Nisenan

Family
Penutian
Region
North America
ISO 639-3
nsz
Location
38.05°, -120.39°
Notes
Features
Basic Vocabulary
Flora Fauna Vocabulary
Cultural Vocabulary
Ethnographic Information
Data Sources
none


Basic Vocabulary (185)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Etymology Notes Source Created By
above encima, arriba acima location hipin “up” inheritance Jane Hill
again de nuevo, otra vez de novo grammar kan, kanno inheritance Jane Hill
all todo todos other b2:ppaj unknown Jane Hill
and y e grammar han “and then” unknown Uldall & Shipley 1966 Jane Hill
ankle tobillo tornozelo body nyn “joint”?? inheritance Jane Hill
armpit axila, sobaco axila body k'owo: inheritance Jane Hill
ash ceniza(s) cinzas environment jol unknown Jane Hill
at en, a em, a location missing Jane Hill
back espalda costas body kiw, k'iw inheritance Jane Hill
bad mal mal quality 7os loan direction unknown Jane Hill
belly barriga barriga body 7e:la unknown Jane Hill
below abajo, debajo abaixo location k'awnandi inheritance Jane Hill
big grande grande quality muk' unknown Jane Hill
bite morder morder body do:, inheritance Jane Hill
black negro preto colour kylym inheritance? Jane Hill
blood sangre sangue body sedej inheritance Jane Hill
blow soplar soprar body by: inheritance Jane Hill
boil/pimple espinilla, granos espinha, borbulha body k'yt' “have a sore” unknown Jane Hill
bone hueso osso body bym inheritance Jane Hill
breast pecho, seno peito body min inheritance Jane Hill
breathe respirar respirar body honpin, honhepin inheritance Jane Hill
burn quemar queimar environment sa (vi), sati (vt) inheritance Jane Hill
chew masticar, mascar mastigar body w2l2k unknown Jane Hill
child niño, niña criança human pyjyty “children” unknown Jane Hill
climb subir subir motion k2lno unknown Jane Hill
cloud nube nuvem environment ja: inheritance (Ultan 1964) Jane Hill
cold frío frio quality b2k'2s (object) unknown Jane Hill
come venir vir motion 7ypin “approach” inheritance Jane Hill
cook cocinar cozinhar impact tokis unknown Jane Hill
correct/true verdad, de veras verdade quality mydyk “true”; inheritance Jane Hill
count contar contar mental missing Jane Hill
cry llorar chorar mental wo: inheritance Jane Hill
cut/hack cortar cortar impact syk'2lk'2l inheritance Jane Hill
day día dia time 7ok inheritance Jane Hill
die/be dead morir morrer state wo:n, wo:no inheritance Jane Hill
dig cavar cavar impact syk, sykwe inheritance Jane Hill
dingo/wolf fauna lolla inheritance Jane Hill
dirty sucio sujo quality k'awdyk “make full of dirt” inheritance Jane Hill
dream soñar sonhar mental nedi: inheritance Jane Hill
drink beber, tomar beber body mo:, moo inheritance Jane Hill
dry seco seco quality 7e:k'al inheritance Jane Hill
dull/blunt sin filo, mocho, desafilado, embotado, romo maçante, desamolado, não afiado quality missing Jane Hill
dust polvo poeira environment p'u:min unknown Jane Hill
ear oreja orelha body bono: inheritance Jane Hill
earth/soil tierra terra environment k'aw inheritance Jane Hill
eat comer comer body pajel inheritance Jane Hill
egg huevo ovo fauna pakpak inheritance Jane Hill
eye ojo olho body hi:n inheritance Jane Hill
faeces heces, mierda, excremento, estiércol fezes body pic'i inheritance Jane Hill
fall caer cair motion wonda: inheritance Jane Hill
far lejos longe quality lamdi inheritance Jane Hill
fat/grease grasa gordura body missing Jane Hill
father padre, papá pai kinship te unknown Jane Hill
fear miedo medo mental byk', by:k' unknown Jane Hill
feather pluma pena fauna je “wing feathers” inheritance Jane Hill
fire fuego fogo environment sa, sa: inheritance Jane Hill
fish xx xx fauna pala inheritance Jane Hill
flow fluir fluir motion jo:no inheritance Jane Hill
flower flor flor environment jo: inheritance Jane Hill
fly volar voar motion hu:no unknown Jane Hill
fog niebla, neblina nevoeira, bruma, neblina environment ja:bo: inheritance Jane Hill
foot pie body paj; inheritance Jane Hill
fruit fruta fruta flora missing Jane Hill
good bueno bom quality wen, wenme inheritance Jane Hill
grow crecer crescer state ne: inheritance Jane Hill
hair (of head) cabello cabelo body 7ono “head hair” inheritance Jane Hill
hand mano mão body ma: inheritance Jane Hill
3sg el/ella ele/ela grammar my inheritance Jane Hill
head cabeza cabeça body 7ono inheritance Jane Hill
hear oír ouvir mental pin inheritance Jane Hill
heavy pesado pesado quality wisap' inheritance Jane Hill
hide esconder esconder motion hujo (tr) unknown Jane Hill
hit golpear, pegar bater impact w2 inheritance Jane Hill
hold correr, asegurar, sostener segurar other sido:do (in the hand), inheritance Jane Hill
how? como como grammar homa:ti/n inheritance Text p. 22 S 12 Jane Hill
1sg yo eu grammar ni inheritance Jane Hill
if si se grammar missing Jane Hill
in/inside dentro, adentro dentro location honna:n inheritance Jane Hill
intestines intestinos intestinos body k2: unknown Jane Hill
itch hormiguear, sentir comezón coçar body sy:k'yj inheritance Jane Hill
kill matar matar impact wo:nti inheritance Jane Hill
know/be knowledgeable saber, conecer saber, conhecer mental 7esak' “understand, recognize” unknown Jane Hill
lake lago lago environment kaje unknown Jane Hill
laugh reír rir mental d2:, d2:7 unknown Jane Hill
leaf hoja folha environment bakkal, bakka:l unknown Jane Hill
left/left hand izquierdo esquerdo location/body daku, dakuna:n inheritance Jane Hill
leg/foot pierna perna body lu:l inheritance Jane Hill
