tree

Semantic Field
flora-fauna
Part of Speech
Meaning Spanish
árbol
Meaning Portuguese
arvore

Languages

Language Linnean Name Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Range of Term Word Structure Word Structure Notes Classifier Classifier Notes Hypernym Source Association with Social Categories Ritual/Mythologically Significant Ritual Notes Food Source Food Notes Medicinal Medicinal Notes How Collected Who Collects How Prepared Psychotropic Psychotropic Notes Traded Trade Notes Distribution Habitat Dangerous Ethnobiology Notes Species Notes General Notes Created By
Bankalachi Toloim (NA) we'-chet tree loan Yokuts Yawdanchi we-che'-taht; Palewyami we-che'-taht same underived C. H. Merriam 72-79, 60-475 0 0 2 0 0 no
Big Smokey Valley Shoshone (NA) huu”-pin A tree, stick wood, club inheritance *huCV Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 63 (2008:47) often “arrow” broader (includes wood and wood products) other complex has -pi ABS Crapo 1976:194 0 0 2 0 0 no
Cahuilla (NA) kélawat ˈkelawat wood; woods: tree inheritance *kutawɨ/kɨtawɨ Takic S2346a (Stubbs 2009:315) Note -- Hopi is NOT part of set! broader (also means firewood, woods (bosque)) derived kelaw “to gather wood” -at nominalizing suffix -m-exan-7a "inanimate";-kelaw7a "wood thing" -m-exan-7a (inanimate classifier) for tree; possessed "wood" is -kelaw7a Seiler&Hioki 1979:75 no info 0 0 depends on which tree 1 depends gathered (wild) All depends 0 0 Global Diverse habitats no
Central Sierra Miwok (NA) lah-mah a tree inheritance Sierra Miwokan only Also in Miss other complex -ma Merriam 57:475 0 0 2 0 0 no
Chemehuevi (NA) mah-hahv' maháv(I) Press A tree inheritance *maha Proto-Northern Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 1614 needs to be corrected (2008:234) same other complex has -pɨ ABS; shows nicely the “individuating” function Merriam 59:547 0 0 2 0 0 no
Chumash Barbareno (NA) pon' tree inheritance *pono' Proto-Chumash Klar 1977:116 underived Beeler 1978:182 0 0 2 0 0 no
Chumash Ineseno (NA) pon' (Klar) a tree, dead tree or log, stick (Merriam's def) inheritance *pono' Proto-Chumash Klar 1977:115-16 underived Merriam 55:31 0 0 2 0 0 no
Chumash Obispeno (NA) pono' wood, tree, stick inheritance *pono' Proto-Chumash Klar 1977:115-16 underived Klar 1977:115 0 0 2 0 0 no
Chumash Ventureno (NA) pon' tree inheritance *pono' Proto-Chumash Klar 1977:116 underived Mamet 2008:46; Beeler 1978:182 0 0 2 0 0 no
Cocopa (NA) ɂayá· tree, willow semantic shift Proto-Yuman Only case I know where “willow” is prototypical tree same underived 0 0 2 0 0 no
Comanche (NA) huupi tree (general) inheritance *huCV Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 63 (2008:47) same other complex has -pi ABS Robinson & Armagost 1990:165 0 0 2 0 0 no
Cupeño (NA) avaxat ʔaˈvaxat cottonwood tree, tree inheritance *ava:xa-t Californian S544 (Stubbs 2009:111), possibly Yaqui avaso??? narrower (really used only for leafy green trees, and clearly centered on prototype of cottonwood) other complex ʔaˈvaxa-t cottonwood-npn (root may be derived) Hill & Nolasquez 1973:151 no info 0 0 see “cottonwood” no info no info no info no info 0 0 global diverse habitats no
Esselen (NA) missing missing missing 0 0 2 0 0 no
Gabrielino (NA) kuta kuˈta tree, palo inheritance *kut(ta) Uto-Aztecan S2345 (Stubbs 2009:315) broader (includes tree, wood other complex kuˈ-ta tree-npn Harrington 463 no info 0 kutumut, central pole, derived from this word; “Any [kuta] can be designated th Tcangitcngic as one of his messengers for producing death” Harrington 1978:133) 0 no info N/A N/A N/A 0 0 items manufactured of wood are traded, like wands Americas diverse habitats, depending on species no
Iipay 'Aa (NA) ɂily tree inheritance Proto-Yuman Note Yavapai ɂɂí· same underived Couro & Hutcheson 1973 0 0 2 0 0 no
