Chiriguano

Family
Tupian
Region
South America
ISO 639-3
gui
Location
-21.09°, -61.72°
Notes
Features
Basic Vocabulary
Flora Fauna Vocabulary
Cultural Vocabulary
Data Sources
Dietrich, Wolf. 2007. Chiriguano. Intercontinental Dictionary Series, ed. Mary Ritchie Key. http://lingweb.eva.mpg.de/ids/.


Basic Vocabulary (191)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Etymology Notes Source Created By
above encima, arriba acima location ɨwate; 'aramo inheritance See Language page PLE
and y e grammar See Language page PLE
ash ceniza(s) cinzas environment taniᵐbu inheritance See Language page PLE
at en, a em, a location See Language page PLE
back espalda costas body (če-)kupe inheritance See Language page PLE
bad mal mal quality katũ-a; kawĩ-a inheritance See Language page PLE
belly barriga barriga body (če-)rɨe; hɨe; tɨe inheritance See Language page PLE
below abajo, debajo abaixo location ǰeᵐbɨ unique See Language page PLE
big grande grande quality gʷasu; tuiča inheritance See Language page PLE
black negro preto colour -hũu inheritance See Language page PLE
blood sangre sangue body t-u(g)wɨ; (če-)r-u(g)wɨ; h-uwɨ inheritance See Language page PLE
boil/pimple espinilla, granos espinha, borbulha body (če-)ruru; iruru unknown See Language page PLE
bone hueso osso body kã(g)ʷe inheritance See Language page PLE
breast pecho, seno peito body -kaᵐbɨ inheritance See Language page PLE
child niño, niña criança human mĩčia; meᵐbɨ inheritance See Language page PLE
cloud nube nuvem environment ãma; ãma pɨ̃tu unique See Language page PLE
cold frío frio quality roɨ; rõɨsa inheritance See Language page PLE
correct/true verdad, de veras verdade quality missing See Language page PLE
day día dia time 'ara inheritance See Language page PLE
dirty sucio sujo quality kɨʔa inheritance See Language page PLE
dingo/wolf fauna See Language page PLE
dry seco seco quality (a)tĩni inheritance cf. Wayampi See Language page PLE
dull/blunt sin filo, mocho, desafilado, embotado, romo maçante, desamolado, não afiado quality See Language page PLE
dust polvo poeira environment ɨwɨ-kui; ɨwɨ-kʷĩti unique earth-dust/flour' See Language page PLE
ear oreja orelha body (če-)naᵐbi inheritance See Language page PLE
earth/soil tierra terra environment ɨwɨ inheritance See Language page PLE
egg huevo ovo fauna (če-)rupia; hupia inheritance See Language page PLE
eye ojo olho body (če-)r-esa; h-esa inheritance See Language page PLE
far lejos longe quality moᵐbɨrɨ inheritance See Language page PLE
fat/grease grasa gordura body (če-)kɨra inheritance See Language page PLE
father padre, papá pai kinship t-uu; t-u; (če-)ru inheritance See Language page PLE
feather pluma pena fauna -a; -r-aa; -h-aa semantic shift hair See Language page PLE
fire fuego fogo environment tata inheritance See Language page PLE
flower flor flor environment (če-)'potɨ inheritance See Language page PLE
fog niebla, neblina nevoeira, bruma, neblina environment ɨwɨ̃-ti See Language page PLE
fruit fruta fruta flora aa; ia inheritance See Language page PLE
good bueno bom quality katu; kawi inheritance See Language page PLE
hair (of head) cabello cabelo body -a; -r-aa; -h-aa inheritance See Language page PLE
hand mano mão body (čẽ-)po inheritance See Language page PLE
3sg el/ella ele/ela grammar hae inheritance See Language page PLE
head cabeza cabeça body (če-)ãka inheritance See Language page PLE
heavy pesado pesado quality poɨ inheritance See Language page PLE
how? como como grammar kerẽi-pa unique See Language page PLE
1sg yo eu grammar če; se inheritance See Language page PLE
if si se grammar #NAME? See Language page PLE
in/inside dentro, adentro dentro location ha-pɨpe inheritance See Language page PLE
intestines intestinos intestinos body t-ɨe; (če-)čuri; ičuri (?) inheritance See Language page PLE
lake lago lago environment ɨ-pa inheritance See Language page PLE
leaf hoja folha environment roo; hoʔo; h-okɨ inheritance See Language page PLE
left/left hand izquierdo esquerdo location/body asu inheritance See Language page PLE
leg/foot pierna perna body (če-)tɨ̃ma; (če-)tɨmãka inheritance See Language page PLE
lightning rayo, relámpago relampago environment ama-wera inheritance See Language page PLE
liver hígado figado body (če-)pɨa inheritance See Language page PLE
long largo comprido, longo quality puku inheritance See Language page PLE
louse piollo, piojo piolho fauna (če-)kɨ; kɨɨ inheritance See Language page PLE
man/male hombre homem human kuiᵐbae inheritance See Language page PLE
meat/flesh carne carne fauna hewae; soo; (če-)roo; hoo inheritance See Language page PLE
moon luna lua environment ǰasɨ inheritance See Language page PLE
mother madre, mamá mãe kinship (če-)sɨ; ičɨ inheritance See Language page PLE
mouth boca boca body (če-)ǰuru inheritance See Language page PLE
name nombre nome human h-ee inheritance See Language page PLE
near/close cerca de perto quality ko; kõ-ɲõ; kõi unique See Language page PLE
nape base del cuello, nuca nuca body -aǰu See Language page PLE
neck cuello pescoço body (če-)aǰu; i-(ǰ)aǰu inheritance See Language page PLE
new nuevo novo quality pɨau inheritance See Language page PLE
night noche noite time pɨ̃tu inheritance See Language page PLE
no/not no não grammar missing See Language page PLE
nose nariz nariz body (čẽ-)tĩ inheritance See Language page PLE
old viejo velho quality ⁿdeči unique See Language page PLE
one uno um number mo-pẽti inheritance See Language page PLE
other otro outro grammar missing See Language page PLE
pain/painful/sick dolor, doloroso, enfermo dor, doloroso, doente body asɨ; -r-asɨ; h-asɨ inheritance See Language page PLE
person/human being persona pessoa human ᵐbɨa; karai inheritance See Language page PLE
rain lluvia chuva environment ãma inheritance See Language page PLE
red rojo vermelho colour pɨ̃ta inheritance See Language page PLE