lie down acostarse, echarse deitar motion nynk'oju unknown Jane Hill
lightning rayo, relámpago relampago environment wisp'il inheritance Jane Hill
live/be alive vivir viver, morar body wada “alive” inheritance Jane Hill
liver hígado figado body kylla inheritance Jane Hill
long largo comprido, longo quality lamdi inheritance Jane Hill
louse piollo, piojo piolho fauna di (head louse) inheritance Jane Hill
lung pulmón pulmão body huhu: Ultan 1964 inheritance Jane Hill
man/male hombre homem human jep' inheritance Jane Hill
meat/flesh carne carne fauna kyjysy “animal, meat” unknown Jane Hill
moon luna lua environment po:mbok inheritance Jane Hill
mother madre, mamá mãe kinship ne inheritance Jane Hill
mouth boca boca body sim inheritance Jane Hill
name nombre nome human ha, ja, ja:, jawi:- (v); hesi japebe my:m “what is his name?” inheritance Jane Hill
nape base del cuello, nuca nuca body missing Jane Hill
near/close cerca de perto quality hoj, hojdi inheritance Jane Hill
neck cuello pescoço body k'ujsok' inheritance Jane Hill
new nuevo novo quality be:j inheritance Jane Hill
night noche noite time po:, po:ho inheritance Jane Hill
no/not no não grammar m7m unknown Jane Hill
nose nariz nariz body ko:l unknown Jane Hill
old viejo velho quality ne: inheritance Jane Hill
one uno um number witte: unknown Jane Hill
open/uncover abrir abrir other pylk'oj inheritance Jane Hill
other otro outro grammar c'aj inheritance Jane Hill
pain/painful/sick dolor, doloroso, enfermo dor, doloroso, doente body wamaj “sick” unknown Jane Hill
person/human being persona pessoa human majdyk (?) inheritance Jane Hill
pound/beat machacar, golpear bater impact juluj unknown Jane Hill
rain lluvia chuva environment ba:j unknown Jane Hill
red rojo vermelho colour lak (?) inheritance Jane Hill
right/right hand derecha direita location/body jimdykna:n inheritance Jane Hill
road/path camino caminho manufacture bo: inheritance Jane Hill
root raíz raiz flora pi:to7 “basket root” (Y. whipplei??) inheritance Jane Hill
rotten podrido podre quality missing Jane Hill
sand arena areia environment 7a:hil unknown Jane Hill
say decir dizer mental ha-, inheritance Jane Hill
scratch rascar rasgar impact syk'yj inheritance Jane Hill
see ver ver mental by, bu, IP unknown Jane Hill
sharp afilado, filudo, filoso afiado quality tok inheritance Jane Hill
shoot tirar, disparar, balear atirar impact my: loan into protolanguage Jane Hill
short corto curto quality t'un unknown Jane Hill
shoulder hombro ombro body da/dat unknown Ultan 1964:368 Jane Hill
shy/ashamed tímido, vergonzoso timido, com vergonha mental missing Jane Hill
sit sentar(se) sentar state 7o:c'us unknown Jane Hill
skin piel pele body po inheritance Jane Hill
sky cielo céu environment missing Jane Hill
sleep dormir dormir body tuj inheritance Jane Hill
small pequeño pequeno quality la:j unknown Jane Hill
smoke humo fumaça environment suk' inheritance Jane Hill
sniff/smell olfatear, oler cheirar body hi: inheritance Jane Hill
spit escupir cuspir body do:da “spit out” inheritance Jane Hill
split partir, dividir rachar, dividir, partir impact wac'a:t unknown Jane Hill
squeeze estrujar, exprimir espremer impact k'atapsip (squeeze out solid sbs inheritance Jane Hill
stab/pierce apuñalar, acuchillar apunhalar impact jyj unknown Jane Hill
stand estar de pié ficar em pé state be:dok'oj unknown Jane Hill
star estrella estrela environment mo:lo, unknown Jane Hill
steal robar roubar other w2lk2t unknown Jane Hill
stick/wood palo pau, vara flora c'a, c'a: inheritance Jane Hill
stone piedra pedra environment 7o: inheritance Jane Hill
suck chupar chupar body jom (as shaman) loan into protolanguage Jane Hill
sweat sudar suor, suar body helop' unknown Jane Hill
swell hincharse inchar body widus unknown Jane Hill
swim nadar nadar motion pic'i inheritance Jane Hill
tail cola, rabo rabo body buk inheritance Jane Hill
that ese/esa esse grammar my:, inheritance Jane Hill
3pl ellos/ellas eles/elas grammar myse, mysa, etc. inheritance Jane Hill
thick grueso, gordo, espeso grosso quality di:l (of liquid) unknown Jane Hill
thin delgado fino quality c'y:ka unknown Jane Hill
think pensar pensar mental hontak'oj inheritance Jane Hill
this este/esta este grammar hede, hedem inheritance Jane Hill
2sg xx xx grammar mi inheritance Jane Hill
three tres tres number sapwij inheritance Jane Hill
throat garganta garganta body so:tolo, soto:lo unknown Jane Hill
throw tirar, lanzar atirar, jogar impact bo:, bo7o, inheritance Jane Hill
thunder truenos trovão environment jowwo: inheritance Jane Hill
tie up/fasten atar, amarrar amarrar impact b2l2w unknown Jane Hill
tongue lengua lingua body 7al inheritance Jane Hill
tooth diente dente body missing Jane Hill
turn girar, volter, torcer virar other w2c'2t unknown Jane Hill
two dos dois number pe:n inheritance Jane Hill
vomit vomitar vomitar body we: inheritance Jane Hill
walk caminar, andar andar motion he unknown Jane Hill
water agua agua environment mom inheritance Jane Hill
1pl.excl nosotros (exclusivo) nós (exclusivo) grammar missing Jane Hill
1pl.incl nosotros (inclusivo) nós (inclusivo) grammar ne:s, na:s (dl) inheritance Jane Hill
wet mojado molhado quality c'y:ta,c'y:te, unknown Jane Hill
what? que, qué que grammar homa: inheritance Jane Hill
when? cuando quando grammar missing Jane Hill
where? donde onde grammar homo inheritance Jane Hill
white blanco branco colour kow “silvery white” inheritance Jane Hill