Kawaiisu (NA) missing missing missing 0 0 2 0 0 no
Kiliwa (NA) sal=haq=?+tay tree unique same phrase sal=haq=?+tay hand=bone=dummy.nominal.element+big; sal=haq=tay is “branch” (literally “big arm (hand=bone)), so adding ? turns this into “tree” (thing with branches?) Mixco 1985 0 0 2 0 0 no
Kitanemuk (NA) kučat ʹkuʧrat stick, pole, firewood; (tree); inheritance *kut(ta) Uto-Aztecan S2345 (Stubbs 2009:315) broader (includes wood, tree, stick, etc.) other complex ʹkuʧra-t tree-npn -niw possessive classifier for things Anderton 1988:364 no info 0 0 no info N/A N/A N/A 0 0 N/A N/A no
Lake Miwok (NA) 7álwa, 7ála, -ala tree (et) inheritance *7alkwesh Utian Callaghan 1971; Callaghan 1986:62 underived Callaghan 1965 0 0 2 0 0 no
Luiseño (NA) kuláawut kuˈla:wut generic term for any kind of tree; wood,piece of wood, stick, log inheritance *kutawɨ/kɨtawɨ Takic S2346a (Stubbs 2009:315) Note -- Hopi is NOT part of set! broader (includes wood, sticks, logs) other complex kuˈla:wu-t wood-non.possessed.noun (-wu-t is NOT the augmentative; etymologically this is kutaC-wɨC-ta wood-gather-nominalizer Elliott 1999:408 no info 0 couplet: kuuyat, kulaawut. “Any kulaawut... can be designated th Tcangitcngic as one of his messengers for producing death” Harrington 1978:133) 0 no info gathered (wild) all depends on species 0 0 Americas diverse habitats depending on species no
Maidu (NA) c'á tree inheritance *c'ah Maiduan Ultan 1964:362 # 23 underived Shipley 1963 0 0 2 0 0 no
Mojave (NA) missing missing Maricopa h'aa missing 0 0 2 0 0 no
Mutsun (NA) tappur wood, tree unique underived Okrand 1977;152 0 0 2 0 0 no
Nisenan (NA) c'a: tree, wood, stick inheritance *c'ah Maiduan Ultan 1964:362 #23 underived Uldall & Shipley 1966 0 0 2 0 0 no
Northern Paiute (NA) e-wi'-yu sing-av'-ve ewa'yoo A tree unique same as “cottonwood”, which is pretty standard same phrase e-wi'-yu sing-av'-ve = ewa'yoo sunngabe many cottonwood??? Merriam 61:159 0 0 2 0 0 no
Northern Sierra Miwok (NA) le:ka- tree, young tree unique underived Callaghan 1987 0 0 2 0 0 no
Plains Miwok (NA) 7ala:wah, 7ala:was tree inheritance *7alkwesh Utian Callaghan 1986:62 underived Callaghan 1984 0 0 2 0 0 no
Salinan A (NA) hat' tree unique Salinan A only same as Valley Oak not in M underived Heizer/Pinart I:78 0 0 2 0 0 no
Salinan M (NA) te-kah'-tit, te-kaht-nil a tree unique Salinan M only IN Salinan A only as “Valley Oak” underived Merriam 55:397 0 0 2 0 0 no
Seri (Comcaac) (NA) hehe tree, plant, bush unique broader (any plant?) underived Comcaac Dictionary 371 0 0 2 0 0 no
Serrano (NA) wama-t tree(s), woods unique same as “cottonwood”, but this doesn't mean “tree” in Kitanemuk other complex -t NPN KCHill ms 2001:62 0 0 2 0 0 no
Southern Paiute (NA) mah-ahv a tree, brush, chaparral inheritance *maha Proto-Northern Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 1614 (2008:234); this is new S. Paiute in that set broader (probably encompasses “brush”) other complex has -pɨ ABS Merriam's Ki-vav-vit 61:381 0 0 2 0 0 no
Southern Sierra Miwok (NA) la:ma- tree inheritance Sierra Miwokan only Also in Mics underived Broadbent 1964: 0 0 2 0 0 no
Southern Ute (NA) sųų-vų-pŲ cottonwood, “the name may also be used as generic for 'tree' “ (Givon 1979:180) unique see “cottonwood” narrower (does not include conifers, in my experience) other complex has -pɨ ABS Givon 1979 0 0 2 0 0 no
Tübatulabal (NA) u'ut ʔuˈʔut cottonwood; tree (generic) inheritance *hu- Uto-Aztecan S63 (Stubbs 2009:47) broader (includes tree, wood, firewood, etc.. Would not be used for a named tree type.) other complex ʔuˈʔu-t tree-npn Hill 2010:105 no info 0 0 N/A N/A N/A N/A 0 0 N/A N/A no