right/right hand derecha direita location/body aka'tua inheritance See Language page PLE
road/path camino caminho manufacture t-ape i-pɨraɨ inheritance See Language page PLE
root raíz raiz flora h-'apo; r-'apo inheritance See Language page PLE
rotten podrido podre quality -h-ũu unknown See Language page PLE
sand arena areia environment ɨwɨ-kʷĩti inheritance See Language page PLE
sharp afilado, filudo, filoso afiado quality haiᵐbe inheritance See Language page PLE
short corto curto quality čutu unknown See Language page PLE
shoulder hombro ombro body (če-)atiɨ inheritance See Language page PLE
shy/ashamed tímido, vergonzoso timido, com vergonha mental mãra unique See Language page PLE
skin piel pele body (če-)pire inheritance See Language page PLE
sky cielo céu environment ara unique See Language page PLE
small pequeño pequeno quality miči inheritance See Language page PLE
smoke humo fumaça environment tatã-ti inheritance See Language page PLE
star estrella estrela environment ǰasɨ tata inheritance See Language page PLE
stick/wood palo pau, vara flora ɨwɨra inheritance See Language page PLE
stone piedra pedra environment ita inheritance See Language page PLE
tail cola, rabo rabo body #NAME? inheritance See Language page PLE
that ese/esa esse grammar missing See Language page PLE
3pl ellos/ellas eles/elas grammar hae-reta inheritance See Language page PLE
thick grueso, gordo, espeso grosso quality po'wasu unknown See Language page PLE
thin delgado fino quality poi; piru inheritance See Language page PLE
this este/esta este grammar missing See Language page PLE
2sg xx xx grammar ⁿde inheritance See Language page PLE
throat garganta garganta body (če-)asẽo; aseo; asɨo inheritance See Language page PLE
three tres tres number ᵐbapɨ inheritance See Language page PLE
thunder truenos trovão environment ama-r-ɨapu inheritance See Language page PLE
bite morder morder body (ai)čuu; suu inheritance See Language page PLE
blow soplar soprar body peǰu inheritance See Language page PLE
breathe respirar respirar body -pɨtũe inheritance See Language page PLE
burn quemar queimar environment (a)kai inheritance See Language page PLE
chew masticar, mascar mastigar body suu ~ čuu; (ai)aso semantic shift bite See Language page PLE
climb subir subir motion ǰupi inheritance See Language page PLE
come venir vir motion (a-)ǰu inheritance See Language page PLE
cook cocinar cozinhar impact -ᵐbo-yɨ; (a)mõi; (a)yeᵐbiapo inheritance See Language page PLE
count contar contar mental (ai)papa inheritance See Language page PLE
cry llorar chorar mental (a)yaeo; (a)ǰaǰo inheritance See Language page PLE
cut/hack cortar cortar impact kɨ̃ti unknown See Language page PLE
die/be dead morir morrer state mãno inheritance See Language page PLE
dig cavar cavar impact (a)'ǰoo inheritance See Language page PLE
dream soñar sonhar mental -payu; -pau inheritance See Language page PLE
drink beber, tomar beber body #NAME? inheritance See Language page PLE
eat comer comer body -u; -karu inheritance See Language page PLE
fall caer cair motion a inheritance See Language page PLE
fear miedo medo mental kɨǰe inheritance See Language page PLE
flow fluir fluir motion sɨrɨ; hɨrɨ inheritance See Language page PLE
fly volar voar motion wewe inheritance See Language page PLE
grow crecer crescer state kʷakʷa; kʷakʷaa inheritance See Language page PLE
hear oír ouvir mental (a)eⁿdu inheritance See Language page PLE
hide esconder esconder motion ɲomi; mo-kaɲɨ inheritance See Language page PLE
hit golpear, pegar bater impact nũpa inheritance See Language page PLE
hold correr, asegurar, sostener segurar other pɨsɨ; nõi inheritance See Language page PLE
kill matar matar impact (a)ǰuka inheritance See Language page PLE
know/be knowledgeable saber, conecer saber, conhecer mental kʷaa inheritance See Language page PLE
laugh reír rir mental puka inheritance See Language page PLE
lie down acostarse, echarse deitar motion (a)ǰapakʷa inheritance See Language page PLE
live/be alive vivir viver, morar body -ikowe; t-ekowe inheritance See Language page PLE
open/uncover abrir abrir other pea inheritance See Language page PLE
pound/beat machacar, golpear bater impact ǰoso See Language page PLE
say decir dizer mental -e; -i inheritance See Language page PLE
scratch rascar rasgar impact missing See Language page PLE
see ver ver mental eča; esa inheritance See Language page PLE
shoot tirar, disparar, balear atirar impact (aǰ)api inheritance See Language page PLE
sit sentar(se) sentar state gʷapɨ inheritance See Language page PLE
sleep dormir dormir body (a)ke inheritance See Language page PLE
sniff/smell olfatear, oler cheirar body (a)ẽtu inheritance See Language page PLE
spit escupir cuspir body (a)ⁿdɨwɨ inheritance See Language page PLE
split partir, dividir rachar, dividir, partir impact ᵐbo-wo inheritance See Language page PLE
squeeze estrujar, exprimir espremer impact tami; akaᵐbɨ inheritance See Language page PLE
stab/pierce apuñalar, acuchillar apunhalar impact kutu inheritance See Language page PLE
stand estar de pié ficar em pé state (a)ᵐbo-ǰeᵐboɨ; (a)ǰeᵐboɨ inheritance See Language page PLE
steal robar roubar other ɲõmi unknown See Language page PLE
suck chupar chupar body -pɨte; (a)ere inheritance See Language page PLE
swell hincharse inchar body (če-)ruru; iruru inheritance See Language page PLE
swim nadar nadar motion ɨta inheritance See Language page PLE
think pensar pensar mental ǰe-moᵑgeta unknown See Language page PLE
throw tirar, lanzar atirar, jogar impact moᵐbo inheritance See Language page PLE
tie up/fasten atar, amarrar amarrar impact ǰokʷa; mõiča inheritance, inheritance See Language page PLE
turn girar, volter, torcer virar other ᵐbo-ǰere inheritance See Language page PLE
vomit vomitar vomitar body (a)wẽe inheritance See Language page PLE
walk caminar, andar andar motion wata inheritance See Language page PLE
