod:ak 243 loan into protolanguage K07:243 Jane Hill
Yokuts Yowlumne mooT'ak' loan into protolanguage N1944 Jane Hill
Yuki woyam, woyom inheritance S&S 1984 Jane Hill
Baniwa íitta íit̪a inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
Carijona ərətʃitə inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
Cubeo bico biko inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely; Tanja Baeuerlein
Dâw mẽés mæ̃̌ʃ unique See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
Desano ímica ími ka inheritance See Language page Ana Paula; Tanja Baeuerlein
Eñepa wahto ičik wahto itʃik (cf. fire) unknown See Language page Melody Ann Ross
Hodï kulemihtu unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez
Waorani tẽbãa unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez, PLE
Hup j'ɨk ɟ'ɨ́k inheritance See Language page Pattie Epps
Makushi wɨreʔsin (SIL) wɨreʔsin (SIL) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross
Nheengatu tatatinga (tata=fogo, tinga=branco) tatatiŋga (tata=fogo, tinga=branco) inheritance See Language page John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
Ninam wakiši wakiʃ̌i inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
Maihiki bico ja biko xã inheritance See Language page Daniel Valle
Pemon apok keresen (A1981); iiköröching (E1980); ikörechin (M2000) apok keresen (A1981); ikörtʃɪŋ (E1980) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
Resígaro iítshú iítsʰú inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
Sanumá wãkiši (EM72) wãkiʃi inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
Sikuani jowiba (2) (to smoke), mataütsüxü (35)(vapor) ɨ́:-tsɨxɨ inheritance Sik-Cuiva-Playero group See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, Rebecca Khorram, PLE
Tariana haliá-kuɾu haliá-kuɾu unique loanblend, 'white' + Tuk kuru 'group' See Language page Ana Paula B.
Tukano o'mé o'mé inheritance E Tuk See Language page Ana Paula, Amanda Novak
Kotiria hu húú (stenz) unique See Language page D. Jagannathan, Tanja Bauerlein
Yanomam wakɨši (EM72) wakɨʃi inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
Yanomami koa wakə ši, wakeši (EM72) koa wakə ʃi, wakeʃi inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
Yukuna ija iha inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
Yuhup c'ɨ́k c'ɨ́k inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
Arabana thupu inheritance Claire Bowern
Bardi gunkurd kunkurd inheritance Claire Bowern
Bunuba binja unknown Claire Bowern
Burarra jolnga unknown Claire Bowern
Dhangu ŋawulul(') inheritance? Claire Bowern
Dhuwal ŋawulul(') Claire Bowern
Dhuwala ŋawulul(') inheritance Claire Bowern
Diyari thupu inheritance Claire Bowern
DiyariREU tupu inheritance Claire Bowern
Djambarrpuyngu 1893 inheritance Claire Bowern
Djapu ŋawulul(') inheritance Claire Bowern
Djinang ngarimbiy unknown Claire Bowern
Gajirrabeng genginy inheritance Claire Bowern
Gooniyandi wan.gi doubtful loan Claire Bowern
Gupapuyngu ŋawulul(') inheritance Claire Bowern
Gurindji jungkart inheritance Claire Bowern
Jabirr-Jabirr lubu lubu inheritance Claire Bowern
Jaru wan.gi doubtful loan Claire Bowern
Jawi koongoodor kungkudu inheritance Claire Bowern
Karajarri ngurrun inheritance Claire Bowern
Kija kungulu inheritance Claire Bowern
Malyangapa porndo loan direction unknown Claire Bowern
Mangala lunturru unknown Claire Bowern
Miriwung genginy inheritance Claire Bowern
Mithaka kutu inheritance Claire Bowern
Mudburra jungkarna Claire Bowern
Mudburra jungkarna inheritance Claire Bowern
Ngamini tupu inheritance Claire Bowern
Ngandi gu-bul unique Claire Bowern
Ngarluma burlgurn unique Claire Bowern