Tümpisa Shoshone (NA) sohopin tree, cottonwood inheritance *sohopin Proto-Northern Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 542a (2008:111); only Numic and Hopi same other complex soho-pin cottonwood(tree)-CL pin Dayley 1989:246 0 0 2 0 0 no
Wappo (NA) hól stick, tree, wood inheritance Yukian-Wappo Yukian *7ol; Elmendort 1993:207 (but perhaps areal) underived Sawyer 1965 0 0 2 0 0 no
Washo (NA) dewdí7iš tree unique derived d- nominalizer from “to stand” Jacobsen 1964:487 Merriam 55:323; WPD 0 0 2 0 0 no
Western Mono (NA) wɨnɨpɨ final voiceless tree semantic shift *wɨlɨ “to stand” Proto-Uto-Aztecan S2110 (2008:290) same derived -pɨ Bethel et al.:288 no info 0 0 N/A N/A N/A N/A 0 0 no
Wintu (NA) mi: tree inheritance *mi Wintun Shepherd 2005 underived Schlichter 1981 0 0 2 0 0 no
Yavapai (NA) ɂɂí· tree inheritance Proto-Yuman Note 'Iipay Aa ɂily unknown Shaterian 1983 0 0 2 0 0 no
Yokuts Palewyami (NA) we-che'-taht A tree inheritance Yokutsan unlike any other form in Kroeber 1961 but see Kroeber 1961:219 words for “stick” in Yawd, Yawel broader (probably includes stick, wood) underived I suspect some derivation but no analysis possible Merriam 58:511 0 0 2 0 0 no
Yokuts Yawdanchi (NA) yapkin tree inheritance Nim-Yokuts also in Yowlumne, Choynuk same underived Kroeber 1961:198 0 0 2 0 0 no
Yokuts Yowlumne (NA) yap-ke tree inheritance Nim-Yokuts also in Yawdanchi in Kroeber same underived Merriam 58:575 0 0 2 0 0 no
Yuki (NA) 7o(:)l A, F, 7al A tree inheritance *7ol Yukian-Wappo Schlichter 1985; Elemendorf 1993:207 (but perhaps areal) underived Sawyer & Schlichter 1984 0 0 2 0 0 no
Yuma (NA) to-mar'-ră-pet' A tree unique unknown Merriam 61:477 0 0 2 0 0 no
Akawaio yöi yöɪ inheritance Northern Carib? See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin
Baniwa háiko háiko, háiku (FS) inheritance Central North Arawak, Rio Negro branch uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B., Aimee Lawrence
Carijona wewe (SM) ‘βeβe (‘forest’, H&R) inheritance Guyana branch, Yabarana, Waimiri-Atroari See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
Cubeo jocʉcʉ (generic term) xokɨkɨ(generic term), ho'kɨ́-kɨ inheritance Proto-Tukanoan uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Amanda Meeks
Dâw tâg, beè təg, bæ̂ inheritance underived See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
Desano yucʉgʉ ju kɨgɨ, jukɨ-'gɨ́ inheritance Proto-Tukanoan uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Amanda Meeks
Eñepa -yo; iye jo; ije inheritance Northern Carib? See also -jo (plant/tree classifier?) See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 Melody Ann Ross
Guayabero nae, ne nae, ne inheritance uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram, Aimee Lawrence, Amanda Meeks
Hodï ʰtawɨ ʰtawɨ unique uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Amanda Meeks
Waorani a-wæ̃ unique uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Amanda Meeks
Hup tegd'ǔh, -teg tegd'ǔh, -teg inheritance unknown See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Pattie Epps
Kakua ~bâ-~daʔ ~bâ-~daʔ unique underived naʔ = tree.like See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Katherine Bolaños
Macaguan nehá, amumú, bibitsá nehá, amumú, bibitsá inheritance also nehá (inheritance) uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Rebecca Khorram, Amanda Meeks
Makushi yéi yéi inheritance Northern Carib? See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 Melody Ann Ross
Nheengatu mirá (possible generic term) iwa (morpheme meaning tree, used in compound words) mira (possible generic term) iwa (morpheme meaning tree, used in compound words) inheritance Proto-Tupi-Guarani Reconstructed PTG Mello 2000. Also: iwa (mainly used in compounds) underived See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
Ninam wiitihi wi:tihi inheritance uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Kelsey Neely