work trabajar trabalhar other parawɨkɨ inheritance See Language page PLE
yawn bostezar bocejar body -ǰuru-peka inheritance See Language page PLE
tongue lengua lingua body (čẽ-)ku; kũu inheritance See Language page PLE
tooth diente dente body t-ãi; -r-ãi; hãi inheritance See Language page PLE
two dos dois number mõkoi inheritance See Language page PLE
water agua agua environment ɨ (> ɨɨ) inheritance See Language page PLE
1pl.incl nosotros (inclusivo) nós (inclusivo) grammar yaⁿde inheritance See Language page PLE
1pl.excl nosotros (exclusivo) nós (exclusivo) grammar ore inheritance See Language page PLE
wet mojado molhado quality (če-)ãkɨ; iɲãkɨ inheritance See Language page PLE
what? que, qué que grammar ᵐbae-pa inheritance See Language page PLE
when? cuando quando grammar kerẽi-ɲãwe-pa inheritance See Language page PLE
where? donde onde grammar kea-pe-pa unique See Language page PLE
white blanco branco colour tĩi inheritance See Language page PLE
who? quien, quién quem grammar kea-pa unique See Language page PLE
wife esposa esposa kinship (če-)r-eᵐbi-reko; h-eᵐbi-reko inheritance See Language page PLE
wind viento vento environment ɨwɨ-tu inheritance See Language page PLE
wing ala asa body (če-)pepo inheritance See Language page PLE
woman/female mujer mulher human kũɲa inheritance See Language page PLE
yellow amarillo amarelo colour (če-)ǰu; iǰu inheritance See Language page PLE
2pl ustedes vocês grammar peⁿde; pee inheritance See Language page PLE
foot pie body (čẽ-)pɨ inheritance See Language page PLE
again de nuevo, otra vez de novo grammar ǰewɨ inheritance See Language page PLE
all todo todos other opa; ɲãwo inheritance See Language page PLE
ankle tobillo tornozelo body (se-)pɨɲũa inheritance See Language page PLE
armpit axila, sobaco axila body -r-eⁿdapɨwɨ; -h-eⁿdapɨwɨ inheritance See Language page PLE
faeces heces, mierda, excremento, estiércol fezes body (a)mãɲa; (če-)poti semantic shift; inheritance See Language page PLE
lung pulmón pulmão body (če-)pɨtũe unique See Language page PLE
sweat sudar suor, suar body (se-)r-ɨai; -h-ɨai inheritance See Language page PLE
itch hormiguear, sentir comezón coçar body -r-ẽmi; -h-ẽmi See Language page PLE
bark corteza casca environment ɨ'wɨra 'pire inheritance See Language page PLE
fingernail uña unha body -po-ãpe; (če-)pãpe inheritance See Language page PLE
heart corazón coração body -pɨa; (če-)[korasõ] inheritance See Language page PLE
sun sol sol time kʷarasɨ; kʷaraɨ inheritance See Language page PLE
mountain/hill montaña, colina, loma, cerro morro, serra environment ɨwɨtɨ inheritance See Language page PLE
green verde verde quality howɨ inheritance See Language page PLE
hot caliente quente quality h-aku inheritance See Language page PLE


Flora Fauna Vocabulary (137)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Linnean Name Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Range of Term Word Structure Word Structure Notes Classifier Classifier Notes Hypernym Source Association with Social Categories Ritual/Mythologically Significant Ritual Notes Food Source Food Notes Medicinal Medicinal Notes How Collected Who Collects How Prepared Psychotropic Psychotropic Notes Traded Trade Notes Distribution Habitat Dangerous Ethnobiology Notes Species Notes General Notes Created By
horse caballo cavalho flora-fauna Equus caballus See Language page
horse caballo cavalho flora-fauna See Language page
horse caballo cavalho flora-fauna See Language page
horse caballo cavalho flora-fauna See Language page
horse caballo cavalho flora-fauna See Language page
bat murciélago morcego flora-fauna Chiroptera spp. aⁿdira inheritance See Language page PLE
bird pajaro, ave passaro flora-fauna wɨra; gʷɨra inheritance See Language page PLE
curassow mitu, montete (Peru), paujil/panjuil (Peru), paujil de Salvin (Peru for Mitu salvini) mutum flora-fauna Crax sp., Nothocrax sp. missing See Language page Amazonia PLE
toucan tucán, pinsha (Peru) tucano flora-fauna Ramphastos sp. missing See Language page Widespread Amazonia PLE
gray-winged trumpeter Grulla, Trompetero Ala Gris jacamim flora-fauna Psophia crepitans missing See Language page Northern Amazonia (N of Solimões), not in northern Colombia; Dark-winged trumpeter is found south of Solimões PLE
guan pava, pucacunga (Peru), pava de Spix (Peru) jacu flora-fauna Penelope sp. missing See Language page Different types have different localized ranges PLE
tinamou tinamu, perdiz, gallineta inambu, inhambu flora-fauna family Tinamidae missing See Language page Widespread Amazonia PLE
hummingbird colibrí, picaflor (Peru) beija-flor flora-fauna family Trochilidae missing See Language page Widespread PLE
kingfisher martín pescador, catalan (Peru) martim-pescador flora-fauna family Alcedinidae missing See Language page Widespread Amazonia PLE
owl (large) búho, lechuza corujão flora-fauna order Strigiformes kaagʷere unique See Language page Widespread PLE
macaw ara, guacamaya Arara flora-fauna family Psittacidae; Ara sp. missing See Language page Widespread Amazonia PLE
parrot loro real, loro (Sp. form is a loan from Carib) papagaio flora-fauna Amazona amazonica aǰuru inheritance See Language page Widespread PLE
dove paloma pomba flora-fauna family Columbidae pikasu; ǰeruti inheritance See Language page PLE
hawk halcón, gavilán gavião flora-fauna family Accipitridae (g)ʷɨra-kee unique See Language page PLE
vulture buitre, gallinazo, rinahui (Peru) urubu flora-fauna family Cathartidae uruhũti, u'rake-'wasu inheritance See Language page Widespread South America PLE
duck pato pato, marreco flora-fauna Anatidae family ɨpe inheritance See Language page PLE
great egret Garza Blanca, Guyratî Garça-Branca-Grande flora-fauna Ardea alba missing See Language page Widespread South America PLE
woodpecker pájaro carpintero, carpintero pica-pau flora-fauna family Picidae missing See Language page Widespread Amazonia PLE