who? quien, quién quem grammar homo, homoky:m inheritance Jane Hill
wife esposa esposa kinship kyle inheritance Jane Hill
wind viento vento environment by:je inheritance Jane Hill
wing ala asa body je: wing feathers inheritance Jane Hill
woman/female mujer mulher human kyle inheritance Jane Hill
work trabajar trabalhar other tawal, tawhal (Sp) loan Jane Hill
yawn bostezar bocejar body ha:w unknown Jane Hill
yellow amarillo amarelo colour missing Jane Hill
2pl ustedes vocês grammar mimik'e inheritance Jane Hill


Flora Fauna Vocabulary (130)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Linnean Name Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Range of Term Word Structure Word Structure Notes Classifier Classifier Notes Hypernym Source Association with Social Categories Ritual/Mythologically Significant Ritual Notes Food Source Food Notes Medicinal Medicinal Notes How Collected Who Collects How Prepared Psychotropic Psychotropic Notes Traded Trade Notes Distribution Habitat Dangerous Ethnobiology Notes Species Notes General Notes Created By
abalone flora-fauna Haliotis spp. 7ə:ləw abalone shell unique underived note 7ələw “necklace” ?? Uldall & Shipley 1966 2 1 0 0 1 no
ant (generic) hormiga formiga flora-fauna Formicidae pyc'y: ant inheritance Maiduan Maidu pyc'y/, pyc'y/mi underived Uldall & Shipley 1966 0 0 2 0 0 no
antelope flora-fauna Antilocapra americana nah'-ŏ; now'-o; now antelope unique looks familiar, like UA “meat” word -- where have I seen? underived Merriam 57:229 2 1 0 0 0 no
badger flora-fauna Taxidea taxus peem' badger unique looks like the weird 'badger' word in Tubatulabal underived Merriam 57:229 2 1 0 0 0 yes
bald eagle flora-fauna Haliaeetus leucocephalus took-took' bald eagle unique reduplicated Merriam 57:233 1 2 0 0 1 no
band-tail pigeon flora-fauna Patagioenas fasciata hanhan pigeon inheritance Maiduan Maidu hah'-nim (CHM) reduplicated Uldall & Shipley 1966 0 1 0 0 0 no
bat murciélago morcego flora-fauna Chiroptera spp aw-lel-lel, aw-lă-lĕh'; o'-le-lā; bat loan Sierra Miwok direction unknown; Note Mins 7ul:el:e- reduplicated Merriam 57:229 0 1 0 0 0 no
beaver flora-fauna Castor pa:nc'aka beaver unique other complex morphology unknown Uldall & Shipley 1966 2 1 0 0 0 no
beetle flora-fauna Coleoptera spp doo-bis-toon big dung beetle unique phrase morphology unknown Merriam 57:243 2 0 0 0 0 no
big round tule flora-fauna Schoenoplectus acutus juje: tule unique underived 2 1 2 0 0 no
big skunk flora-fauna Mephitis mephitis bu: skunk (CHM confirms big skunk) unique underived bu: break wind, stink Uldall & Shipley 1966 2 2 0 0 0 no
big wolf (gray wolf) flora-fauna Canis lupus lolla wolf unique underived Uldall & Shipley 1966 1 2 0 0 0 yes
bighorn sheep flora-fauna Ovis canadensis wah-tā-kah bighorn unique underived Merriam 57:229 2 1 0 0 0 no
bird pajaro, ave passaro flora-fauna koo'-sum, koo-soo bird unique underived Merriam 57:241 0 0 0 0 0 no
black ant flora-fauna Camponotus pennsylvanicus/Lasius niger bu:pepe small black stinking ant unique relative clause bu: break wind, stink Uldall & Shipley 1966 2 0 0 0 0 no
black bear flora-fauna Ursus americanus kapa bear (CHM koo'-loo-mim kah-pah; em-mol-im kah-pah; em-mŭl “black bear” loan unknown WW %paha underived Uldall & Shipley 1966 1 2 0 0 0 yes
black-tail Jackrabbit flora-fauna Lepus californicus bo:je: rabbit (Merriam confirms black-tail jackrabbit unique underived Uldall & Shipley 1966 2 1 0 0 0 no
blackberry flora-fauna Rubus ursinus 7enna:n blackberry loan Miwok Mie form; note Mutsun 7e:nena -- Utian? underived Uldall & Shipley 1966 2 1 2 0 0 no
blue grouse flora-fauna Dendrogapus? hyk' grouse (CHM confirms) inheritance *hyk' Maiduan Ultan 1964:363 #87 underived Uldall & Shipley 1966 0 1 0 0 0 no
bobcat, lynx flora-fauna Lynx rufus too'-loo-koo bobcat loan Sierra Miwok areal form; Miwokan *tol: ... WW %tuku underived Merriam 57:227 1 2 0 0 0 no
butterfly, moth mariposa borboleta flora-fauna Lepidoptera ko-wah'-wah butterfly unique reduplicated Merriam 57:243 2 0 0 0 0 no
California condor flora-fauna Gymnogyps californianus ko:k', mol'-lok (CHM) condor, vulture; Merriam has mol'-lok 57:233 loan Miwok underived Uldall & Shipley 1966 1 2 0 0 1 no
California jay flora-fauna Aphelocoma californica? c'ajit bluejay loan unknown areal form; Note Mis *Tajich, PW *ch'ayi(:)k “scrub jay” Shepherd 2005 WW %chaj underived Uldall & Shipley 1966 2 1 0 0 0 no
California woodpecker flora-fauna Melanerpes formicivorus? panaka California woodpecker loan into protolanguage Maiduan unknown California form WW %palaka ~ %pana(k) underived Uldall & Shipley 1966 2 1 0 0 1 no
chia flora-fauna Salvia columbariae missing missing missing 1 1 1 0 0 no
chipmunk flora-fauna Tamias spp. pe-soo' chipmunk loan Sierra Miwok pe-soo' is Sierra Miwok loan underived Merriam 57:231 2 1 0 0 0 no
cliff swallow flora-fauna Petrochelidon pyrrhonota aw'tet cliff swallow (barn: taw-taw-poo') unique underived Merriam 57:235 2 1 0 0 0 no
coot flora-fauna Fulica americana tol'-lok coot loan Sierra Miwok Mip tohkol, tok:ol, and in Mins underived Merriam 57:239 2 1 0 0 0 no
cottontail rabbit flora-fauna Sylvilagus audobonii pala:l cottontail inheritance *pal Maiuduan Callaghan 2001:26 #109 underived Uldall & Shipley 1966 2 1 0 0 0 no
cottonwood flora-fauna Populus spp. wah-dă-dah'um chah; wad'-dă-dah; dă-dak'-ă-sim' chan; dak-kas cottonwood unique Note E. miwoak tat:a(h)k(:)al in Mip, Miss, Mics phrase Merriam 57:245 2 0 2 0 0 no