Nukak tɨnaʔ4 unique uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no
Maihiki ñi ja ɲi xã, sṹkí inheritance Proto-Tukanoan Also ɲi (V&V08); inheritance a bit unclear b/c most initial j corresponds to j. uncoded xã xã (orth. ja) = inanimate See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Daniel Valle
Pemon yei (A1981); yöi (M2000) dʒei (A1981); 'jəi (M2000) inheritance Northern Carib? See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
Resígaro aváana?é aváanaʔé inheritance Yucuna-Resigaro only; inheritance or loan? uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B.
Sanumá hiiti (EM72) hiiti inheritance uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Kelsey Neely
Sikuani nae, náe-hawa #NAME? inheritance uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Amanda Meeks
Tariana háiku háiku (H&R, Giacone: aíkuna) inheritance Central North Arawak, Rio Negro branch uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B.
Tukano yucà jukà, jukɨ́-gɨ inheritance Proto-Tukanoan uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Ana Paula, Amanda Novak, Aimee Lawrence
Kotiria yʉkʉ jʉkʉ, ju'kɨ-kɨ inheritance Proto-Tukanoan uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Amanda Meeks
Wapishana atʰamɨnɨ atʰamɨnɨ inheritance Proto-Arawak See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 Ana Paula B.
Yanomam futifi (EM72) futifi (EM72) inheritance uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Kelsey Neely
Yanomami hii hi hi: hi inheritance hi = CLF "generic tree" underived N+CLF hi= CLF "tree" (Ramirez 94) See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Kelsey Neely
Yukuna a'awaná aʔawaná inheritance Yucuna-Resigaro only; inheritance or loan? uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B., Aimee L., PLE
Yuhup têg têg inheritance underived See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
Bardi (NA) bardag bardag inheritance underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
Bunuba (NA) lurndu lurndu unique underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
Burarra (NA) gun-jong gun-dyoŋ unique 0 0 0 0 0 no
Dhangu (NA) dharpa dharpa inheritance simplex 0 0 0 0 0 no
Dhay’yi (NA) missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
Dhuwal (NA) gäyu buymanman unique simplex 0 0 0 0 0 no
Djinang (NA) gurrtji gurrtyi unique simplex 0 0 0 0 0 no
Gajirrabeng (NA) goolbeng kulpeng inheritance kulpe Jarragan underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
Gooniyandi (NA) girili girili inheritance kirili Bunuban underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
Gumatj (NA) gäyu dharpa inheritance underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
Gupapuyngu (NA) gäyu dharpa inheritance simplex 0 0 0 0 0 no
Gurindji (NA) karnti karnti loan with meaning change Jingulu Jing karnti=ironwood underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
Guugu Yimidhirr (NA) yugu yugu inheritance Poss. pPama-Nyungan underived 0 0 0 0 0
Jaminjung (NA) langiny langiny loan Wunambal underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
Jaru (NA) burnu burnu inheritance purnu Ngumpin Warlp. big coolamon uncoded 0 0 0 0 0 no
Jingulu (NA) tarrangku tarrangku unknown underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
Karajarri (NA) balomoro balomoro unique underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
Kija (NA) kunyjany kunyjany unique WW %wangkurr1 underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
Koko-Bera (NA) yok yok tree, stick inheritance *yuku pPaman Poss. pPama-Nyungan simplex
Kuku-Thaypan (NA) aku aku inheritance *yuku pPaman, poss. pPama-Nyungan underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