dog (camp, domestic) perro cachorro flora-fauna Canis famililaris y-ɨᵐba; -r-ɨᵐba; -h-ɨᵐba unique See Language page Not native; widespread PLE
dog (wild; bush dog) sachaperro, Perro de Monte, Zorro Vinagre, Guanfando; Zorro Ojizarco, Zorro Negro, Perro de Orejas Corta cachorro-do-mato flora-fauna Speothos venaticus; Atelocynus microtis See Language page Widespread Amazonia PLE
anteater oso hormiguero; tapia pelejo or pelejo chico for Cyclopes didactylus tamanduá flora-fauna Myrmecophaga tridactyla (giant anteater); Cyclopes didactylus (silky anteater) missing See Language page Widespread Amazonian lowlands PLE
armadillo armadillo, carachupa (Peru), yangunturi (Peru for Giant armadillo) tatu flora-fauna family Dasypodidae; e.g. Priodontes maximus (Giant armadillo), Dasypus novemcinctus, Dasypus kappleri missing See Language page Widespread in Amazonia PLE
sloth pereza, pelejo (Peru), perezoso (Peru) macaco preguica flora-fauna Choloepus sp., Bradypus sp. missing See Language page Widespread Amazonia PLE
alligator, black caiman babilla; cachirre jacaré flora-fauna Melanosuchus niger, Caiman schlerops; Paleosuchus sp. missing See Language page Throughout Amazonia Port term reportedly borrowed from Tupi PLE
electric eel anguila eléctrica poraquê flora-fauna Electrophorus electricus missing See Language page PLE
fish (generic) pez peixe flora-fauna pira inheritance See Language page PLE
pacu fish palometa, garopita, garopa, curhuara (Peru) pacu flora-fauna Mylossoma sp. missing See Language page PLE
pirana piraña, caribe piranha flora-fauna subfamily Serrasalmidae missing See Language page Widespread Amazonia PLE
tigerfish taraira, guabina, huasaco (Peru) traíra flora-fauna Hoplias sp. missing See Language page Widespread Amazonia PLE
mandi catfish maparate (used in Peru for some types of catfish, including Auchenipterus sp.), cunchi (used in Peru for some types of catfish), bagre (catfish) mandi flora-fauna Auchenipterus sp. missing See Language page Widespread Amazonia PLE
speckled catfish surubí, pintadillo surubim, sorubim flora-fauna Pseudoplatystoma sp. missing See Language page Widespread Amazonia PLE
toad sapo sapo flora-fauna order Anura missing See Language page PLE
iguana iguana, garipiares (Colombia) camaleão flora-fauna Iguana sp. missing See Language page iguana' is reportedly from Arawak iwana PLE
small lizard lagartija calango flora-fauna order Squamata teǰu inheritance See Language page PLE
stingray (generic) rayas látigo, raya arraia flora-fauna Potamotrygon sp. missing See Language page PLE
crab cangrejo caranguejo flora-fauna infraorder Brachyura missing See Language page PLE
anaconda anaconda, boa, boa acuática grande sucuri flora-fauna genus Eunectes missing See Language page Widespread Amazonia PLE
boa boa; mantona (red-tailed boa); boa de altura jiboia flora-fauna family Boidae, subf. Boinae missing See Language page PLE
snake (generic) culebra, serpiente cobra flora-fauna ᵐboi inheritance See Language page PLE
snake (poisonous generic) or rattlesnake víbora (Peru), jergón (Peru), yarara jararaca flora-fauna Bothrops jararaca/atrox missing See Language page Widespread South America PLE
tortoise (red foot, yellow foot/giant) tortuga, morrocoy, motelo jabutí, tartaruga flora-fauna Yellow-footed: Geochelone denticulata; Red-footed: Geochelone carbonaria karuᵐbe inheritance See Language page Widespread PLE
Amazon dolphin bufeo, delfín, tonina (del Orinoco) boto cor-de-rosa flora-fauna Inia geoffrensis missing See Language page Downstream of major rapids and waterfalls PLE
mushroom champiñón, hongo cogumelo flora-fauna (any edible generic) urupe inheritance See Language page prioritize generic term that includes any edible species PLE
black palm bacaba, mapora, pusui, patabá bacaba flora-fauna Oenocarpus bacaba missing See Language page Mature forests of Rio Negro and Upper Amazon may be confused in some entries with O. bataua PLE
açai palm huasí (Peru), asahi, manaca (Ven), asaí, palmiche (Colombia) açaí flora-fauna Euterpe sp. missing See Language page floodplains, swamp; esp. northern Amazonia PLE
miriti palm moriche (Col, Ven), aguaje (Col, Peru), achual, miriti buriti flora-fauna Mauritia flexuosa missing See Language page Brazil, Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guyana, Peru, Venezuela; in and near swamps trunks contain sago-like starch PLE
palm for roof thatch pui, irapay, hoja de irapay, caraná caraná flora-fauna Mauritiella armata OR Lepidocaryum tenue (irapay), Mauritius carana missing See Language page Mauritia carana is limited principally to the Rio Negro and Upper Orinoco regions; dry catinga forests palm PLE
paxiuba palm pona, huacrapona, cashapona, macanilla, pachiuba paxiuba flora-fauna Iriartea exorrhiza OR Iriartea deltoidea missing See Language page Widespread Amazonia palm PLE
peach palm, pejibaye palm chontaduro (Col, Ecuador); pipire (Col); pijuayo (Peru), pijiguao (Ven); tembe (Bol) pupunha flora-fauna Bactris gasipaes missing See Language page PLE
seje palm ungurahui (Peru), palma de seje, milpesos, patabá patoá, patuá flora-fauna Jessenia bataua, aka Oenocarpus bataua missing See Language page mostly north of Equator; common in Amazonia may be confused with O. bacaba - compare entries PLE
coca coca coca flora-fauna Erythroxylum coca missing See Language page secondary scrub vegetation. lower alt. of eastern Andes plant PLE
cotton algodón algodão flora-fauna Gossypium (barbadense: long fibers; hirsutum: short fibers) maⁿdiǰu inheritance See Language page secondary scrub vegetation plant; some sources may confound with kapok Ceiba pentandra (esp. if a single gloss for 'cotton' is given') PLE
kapok ceiba, huimba, lupuna (Peru for Ceiba sp.) sumaumeira flora-fauna Ceiba pentandra missing See Language page northern South America and central America; common in disturbed areas tree PLE