coyote flora-fauna Canis latrans 7ole coyote inheritance *7ole:(l) Maiduan Ultan 1964:368 #308; Miwokan *7ole- Callaghan 1971:1997:58; 2001:325 suggests “deep borrowing” -- why “deep” if exact match?? Why not recent? underived Uldall & Shipley 1966 1 2 0 0 0 no
crow flora-fauna Corvus brachyrhynchos 7a:k' crow loan unknown widespread similar areal forms underived Uldall & Shipley 1966 2 1 0 0 0 no
datura flora-fauna Datura wrightii missing missing missing 1 1 1 1 0 yes
deer, mule flora-fauna Odocoileus hemionus k'ut' deer inheritance *k'ut' Maiduan Ultan 1964: 364 # 146 underived Uldall & Shipley 1966 2 1 0 0 0 no
digger pine flora-fauna Pinus sabiniana tawn'-nim chah to:nim c'a: digger pine tree (nut is tawn (U&S to:n) inheritance *towán Maiduan Ultan 1964: 367 #267; Callaghan 2001:324 notes Pynim *tHo:ngash “digger pine nut”, Wpcc 'tuwa: “pine tree” phrase Merriam 57:245 2 1 2 0 0 no
dog (camp, domestic) perro cachorro flora-fauna Canis familiaris sukku dog loan Wintu (or Northern Sierra Miwok) Compare Sierra Miwokan *chuku, Wintun *sukku WW %suku underived Uldall & Shipley 1966 0 0 0 0 0 no
dogbane flora-fauna Apocynum cannabinum poo' Apocynum (red kind) inheritance “poo” Maiduan underived Merriam 57:251 2 1 2 0 0 no
dove paloma pomba flora-fauna Zenaida macrocoura pulba dove unique Note PW *puluq Shepherd 2005 underived Uldall & Shipley 1966 2 1 0 0 0 no
duck pato pato, marreco flora-fauna Anatidae poje, poje: duck unique underived Uldall & Shipley 1966 0 1 0 0 0 no
elder flora-fauna Sambucus k'ak'am elderberry OK CHM) unique reduplicated Uldall & Shipley 1966 2 1 1 0 0 no
elk flora-fauna Cervas elaphus win elk unique underived Uldall & Shipley 1966 2 1 0 0 0 no
fish (generic) pez peixe flora-fauna pala fish unique underived Uldall & Shipley 1966 0 1 0 0 0 no
flea pulga pulga flora-fauna Siphonaptera toon'-koos; took-koos; tŭ-koos' flea inheritance Maiduan Maidu tyk'y/si; Note Miwokan *ky:ky$ underived Merriam 57:243 2 0 0 0 0 no
flicker flora-fauna Colaptes sp. wal-lah-luk, wal'-lal-lok flicker unique reduplicated Merriam 57:233 2 1 0 0 1 no
blowfly/housefly mosca mosca flora-fauna Diptera hu:, hu:no fly (CHM has em-mă-loo-lă) unique underived Uldall & Shipley 1966 0 0 0 0 0 no
foothills yucca flora-fauna Yucca whipplei missing missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
fox flora-fauna Vulpes, Urocyon haw fox (Merriam confirms Urocyon, gray fox) loan into protolanguage *haw Maiduan unknown Ultan 1964:363 #59; Callaghan 2001:325 matches PW *ha:w, Pynim *7aw'chHa- WW %kaw underived Uldall & Shipley 1966 2 2 0 0 0 no
frog (generic) flora-fauna potpoto; wah'-kaht frog loan Wintun potpot is Miwokan frog word WW %wakat reduplicated Uldall & Shipley 1966; Merriam 57:241 2 2 0 0 0 no
golden eagle flora-fauna Aquila chrysaetos pej eagle unique underived Uldall & Shipley 1966 1 2 0 0 1 no
gooseberry flora-fauna Ribes spp. yū-hem gooseberry inheritance Maiduan Maidu jyhémi underived Merriam 57:249 2 1 1 0 0 no
gopher snake, bull snake flora-fauna Pituophis catenifer ho:tot' bull snake unique reduplicated 2 2 0 0 0 no
grass hierba, pasto capim, grama flora-fauna (NA) potto tall grass, tule; green brush willow (CHM gives for “grass”, along with po-paw' Merriam 57:253 unique Note Mins po:ca- underived Uldall & Shipley 1966 0 0 0 0 0 no
grasshopper flora-fauna Caelifera 7en grasshopper CHM “any kind” (also bŭ-daw; koon, yoon unique underived Uldall & Shipley 1966; Merriam 57:243 2 1 0 0 0 no
gray ground squirrel flora-fauna Sphermophilus sp. hiləw ground squirrel inheritance Maiduan Ultan 1964:368 #332 no reconstruction proposed underived Uldall & Shipley 1966 2 1 0 0 0 no
gray tree squirrel flora-fauna Sciurus spp. ky:hy gray squirrel (CHM confirms gray tree squirrel) unique underived Uldall & Shipley 1966 2 1 0 0 0 no
great horned owl flora-fauna Bubo virginianus hymhym horned owl unique underived Uldall & Shipley 1966 1 2 2 0 1 no
grizzly bear flora-fauna Ursus arctos horribilis tah'-kah-pah'; kah'-pah grizzly bear loan unknown WW %paha phrase Merriam 57:227 1 2 0 0 0 yes
horned toad flora-fauna Phrynosomatidae 7okopejpej horned toad unique compound, reduplicated 7oko, -pej meanings unknown Uldall & Shipley 1966 2 2 2 0 0 no
horse caballo cavalho flora-fauna Equus caballus kawa:ju Horse loan Spanish WW %caballo underived Uldall & Shipley 1966 0 0 0 0 0 no
hummingbird colibrí, picaflor (Peru) beija-flor flora-fauna Trochilidae li:c'i:c'i; lis-nŏ hummingbird (lis-no form is CHM Merriam 57:237, he also has other form) loan Sierra Miwok Identical form in Sierra Miwok (all) reduplicated Uldall & Shipley 1966 0 0 0 0 0 no
tobacco tabaco tabaco flora-fauna Nicotiana spp. pan Indian tobacco loan into protolanguage *pan Maiduan Sierra Miwok Ultan 1964: 365: #197 WW %pa7mo underived Uldall & Shipley 1966 1 1 1 1 0 yes
insect (generic) insecto insecto flora-fauna generic missing missing missing 0 0 2 0 0 variable
junco flora-fauna Junco sppp too-toon, tŭ-tŭn; too'-ten Junco unique reduplicated Merriam 57:235 0 1 0 0 0 no
juniper flora-fauna Juniperus californica missing missing missing 2 1 1 0 0 no
louse flora-fauna order Phtiraptera di head louse inheritance Maiduan Ultan 1964:362 #49 underived Uldall & Shipley 1966 2 0 0 0 0 no
mallard flora-fauna Anas platyrhynchos poje, poje: mallard (Merriam) unique underived Merriam 57:239 2 1 0 0 0 no