Ngumbarl boorgoon, marrja, ngool ngool <boorgoon, marrja, ngool ngool> inheritance Claire Bowern
Nhirrpi thupu inheritance Claire Bowern
Nimanburru bulgun bulkun inheritance Claire Bowern
Northern Mangarla yukun Claire Bowern
Northern Nyangumarta tuwi inheritance Claire Bowern
Nyangumarta jungan inheritance Claire Bowern
Nyikina ngururn; bugurru ngururn; bukurru inheritance Claire Bowern
Nyulnyul bulgurn bulkurn inheritance Claire Bowern
Paakantyi bundu Claire Bowern
Pirriya thurrka unique Claire Bowern
Pitta-Pitta kuthu inheritance Claire Bowern
Rirratjingu ŋawulul Claire Bowern
Ritharrngu X missing Claire Bowern
Walmajarri ngunyjurr inheritance Claire Bowern
Wangkayutyuru kutu inheritance Claire Bowern
Warrwa duwi duwi inheritance Claire Bowern
Wubuy ban unique Claire Bowern
Yan-nhangu buny'tjun unknown Claire Bowern
Yandruwandha thupu, makathupu, muki or muku inheritance Claire Bowern
Yarluyandi thupu inheritance Claire Bowern
Yawarrawarrka makatupu inheritance Claire Bowern
Yawuru ngurun ngurun inheritance Claire Bowern
Achagua í:sa í:sa inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
Piapoco ísa ísa See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
Kabiyari ít̪a-ri ít̪a-ɾi See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
Warekena ʃiariri ʃiariri See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
Yavitero ľ̥i'aľi; ľ̥i'aľiľi ľ̥i'aľi; ľ̥i'aľiľi See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
Wapishana tʰikʰaẓi šan tʰikʰaẓi ʃan inheritance Proto-Arawak? See Language page Ana Paula B.
Paresi jimere tʃimere unknown See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
Baure kotiso'kon kotiso'kon unique See Language page Anissa Capuccino
Waurá sĩyãla-'ki sĩjãla-'ki unique See Language page Joyce McCormick
Arutani šana ʃana See Language page John Blaha
Sape yui yui See Language page John Blaha
Bora oxtsʰo oxtsʰo unique See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
Muinane aimúu-ɸai(ʔu) {cloud-liquid/gas} aimúu-ɸai(ʔu) {cloud-liquid/gas} See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
Akawaio iigöröjiing, giiöröjiing igörödʒiŋ, giörödʒiŋ inheritance Proto-Carib See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin
Apalai orexĩto orexĩto inheritance See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
Wayana elësi elǝsi inheritance See Language page PLE
Tiriyó erei(nï) erei(nɨ) inheritance See Language page Becky Walker
Makiritare widīnčə (IDS); widi:nchö (KH) (also means 'vapor') widi:ntʃə inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
Mapoyo t-ë'in-ë (wa'to yë'inë) t-ɛ'in-ɛ (wa'to jɛ'inɛ) See Language page Melody Ann Ross
Wai Wai yɨ-sɨn yɨ-sɨn inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross
Yukpa eraku we'ts̺asku See Language page Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross
Kalapalo gitsitse gitsitse unknown See Language page Joyce McCormick
Muisca ie ie See Language page Daniel Valle
Northern Emberá kouwá kouwá See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, PLE
Macaguan bunámbe bunámbe unique See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
Cofán onfe´mba õɸɛʔᵐba See Language page Daniel Valle phonemic transcriptions are ESTIMATIONS
Candoshi-Shapra msaasi msaasi unique See Language page Daniel Valle
Páez a a See Language page Daniel Valle
Tikuna emã emã unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
Urarina sïḍzaa sʉtʃaa unique See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
Camsa ngóna ngóna See Language page Daniel Valle, Anissa Capuchino
Pumé chjö See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