hot pepper ají, pimentón/pimiento rojo, pucunucho (Peru), charapilla (Peru) pimenta flora-fauna Capsicum sp., principally chinensis and frutescens kɨ̃i inheritance See Language page secondary scrub vegetation, indigenous garden plant PLE
peanut maní (may be loan from Taino Arawak), cacahuete amendoim flora-fauna Arachis hypogaea See Language page plant PLE
pineapple piña abacaxi flora-fauna Ananas comosus missing See Language page plant PLE
arrow cane, wildcane caña flecha, caña brava, caña isana cana para flechas, frecheira, Cana-do-rio flora-fauna Gynerium sagittatum See Language page tropical regions, especially river banks plant PLE
banana, plantain banano, banana, cambur, bellaco, variedad de plátano banana flora-fauna Musa sp. pa'kowa inheritance? Mello 2000 reconstructs to PTG; Balée 2011 argues for original meaning banana See Language page Names for banana/plantain may be derived from bastard plantain by semantic shift. PLE
beans frijoles, frejol, caraotas (negras, rojas, blancas) feijão flora-fauna Phaseolus spp. kumaⁿda; gwɨraya; ⁿdakarai inheritance? - WW %kumana See Language page plant PLE
grass hierba, pasto capim, grama flora-fauna (generic) kapii inheritance See Language page PLE
maize, corn mazorca, maiz milho flora-fauna Zea mays a'wati inheritance See Language page widespread, esp. in river floodplains plant PLE
tobacco tabaco tabaco flora-fauna Nicotiana tabacum pẽtɨ inheritance See Language page plant PLE
tree árbol arvore flora-fauna ɨ'wɨra inheritance See Language page PLE
achiote, anatto achiote urucum flora-fauna Bixa orellana missing See Language page secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens shrub PLE
inga guaba, guamo, guama, shimbillo (Peru) inga flora-fauna Inga spp. missing See Language page Secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens. North and South America (Brazil, Peru, Bolivia, Suriname, Colombia) PLE
avocado palta, aguacate abacate flora-fauna Persea americana missing See Language page secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens tree PLE
bitterwood tortuga caspi, pretina (Peru for tree and tumpline); carahuasca (Peru) envira flora-fauna Duguetia sp. OR Fusaea longifolia OR Guatteria chrysopetala See Language page secondary forests, native to Brazil tree PLE
brazil nut castaña castanha do para (B. excelsa); castanha de cutia (C. edulis) flora-fauna Bertholletia excelsa [cf. Couepia edulis 'castanha do cutia'] missing See Language page 1) Couepia: restricted area within Brazil, Rio Purus basin and middle Solimões. 2) Bertholletia: elev: consistently about 200m; mature forests. Widely distributed from Peru, E. Colombia, Brazil to Nicaragua. tree PLE
cashew anarcado, castaña de cajú, nuez de la India, marañon, cajú, merey (Venezuela) caju flora-fauna Anacardium occidentale / giganteum missing See Language page secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens tree; most sources will not distinguish between occidentale and other varieties PLE
genipap jagua, majagua - Colombia, caruto, xagua - Venezuela, bigrande - Bolivia, huito, yaguayagua - Peru, ygualti - Nicaragua, maluco - Mexico genipapo, jenipapo flora-fauna Genipapa americana missing See Language page widespread lowland SA shrub PLE
japurá oreja de murcielago japurá flora-fauna Erisma japura See Language page large tree PLE
rubber tree (sorva) caucho, siringa, shiringa seringa, borracha flora-fauna Hevea sp. missing See Language page Widespread Amazonia tree PLE
ucuqui yugo, caimitillo del monte (Peru) ucuqui flora-fauna Pouteria ucuqui See Language page native to NW Amazonia, found primarily in Vaupes and Caqueta regions other species of Pouteria exist and have much-used edible fruit; these can be subsituted where relevant PLE
Amazon tree-grape uva de monte, uvilla (Peru), puruma, caime, caimarona (and variants; Col.) cucura flora-fauna Pourouma cecropiifolia missing See Language page grows wild in Western Amazon basin; cultivated in Colombia since pre-Colombian times a tree; not a true grape PLE
manioc (bitter or generic) yuca brava mandioca flora-fauna Manihot esculenta ma'ⁿdio inheritance See Language page not generally cultivated in western (subAndean) Amazon. Arroyo-Kalin (2010) argues for a correlation with distribution of dark earths, mostly formed after 1AD, and the modeled-incised pottery tradition. Provides more starch and is more pest-resistant than the sweet variety, but requires much processing. Arroyo-Kalin (2010) proposes that bitter type was developed from sweet through post-ceremic agricultural intensification (motivated by high starch yield PLE
manioc (sweet) yuca, caribe macaxeira flora-fauna Manihot esculenta missing See Language page Primary staple in western/subAndean Amazonia, less important elsewhere No processing required, but lower starch yield and pest resistance than bitter variety PLE
potato papa batata flora-fauna Solanum tuberosum See Language page secondary scrub vegetation compare entries for sweet potato PLE
potato, sweet potato camote, batata dulce, batata, cumara batata-doce flora-fauna Ipomoea batatas 'ǰetɨ inheritance See Language page plant PLE
cará tuber, purple or white camote, sachapapa cará roxo, branco flora-fauna Dioscorea sp. missing See Language page secondary scrub vegetation; forest clearings plant PLE
tannia, yautia huitina (Peru), ñame taioba branca flora-fauna Xanthosoma spp. missing See Language page PLE
bottle-gourd (vine) or calabash (tree) calabazo, calabaza; auyama (Dominican Republic and Venezuela), ayote (parts of Central America), zapallo (parts of South America), tutumo/totumo/totuma (Cresc tree), huingo (Peru for Crescentia cujete), tapara cabaça flora-fauna Crescentia cujete (round variety - tree); (Cucurbita) Lagenaria siceraria (bottle variety - vine) a'ⁿdai See Language page indigenous gardens plant; tree PLE