manzanita flora-fauna Arctostaphylos spp. mok'os big manzanita (also koto, berries best CHM Merriam 57:247 unique underived Uldall & Shipley 1966 2 1 1 0 0 no
milkweed, broad leaf flora-fauna Asclepias eriocarpa me-wăh; poo'?; awm'-poo A. eriocarpa inheritance “poo” Maiduan Maidu 'om-poo (CHM) phrase earth-string.plant Merriam 57:251 2 1 1 0 0 no
milkweed, narrow leaf flora-fauna Asclepias fascicularis tim-tim A. fascicularis unique reduplicated Merriam 57:251 0 1 young plants eaten for greens 1 0 0 no
mission tule flora-fauna Juncus missing missing missing 2 1 2 0 0 no
mockingbird flora-fauna Mimus polyglottos sikaltu mockingbird unique other complex morphology unknown Uldall & Shipley 1966 2 1 0 0 0 no
mosquito mosquito, zancudo mosquito, carapana flora-fauna Anopheles spp, Isoptera dŭ-kel'-le-loo; dŭ-kah-loo-loo duk'utduk'ut “gnats” U&S mosquito unique reduplicated Merriam 57:243 0 0 0 0 0 no
moth mariposa nocturna, polilla mariposa flora-fauna Heterocera hoom-chen-nah sphynx moth unique phrase hum- X Merriam 57:243 2 0 0 0 0 no
mountain lion flora-fauna Puma concolor hilit' panther loan Sierra Miwok Mie *hi:li:ca- underived Uldall & Shipley 1966 1 2 0 0 0 yes
mountain quail flora-fauna Oreortyx pictus hōl'-up mountain quail unique underived Merriam 57:233 2 1 0 0 0 no
mussel flora-fauna Mytilus spp. ah-nah mussel (fresh water) unique underived Merriam 57:243 2 1 0 0 1 no
olivella (olive snail) flora-fauna Callianax biplicata missing missing missing 2 2 0 0 1 no
pinyon jay flora-fauna Cyanocitta stelleri? chahp-chahp c'a crested jay, cyanocitta unique reduplicated Uldall & Shipley 1966 2 1 0 0 0 no
pinyon pine flora-fauna Pinus monophylla missing missing missing 2 1 2 0 1 no
pismo clam flora-fauna Tivella stultorum missing missing missing 2 1 0 0 1 no
pocket gopher flora-fauna Thomomys hemeji gopher inheritance *hemej Maiduan Shipley 1961:51 underived Uldall & Shipley 1966 2 1 0 0 0 no
poison oak flora-fauna Toxicodendron diversilobum c'itok' poison oak inheritance *c'itók' Maiduan Ultan 1964:362 #32 underived Uldall & Shipley 1966 2 2 2 0 0 yes
rattlesnake flora-fauna Crotalus spp. kojmo rattlesnake unique underived Uldall & Shipley 1966 1 2 0 0 0 yes
red ant flora-fauna Solenopsis spp pan-nan'-nok, u'-lah-lok; ut'-ah-ut'-ah small red ant, sm.r.a./ large r.a. unique reduplicated Merriam 57:243 1 0 1 0 0 no
red-shouldered blackbird flora-fauna Agelaius phoeniceus wut; mi-dik-kum chahk (= man, male) red-winged blackbird loan unknown WW %chak underived Merriam 57:235 2 1 0 0 0 no
red-tailed hawk flora-fauna Buteo jamaicensis lel'-lĕ; lil'-ly red-tailed hawk unique reduplicated Merriam 57:233 2 2 0 0 0 no
roadrunner flora-fauna Geococcyx californianus oo'-e-oo'-e road runner loan Sierra Miwok note Mie *uj:uj:u- Callaghan 1997:60, Proto-Yokuts *7oj7uj from *u:j7uj; also Nisenan oo'-e-oo'-e (roadrunner CHM) WW %uji reduplicated Merriam 57:233 2 1 0 0 0 no
ruddy duck flora-fauna Oxyura jamaicensis aw-tok-kĕ Ruddy duck unique other complex morphology unknown Merriam 57:239 2 1 0 0 0 no
sage herb flora-fauna Artemisia californica toom A. ludoviciana unique underived Merriam 57:251 2 2 1 for medicine and poultice CHM 0 0 no
salmon/steelhead flora-fauna Oncorhynchus mykiss maj salmon (CHM confirms) inheritance *maj-(hi) Maiduan Ultan 1964: 364 # 158 underived Uldall & Shipley 1966 2 1 0 0 0 no
scaly lizard flora-fauna Pygopus lepidopodus? p'ic'ak', pitc'ak' lizard (Merriam confirms scaly lizard Merriam 57:241 inheritance *pít-c'ak' Maiduan Ultan 1964: 366 # 208 underived Uldall & Shipley 1966 2 2 0 0 0 no
small bird flora-fauna putchet koo-sum, no-ni-jem yā-pin koo-sum pyjyty “small” small bird unique phrase Merriam 57:241 2 1 0 0 0 no
small brown lizard flora-fauna pit'-too-kul small brown lizard (Uta) unique Compare Miwokan *pit:e:le- (approx recon) WW %petel underived Merriam 57:241 2 2 0 0 0 no
snake (generic) culebra, serpiente cobra flora-fauna kojmo Merriam confirms snake (any); also haw'-tot unique underived Merriam 57:241 0 1 0 0 0 no
soaproot flora-fauna Chlorogalum haw C. pomeridianum unique underived Merriam 57:253 2 1 1 0 0 no
sour berry flora-fauna Rhus trilobata wal'-lŭmim chah sour berry (wal'-lum the berries) unique phrase chah; the plant Merriam 57:249 2 1 1 0 0 no
sparrow hawk flora-fauna Falco missing missing missing 2 2 0 0 0 no
spider araña aranha flora-fauna Arachnida, Araneae pysay spider (CHM “common spider”; poison is pok-kon; also mah'-dah'te) unique underived Uldall & Shipley 1966 0 0 2 0 0 variable
spotted skunk flora-fauna Spilogale gracilis bed'-den' little spotted skunk unique underived Merriam 57:229 2 2 0 0 0 no
toad sapo sapo flora-fauna Bufonidae wah-kok-kok toad unique reduplicated Merriam 57:241 2 2 0 0 0 no
tree árbol arvore flora-fauna (NA) c'a: tree, wood, stick inheritance *c'ah Maiduan Ultan 1964:362 #23 underived Uldall & Shipley 1966 0 0 2 0 0 no
tree yucca flora-fauna Yucca schidegera missing missing missing 2 1 0 0 0 no
turkey buzzard flora-fauna Cathartes aura ko:k', hoos (CHM) vulture, condor; Merriam has hoos, hŭs:57-233 loan into protolanguage Northern Sierra Miwok WW %hus underived Uldall & Shipley 1966 2 2 0 0 0 no
turtle (generic) flora-fauna Testudines 7awan turtle loan Sierra Miwok Miwokan *7awan:a, *7aw:an(a) Callaghan 1997:609 and Bodega Dic WW %awan underived Uldall & Shipley 1966 2 2 0 0 1 no
valley live oak flora-fauna Quercus agrifolia bah'-bahk Q. agrifolia unique reduplicated Merriam 57:245 2 1 2 0 1 no