Kuku-Yalanji (NA) juku juku inheritance *yuku pPaman Poss. pPama-Nyungan. Development of initial *y > /j/ problematic but also in Yidiny. underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
Kurtjar (NA) luaanh luaanh unique underived Used as generic with specific terms 0 0 0 0 0 no
Kuuk Thaayorre (NA) yuk yuk inheritance *yuku pPaman poss. pPama-Nyungan underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
Mangala (NA) ŋamparr puŋarri (2) ŋamparr puŋarri (2) unique phrase 0 0 0 0 0 no
Mbabaram (NA) g3 g3 inheritance *yuku pPaman Poss. pPNy underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
Miriwung (NA) guleng guleng inheritance kulpe Jarragan underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
Ngandi (NA) barakal7 bangawudu unknown 0 0 0 0 0 no
Ngarinyin (NA) ngurrul ngurrul inheritance *nguC- proto-Worrorran WW %wangkurr1 uncoded 0 0 0 0 0 no
Ngumbarl (NA) baaloo baaloo inheritance underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
Nimanburru (NA) badaŋg badaŋg inheritance underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
Nyangumarta (NA) mungka mungka unique underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
Nyikina (NA) baalu baalu inheritance underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
Nyulnyul (NA) bardangg bardangg inheritance underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
Pakanh (NA) yuku yuku inheritance *yuku pPaman; poss pPama-Nyungan underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
Rembarrnga (NA) borloh borloh unknown simplex 0 0 0 0 0 no
Ritharrngu (NA) bololo dharpa inheritance simplex 0 0 0 0 0 no
Tjaapukay (NA) djulbin culpin tree (generic), log unique underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
Uw-Olkol (NA) ugu ugu tree unique *yuku pPaman; poss pPama-Nyungan underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
Uw-Oykangand (NA) uk uk tree unique *yuku pPaman; poss pPama-Nyungan underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
Walmajarri (NA) mana mana unique rel. to NGY marna 'base. Trunk'? underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
Wardaman (NA) yumin yumin unknown uncoded 0 0 0 0 0 no
Warlpiri (NA) watiya watiya unique underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
Wik Ngathan (NA) yuk yuk tree, stick, wood, log; instrument, vehicle, thing; crocodile inheritance *yuku pPaman; poss. pPama-Nyungan underived 0 crocodile sense has to do with creation story 0 0 0 0 no
Worrorra (NA) nguwanu nguwanu inheritance *ngu- proto-Worrorran uncoded 0 0 0 0 0 no
Wunambal (NA) laŋgi laŋgi unknown proto-Worrorran Jaminjung? cf. Jaminjung langiny 'tree' ?loan from Wunambal underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
Yan-nhangu (NA) bambitj bambitj unique simplex 0 0 0 0 0 no
Yawuru (NA) baalu baalu inheritance underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
Yidiny (NA) jugi (TCW) ~ dandu (G) jugi (TCW) ~ dandu (G) inheritance *yuku pPaman Poss. pPama-Nyungan. Development of initial *y > /j/ problematic but also in KYal and close dialects and in Yidiny /juru/ 'elbow' < *yu:ru. *y > /i/ problematic. underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
Yir-Yoront (NA) yoq yo7 inheritance *yuku pPaman poss. pPama-Nyungan underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
Achagua áikuba áikuba inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Aimee Lawrence, PLE
Piapoco jéetaná, àiku (H&R, ‘tree, stick’) jéetaná, àiku (H&R, ‘tree, stick’) See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
Kabiyari ʔahaa (H&R) ʔahaa (H&R) See Language page Ana Paula B., Aimee Lawrence, PLE
Warekena atapi, héku atapi, héku See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
Yavitero ata ata (=wood) See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
Paresi atya atya inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