squash calabaza, calabacines, auyamas, zapallos, huingo (Peru) abóbora flora-fauna Cucurbita sp. gʷiⁿdaka unknown See Language page plant PLE
cipó vine tamishi, bejuco, yare cipó flora-fauna Heteropsis spp. ɨsɨpo; ɨhɨpo See Language page secondary forest, floodplain vine PLE
fish poison, barbasco barbasco, matapez (Colombia) timbó flora-fauna Lonchocarpus spp. missing See Language page secondary forests and secondary srcrub vegetation shrub/tree PLE
hallucinogenic vine, banisterium, ayahuasca ayahuasca, yage ayahuasca, caapi flora-fauna Banisteriopsis caapi missing See Language page semi-domesticated, native to Amazonian basin, esp. NW vine PLE
hallucinogenic snuff vilca, cebil, yopo paricá, yopo flora-fauna Anadenanthera sp. or virola See Language page PLE
insect (generic) insecto insecto flora-fauna generic See Language page PLE
ant (generic) hormiga formiga flora-fauna Formicidae tasɨ; tahɨ See Language page PLE
bullet ant, lesser giant hunter ant conga, hormiga yanabe (Colombia), isula (Peru), Hormiga Veinticuatro tocandira flora-fauna Paraponera clavata missing See Language page PLE
leaf-cutter ant Colombia: zampopo, hormiga arriera; Venezuela: bachaco; Peru: curuhuinse saúva flora-fauna Atta sp. missing See Language page PLE
honeybee abeja abelha flora-fauna Apis mellifera; Tetragonisca angustula; Trigona amazonensis ei-tuu inheritance See Language page PLE
cockroach cucaracha barata-do-mato flora-fauna order Blattaria tarawe inheritance? - WW %arawe, Mello 2000 *taraBe; cf. Carib (*)masarawa See Language page PLE
firefly, lightning bug lampírido, luciérnaga (Peru), añañahui (Peru), cocuyo (attributed Taino origin) vagalume flora-fauna fam: Elateridae, Fengodidae, Lampyridae čokopi loan - WW %tjuku, via Arawak? See Language page PLE
butterfly, moth mariposa borboleta flora-fauna order Lepidoptera pãna-pãna inheritance See Language page PLE
moth mariposa nocturna, polilla mariposa flora-fauna order Lepidoptera See Language page PLE
angleworm lombriz minhoca flora-fauna order Opisthopora sewoi inheritance See Language page PLE
centipede ciempiés centopéia flora-fauna class Chilopoda aᵐbua See Language page PLE
scorpion escorpión; alacran escorpião flora-fauna order Scorpiones missing See Language page PLE
cicada cigarra, chicharra cigarra flora-fauna super fam. Cicadoidea missing See Language page PLE
flea pulga pulga flora-fauna order Siphonaptera (če-)piki unknown See Language page PLE
blowfly/housefly mosca mosca flora-fauna Diptera ᵐberu inheritance See Language page PLE
cricket saltón, grillo grilo flora-fauna family Gryllidae missing See Language page PLE
edible palm-dwelling larva (palm weevil) suri, mojojoy larva, broca-do-coqueiro, aramandaiá flora-fauna Rhynchophorus sp. missing See Language page PLE
praying mantis, stick insects mantis religiosa louva-a-deus flora-fauna order Mantodea, family Mantidae See Language page PLE
mosquito mosquito, zancudo mosquito, carapana flora-fauna Anopheles sp. ɲatĩu inheritance See Language page PLE
termites, white-ants comején (Peru), termitas cupim flora-fauna order Isoptera missing See Language page PLE
tick garrapata carrapato flora-fauna superfam Ixodoidea missing See Language page PLE
wasp avispa; specific type: ronzapa/ronsapa caba flora-fauna order Hymenoptera, sub: Apocrita kawẽe inheritance See Language page PLE
snail caracol, churo (Peru) caracol flora-fauna class Gastropoda ǰatɨta inheritance See Language page PLE
spider araña aranha flora-fauna Arachnidae, Araneae yaⁿduti inheritance See Language page PLE
jaguar yaguar, yaguareté, jaguar, otorongo (Peru), tigre (Peru) onca flora-fauna Panthera onca missing cf. Arawak, Tukanoan See Language page PLE
manatee vaca marina, manatí peixe-boi flora-fauna Trichechus sp. See Language page PLE
brown woolly monkey Mono Lanudo Común, Choro, Churucu, mono choro (Peru), mono lanudo cafe, barrigudo de Humboldt macaco barrigudo flora-fauna Lagothrix lagothricha missing See Language page PLE
howler monkey (red-handed) mono aullador, mono coto (Peru) guariba flora-fauna Alouatta belzebul [or other Alouatta sp.] missing See Language page PLE
tufted capuchin monkey mono negro (Peru), Machín Negro, Maicero Cachón, mono maicero macaco prego flora-fauna Cebus apella missing See Language page PLE
white-fronted capuchin Machín Blanco, mono blanco, Maicero Cariblanco, mono blanco (Peru) Caiarara flora-fauna Cebus albifrons missing See Language page PLE
white-fronted spider monkey Machin Blanco, Mono Araña de Vientre Amarillo, maquisapa (Peru), braceadora (Colombia) macaco aranha, coatá, quatá flora-fauna Ateles belzebuth/paniscus missing See Language page PLE
opossum zarigüeya, rabipelado, zorro, zorrillo mucura flora-fauna family Didelphidae missing See Language page PLE
giant otter Lobo Grande de Río, nutria gigante, lutria ariranha flora-fauna Pteronura brasiliensis missing See Language page PLE
neotropical otter (small) Nutria, Lobo de Agua, lobito de rio, perro de agua (Colombia) lontra flora-fauna Lontra longicaudis missing See Language page PLE
collared peccary sajino, pecarí de collar, jabalf, Javelina, Saíno, Pecarí de Collar caititu, caetitu flora-fauna Pecari tajacu, Tayassu tajacu taitetu inheritance See Language page PLE
white-lipped peccary Chancho de Monte, Cariblanco, Huangana queixada flora-fauna Tayassu pecari taǰasu inheritance See Language page PLE
porcupine puerco espín, erizo (Peru), casha cushillo (Peru) cuandu, porco-espinho flora-fauna family Erethizontidae missing See Language page PLE
cotamundi, coatimundi Coatí, Tejón, Achuni, zorro guache quati flora-fauna genus Nasua missing See Language page PLE
agouti (black agouti, black-rumped agouti) Guatusa Negra, Añuje, Agutí (black-rumped), picure, jochi colorado cutia flora-fauna Dasyprocta spp. missing See Language page PLE
capybara Capibara, Carpincho, Ronsoco capivara flora-fauna Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris missing See Language page PLE