Puinave ai; də-ai ai; də-ai unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
Máku čipe tʃipe See Language page PLE
Warao hekuhu hekuhu See Language page John Blaha
Ashuar mukúnit mukunit See Language page Daniel Valle
Huambisa mukuintu mukuintu See Language page Daniel Valle
Aguaruna bukunát bukunát inheritance See Language page Daniel Valle
Matses pushudquid puʃudkid unknown See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
Chácobo koʔini (also means "air" and "vapor") koʔini (also means "air" and "vapor") inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick
Yagua jidavachiy xindawatʃij unique See Language page Daniel Valle
Southern Pastaza Quechua cushni kuʃni See Language page Daniel Valle
Ingá kusni kusni See Language page Daniel Valle
Napo Lowland Quichua cushni kuʃmi See Language page Daniel Valle
Quechua Ayacuchano qosni, qosñi qosni, qosɲi See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
Piaroa okurä isopja ɤkuɾæ isɤpha unknown See Language page Amanda Novak, Becky Walker
Sáliva omiñu omiɲu unknown See Language page Becky Walker
Barasano bueri bueri See Language page D. Jagannathan, Tanja Baeuerlein
Carapana buseri busɛɾi See Language page Amanda Novak, Tanja Baeuerlein
Makuna bueri bueri inheritance See Language page Amanda Novak, D. Jagannathan, Tanja Bauerlein
Yuruti ɨ̃́bẽ ɨ̃́bẽ See Language page Ana Paula; Tanja Baeuerlein
Waikhana oʔ'bẽ oʔ'bẽ See Language page Ana Paula; Tanja Baeuerlein
Siriano miicã mii kã See Language page Ana Paula, Kelsey Neely
Tanimuca ũ'bã ka'ka ũ'bã ka'ka inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
Tatuyo bu'hé'-rí bu'hé'-rí See Language page Emily Buell, Paulina Franco
Tuyuka pe'ka-bẽ-õbẽ peʔka-bẽ-õbẽ See Language page D. Jagannathan, Paulina Franco, Ana Paula B.
Waimaja pékʰá bueřì pékʰá buerì See Language page Kelsey Neely
Koreguaje piko pikho inheritance See Language page Daniel Valle
Siona piko piko inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
Secoya pico pihkɔ See Language page Amanda N
Karitiana iso nhĩng, nhĩga iso ɲĩng, ɲĩga inheritance See Language page Daniel Valle
Kokama tatatini tatatini inheritance See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
Wayampi atãsĩ atãsĩ inheritance See Language page PLE
Sirionó tata-šĩ tata-šĩ inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
Kamayurá tatasing (K12) tatasing (K12) inheritance See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
Ocaina jahfíího haʔɸííʔo unique See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
Nɨpode Witoto úiǰï.e úidʒɯ.ɛ See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
Minica Witoto úiǰï.e úidʒɯ.ɛ See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
Murui Witoto uiǰï.e uidʒɯ.ɛ inheritance/Witoto See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
Iquito anajáca (same as cloud) anaháka (same as cloud) inheritance See Language page Cynthia Hansen
Záparo ahanaka ahanaka See Language page Becky Walker
Wari tainʔ tainʔ See Language page PLE Cf. 'cloud' 01.730; 'dust' 01.213.
Ese Ejja/Huarayo wičača wičača See Language page Joyce McCormick
Cavineña wani; wani-iru (G71) wani; wani-iru (G71) unique See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
Central Aymara jewq´e, jeq´e xiḳˀi See Language page PLE
Kwazá huja, hu-, hiñanũko, hinũnũ huja, hu-, hiñanũko, hinũnũ See Language page Joyce McCormick
Movima ɓuh-ru ɓuh-ru See Language page Anissa Capuccino, Becky Walker
Trumai soxden soxden unique See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
Kaingang nĩja nĩya; nĩya-ŋ; tũm tũm ke See Language page PLE
Djeoromitxi See Language page PLE