Baure ewokoe ewokoe inheritance See Language page Anissa Capuccino
Waurá ata ata inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick, PLE
Arutani šapi ʃapi See Language page
Sape tapa tapa See Language page
Bora ḯme-ʔe ɯ́mɛ-ʔɛ inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
Muinane ɨ́mo-ʔo ɨ́mo-ʔo See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
Akawaio/Ingariko dialect e' (SM) eʔ (SM) See Language page Lauren Franklin
Apalai wewe, aramariapo, mopytyky wewe, aramariapo, mopɨtɨkɨ inheritance See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
Wayana wewe wewe inheritance See Language page PLE
Tiriyó wewe wewe inheritance See Language page Becky Walker
Makiritare dē (IDS); de: (KH), chu:ta (KH) de:, tʃu:ta (KH) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
Mapoyo yëhE (same as stick and wood) yɛhə (same as stick and wood) See Language page Melody Ann Ross
Wai Wai weewe weewe inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross
Waimiri Atroari wiwe wiwe See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
Yukpa ve wepsa; we ('tree, stick', H&R) See Language page Phon only in source Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross, Aimee Lawrence
Kalapalo i i inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick
Muisca quye kuɨe See Language page Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
Northern Emberá bakurú bakurú; pakʰuɾú (+'wood', H&R) See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, PLE
Cofán quini´cco kiniʔkʰo See Language page phonemic transcriptions are ESTIMATIONS Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
Candoshi-Shapra yasina jasina unique See Language page Daniel Valle
Taushiro avah awah See Language page Daniel Valle
Páez fytũ ɸtũ, ɸtũũ taʃ (‘plant’, H&R) See Language page Daniel Valle
Tikuna nãĩ [3, 5] nãĩ unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
Urarina enʉa enʉa unique See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
Camsa beti; betíje, betijé-ʃe beti; betíje, betijé-ʃe See Language page Daniel Valle
Andoke kə̃́i (nominal classifier) kə̃́i (nominal classifier) unique See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
Pumé to See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
Puinave pun pun unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
Máku o:ba o:ba See Language page PLE
Warao rau ɾau See Language page John Blaha
Ashuar númi, yúmi numi, jumi See Language page Daniel Valle
Huambisa numi numi See Language page Daniel Valle
Aguaruna númi númi inheritance See Language page Daniel Valle
Matses iui, cuëte iui, kuɨte inheritance See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
Chácobo hiwi hiwi inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick
Yagua ninu ninu unique See Language page Daniel Valle
Southern Pastaza Quechua caspi kaspi See Language page Daniel Valle
Ingá sacha sátʃa(H&R) See Language page Daniel Valle
Napo Lowland Quichua caspi kaspi See Language page Daniel Valle
Quechua Ayacuchano sacha satʃa See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
Piaroa dau dau inheritance See Language page Paulina Franco, Becky Walker
Sáliva nuguu nuguː inheritance See Language page Becky Walker
Barasano jukɨ jukɨ See Language page Amanda Meeks
Carapana yucʉ jukɨ, yucʉ (FS) See Language page Amanda Meeks
Makuna jukɨgɨ jukɨgɨ inheritance See Language page Amanda Meeks
Yuruti ju'kɨ́-gɨ ju'kɨ́-gɨ See Language page Amanda Meeks
Waikhana ju'kɨ-gɨ ju'kɨ-gɨ See Language page Amanda Meeks
Siriano ju'kɨ́-gɨ ju'kɨ́-gɨ See Language page Amanda Meeks
Tanimuca ĩ'bĩrã ĩ'bĩrã unique See Language page Kelsey Neely, Aimee Lawrence
Tatuyo jú'kɨ̋ jú'kɨ̋ See Language page Emily Buell, Paulina Franco
Tuyuka yu'kɨ juʔkɨ, ju'kɨ́-gɨ See Language page D. Jagannathan, Paulina Franco, Ana Paula B.