green acouchi Guatín, Punchana, curi, picurito rabudo, picurito rabilargo cutiara flora-fauna Myoprocta pratti missing See Language page PLE
paca (lowland) Guanta, Paca, Majaz, majás (Peru), labba (Guyana) paca flora-fauna Cuniculus paca (Agouti paca is sometimes used as well although cuniculus is the correct term.) missing See Language page PLE
mouse, rat ratón camundongo, rata flora-fauna Mus musculus aᵑguǰa inheritance See Language page PLE
squirrel ardilla, danta (Ven) serelepe, quatipuru, esquilo flora-fauna family Sciuridae missing See Language page PLE
tapir sachavaca, danta anta flora-fauna Tapirus terrestris missing See Language page PLE
deer venado veado, cariacu flora-fauna family Cervidae, esp. Odocoileus virginianus gwasu; gwahu inheritance See Language page PLE


Cultural Vocabulary (97)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Word Structure Word Structure Notes General Notes Source Created By
basket (general) canasta, canasto, cesta cesto culture-material ᵐbae-rɨru unique See Language page PLE
basket, small canasta, canasto, cesta cesto pequeno, tampado culture-material See Language page PLE
bead abalorio, mostacilla, cuenta, gota, puca; necklace=collar miçanga culture-material ᵐbae-r-apua unique See Language page PLE
bed cama cama culture-material t-upa; r-upa; h-upa unique See Language page PLE
hammock hamaca, chinchorro rede culture-material ĩni inheritance See Language page PLE
bench, seat banco, silla, asiento banco culture-material (če-)apɨka; [siya] inheritance from 'sit' See Language page PLE
canoe canoa canoa transport missing See Language page PLE
drum (large signal) tambor, manguaré, maguaré (Colombia) tambor culture missing Used to be used by Tukanoan peoples (and others?), sound carried for long distances See Language page PLE
drum tambor tambor culture-mythology pĩ-pĩ; aᵑgua unknown See Language page PLE
shaman, healer chamán, brujo xaman, pajé, feiticeiro culture-mythology paǰe inheritance In RN region, there is typically one person per village (if that) who is a full-fledged 'shaman'. He is very much a specialist and has considerable power to cure, as well as power to curse. He is respected and feared. Shamans are thought to turn themselv See Language page PLE
healer curandero benzador, curandeiro, kumu (Tukano) culture-mythology Refers to a lower-level healer; in RN region, most older men in a village have this capacity, and command a repertoire of healing spells. Power is primarily for good, whereas the true shaman is capable of malignant acts as well. See Language page PLE
broom escoba vassoura culture-material tupeiča inheritance cf. Quechua piʃana See Language page PLE
clothing ropa roupa culture-mythology ᵐbae-moⁿde unknown See Language page PLE
fence, palisade cerco cerca other 'hokai may be related to defense/warfare? See Language page PLE
firewood leña lenha other ye-pe-a inheritance See Language page PLE
Curupira (spirit type) Curupira, Madremonte Curupira culture-mythology malignant forest spirit, covered with long hair, feet turned backward; in Upper Rio Negro region See Language page PLE
ghost (of dead person)/evil spirit espíritu malo, espíritu maligno, fantasma, demonio espirito culture-mythology tau unknown See Language page PLE
deity/powerful spirit/culture figure dios(es), deidad divinidade, figura mítica culture-mythology tũpa; ɲaⁿde-ǰara inheritance In RN region, frequently translates as 'Bone-Son', 'One on the bone', etc. See Language page PLE
flute flauta, quena (Peru) flauta culture-mythology (če-)remiᵐbɨ inheritance multiple types? japurutu, deer-bone, etc. See Language page PLE
panpipe carrizo, zampoñas, flautas de pan, rondadora caniço, flauta de pã culture-mythology See Language page PLE
hollow log/trough for beer-making canoa para chicha cocho de caxiri narcotics See Language page PLE
ritual song cycle (kapiwaya) kapiwaya capiwaya culture-mythology See Language page PLE
knife cuchillo faca culture-material kɨse inheritance See Language page PLE
machete machete facão culture-material missing See Language page PLE
axe/stone axe hacha (de piedra) machado (de pedra) subsistence tool ǰɨɨ inheritance especially for clearing fields See Language page PLE
arrow flecha flecha subsistence tool uwɨ; (se-)ruwɨ inheritance hunting, warfare See Language page PLE
spear lanza lança subsistence tool mĩi unknown See Language page PLE
bow arco arco subsistence tool (če-)wɨrapa inheritance arco See Language page PLE
paddle/oar remo remo transport ɨ-pɨgʷara-ka inheritance See Language page PLE
plate plato prato culture-material missing See Language page PLE
pot olla, pote panela, vasilha subsistence tool yapepo inheritance See Language page PLE
basin/bowl tazón, plato hondo, taza tijela culture-material ɲãe inheritance See Language page PLE
griddle for cooking flatbread tiesto (Colombia), budare (Venezuela), tortera (Peru) forno para beiju subsistence tool ᵐbuyape-i-ᵐbo-yɨ-ka unique agriculture? See Language page PLE
rattle matraca, maraca marico, chocalho culture-mythology ᵐbarako loan (into protolg?), direction unknown Carib maraka See Language page PLE
resin resina, brea, copal resina, brea, breu subsistence tool missing See Language page PLE
wax cera cera other ei-raitɨ inheritance See Language page PLE
honey miel mel food ei inheritance only gathered in wild throughout Amazonia? See Language page PLE
stone for lighting fires piedra para hacer fuego pedra para acender fogo culture-material See Language page PLE
rope/string mecate, cuerda, soga corda culture sã; tɨmãsa inheritance See Language page PLE
tattoo tatuaje, tatu tatuagem culture-mythology See Language page PLE
thatch/roof crisneja palha, caraná culture-material kapii inheritance See Language page PLE
yurupari, jurupari (or any flutes forbidden to women) yurupari jurupari culture-mythology a ritual complex in various parts of Amazonia involving sacred flutes/trumpets, forbidden to women. See Language page PLE