valley oak flora-fauna Quercus lobata palla: (CHM pah-lahm chah) water oak unique underived Uldall & Shipley 1966 2 1 2 0 1 no
valley quail flora-fauna Callipepla californica hanpaj quail unique includes “pigeon” element han- compound han- pigeon, dove -paj foot, track Uldall & Shipley 1966 2 1 0 0 0 no
Washington clam flora-fauna Saxidomus nuttalli missing missing missing 2 1 0 0 1 no
Western Canada goose flora-fauna Branta canadensis lo: honker goose inheritance Maiduan Compare Mis forms, e.g. Mins low:ot-u- Maidu lo underived Uldall & Shipley 1966 0 1 0 0 0 no
whale flora-fauna Eschrichtius robustus missing missing missing 2 1 2 0 1 no
white pelican flora-fauna Pelicanus erythrorhynchos missing missing missing 0 2 0 0 0 no
wild grapevine flora-fauna Vitis californica piw (US) sool (CHM) piw sul? grapevine (the grapes, pe'-mim inheritance *piw Maiduan Ultan 1964: 366 #209 phrase Uldall & Shipley 1966 2 1 2 0 0 no
wild oats flora-fauna Avena (introduction) 7ato:sy: oats loan Spanish WW %arroz underived Uldall & Shipley 1966 2 1 2 0 0 no
wild rose flora-fauna Rosa californica yaw'-um chan; yaw wild rose unique yaw is “flower” phrase Merriam 57:249 0 1 2 0 0 no
wild sunflower flora-fauna Helianthus (and other genera) missing missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
willow flora-fauna Salix spp. ty:ttyt; c'uju: S. lasiolepis; c'uju is S. hindsiana (CHM Merriam 57:247) unique underived Uldall & Shipley 1966 2 2 1 0 0 no
wood rat, round-tail flora-fauna Neotoma spp. wat'i rat unique underived Uldall & Shipley 1966 2 1 0 0 0 no
worm, hairy caterpillar flora-fauna Arctiidae (many species) e'-poo hairy caterpillar unique underived Merriam 57:243 2 2 0 0 0 no
worm, smooth caterpillar flora-fauna Trichoplusia ni (?) cabbage looper wakaj army-worm (CHM smooth caterpillar) inheritance *k'aj(-) Maiduan Ultan 1964:364 #126 underived Uldall & Shipley 1966 2 2 0 0 0 no
yellow jacket flora-fauna Vespula spp., Dolichovespula spp. 7e:pen yellowjacket inheritance *7e:pén Maiduan Ultan 1964: 368 #300; I think there are other -pen- “bee” words; find underived Uldall & Shipley 1966 2 0 0 0 0 no
yellowbird flora-fauna Dendroica petechia chet'-tek yellowbird, Astragalinus unique underived Merriam 57:237 0 1 0 0 0 no
yerba santa flora-fauna Eriodictyon californicum chahk yerba santa unique underived Merriam 57:249 2 1 1 make tea for colds 0 0 no
ant (generic) hormiga formiga flora-fauna pyc'y: inheritance Jane Hill
bird pajaro, ave passaro flora-fauna unknown Jane Hill
blowfly/housefly mosca mosca flora-fauna unknown Jane Hill
dog (camp, domestic) perro cachorro flora-fauna sukku loan direction unknown Jane Hill
grass hierba, pasto capim, grama flora-fauna missing Jane Hill
deer venado veado, cariacu flora-fauna k'ut' inheritance Jane Hill
snake (generic) culebra, serpiente cobra flora-fauna hi:k'i (big) unknown Jane Hill
spider araña aranha flora-fauna pyssy unknown Jane Hill


Cultural Vocabulary (115)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Word Structure Word Structure Notes General Notes Source Created By
acorn mush food c'o:ja medium thick acorn soup inheritance Proto-Maiduan JHH: CHM's Maidu si-yahm (m is suffix) is probably the same); see pinole simplex Uldall & Shipley 1966 Jane Hill
ball game food 7amta name of ball game loan Northern Sierra Miwok simplex Uldall & Shipley 1966 Jane Hill
afterworld, land of dead, Heaven tierra do los muertos terra dos mortos culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
feather headband dress wu:tut headdress unique simplex Uldall & Shipley 1966 Jane Hill
arrow flecha flecha subsistence tool 7olaw arrow unique simplex Uldall & Shipley 1966 Jane Hill
arrow straightener other nak straighten (arrow, etc.) unique simplex Uldall & Shipley 1966 Jane Hill
bait for fishing cebo, carnada para pescar, empate (Peru) isca subsistence tool missing missing Jane Hill
school escuela escola acculturation 7isku:l school loan English WW %school simplex Uldall & Shipley 1966 Jane Hill
stone bowl culture-material missing missing Jane Hill
basket (general) canasta, canasto, cesta cesto culture-material p'ëllës ë: U&S's schwa basket (generic term, usually used for rather large baskets) inheritance Proto-Maiduan JHH, see Maidu 'carrying net' other complex p'ël- is root but derivation is not productive Uldall & Shipley 1966 Jane Hill
basket, small canasta, canasto, cesta cesto pequeno, tampado culture-material mokololo round basket for storing valuables. It is made by a female relative in such a way that it may fit one's face as a covering after death unique the -lolo part is an inheritance; could mok- be related to the 'bag' words? other complex moko- not a productive formative Uldall & Shipley 1966 Jane Hill
basketry hat culture-material 7o:lu head covering inheritance Proto-Maiduan JHH; and 7omit?? simplex Uldall & Shipley 1966 Jane Hill
bead abalorio, mostacilla, cuenta, gota, puca; necklace=collar miçanga culture-material howwo, howo beads; wampum (in English index) loan Northern Sierra Miwok Ultan 1964:368 (????); Ultan gives howoko and says this is PM *…wok'; but note the Miwokan forms! E.g. Mins how:oT-u-, ho:woT-u-, Mip ho:woT WW %waku simplex Uldall & Shipley 1966 Jane Hill
ochre culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
bow arco arco subsistence tool pandak bow inheritance *pandak Proto-Maiduan Shipley 1961:50 simplex Uldall & Shipley 1966 Jane Hill