Waimaja yúkʰɨ́gɨ̀ júkʰɨ́gɨ̀ See Language page Kelsey Neely
Koreguaje sũkiñʉ sũkʰi-ɲɨ inheritance See Language page Daniel Valle
Siona sũki-jɨ̃ sũki-yɨ̃ inheritance See Language page Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
Secoya soquëñë sõkɨ-jɨ̃ See Language page Amanda Meeks
Karitiana ep ep unknown See Language page Daniel Valle
Kokama ɨhuɨra ɨwɨɾa inheritance See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
Wayampi wɨla wɨla inheritance See Language page PLE
Sirionó ira ira inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
Kamayurá dei dei unique See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
Ocaina am̈uuñ..a am:ɯ̃ɯ̃ɲ:a inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
Nɨpode Witoto aména amέna See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
Minica Witoto aména amέna See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
Murui Witoto amena amɛna inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
Iquito náana náana inheritance See Language page Cjnthia Hansen
Záparo nakuna nakuna See Language page Becky Walker
Wari pana pana See Language page PLE
Ese Ejja/Huarayo akwi akwi See Language page Joyce McCormick
Cavineña akʷi (also means "stick") akʷi See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
Central Aymara qoqa ḳuḳa See Language page PLE
Kwazá ywynwỹ, -nwỹ, -ñwỹ- ywynwỹ, -nwỹ, -ñwỹ- See Language page Joyce McCormick
Movima koʔo koʔo See Language page Anissa Capuccino, Becky Walker
Kaingang ka ka See Language page PLE
Suyá ywĩrɔ jwĩrɔ See Language page Rebekah Evans
Djeoromitxi ku ku See Language page PLE
Arabana mupu unique Claire Bowern
Bardi badag badak inheritance Claire Bowern
Bunuba [missing] missing Claire Bowern
Burarra jalmurra unknown Claire Bowern
Dhangu dharpa unknown Claire Bowern
Dhuwal gäyu Claire Bowern
Dhuwala gäyu unknown Claire Bowern
Diyari pirta unique Claire Bowern
DiyariREU [missing] missing Claire Bowern
Djambarrpuyngu gäyu unknown Claire Bowern
Djapu gäyu unknown Claire Bowern
Djinang gurrtji unknown Claire Bowern
Gooniyandi girili Claire Bowern
Gupapuyngu gäyu unknown Claire Bowern
Jabirr-Jabirr bardangg barrdangk inheritance Claire Bowern
Jaru garndi inheritance? Claire Bowern
Jawi burdog burrdok inheritance Claire Bowern
Karajarri paka inheritance Claire Bowern
Malyangapa thulu inheritance Claire Bowern
Mangala ngamparr pungarri (2) unknown Claire Bowern
Mithaka murra unique Claire Bowern
Mudburra burnu Claire Bowern
Mudburra karndi inheritance? Claire Bowern
Ngamini pi:ta unique Claire Bowern
Ngarluma warnda Claire Bowern
Ngumbarl baaloo baalu inheritance Claire Bowern
Nhirrpi dhiri unique Claire Bowern
Nimanburru badan_g badangk inheritance Claire Bowern
Northern Mangarla paka Claire Bowern
Northern Nyangumarta mungka inheritance Claire Bowern
Nyangumarta mungka inheritance Claire Bowern
Nyikina kid kid inheritance Claire Bowern
Nyulnyul bardangk bardangk inheritance Claire Bowern
Paakantyi yara Claire Bowern
Pirriya makada doubtful loan Claire Bowern
Pitta-Pitta mulka unique Claire Bowern
Rirratjingu dharpa Claire Bowern
Ritharrngu bololo loan Rembarrnga Claire Bowern
Wangkayutyuru jarlpa unique Claire Bowern
Warrwa baalu baalu inheritance Claire Bowern
Yan-nhangu ḏambaŋani unknown Claire Bowern
Yandruwandha wathi unique Claire Bowern
Yarluyandi witha(nu) unique Claire Bowern
Yawarrawarrka kakura unique Claire Bowern
Yawuru balu balu inheritance Claire Bowern