fetish, charm fetiche, encanto, filtro de amor, pusanga feitiço, puçanga culture-mythology See Language page PLE
feather headdress plumaje, corona de plumas enfeite/capacete de penas culture-mythology See Language page PLE
paint body, body paint pintura corporal pintura corporal culture-mythology See Language page PLE
afterworld, land of dead, Heaven tierra do los muertos terra dos mortos culture-mythology ara See Language page PLE
school escuela escola acculturation See Language page PLE
bottle botella garrafa acculturation See Language page PLE
paper papel papel acculturation kʷatia semantic shift from 'paint' See Language page PLE
dream sueño, soñar sonho, sonhar culture-mythology -payu; -pau See Language page PLE
chicken gallina galinha acculturation uru; uru-raɨ unique from 'quail' See Language page PLE
grave tumba, sepultura, sepulcro sepultura, sepulcro, cova culture-mythology ɲõti-a See Language page PLE
pipe for tobacco pipa cachimbo other pẽtɨ-ᵑgwa See Language page PLE
sugarcane/sugar azúcar, caña de azúcar açucar (de cana) acculturation takʷanẽe See Language page PLE
skirt falda, saya, fustan, pollera saia culture-material missing See Language page PLE
shoes zapatos sapatos dress [sapato] See Language page PLE
policeman polícia policía acculturation See Language page PLE
soldier soldado soldado acculturation [suⁿdaro] loan Span/Port soldado See Language page PLE
cat gato gato acculturation mĩta unknown See Language page PLE
gun arma, escopeta espingarda, fusil acculturation ᵐboka WW %mukawa See Language page PLE
hat sombero chapéu dress (če-)aka-ⁿdao unique See Language page PLE
chief/leader jefe, cacique chefe culture-mythology huwiča; uwiča inheritance? shared Guarani See Language page PLE
club garrote, cachiporra clava, porrete subsistence tool ɨwɨra-puᵑga See Language page PLE
loincloth taparrabos, guayuco, pampanilla tanga, tapa-sexo dress See Language page PLE
fireplace hogar lareira other See Language page PLE
fishing line cordel/cuerda p/ pescar, sedal, tanze linha de pesca subsistence tool piⁿda sã See Language page PLE
salt sal sal food ǰukɨ inheritance - WW See Language page PLE
song (generic) canción, canto canção culture-mythology purae inheritance See Language page PLE
blowgun cerbatana, pucuna (Peru) zarabatana subsistence tool missing currently limited to certain groups (favoring h-g orientation, e.g. Nadahup) within RN region See Language page PLE
dart (blowgun) dardo, birote (Peru), bala (Peru) dardo, seta subsistence tool hunting and warfare See Language page PLE
fan abanico abanador, abano subsistence tool ᵐbae-peǰu-a unique esp. for fanning a cooking fire See Language page PLE
fish (with line) anzuelear, pescar con linea pescar (com linha) food missing See Language page PLE
fish (with fish-poison) pescar con barbasco, barbasquear pescar com timbó; tinguijar food missing See Language page PLE
hunt cazar caçar food ᵐbae-ǰuka See Language page PLE
game animal caza, animal de caza caça, animal de caça food he’wae, tembia (Mello2000) unknown; inheritance Interesting correlation to 'fish' in Tukanoan languages See Language page PLE
gourd (dipper/bowl) cucharón, pate (Peru), totomo, totuma, totumo cuia subsistence tool a'ⁿdai unknown See Language page PLE
grater rallador, rallo ralador, ralo subsistence tool missing esp. for grating manioc, but can be used for other things as well See Language page PLE
grid of sticks for smoking meat or placing objects (shelf) barbacoa jirau subsistence tool missing See Language page PLE
mortar mortero pilão subsistence tool aᵑgua inheritance See Language page PLE
pestle pilón, mano de mortero, mazo, moledor mão de pilão subsistence tool ᵐbae-so-ka See Language page PLE
fermented drink masato, chicha caxiri, chicha culture kãwɨ inheritance prioritizes manioc beer where distinction is made See Language page PLE
flour/meal from manioc fariña, mañoco (Venezuela); harina farinha food kui; asi; iasi inheritance; unknown agriculture See Language page PLE
flat bread, cassava bread pan de yuca, casabe/cazabe beiju food missing usually manioc; agriculture, but also can be made from certain wild seeds/fruits See Language page PLE
starch (tapioca, other) almidón goma de tapioca food missing See Language page PLE
tapioca drink, mingau cahuana, caguana mingau food missing agriculture See Language page PLE
tipiti (manioc squeezer) tipiti, matafrio, sebucán, exprimador, prensa para yuca tipiti food missing word of Tupi origin; agriculture: specifically for squeezing poison out of manioc See Language page PLE
tripod for washing manioc trípode tripé subsistence tool agriculture See Language page PLE
venom for darts, poison veneno curare subsistence tool missing hunting, currently is falling out of use in Vaupés region, associated primarily with h-g groups (but this may be recent?) See Language page PLE
woven strainer/sieve colador tejido, cedazo (Peru), cernedor (Peru) peneira, cumatá subsistence tool missing agriculture? commonly used for sifting dry manioc flour See Language page PLE
bait for fishing cebo, carnada para pescar, empate (Peru) isca subsistence tool can refer to worms; more generic See Language page PLE
fishtrap trampa de peces, trampa matapi, cacuri subsistence tool pira hokai See Language page PLE
bottom grinding stone manufacture if different word from top grinding stone See Language page PLE
digging stick subsistence tool See Language page PLE
top grinding stone metate, mano; piedra de moler metate, mano manufacture use word for top grinding stone if different from bottom stone See Language page PLE
boomerang/throwing stick (generic) subsistence tool See Language page PLE
spearthrower subsistence tool See Language page PLE
house other o(o); (če-)r-oo; h-oo; (ã)iɲ-a inheritance See Language page PLE