canoe canoa canoa transport missing missing Jane Hill
carrying net subsistence tool jawni net sack, carrying net unique note PW *yaw 'pendant, flabby, low, hang' simplex Uldall & Shipley 1966 Jane Hill
bottle botella garrafa acculturation woteja bottle loan Spanish WW %botella simplex Uldall & Shipley 1966 Jane Hill
paper papel papel acculturation papel paper loan Spanish WW %papel simplex Uldall & Shipley 1966 Jane Hill
chief/leader jefe, cacique chefe culture-mythology hu:k' chief unknown Maidu hukes 'clever, smart'??? simplex Uldall & Shipley 1966 Jane Hill
club garrote, cachiporra clava, porrete subsistence tool mëllë club loan Northern Sierra Miwok simplex Uldall & Shipley 1966 Jane Hill
loincloth taparrabos, guayuco, pampanilla tanga, tapa-sexo dress dyj breechcloth made of netting unique simplex Uldall & Shipley 1966 Jane Hill
cook food food tokis cook (v., generic term) unique simplex Uldall & Shipley 1966 Jane Hill
corpse food missing missing Jane Hill
dance (generic) culture-mythology wo:m dance unique also pajjo simplex Uldall & Shipley 1966 Jane Hill
deity/powerful spirit/culture figure dios(es), deidad divinidade, figura mítica culture-mythology 7ajk'at' creator unique 7aj- seems to have to do with thought simplex Uldall & Shipley 1966 Jane Hill
digging stick subsistence tool syw digging stick inheritance Proto-Maiduan see Maidu derived sy, su 'point, poke, insert' Uldall & Shipley 1966 Jane Hill
dipper subsistence tool tata: dipper unique reduplicated Uldall & Shipley 1966 Jane Hill
dream sueño, soñar sonho, sonhar culture-mythology nedi: dream inheritance *nedíh Proto-Maiduan Ultan 1964:365 simplex Uldall & Shipley 1966 Jane Hill
drone pipe culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
drum tambor tambor culture-mythology dul foot drum unique Note Wintun tHudi foot drum simplex Uldall & Shipley 1966 Jane Hill
chicken gallina galinha acculturation totojka grouse, chicken semantic shift reduplicated Uldall & Shipley 1966 Jane Hill
earring other missing missing Jane Hill
ghost (of dead person)/evil spirit espíritu malo, espíritu maligno, fantasma, demonio espirito culture-mythology 7ys devil inheritance Proto-Maiduan 7ys 'devil' in Maidu simplex Uldall & Shipley 1966 Jane Hill
fire drill subsistence tool sa:woho fire drill inheritance *sa:-wó Proto-Maiduan Ultan 1964:366 derived sa: 'fire Uldall & Shipley 1966 Jane Hill
fire-tender culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
fireplace hogar lareira other missing missing Jane Hill
firewood leña lenha other c'a, c'a: tree, wood, stick inheritance *c'áh Proto-Maiduan Ultan 1964:362 simplex Uldall & Shipley 1966 Jane Hill
fish (with fish-poison) pescar con barbasco, barbasquear pescar com timbó; tinguijar food missing missing Jane Hill
fish (with line) anzuelear, pescar con linea pescar (com linha) food hunme fish with hook and line loan Northern Sierra Miwok see Pmis hume:- ??; also p'yly 'angle with hook and line' 227 derived hun 'hunt' Uldall & Shipley 1966 Jane Hill
fish poison barbasco, matapez (Colombia) timbó subsistence tool missing missing Jane Hill
fishing line cordel/cuerda p/ pescar, sedal, tanze linha de pesca subsistence tool missing missing Jane Hill
fish hook subsistence tool missing missing Jane Hill
acorn bread food suloj loaf of acorn bread unique simplex Uldall & Shipley 1966 Jane Hill
wheat food tilu:ku wheat loan Spanish WW %trigo simplex Uldall & Shipley 1966 Jane Hill
flute flauta, quena (Peru) flauta culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
gambling sticks other missing missing Jane Hill
game animal caza, animal de caza caça, animal de caça food kyjysy animal, meat unique simplex Uldall & Shipley 1966 Jane Hill
ghost (of dead person)/evil spirit espíritu malo, espíritu maligno, fantasma, demonio espirito culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
glue subsistence tool missing missing Jane Hill
grave tumba, sepultura, sepulcro sepultura, sepulcro, cova culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
alcohol food waje:nte whiskey loan Spanish WW %aguardiente simplex Uldall & Shipley 1966 Jane Hill
Datura wrightii narcotics missing missing Jane Hill
shaman, healer chamán, brujo xaman, pajé, feiticeiro culture-mythology jom suck out disease,treat; shaman loan unknown loan into PM; Ultan 1964:364 lists as PM; widespread WW %jom simplex Uldall & Shipley 1966 Jane Hill
honey miel mel food missing missing Jane Hill
house other hy house inheritance *hy Proto-Maiduan Ultan 1964:363 simplex Uldall & Shipley 1966 Jane Hill
hunt cazar caçar food hun, hunmo hunt inheritance Proto-Maiduan JHH simplex Uldall & Shipley 1966 Jane Hill
initiate boy culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
initiate girl culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
knife cuchillo faca culture-material boso knife, spear, spearhead inheritance *bosó Proto-Maiduan Ultan 1964:362 simplex Uldall & Shipley 1966 Jane Hill
mat culture-material missing missing Jane Hill
mortar mortero pilão subsistence tool pulu mortar loan Northern Sierra Miwok WW %polwa simplex Uldall & Shipley 1966 Jane Hill
necklace other 7ëlëw necklace loan Plains Miwok note Chumashan *el???; *hy:le is Proto-Miwokan simplex 7ë:lew 'abalone shell' Uldall & Shipley 1966 Jane Hill
needle/awl subsistence tool missing missing Jane Hill
paddle/oar remo remo transport missing missing Jane Hill
pestle pilón, mano de mortero, mazo, moledor mão de pilão subsistence tool baj pestle inheritance Proto-Maiduan Callaghan 2001:322 suggests may go with Yok-Utia pha forms simplex Uldall & Shipley 1966 Jane Hill
pinole food c'u:je mush unique looks familiar, but not Mins simplex Uldall & Shipley 1966 Jane Hill
pipe for tobacco pipa cachimbo other kula pipe unique simplex Uldall & Shipley 1966 Jane Hill
pitch food t'ilka resin unique derived t'il 'to stop up hole' Uldall & Shipley 1966 Jane Hill
pot olla, pote panela, vasilha subsistence tool missing missing Jane Hill
quiver subsistence tool missing missing Jane Hill
rattle matraca, maraca marico, chocalho culture-mythology wososo doctor's rattle made with cocoons filled with pebbles loan Northern Sierra Miwok Proto-Miwokan *şokoş:-a-?? WW %soko simplex Uldall & Shipley 1966 Jane Hill
red paint culture-mythology kat paint, cosmetics unique simplex Uldall & Shipley 1966 Jane Hill
salt sal sal food ba7, ba salt inheritance *ba Proto-Maiduan Ultan 1964:362 simplex Uldall & Shipley 1966 Jane Hill
seed beater subsistence tool pataj seed beater, also used in ball games inheritance Proto-Maiduan see Maidu simplex Uldall & Shipley 1966 Jane Hill
clothing ropa roupa culture-mythology c'i: clothes inheritance *c'íh Proto-Maiduan Ultan 1964:362 simplex also 'wear, cover, cover with blanket' Uldall & Shipley 1966 Jane Hill
sinew-backed bow subsistence tool missing missing Jane Hill
skirt falda, saya, fustan, pollera saia culture-material to:laj feather skirt unique simplex Uldall & Shipley 1966 Jane Hill
snare subsistence tool po:ky snare made of hair, used only for birds unique derived po: trap birds Uldall & Shipley 1966 Jane Hill
song (generic) canción, canto canção culture-mythology sol sing inheritance *sól Proto-Maiduan Ultan 1964:366 simplex Uldall & Shipley 1966 Jane Hill
spear lanza lança subsistence tool boso knife, spear, spearhead inheritance *bosó Proto-Maiduan Ultan 1964:362 simplex Uldall & Shipley 1966 Jane Hill
stirring stick food missing missing Jane Hill
rope/string mecate, cuerda, soga corda culture k'uk' rope, string inheritance *k'úk' Proto-Maiduan Ultan 1964:364 simplex Uldall & Shipley 1966 Jane Hill
bag, sack culture-material kostal sack loan Spanish WW %costal simplex Uldall & Shipley 1966 Jane Hill
string of shell money other howwo, howo beads; wampum (in English index) loan Northern Sierra Miwok Ultan 1964:368 (????) says is inheritance but see note on 'bead' WW %waku simplex Uldall & Shipley 1966 Jane Hill
sugarcane/sugar azúcar, caña de azúcar açucar (de cana) acculturation missing missing note kawa:su 'sugar pine sugar' 211 Jane Hill
sweathouse other missing missing Jane Hill
tell history culture-mythology wejda: tell inheritance *wej Proto-Maiduan Maidu wej 'speech, talk, tell' derived wej 'speak' Uldall & Shipley 1966 Jane Hill
cremate culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
tobacco (native) narcotics pan Indian tobacco inheritance *pan Proto-Maiduan Ultan 1964:365 simplex Uldall & Shipley 1966 Jane Hill
tule boat transport missing missing Jane Hill
white paint culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
winnowing basket culture-material tew flat basket for sifting and winnowing loan Plains Miwok Pmi *tew (Callaghan 1971) simplex Uldall & Shipley 1966 Jane Hill
wood tray subsistence tool missing missing Jane Hill
shoes zapatos sapatos dress solo shoe, moccasin inheritance *soló Proto-Maiduan Ultan 1964:366 simplex Uldall & Shipley 1966 Jane Hill
medicine narcotics wene medicine inheritance *wené Proto-Maiduan Miwokan Ultan 1964:367; perhaps loan into Proto-lg from Miwokan WW %wene simplex Uldall & Shipley 1966 Jane Hill
cradleboard culture-material missing missing Jane Hill
policeman polícia policía acculturation missing missing Jane Hill
soldier soldado soldado acculturation sulta:nu soldier loan Spanish WW %soldado simplex Uldall & Shipley 1966 Jane Hill
corn food missing missing Jane Hill
beans food missing missing Jane Hill
cat gato gato acculturation missing missing Jane Hill
gun arma, escopeta espingarda, fusil acculturation kope:ta gun loan Spanish WW %escopeta simplex Uldall & Shipley 1966 Jane Hill
hat sombero chapéu dress somle:lu, somle:nu hat loan Spanish WW %sombrero simplex Uldall & Shipley 1966 Jane Hill
clapper acculturation missing missing Jane Hill
thatch/roof crisneja palha, caraná culture-material missing Jane Hill
rope/string mecate, cuerda, soga corda culture k'uk' inheritance Jane Hill
bottom grinding stone manufacture pulu “mortar”; loan direction unknown Jane Hill
digging stick subsistence tool syw inheritance Jane Hill
winnow aventar, tirar (sementes) joeirar manufacture wu7up unknown Jane Hill
top grinding stone metate, mano; piedra de moler metate, mano manufacture baj loan direction unknown Jane Hill
boomerang/throwing stick (generic) subsistence tool missing Jane Hill
spearthrower subsistence tool pandak “bow” inheritance Jane Hill
spear lanza lança subsistence tool 7olaw “arrow” loan Jane Hill
house other hy inheritance Jane Hill


Ethnographic Information
Current population (ethnicity) Current population (speakers) Former population estimate Subsistence preference Subsistence notes Density Sedentism Ecotome (riverine/interfluvial/coastal/desert/savannah/etc.) Social hierarchies Multilingualism (rare/occasional/common) Contact languages Marriage pattern Notes Source Created By
medium HG medium sedentary no